Sample records for winneshiek fayette clayton

  1. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Arthur [County of Fayette, Uniontown, PA (United States)


    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  2. Installation of cooling floors at the ``La Fayette`` shopping mall; Inbetriebnahme des Kuehldeckensystems im ``La Fayette``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, M.; Schulte, M.


    The ``La Fayette`` shopping mall on the Friedrichstrasse in central Berlin was inaugurated in February 1996. Apart from the shopping center, the building has 7 upper storeys with offices which are served by a ventilation system and a system of cooling floors. The building and its installations are described in some detail. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Gebaeude Galerie `La Fayette` entstand im Zentrum Berlins an der Friedrichstrasse und wurde Ende Februar 1996 eroeffnet. Ausserhalb des Kaufhausbereichs dieser Galerie befinden sich in den sieben Obergeschossen Buerobereiche, die durch eine Lueftungsanlage und ein Kuehldeckensystem versorgt werden. Die Anlage wird in diesem Beitrag naeher beschrieben. (orig.)

  3. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Witzke, Brian J.; McKay, Robert M.


    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura—xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines—may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution.

  4. Harold Clayton Urey: 29 April 1893 - 5 January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, K.P.; Runcorn, S.K.; Suess, H.E.; Thode, H.G.


    The career of Harold Clayton Urey is described in detail in three parts: (i) prewar career 1893-1940 and the award of the Nobel prize in chemistry, (ii) war years 1939-44 and the atomic bomb, (iii) post-war career 1945-81 and the solar system. His research work in atomic physics, lunar physics and astronomy is outlined. (U.K.)

  5. 49 CFR 372.225 - Lexington-Fayette Urban County, KY. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lexington-Fayette Urban County, KY. 372.225 Section 372.225 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS...

  6. The Impact of Agriculture on Other Business Activity: A Nationwide Analysis Applied to Fayette County, Kentucky


    Maynard, Leigh J.; Dunaway, Tarrah; Garkovich, Lorraine; Davis, Alison F.


    This study evaluated the county-level impact of equine sales and horse racing on business activity in six other industries. In Fayette County, Kentucky, the results suggested that equine activities substantially increase the number of establishments, payroll, and sales in the hospitality, recreation, finance, professional services, real estate, and retail industries.

  7. 78 FR 60181 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund... (United States)


    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 532 RIN 3206-AM84 Prevailing Rate Systems; Redefinition of the Clayton-Cobb-Fulton, Georgia, Nonappropriated Fund Federal Wage System Wage Area AGENCY: U.S... Counties). The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee, the national labor-management committee...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This study examines about last survivor life insurance with return of premium for married couples with independent and dependent mortality model. By using Frank copula, Clayton copula, Gumbel copula and Indonesian Mortalita Table 2011, the impact of future life dependence on single premiums and annually premium is evaluated. Based on the calculation of premium with a 10 year contract for the insured parties aged 58 years and 55 years with interest rate used 6.5%, the value of insurance premium last survivor with return of premium is more expensive than without return of premium. The greater the dependency, the more expensive the price of the premium.

  10. Origin and Evolution of Li-rich Brines at Clayton Valley, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Munk, L. A.; Bradley, D. C.; Hynek, S. A.; Chamberlain, C. P.


    Lithium is the key component in Li-ion batteries which are the primary energy storage for electric/hybrid cars and most electronics. Lithium is also an element of major importance on a global scale because of interest in increasing reliance on alternative energy sources. Lithium brines and pegmatites are the primary and secondary sources, respectively of all produced Li. The only Li-brine in the USA that is currently in production exists in Clayton Valley, NV. The groundwater brines at Clayton Valley are located in a closed basin with an average evaporation rate of 142 cm/yr. The brines are pumped from six aquifer units that are composed of varying amounts of volcanic ash, gravel, salt, tufa, and fine-grained sediments. Samples collected include spring water, fresh groundwater, groundwater brine, and meteoric water (snow). The brines are classified as Na-Cl waters and the springs and fresh groundwater have a mixed composition and are more dilute than the brines. The Li content of the waters in Clayton Valley ranges from less than 1 μg/L (snow) up to 406.9 mg/L in the lower ash aquifer system (one of six aquifers in the basin). The cold springs surrounding Clayton Valley have Li concentrations of about 1 mg/L. A hot spring located just east of Clayton Valley contains 1.6 mg/L Li. The Li concentration of the fresh groundwater is less than 1 mg/L. Hot groundwater collected in the basin contain 30-40 mg/L Li. Water collected from a geothermal drilling north of Silver Peak, NV, had water with 4.9 mg/L Li at a depth of >1000m. The δD and δ18O isotopic signatures of fresh groundwater and brine form an evaporation path that extends from the global meteoric water line toward the brine from the salt aquifer system (the most isotopically enriched brine with ave. δD = -3.5, ave. δ18O = -67.0). This suggests that mixing of inflow water with the salt aquifer brine could have played an important role in the evolution of the brines. Along with mixing, evaporation appears to

  11. 基于Clayton Copula函数的金融高频数据极小值相依性%Extreme interdependency of the high-frequency data in financial markets research based on Clayton Copula function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍俊爽; 张若东; 潘淑霞; 邰志艳; 董小刚


    基于Clayton Copula函数对股指期货IF1112指数和上证000001指数5 min极小值收益率序列的相依性进行了研究,深入探讨了其下尾部微观结构的相依性.%Based on Clayton Copula function,the dependency of the sequence yielded by 5 minutes minimum of index futures IF1112 index and SSE 000 001 is studied,and the interdependence of their microstructure is explored deeply.

  12. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Fayette and Lycoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010 (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Gillenwater, B.H.


    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Fayette County and Lycoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  13. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.


    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations

  14. Evaluating Hydrologic Transience in Watershed Delineation, Numerical Modeling and Solute Transport in the Great Basin. Clayton Valley, Nevada (United States)

    Underdown, C. G.; Boutt, D. F.; Hynek, S. A.; Munk, L. A.


    Importance of transience in managed groundwater systems is generally determined by timeframe of management decisions. Watersheds with management times shorter than the aquifer (watershed) response time, or the time it takes a watershed to recover from a change in hydrologic state, would not include the new state and are treated as steady-state. However, these watersheds will experience transient response between hydrologic states. Watershed response time is a function of length. Therefore flat, regional watersheds characteristic of the Great Basin have long response times. Defining watershed extents as the area in which the water budget is balanced means inputs equal outputs. Steady-state budgets in the Great Basin have been balanced by extending watershed boundaries to include more area for recharge; however, the length and age of requisite flow paths are poorly constrained and often unrealistic. Inclusion of stored water in hydrologic budget calculations permits water balance within smaller contributing areas. As groundwater flow path lengths, depths, and locations differ between steady-state and transient systems, so do solute transport mechanisms. To observe how transience affects response time and solute transport, a refined (transient) version of the USGS steady-state groundwater flow model of the Great Basin is evaluated. This model is used to assess transient changes in contributing area for Clayton Valley, a lithium-brine producing endorheic basin in southwestern Nevada. Model runs of various recharge, discharge and storage bounds are created from conceptual models based upon historical climate data. Comparing results of the refined model to USGS groundwater observations allows for model validation and comparison against the USGS steady-state model. The transient contributing area to Clayton Valley is 85% smaller than that calculated from the steady-state solution, however several long flow paths important to both water and solute budgets at Clayton Valley

  15. LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA. (United States)

    Jones, Jeff; Poole, Asheley; Lasley-Bibbs, Vivian; Johnson, Mark


    Data on adult immunization coverage at the state level and for LGBT Americans in particular are sparse. This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the LGBT females are less likely to report receiving the vaccine (15.4%) compared to the national coverage percentage of 34.5%. Males, however, are more likely to have received the vaccine (10.3%) than the national percentage of 2.3%. The small number of LGBT seniors in the study report a much higher prevalence of the Shingles (Herpes Zoster) vaccines than for U.S. seniors 60 and older (71.4% compared to 20.1% nationally). LGBT respondents report higher percentages of adult vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Shaffer Equipment Company, Minden, Fayette County, West Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. WVD981038300. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Shaffer Equipment Company (SEC) site, located in Fayette County, Minden, West Virginia constructed electrical substations for area coal mines from the period 1970 to 1984. The site is approximately one acre and has one building (SEC Equipment Building) that served as both a warehouse and office. Electrical equipment such as transformers, switches, circuit breakers, and capacitors were stored on the site. Dielectric oils that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were found in on- and off-site soils and sediments. Because PCBs are on site and PCB-contaminated oils reportedly were burned as starter fuel in the warehouse/office building, on- and off-site soil samples and on-site sediment samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs). One present potential pathway of exposure that has been identified as past, present, and future concerns involve trespassers onto the SEC site, children playing in yards and Arbuckle Creek, on-site workers in the SEC Equipment Building, and persons that eat snapping turtles from the area

  17. Neighbourhood and consumer food environment is associated with dietary intake among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants in Fayette County, Kentucky. (United States)

    Gustafson, Alison; Lewis, Sarah; Perkins, Sarah; Wilson, Corey; Buckner, Elizabeth; Vail, Ann


    The aim of the study was to determine the association between dietary outcomes and the neighbourhood food environment (street network distance from home to stores) and consumer food environment (Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Stores (NEMS-S) audit). The neighbourhood food environment was captured by creating 0?5-mile and 1-mile network distance (street distance) around each participant’s home and the nearest food venue (convenience store, grocery store, supermarket, farmers’ market and produce stand). The consumer food environment was captured by conducting NEMS-S in all grocery stores/supermarkets within 0?5 and 1 mile of participants’ homes. Fayette County, KY, USA. Supplemental Nutrition Assessment Program (SNAP) participants, n 147. SNAP participants who lived within 0?5 mile of at least one farmers’ market/produce stand had higher odds of consuming one serving or more of vegetables (OR56?92; 95% CI 4?09, 11?69), five servings or more of grains (OR51?76; 95% CI 1?01, 3?05) and one serving or more of milk (OR53?79; 95% CI 2?14, 6?71) on a daily basis. SNAP participants who lived within 0?5 mile of stores receiving a high score on the NEMS-S audit reported higher odds of consuming at least one serving of vegetables daily (OR53?07; 95% CI 1?78, 5?31). Taken together, both the neighbourhood food environment and the consumer food environment are associated with a healthy dietary intake among SNAP participants.

  18. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Fayette COUNTY, IN (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix M: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  20. Floodplain Mapping for Fayette County, Alabama (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. Clayton 1:100000 Quad Hydrography DLGs (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  6. The Prehistory of the Proposed Clayton Lake Area, Southeast Oklahoma. Phase I Investigations. (United States)


    insects , and roots was observed. Well sorted gravels similar in size and number to Stratum I are also present. Cultural materials are abundant...Yan. 14, SM. 62 1 • 1 \\ i • 22 Table 2. Continued Plant Part Utilized References Solanwn aarolinense (Carolina horse nettle ) Solidago...animals, insects , and roots is evident. The wavy boundary of this stratum is believed a function of bioturbation. Stratum II Stratum II is a dark

  7. 78 FR 67215 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fayette and Wayne Counties, Ind.; C&NC... (United States)


    ... agencies) have been met. As a condition to these exemptions, any employee adversely affected by the... whether this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49... environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by November 15, 2013...

  8. Blade design and operating experience on the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico (United States)

    Linscott, B. S.; Shaltens, R. K.


    Two 60 foot long aluminum wind turbine blades were operated for over 3000 hours on the MOD-OA wind turbine. The first signs of blade structural damage were observed after 400 hours of operation. Details of the blade design, loads, cost, structural damage, and repair are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 23751 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions (United States)


    ... DAKOTA Beadle County Campbell Park Historic District (Boundary Decrease), Roughly bounded by 5th St. SW... Young, Col. Joseph, Block, (Davenport MRA) 502 Brady St., Davenport, 83002526 Winneshiek County Big...

  10. Efecto de la profundidad del suelo en rottboellia cochinchinensis (lour clayton en caña de azúcar (saccharum officinarum l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Le\\u00F3n


    Full Text Available Se muestrearon cuatro lotes con diferente textura de suelo, sembrados con caña de azúcar durante cuatro años consecutivos. El lote A con suelo franco arcilloso, el lote B con suelo franco arenoso, el lote C con suelo arcilloso y el lote D con suelo franco. Se seleccionaron lotes con una población de R. cochinchinensis de 75 a 150 plantas/ m2. Se contó el número de plantas de la maleza en un área de 0,25 m2, en dos micro-hábitats: el surco y entre-surco. A cada planta se le escarbó el suelo que la rodeaba hasta encontrar la semilla de la que provenía y se midió la profundidad a la que ésta se encontró, para luego determinar qué porcentaje del total de plantas contabilizadas provenía de semillas localizadas en cada uno de los siguientes estratos: 0,0; >0,0 a 2,5; >2,5 a 5,0; >5,0 a 10 y >10,0 a 15,0 cm de profundidad. Además, se evaluó en invernadero el efecto de cada profundidad de los estratos citados. A nivel de laboratorio y en platos Petri, se evaluó el efecto de la luz y la oscuridad sobre la germinación de la semilla de R. cochinchinensis. Se encontró que la mayoría de las plantas en campo provenían de semillas que se encontraban de >0 a 2,5 cm, seguido por aquellas que estaban de >2,5 a 5,0 cm donde se dieron las mejores condiciones para la germinación. No se observaron diferencias entre los tipos de suelo o los micro-hábitats evaluados. En invernadero el tratamiento a 0,0 cm fue el que mostró la mayor germinación y esto fue producto de la exposición a la luz, lo cual se corroboró en el estudio en laboratorio donde el tratamiento con luz presentó también, la mayor germinación

  11. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Kochkin, M. Sweet


    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  12. 77 FR 37801 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures... (United States)


    ... 17, Amdt 6 Fort Huachuca Sierra Vista, AZ, Sierra Vista Muni-Libby AAF, ILS OR LOC RWY 26, Amdt 4 Fort Huachuca Sierra Vista, AZ, Sierra Vista Muni-Libby AAF, VOR RWY 26, Amdt 5 Willcox, AZ, Cochise... 35, Amdt 1 La Grange, TX, Fayette Rgnl Air Center, RNAV (GPS) RWY 16, Amdt 2 La Grange, TX, Fayette...

  13. 77 FR 50012 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures... (United States)


    ... Wolf Point, MT, L M Clayton, NDB RWY 29, Amdt 4 Wolf Point, MT, L M Clayton, RNAV (GPS) RWY 11, Amdt 1 Wolf Point, MT, L M Clayton, RNAV (GPS) RWY 29, Amdt 1 Kearney, NE., Kearney Rgnl, VOR RWY 13, Amdt 2A... September 2012 Reform, AL, North Pickens, RNAV (GPS) RWY 1, Orig Reform, AL, North Pickens, RNAV (GPS) RWY...

  14. Studying Intergroup Relations in Organizations. (United States)


    Psychology. 1971, 55, 302-311. Alderfer, Clayton P.: Boundary Relations and Organizational Diagnosis . In H. Meltzer and F.W. Wickert (editors...Clayton P.: The Methodology of Organizational Diagnosis , Professional Psychology, 1979, in press. Alderfer, Clayton P.: Consulting to Underbounded

  15. Commentary on: Christensen, Clayton M. : Disruptive Innovation. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction". Aarhus, Denmark: The Foundation. Available online at

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.


    Book : A disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network. The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations that improve a product or

  16. Commentary on: Christensen, Clayton M. (2012): Disruptive Innovation. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction". Aarhus, Denmark: The Foundation. Available online at


    Steen, M.G.D.


    Book : A disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network, and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network. The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations that improve a product or service in ways that the market does not expect. Although the term disruptive technology is widely used, disruptive innovation seems a more appropriate term in many contexts since few technologies ...

  17. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination... (United States)


    ... Job Security; Associated Carrier Group; Capital Policy Analytics; Congresswoman Eva M. Clayton... Sires, Dan Maffei, Terri Sewell, and Steve Israel; Congressman Pete Sessions; CTIA--The Wireless...

  18. What Can What-When-Where (WWW) Binding Tasks Tell Us about Young Children's Episodic Foresight? Theory and Two Experiments (United States)

    Russell, James; Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.


    We analyze theoretical differences between conceptualist and minimalist approaches to episodic processing in young children. The "episodic-like" minimalism of Clayton and Dickinson (1998) is a species of the latter. We asked whether an "episodic-like" task (structurally similar to ones used by Clayton and Dickinson) in which participants had to…

  19. Genetics Home Reference: RAB18 deficiency (United States)

    ... Morton J, Ainsworth JR, Horn D, Rosser E, Cole TR, Stolte-Dijkstra I, Fieggen K, Clayton-Smith ... medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Lyme disease Fibromyalgia White-Sutton syndrome All New & Updated Pages ...

  20. 78 FR 57131 - Membership of the NOAA Performance Review Board (United States)


    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christine Nalli, Director, Executive Resources, Workforce Management Office... Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service. Jon P. Alexander Director, Finance Office/ Comptroller... Human Resources Management, U.S. Department of Commerce. Alternates: Ciaran M. Clayton Director of...

  1. 78 FR 37847 - Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance Review Board; Members (United States)


    ... are: Debra Steidel Wall, Deputy Archivist of the United States; William J. Bosanko, Chief Operating Officer; Sean M. Clayton, Chief Human Capital Officer; and Micah M. Cheatham, Chief Financial Officer...

  2. 75 FR 49526 - Halliburton Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel... (United States)


    ... Company, Duncan Mfg., Including On-Site Leased Workers from Express Personnel, Clayton Personnel Service, and Manpower Planning, Duncan, OK; Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, Finance... Halliburton Company, Technology and Engineering Division, and Finance and Administration Division, Duncan...

  3. 75 FR 8182 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes (United States)


    ...., William J. Cobb, Jr., Wallace E. Conover, Daniel C. Druffel, Gregory J. Godley, Troy A. Gortmaker, Charles.... Schlieckau, Richard L. Sulzberger, Clayton F. Tapscott, Dirk VanStralen and Henry L. Waskow, from the ITDM...

  4. DHEAS Test (United States)

    ... Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia. Sources Used in Previous Reviews Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. ... Practice in Clinical Chemistry, AACC Press, Washington, DC. Cook, J. Chapter 33 Adrenal Disorders, Pp 375-385. ...

  5. T3 (Triiodothyronine) Test (United States)

    ... Reviews Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and ... Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  6. 77 FR 48542 - United States (United States)


    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  7. 76 FR 76620 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans and Designations of Areas for Air Quality... (United States)


    ..., Hall, Henry, Newton, Paulding, Rockdale, Spalding and Walton Counties in their entireties, and portions..., Douglas, Fayette, Forsyth, Fulton, Gwinnett, Hall, Henry, Newton, Paulding, Rockdale, Spalding and Walton... the criteria of the CAA. Accordingly, this action merely approves state law as meeting federal...

  8. 77 FR 59389 - Hawks Nest Hydro, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application... (United States)


    .... Name of Project: Hawks Nest Hydroelectric Project (P-2512-069) and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project (P... of Gauley Bridge, and Glen Ferris Hydroelectric Project is on the Kanawha River in the vicinity of the Town of Glen Ferris, both within Fayette County, West Virginia. The projects do not affect federal...

  9. 75 FR 29296 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations (United States)


    ... Tanana An area north of the Tanana +431 +432 Fairbanks-North Star River and Chena River. River levee and... of Old Airport Road and Mitchell Expressway to the west. An area north of the Tanana None +446 River...)....... Approximately 460 feet None +1004 Unincorporated Areas upstream of West Charles of Fayette County. Street. City...

  10. Aspects of the biology of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. (Crustacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amphipods form an important component of coastal fauna and this study is focused on the biology of semi-terres- trial Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. inhabiting sand and wave-cast algae on the north-eastern coast at Poste La Fayette, Mauritius. The population structure, size class variation, sex ratio and female reproductive ...

  11. Attendance structure and economic impact of the National Road Festival (United States)

    Charles H. Strauss; Bruce E. Lord


    The National Road Festival is a four-day event scheduled in mid-May along a 90-mile section of U.S. Route 40 within the southwestern Pennsylvania counties of Washington, Fayette, and Somerset. This 26-year tradition commemorates America's first federally funded highway and includes over 30 recreational sites and community attractions. The Festival provides a...

  12. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations (United States)


    ... resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is of sufficient... designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Barbour, Boone, Braxton, Clay, Fayette, Kanawha... Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In Presidentially...

  13. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.; Sweet, M. L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.; Francisco, A. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Southface Energy Inst.


    The work presented in this report advances the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program by improving the energy performance of affordable and market-rate housing. Southface Energy Institute (Southface), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team Partnership for Home Innovation, worked with owners and builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in three climate zones (CZs): Savannah Gardens in Savannah, Georgia (CZ 2); JMC Patrick Square in Clemson, South Carolina (CZ 3); and LaFayette in LaFayette, Georgia (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high-performance homes.

  14. ANIMAtion Studio


    Fraidoon, Noora


    Form, space, rhythm, order, symmetry, balance, repetition, proportion and scale are few from a long checklist of principles that, if followed carefully by the designer, will result in "beautiful" architecture, or so I was told. However, what exactly is "beautiful"? In his book "The beautiful necessity" (1910, p.34) Claude Fayette Bragdon suggests that "Beauty is the name we give to truth we cannot understand". This statement implies that there is a hidden quality within each building, or ev...

  15. 78 FR 49403 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Determination of... (United States)


    ... Federation and National Pork Producers Council, et al. v. EPA, 559 F.3d 512 (D.C. Cir. 2009). As a result of...-0067 S. Fayette 29 31 18 26 Yes. Allegheny 42-003-0093 North Park 27 26 16 23 Yes (Max Quarter). Allegheny 42-003-1008 Harrison 34 30 21 28 Yes (Max Quarter). Allegheny 42-003-1301 N. Braddock 37 34 27 33...

  16. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia


    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra


    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  17. 76 FR 9771 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status (United States)


    ... Community Wind North 13 LLC EG11-22-000 Community Wind North 15 LLC EG11-23-000 Duke Energy Fayette II, LLC... Mesa Wind, LLC EG11-32-000 Covanta Burnaby Renewable Energy, Inc FC11-1-000 Starwood Solar V, LLC FC11... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [EG11-8-000, EG11-9-000, EG11-10-000, et...

  18. Synthesis, Characterization And Modeling Of Functionally Graded Multifunctional Hybrid Composites For Extreme Environments (United States)


    Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting(ACE-X2010) July 8-9, 2010, Hotel Concordia La Fayette, Paris, France. 4. J. N...Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials, Oct. 19-22, 2014, Taua Resort, SP, Brazil . 25. Reddy, J. N., “Non-classical Theories of Beams...Guest and Plenary Lecture, the Fourth International Symposium on Solid Mechanics - MecSol 2013, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil , 18-19 April

  19. Index of NACA Technical Publications, 1915 - 1949 (United States)


    Feb. 1947. Weller, R.; Middlehurst, D. J. and Steiner , R.: The Photoviscous Properties of Allen, H. Julian; Heaslet, Max A. and Fluids. TN 841, Feb...TM 1216, March Taylor, C. Fayette: A Suggested Method 1949. for Measuring Turbulence. TN 380, Iglisch, Rudolf : Exact Calculation of June 1931. Laminar...TN 472, Sept. 1933. TN�, Aug. 1928. Wallace, Rudolf N.: The Effect of Split Knight,-Montgomery and Wenzinger, Carl Trailing-Edge Wing Flaps on the

  20. Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology, and Glass Standard Evaluation (United States)


    ARL-TN-0756 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation...Stress Optical Coefficient, Test Methodology , and Glass Standard Evaluation by Clayton M Weiss Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education...ORISE), Belcamp, MD Parimal J Patel Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is

  1. Commentary: Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes


    Hackett, Paul M. W.


    A commentary on\\ud Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes\\ud \\ud by Shaw, R. C., Boogert, N. J., Clayton, N. S., and Burns, K. C. (2015). Anim. Behav. 109, 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.08.001

  2. Virtual vs. Concrete Manipulatives in Mathematics Teacher Education: Is One Type More Effective than the Other? (United States)

    Hunt, Annita W.; Nipper, Kelli L.; Nash, Linda E.


    Are virtual manipulatives as effective as concrete (hands-on) manipulatives in building conceptual understanding of number concepts and relationships in pre-service middle grades teachers? In the past, the use of concrete manipulatives in mathematics courses for Clayton State University's pre-service middle grades teachers has been effective in…

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185, 45-52. Watson-Jones, D., Weiss, H.A., Rusizoka, M., Changalucha, J., Baisley, K., Mugeye, K., Tanton, C.,. Ross, D., Everett, D. & Clayton, T. (2008) Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. New England Journal of Medicine 358: 1560-1571.

  4. 77 FR 52391 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision (United States)


    ... Statistics, April 1952). Other studies demonstrated theories of predicting crash proneness from crash history... Application of Multiple Regression Analysis of a Poisson Process,'' Journal of American Statistical.... Stephens (CO), Clayton L. Schroeder (MN), James C. Sharp (PA), Ronald J. VanHoof (WA), and Scott C...

  5. Culturally Relevant Pedagogical Practice among White College Faculty: A Narrative Study (United States)

    Miller, Susan F.


    Faculty contribute to the campus racial climate for all students, but particularly for students of color, and play a significant role in shaping intellectual, social, and behavioral standards through their pedagogical practice (Hurtado, Milem, Clayton-Petersen, & Allen, 1998; Solózano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000; Rankin & Reason, 2005).…

  6. Kaitstud tööd 2013 : [doktori- ja magistriväitekirjad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Doktoritööd kaitses Anu Sarv; magistritööd Anto Alasepp, Ott Puumeister, Marili Pärtel, Maarja Yano, Eva Väljaots, Ana Koncul, Derek Clayton Jenkins, Mark Richard Lemon, Matthew Campanella, Montana Jean Salvoni, Muzayin Arifin Nazaruddin, Oleg Sobchuk

  7. New Faces of Blended Learning (United States)

    Horn, Michael B.; Fisher, Julia Freeland


    The Clayton Christiansen Institute maintains a database of more than 400 schools across the United States that have implemented some form of blended learning, which combines online learning with brick-and-mortar classrooms. Data the Institute has collected over the past six months suggests three trends as this model continues to evolve and mature.…

  8. A Cultural Resource Inventory of Portions of Lake Oahe, Corson County, South Dakota. Volume 1. (United States)


    Dakota Twilight. Exposition Press, Hicksville, New York. Moran, S. R., M. Arndt, J. P. Bluemle, M. Camara, L. Clayton, M. M. Fenton , K. L. Harris, H. C...89 35 116 89 *Piscellaneous, a - smoking material. b - gum, c - sap. d - ceremonial or play. a - cosmetic . References: 6 - Gilmore 1919. 6 - Grinnell

  9. 78 FR 31566 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program; List of Petitions Received (United States)


    .... Angel Blackstone on behalf of S.B., Deceased, Trenton, New Jersey, Court of Federal Claims No: 13-0213V... Federal Claims No: 13-0252V. 31. William and Brenda Lehann Rodriguez on behalf of C.R., Clayton, Georgia...

  10. 16 CFR 0.16 - Bureau of Competition. (United States)


    ... free market system and assure the unfettered operation of the forces of supply and demand. Its... regulation laws under section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Act, and a number of other... national economy. The Bureau carries out its responsibilities by investigating alleged law violations, and...

  11. Book Review: Wildlife Conservation in Farmed Landscapes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Wildlife Conservation in Farmed Landscapes. Book Authors: David Lindenmayer, Damian Michael, Mason Crane, Sachiko Okada, Daniel Florance, Philip Bartion & Karen Ikin. 2016, CSIRO Publishing, Unipark Building 1 Level 1, 195 Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia. 232 pages, softcover, ePDF ...

  12. Special issue of photosynthetic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamura, M.; Wraight, C.A.; van Grondelle, R.


    This Special Issue of Photosynthesis Research honors Louis M. N. Duysens, Roderick K. Clayton, and George Feher, three pioneering researchers whose work on bacterial photosynthesis laid much of the groundwork for our understanding of the role of the reaction center in photosynthetic light energy

  13. 75 FR 81484 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations (United States)


    ...: Arapahoe (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Englewood (10- February 25, 2010; The Honorable Jim February 18, 2010..., 18070 Business Review. Collins Avenue, Suite 250, Sunny Isles Beach, FL 33160. Monroe (FEMA Docket No...: Clayton (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Morrow (09-04- February 12, 2010; The Honorable Jim June 21, 2010...

  14. Suhtesõlmed kire vastu / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-


    Sisu : Linn Ullmann. Enne kui sa uinud; Josie Lloyd, Emlyn Rees. Saame kokku; Deborah Moggach. Tulbipalavik; Victoria Clayton. Armastusest loobuja; Rosamunde Pilcher: Kaksikute tähtkujus; Hailey North. Kallis Armastuse Doktor; August Gailit. Muinasmaa; Aidi Vallik. Mis teha, Ann?; A. E. Hotchner. Papa Hemingway

  15. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1956 Honorary. Urey, Prof. Harold Clayton Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) - 1934. Date of birth: 29 April 1893. Date of death: 5 January 1981. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting ...

  16. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations (United States)


    be known as a Delphi study. Delphi Strengths. The Delphi approach was named after the Oracle at Delphi, a prominent figure in ancient Greek ... mythology who “was able to predict the future with infallible authority” (Clayton, 1997:374). The name is fitting as a Delphi study is often used to predict

  17. 75 FR 4488 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures... (United States)


    ... (GPS) RWY 30L, Amdt 2 Wolf Point, MT, L.M.Clayton, Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig [[Page 4490..., Stockton Metropolitan, ILS OR LOC RWY 29R, Amdt 19 Avon Park, FL, Avon Park Executive, GPS RWY 4, Orig-A, CANCELLED Avon Park, FL, Avon Park Executive, GPS RWY 9, Orig-A, CANCELLED Avon Park, FL, Avon Park...

  18. Is K-12 Blended Learning Disruptive? An Introduction to the Theory of Hybrids (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M.; Horn, Michael B.; Staker, Heather


    The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation, formerly the Innosight Institute, has published three papers describing the rise of K-12 blended learning--that is, formal education programs that combine online learning and brick-and-mortar schools. This fourth paper is the first to analyze blended learning through the lens of…

  19. Assessing High Impact Practices Using NVivo: An Automated Approach to Analyzing Student Reflections for Program Improvement (United States)

    Blaney, Jennifer; Filer, Kimberly; Lyon, Julie


    Critical reflection allows students to synthesize their learning and deepen their understanding of an experience (Ash & Clayton, 2009). A recommended reflection method is for students to write essays about their experiences. However, on a large scale, such reflection essays become difficult to analyze in a meaningful way. At Roanoke College,…

  20. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory (United States)

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.


    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  1. Disruptive Technology: What Is It? How Can It Work for Professional Writing? (United States)

    Godwin, Mary


    Writing in 1995 for the "Harvard Business Review" audience of executive managers, Harvard business professor Clayton Christensen coined the term "disruptive technologies" to describe innovations that improve a product, service, or operation in ways wholly unanticipated by leaders of existing markets. Christensen's economic theory offers a launch…

  2. 76 FR 38419 - United States v. George's Foods, LLC, et. al.; Proposed Final Judgment and Competitive Impact... (United States)


    ... provisions of Section 5(a) of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. 16(a), the proposed Final Judgment has no prima facie effect in any subsequent private lawsuit that may be brought against George's. V. Procedures... in protecting the public interest is one of insuring that the government has not breached its duty to...

  3. Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories. (United States)


    Desegregated Classroom: The Effects of Cooperation on Prosocial Behavior and Academic Performance. Working Paper, Department of Psychology. Santa Cruz, CA... Behavior Changing Race Relations in Organizations: A Comparison of Theories Clayton P. .Alderfer Working Paper #66 DTIC ~ELECTE0 B DITRUTION STATEMENTA...unfavorable stereotypes of blacks, they have less reason to change. White stereotypes have long served as rationalizations for white dominance. In

  4. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... Reviews Thomas, Clayton L., Editor (1997). Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Pagana, Kathleen D. & Pagana, Timothy J. (2001). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory ... Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  5. Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Porter


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Australian Alps: Kosciuszko, Alpine and Namadgi National Parks (Second Edition By Deidre Slattery. Clayton South, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, 2015. xvii + 302 pp. AU$ 45.00, US$ 35.95. ISBN 978-1-486-30171-3.

  6. Interdisciplinary Health Team Care: Proceedings of the Annual Conference (8th, Columbus, Ohio, September 18-20, 1986). (United States)

    Brunner, Marjorie L., Ed.; Casto, R. Michael, Ed.

    The following are among the 40 papers included in this proceedings: "Code of Ethics for Interdisciplinary Care" (Thomasma); "Training Model for Increasing Team Excellence and Efficiency" (Clayton, Lund); "Organizational Structures of Health Care Teams" (Farrell, Schmitt, Heinemann); "Nutrition Support Practice" (Johnson); "Dividing up the Work on…

  7. Role Expectations for United States Air Force Psychiatric Clinical Nurse Specialists. (United States)


    perspective of symbolic interactionism . Symbolic interactionism provides a matrix within which to understand how humans perceive and interact with the...theoretical framework for understanding role theory in this study is that tradition in social psychology derived from symbolic interactionism (Clayton...influence of the clinical nurse specialist. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 6(l), 53-63. Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism : Perspective and

  8. The effect of transverse bed slope and sediment mobility on bend sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisscher, S.A.H.; Baar, A.W.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Kleinhans, MG


    Lateral sorting (= bend sorting) is observed in  natural meanders, where the inner and outer  bend are fairly fine and coarse, respectively  (e.g. Julien and Anthony, 2002; Clayton and  Pitlick, 2007). This is caused by the mass  differences between grains on a

  9. People of Color Rising up and Speaking out: Oppression and Knowledge Production. Proceedings for the Annual African American & Latino/a American Adult Education Research Symposium (11th, Chicago, Illinois, April 6, 2002). (United States)

    Garth, Phyllis Ham, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers from an annual symposium on research in adult education for African Americans and Latin Americans. Representative papers include the following: "Congressman Adam Clayton Powell Jr., Keeping the Faith and Representing the Race--From the Pulpit to Politics" (Roudell Kirkwood); "Religious Education and…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  11. Kirjad ja kriisid / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-


    Sisu : Maimu Veske. Continental; Maeve Haran. Tangot tantsitakse kahekesi; Zana Muhsen. Müüdud; Ingo Schulze. 33 õnnehetke; Alistair MacLean. Karusaar; Suur uneraamat, koost. Raisa Vuohelainen; Arbujad, koost. Ants Oras; Friedrich Weissensteiner. Kuulsad enesetapjad; Peter A. Clayton. Vaaraode kroonika; Lillede keel

  12. A College Administrator's Framework to Assess Compliance with Accreditation Mandates (United States)

    Davis†, Jerry M.; Rivera, John-Juan


    A framework to assess the impact of complying with college accreditation mandates is developed based on North's (1996) concepts of transaction costs, property rights, and institutions; Clayton's (1999) Systems Alignment Model; and the educational production function described by Hanushek (2007). The framework demonstrates how sought…

  13. Program Manager: Journal of the Defense Systems Management College. Volume 23, Number 1, January-February 1994 (United States)


    Jones, Jr. PROGRAM MANAGER Managing Editor Esther M. Farria Art Director Greg Caruth Typography and Design Paula Croisetlere Program Manager (ISSN 0199...Company bombers to implement the strategic organization - President Clayton 1. Brukner commu- bombing doctrine. This would take all brand -new cre

  14. 78 FR 77029 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Seeks Comment on a Proposal To License the 600 MHz Band Using... (United States)


    ... Pittsylvania County... 63506 18 262 67 VA Henry County 54151 18 684 67 VA Danville city......... 43055 18 262... Wilkes County......... 10593 27 374 79 SC Allendale County...... 10419 27 631 79 GA Jenkins County... 17 120 GA Clayton County........ 259424 40 17 120 GA Cherokee County....... 214346 40 17 120 GA Henry...

  15. "Mõne ne ljudi, a karmanõ" / Vitali Belobrovtsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Belobrovtsev, Vitali, 1946-


    Rahvusvahelise tänavamööblikonkursi "Tallinna moodul" võitis inglise disainerite Clayton Welhami ja Martin Yongi töö "Fold". Linna peadisaineri Aavo Ermeli kommentaar. Tallinna tänavamööbli uuendamise rahalisest aspektist

  16. "Tallinna moodul" pakub linnale ühtset vormi / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-


    Rahvusvahelise ideekonkursi võitis "Fold", autorid Clayton Welham ja Martin Yong Londonist. II koht tööle "Drunken Style", autorid Samson Adjei, Harry Dobbs Ja Greg Epps Londonist. III koht itaalia disaineritele, ergutuspreemiad Argentiinasse ja New Yorki. Kommenteerinud linnadisainer Aavo Ermel

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 37, Number 8. (United States)


    CSIRO, Division of Chemical Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio , Madrid, Physics, Clayton, Australia); "Formation Spain) presented a poster "Preparation, of...neutron reactions, nuclear measurement Vidrio , Madrid Spain). applications, neutron and ultrasonic d Sanalyses of condensed matter, isotope The conference

  18. 77 FR 27468 - Center for Scientific Review, Notice of Closed Meetings (United States)


    ..., (Virtual Meeting). Contact Person: Edwin C Clayton, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific...-408-9041, [email protected] . Name of Committee: Biological Chemistry and Macromolecular Biophysics Integrated Review Group; Synthetic and Biological Chemistry B Study Section. Date: May 30-31, 2012. Time: 8...

  19. Taba trende enne teisi / Harli Uljas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uljas, Harli


    Autor tutvustab maailmakuulsa innovatsiooniteoreetiku Clayton M. Christenseni innovatsiooniteooriat ning selle kasutamist võimalike turumuutuste ennustamisel. Kommenteerib konsultatsioonifirma Ajutrust konsultant Tiit Jürimäe. Vt. samas: Kopp ees; Zara tabab trende klubidest; Kui suureks peab kasvama lennujaam?; Kuidas jaotab kliente maailmakuulus trendipüüdja Anne-Lise Kjaer

  20. Advancing Replicable Solutions for High-Performance Homes in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)


    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize buildling envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  1. Le temple-mémorial de Château-Thierry : approche monographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Magnien


    Full Text Available Le temple-mémorial de Château-Thierry, inauguré en 1924 est réalisé par deux architectes : Paul-Philippe Cret et Achille-Henri Chauquet, L’édifice est décoré d’un vitrail-tableau intitulé La Fayette nous voilà ! représentant La Fayette accueillant le général Pershing et de verrières ornées de scènes tirées des Paraboles de l’artiste suisse Eugène Burnand par son fils David Burnand. La chaire et le mobilier ont été offerts par des paroisses américaines en souvenir des soldats tombés au front. Par son architecture, son mobilier et les circonstances de la commande, le temple de Château-Thierry méritait une étude.The American memorial church of Château-Thierry, dedicated in 1924 has been built by two architects, Paul-Philippe Cret and Achille-Henri Chauquet. The church is adorned by a stained glass church window showing La Fayette welcoming Pershing and by some others stained glasses representing parables by David Burnand from sketches of his father Eugène Burnand. American churches supplied the pulpit and other furniture to adorn the building in memory of the soldiers died in the battle front. By its architecture, its furniture and the circumstances of its edification, the memorial church of Château-Thierry deserves a study

  2. Building America Case Study: Savannah Gardens, Savannah, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Southface Energy Institute (Southface) partnered with owners and/or builders with various market constraints and ultimate goals for three projects in different climate zones: Savannah, GA (CZ 2), Clemson, SC (CZ 3), and LaFayette, GA (CZ 4). This report documents the design process, computational energy modeling, construction, envelope performance metrics, long-term monitoring results, and successes and failures of the design and execution of these high performance homes. The three bedroom/two bathroom test home in Savannah Gardens on an elevated slab foundation has a semi-conditioned, encapsulated attic. A neighboring home built to EarthCraft specifications was also monitored as a control for exterior foam insulation and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). For the JMC Patrick Square, a single-story project in Clemson, the small-scale production builder wanted to increase their level of energy efficiency beyond their current green building practices, including bringing ducts into conditioned space. Through a combination of upgrade measures the team met this goal and achieved many Zero Energy Ready Home requirements. LaFayette Housing Authority undertook a development of 30 affordable rental housing units in 15 duplexes in LaFayette, GA. Because they would be long-term owners, their priorities were low utility bills for the residents and durable, maintainable buildings. The team employed BEopt to optimize building envelope and systems choices, including 2x6 advanced framed walls, insulated slab, and heat pump water heater in a utility closet which was ducted to/from an encapsulated attic.

  3. Estimating risk of foreign exchange portfolio: Using VaR and CVaR based on GARCH-EVT-Copula model (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Run; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Yan-Bo; Zhou, Yan-Ju


    This paper introduces GARCH-EVT-Copula model and applies it to study the risk of foreign exchange portfolio. Multivariate Copulas, including Gaussian, t and Clayton ones, were used to describe a portfolio risk structure, and to extend the analysis from a bivariate to an n-dimensional asset allocation problem. We apply this methodology to study the returns of a portfolio of four major foreign currencies in China, including USD, EUR, JPY and HKD. Our results suggest that the optimal investment allocations are similar across different Copulas and confidence levels. In addition, we find that the optimal investment concentrates on the USD investment. Generally speaking, t Copula and Clayton Copula better portray the correlation structure of multiple assets than Normal Copula.

  4. The Renaissance way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, W.


    The remarkable success of Renaissance Energy Ltd., of Calgary, under the leadership of its CEO, Clayton Woitas, was described. Clayton Woitas was selected as the 'Producer of the Year' for leading his company to a most successful year by following a simple set of fundamentals with unrelenting dedication and discipline. The achievements of the company in drilling a large number of small prospect wells in the plains areas of Alberta, its single-minded devotion to low cost production, avoidance of the fashionable, concentration on small-yield areas of both Alberta and Saskatchewan, its belief in a high level of delegation, and faith and confidence in its people, were described as the explanation for the company's outstanding success

  5. Obtaining DDF Curves of Extreme Rainfall Data Using Bivariate Copula and Frequency Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadri, Sara; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen


    , situated near Copenhagen in Denmark. For rainfall extracted using method 2, the marginal distribution of depth was found to fit the Generalized Pareto distribution while duration was found to fit the Gamma distribution, using the method of L-moments. The volume was fit with a generalized Pareto...... with duration for a given return period and name them DDF (depth-duration-frequency) curves. The copula approach does not assume the rainfall variables are independent or jointly normally distributed. Rainfall series are extracted in three ways: (1) by maximum mean intensity; (2) by depth and duration...... distribution and the duration was fit with a Pearson type III distribution for rainfall extracted using method 3. The Clayton copula was found to be appropriate for bivariate analysis of rainfall depth and duration for both methods 2 and 3. DDF curves derived using the Clayton copula for depth and duration...

  6. Na ratunek teologii – Philipa Claytona koncepcja emergentnego umysłu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maziarka


    Full Text Available New worldview that arose from a number of important findings of science, including the Darwinian theory of evolution as well as the Big Bang theory, calls for a redefinition of the human place in the world of nature. Human mind, with its characteristic self-consciousness, is facing a difficult problem of understanding of his own nature as well as clarifying its relationship with the realm of the physical world. According to Philip Clayton, the correct answer to the question of the relation of mind to body (mind-body problem is given by the concept of emergentism. While taking his arguments from modern science and philosophy, Clayton claims that the mind – causally active mental properties – is a valuable result of the evolution that has occurred through the emergence, and its special feature, i.e. rationality, sheds new light on attempts of the ultimate understanding of reality.

  7. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication


    Montie,Mary; Shuman,Clayton; Galinato,Jose; Patak,Lance; Anderson,Christine A; Titler,Marita


    Mary Montie,1 Clayton Shuman,1 Jose Galinato,1 Lance Patak,2 Christine A Anderson,1 Marita G Titler1 1Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of liter...

  8. The use of wind data with an operational wind turbine in a research and development environment (United States)

    Neustadter, H. E.


    It is noted that in 1976, 17 candidate sites were identified for detailed evaluation as potential sites for installation of large, horizontal axis Wind Turbines (WT). Attention is given to the Mod-OA, a 200 kW WT located in Clayton, New Mexico. The discussion covers the meteorological data collected, some of the analyses based on these wind data as well as additional areas currently being investigated in relation to these data.

  9. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY83, Part 3 (7025-9999). (United States)



  10. Disruptive technologies - widening the scope -


    Ruhlig, Klaus; Wiemken, Uwe


    The term „disruptive technologies” was introduced 1997 by Clayton Christensen in the context of innovations in the business world based upon technological developments. It was meant to sharpen the view for new technologies which can „disrupt” the economic context of a business. Since then it inspired other communities like so many terms in English (or American) language. One of these is the domain of international Research & Technology (R&T) cooperation and technological forecasting for publi...

  11. Tallinna Moodul = Tallinn Module / Siiri Vallner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallner, Siiri, 1972-


    Rahvusvahelisest disainivõistlusest Tallinna Moodul, mille eesmärk oli leida tänavamööbli süsteem, kus erinevad elemendid (kioskid, telefoniputkad, istepingid, bussiootepaviljonid, reklaamialused jne.) on seotud kontseptuaalselt ühtseks tervikuks. Osalejatest, võidutöödest. Preemiad: I - Clayton Welham, Martin Yong, London, II - Samson Adjei, Harry Dobbs, Greg Epps, London, III - Carmelo Baglivo, Luca Galofaro, Rooma. Eripreemiad (2)

  12. Environmental Impact Statement. Preliminary Draft. Realignment of Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico (United States)


    Park are in the center of the lower third of i the MOA. Also under the MOA is the Capulin Volcano National Monument in the upper northwest and Clayton...Park, Capulin Volcano National Monument, a ranch near Quay and the village of House, New Mexico, near the Melrose Range. The Bell Ranch Complex a 1 nm avoidance area around Mosquero and 2 nm area around Capulin Volcano National Monument, Bell Ranch, Quay, Kenton State Park, 2 specified

  13. New Mobile Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Su-En; Henten, Anders


    This paper takes a look at Clayton Christensen 's theory of disruptive technologies and how Christensen's theory relates to other innovation theories. It also proposes a new layer of analysis to this theory to better link the technology analysis to the market analysis of any given technology...... product. This layer suggests that complementarity and substitutability are important criteria for technologies to be market disruptions or sustaining changes....

  14. Environmental Assessment: Combat Information Transport System Upgrade Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    impacted by general construction hazards. Biological hazards, including vegetation (i.e., poison oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects ...or protruding objects, slippery soils or mud, and unstable ground. Bi?logical hazards such as animals ( insects , spiders, and snakes), and disease...Region Interagency Archeological Services Branch, San Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6

  15. Modeling dependence structure between stock market volatility and sukuk yields: A nonlinear study in the case of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Naifar


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the dependence structure between sukuk (Islamic bonds yields and stock market (returns and volatility in the case of Saudi Arabia. We consider three Archimedean copula models with different tail dependence structures namely Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank. This study shows that the sukuk yields exhibit significant dependence only with stock market volatility. In addition, the dependence structure between sukuk yields and stock market volatility are symmetric and linked with the same intensity.

  16. Internet jako prostor pro sociální inovace? Analýza prostředí digitálních podob současného českého tisku


    Soukupová, Lenka


    Taking into account the theoretical approaches of Joseph Alois Schumpeter and Clayton Christensen to innovation, this case study is mapping the current Czech environment of written online media. Traditional media houses are dealing with the crisis of finances and information as generally described by Christensen, which means they are in real need for innovation yet they are not always successful. Other new incentives also appear on the market. Similarly to the situation abroad, the NGO sector...

  17. National Security Space Launch Report (United States)


    Company Clayton Mowry, President, Arianespace Inc., North American—“Launch Solutions” Elon Musk , CEO and CTO, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX...technologies to the NASA Exploration Initiative (“…Moon, Mars and Beyond.”).1 EELV Technology Needs The Atlas V and Delta IV vehicles incorporate current... Mars and other destinations.” 46 National Security Space Launch Report Figure 6.1 U.S. Government Liquid Propulsion Rocket Investment, 1991–2005

  18. Musical Entrainment Subsumes Bodily Gestures – Its Definition Needs a Spatiotemporal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Leman


    Full Text Available In his paper “What is entrainment? Definition and applications in musical research” (this issue, M. Clayton offers a definition of entrainment that is based on a timing dimension (relative phase relationships. However, this definition may be too limited when applied to musical entrainment. Based on the idea that human engagement with music is embodied and that gestures may condition entrainment, I suggest that the definition of entrainment be broadened so as to include a spatiotemporal dimension.

  19. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment: Demolition and Abandonment of Atlas and Titan Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California (United States)


    compliance with Federal Insecticide , Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and 40 CFR 159-189 Pesticide Programs. AFI 32-7020 The Environmental...oak and stinging nettle ), animals (i.e., insects, spiders, and snakes), and disease vectors (i.e., ticks, rodents), exist at and around the...Francisco. Hamilton, M. Colleen, Wendy Nettles , and Clayton G. Lebow 2004 SLC-4 to SLC-6 Waterline Replacement Project, CA-SBA-1145/H Treatment Plan

  20. Flood characteristics for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Cunningham, M.K.


    The frequency and magnitude of flooding of the New River in the New River Gorge National River was studied. A steady-state, one-dimensional flow model was applied to the study reach. Rating curves, cross sections, and Manning's roughness coefficients that were used are presented in this report. Manning's roughness coefficients were evaluated by comparing computed elevations (from application of the steady-state, one-dimensional flow model) to rated elevations at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous-rating sites. Manning's roughness coefficients ranged from 0.030 to 0.075 and varied with hydraulic depth. The 2-, 25-, and 100-year flood discharges were esti- mated on the basis of information from flood- insurance studies of Summers County, Fayette County, and the city of Hinton, and flood-frequency analysis of discharge records for the USGS streamflow-gaging stations at Hinton and Thurmond. The 100-year discharge ranged from 107,000 cubic feet per second at Hinton to 150,000 cubic feet per second at Fayette.

  1. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids (United States)

    van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S.; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M.


    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods.

  2. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijneveldt, Jeroen S van; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M


    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods

  3. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.


    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  4. Designing a clinical audit tool to measure processes of pregnancy care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace EM


    Full Text Available Suzanne V Sinni1, Wendy M Cross2, Euan M Wallace1,31Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University and Southern Health, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Victoria, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: This paper reports the development of a clinical audit tool as part of a larger project to evaluate a new maternity service, underpinned by a patient safety framework.Aim: The aim of this work is to describe the development of a clinical audit tool that measures the process of pregnancy care, and its application.Background: There are many reports about outcomes of healthcare provision, however there are limited studies examining the process of care. There is also limited evidence linking clinical audit with improvements in care delivery. Pregnancy care was chosen because there are well defined and agreed clinical standards against which to measure the delivery of pregnancy care. A clinical audit using these standards addresses both gaps in the literature.Methods: Standard methodological processes were used to develop the audit tool. Literature informed the processes. Data were collected in 2009–2010 using the tool described in the paper. Reliability testing was completed in September 2011.Results: An audit tool to measure pregnancy care was developed and applied to 354 health records to enable analysis of adherence to organizational expectations of care. Reliability testing of the tool achieved an overall kappa of 0.896.Conclusion: Developing an audit tool based on processes described in the literature is labor intensive and resource dependent, however it results in a robust, reliable, valid tool that can be used in diverse maternity services. Stakeholder participation from the outset ensures ongoing engagement for the duration of a clinically based project spanning several years

  5. Disruptive Space Technology


    Benson, Jim


    In 1997 "The Innovator’s Dilemma" by Clayton M. Christensen became a popular book in the small satellite and launch vehicle communities. But like the weather, every one talks about “Disruptive Technology” but few do anything about it. In the ‘70s and ‘80s, people were looking for “Paradigm Shifts,” and since the resurrection of Donald Rumsfeld, a recent watchword has been “Transformational Technology.” But today’s buzzword is now “Responsive Space Systems.”

  6. Disruptiv innovasjon i norsk næringsliv : En kvalitativ studie basert på 10 norske bedriftslederes erfaringer med disruptiv innovasjon


    Polden, Monica Myklebust; Røisvold, Hans Marius


    Temaet for denne avhandlingen er disruptiv innovasjon som Clayton M. Christensen først introduserte i artikkelen Disruptive technologies: Catching the wave i(1995)og senere i boken The Innovator’s Dilemma i 1997. Disruptive innovasjoner handler om produkter eller tjenester som oppstår i markedet og endrer konkurransereglene. Dette skjer ved at det oppstås nye markeder (new market disruptions) eller ved at det blir produsert lignende produkter eller tjenester med gjerne dårligere kvalitet og f...

  7. The New Gravity System: Changes in International Gravity Base Values and Anomaly Values (United States)


    Pend Ft. Clayton Pend. Ŕ" 978.2391 .224 00 -15.10 WA 4004 Albrook AFB "S" 978.2427 .227 72 -14.98 COSTA RICA WA 4049 Golfito 978.2389 .223 98* -14.92... Joaquin 978.2975 .282 52* +14.98 WA 6170 San Ana 978.3388 .323 85* +14.95 WA 6021 Santa Cruz "K" 978.3639 .349 07 +14.83 WA 6141 Santa Cruz "J" 978.3643

  8. Análisis y simulación del comportamiento térmico del vapor de agua en el interior de las tuberías de distribución mediante el sofware especializado ANSYS


    Cajamarca Peñafiel, Diego Alejandro; Cárdenas Padilla, José Daniel


    This project consists in the analysis of the thermal behavior of the water vapor inside the distribution pipes, carried out in a specialized Ansys software. The input values are taken from a Pyro tubular boiler of Clayton brand of 125 BHP, with maximum load of 1226 kW, maximum equivalent steam delivery 1957 kg / h and at a pressure of 6 bars. The results obtained are analyzed along the final stretch of the network, by comparing the results varying the speed and thermal insulati...

  9. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 44, Part 1, 1990 (United States)


    Institute, Information. (Prostaia sistema poiska snegolavinnol thesis. Refs. p.342 -358. Tokyo Quarterly reports. Feb. 1988, 29(l), p.9. S. rcferativnot...down this area toward the cna plateau. ot maud toc Clayton. L., ct al, Geological Society of America. 44-2077 d i t t r t u Urnioirs, 1989, No.173, rosion, Heat transfer, Solutions, Air conditioning. Japan-Sapporo. toc &on, and operator training. 130 CRREL BIBLIOGRAPHY 44-3050 44-3054 44.3062

  10. Southern Ocean seaweeds: A resource for exploration in food and drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Verlecar, X.N

    the land drainage in Barton, Pinitos and Penon de Pesca. In Penon de Pesca the nitrate concentra- tion was even higher at 20 and 30 m depth than near the surface. The phosphate concentrations ranged from 1.23 μM to 3.68 μmol l –1 with higher values only... temperatures and low light 235V.K. Dhargalkar, X.N. Verlecar / Aquaculture 287 (2009) 229–242 conditions in the Southern Oceans (Lamb and Zimmermann, 1977; DeLaca and Lipps,1976; Moe and DeLaca,1976; Wiencke and Clayton, 2002; Neushul, 1965; Amsler et al., 1998...

  11. Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Reduce Prophylactic Fasciotomies for and Missed Cases of Acute Compartment Syndrome in Soldiers Injured in OEF/OIF (United States)


    15 were overweight (BMI between 25 and 29), and 19 were obese (BMI 30). Table 1 presents the rSO2 values for each compart- ment. All rSO2 values Determination of the compartment pressure 311  threshold of muscle ischemia in a canine model. J Trauma. 1994 ;37:50-8. PMID: 8028059. 312  19...ischemic threshold of muscle in the canine compartment syndrome model. J Orthop Trauma. 328  1993;7:199-210. PMID: 8326422 329  26. Clayton JM, Hayes

  12. Confronting empty spaces: between interpretation and experience in "The Turn of the Screw" by Henry James

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Spinelli


    Full Text Available The Turn of the Screw by Henry James has inspired the most various critical debates for over a century. What is hidden in the folds of the story? What kind of impact does it have on the reader? Like a borderless nebula who attracts and reflects light from other stars, this novella is permeated by a vide fascinant, by a chaotic and disturbing matter “such stuff as dreams are made”. This feeling of absence and uncertainty, that characterizes the story, developed trough the contribution of readers and critics and it found a further still precious echo in The Innocents, a film directed by Jack Clayton in 1961.

  13. Discovery and Analysis of 21 micrometer Feature Sources in the Magellanic Clouds (Postprint) (United States)


    except for IRAS F06111−7023, for which the 2MASS catalog position is used due to the relatively low accuracy of the IRAS position. Clayton 1996). They...IRAC; Fazio et al. 2004) position. For the one object outside the SAGE survey area, IRAS F06111−7023, the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; al. 2006) position of the counterpart is given as the source position. This 2MASS position is about 2′′ from the MSX (Mill et al. 1994) position for

  14. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.


    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  15. The bolometric, infrared and visual absolute magnitudes of Mira variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, B.S.C.; Feast, M.W.


    Statistical parallaxes, as well as stars with individually known distances are used to derive bolometric and infrared absolute magnitudes of Mira (Me) variables. The derived bolometric magnitudes are in the mean about 0.75 mag fainter than recent estimates. The problem of determining the pulsation constant is discussed. Miras with periods greater than 150 days probably pulsate in the first overtone. Those of shorter periods are anomalous and may be fundamental pulsators. It is shown that the absolute visual magnitudes at mean light of Miras with individually determined distances are consistent with values derived by Clayton and Feast from statistical parallaxes. (author)

  16. Specious causal attributions in the social sciences: the reformulated stepping-stone theory of heroin use as exemplar. (United States)

    Baumrind, D


    The claims based on causal models employing either statistical or experimental controls are examined and found to be excessive when applied to social or behavioral science data. An exemplary case, in which strong causal claims are made on the basis of a weak version of the regularity model of cause, is critiqued. O'Donnell and Clayton claim that in order to establish that marijuana use is a cause of heroin use (their "reformulated stepping-stone" hypothesis), it is necessary and sufficient to demonstrate that marijuana use precedes heroin use and that the statistically significant association between the two does not vanish when the effects of other variables deemed to be prior to both of them are removed. I argue that O'Donnell and Clayton's version of the regularity model is not sufficient to establish cause and that the planning of social interventions both presumes and requires a generative rather than a regularity causal model. Causal modeling using statistical controls is of value when it compels the investigator to make explicit and to justify a causal explanation but not when it is offered as a substitute for a generative analysis of causal connection.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.


    In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur

  18. The three-dimensional structures of bacterial reaction centers. (United States)

    Olson, T L; Williams, J C; Allen, J P


    This review presents a broad overview of the research that enabled the structure determination of the bacterial reaction centers from Blastochloris viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, with a focus on the contributions from Duysens, Clayton, and Feher. Early experiments performed in the laboratory of Duysens and others demonstrated the utility of spectroscopic techniques and the presence of photosynthetic complexes in both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis. The laboratories of Clayton and Feher led efforts to isolate and characterize the bacterial reaction centers. The availability of well-characterized preparations of pure and stable reaction centers allowed the crystallization and subsequent determination of the structures using X-ray diffraction. The three-dimensional structures of reaction centers revealed an overall arrangement of two symmetrical branches of cofactors surrounded by transmembrane helices from the L and M subunits, which also are related by the same twofold symmetry axis. The structure has served as a framework to address several issues concerning bacterial photosynthesis, including the directionality of electron transfer, the properties of the reaction center-cytochrome c 2 complex, and the coupling of proton and electron transfer. Together, these research efforts laid the foundation for ongoing efforts to address an outstanding question in oxygenic photosynthesis, namely the molecular mechanism of water oxidation.

  19. Looking for episodic memory in animals and young children: prospects for a new minimalism. (United States)

    Clayton, Nicola S; Russell, James


    Because animals and young children cannot be interrogated about their experiences it is difficult to conduct research into their episodic memories. The approach to this issue adopted by Clayton and Dickinson [Clayton, N. S., & Dickinson, A. (1998). Episodic-like memory during cache recovery by scrub jays. Nature, 395, 272-274] was to take a conceptually minimalist definition of episodic memory, in terms of integrating information about what was done where and when [Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving, & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organisation of memory (pp. 381-403). New York: Academic Press], and to refer to such memories as 'episodic-like'. Some claim, however, that because animals supposedly lack the conceptual abilities necessary for episodic recall one should properly call these memories 'semantic'. We address this debate with a novel approach to episodic memory, which is minimalist insofar as it focuses on the non-conceptual content of a re-experienced situation. It rests on Kantian assumptions about the necessary 'perspectival' features of any objective experience or re-experience. We show how adopting this perspectival approach can render an episodic interpretation of the animal data more plausible and can also reveal patterns in the mosaic of developmental evidence for episodic memory in humans.

  20. A preliminary study on drought events in Peninsular Malaysia (United States)

    Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Nahrawi, Siti Aishah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Zahari, Marina


    In this research, the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to represent the dry condition in Peninsular Malaysia. To do this, data of monthly rainfall from 75 stations in Peninsular Malaysia is used to obtain the SPI values at scale one. From the SPI values, two drought characteristics that are commonly used to represent the dry condition in an area that is the duration and severity of a drought period are identified and their respective values calculated for every station. Spatial mappings are then used to identify areas which are more likely to be affected by longer and more severe drought condition from the results. As the two drought characteristics may be correlated with each other, the joint distribution of severity and duration of dry condition is considered. Bivariate copula model is used and five copula models were tested, namely, the Gumbel-Hougard, Clayton, Frank, Joe and Galambos copulas. The copula model, which best represents the relationship between severity and duration, is determined using Akaike information criterion. The results showed that the Joe and Clayton copulas are well-fitted by close to 60% of the stations under study. Based on the results on the most appropriate copula-based joint distribution for each station, some bivariate probabilistic properties of droughts can then be calculated, which will be continued in future research.

  1. Rotational flow in tapered slab rocket motors (United States)

    Saad, Tony; Sams, Oliver C.; Majdalani, Joseph


    Internal flow modeling is a requisite for obtaining critical parameters in the design and fabrication of modern solid rocket motors. In this work, the analytical formulation of internal flows particular to motors with tapered sidewalls is pursued. The analysis employs the vorticity-streamfunction approach to treat this problem assuming steady, incompressible, inviscid, and nonreactive flow conditions. The resulting solution is rotational following the analyses presented by Culick for a cylindrical motor. In an extension to Culick's work, Clayton has recently managed to incorporate the effect of tapered walls. Here, an approach similar to that of Clayton is applied to a slab motor in which the chamber is modeled as a rectangular channel with tapered sidewalls. The solutions are shown to be reducible, at leading order, to Taylor's inviscid profile in a porous channel. The analysis also captures the generation of vorticity at the surface of the propellant and its transport along the streamlines. It is from the axial pressure gradient that the proper form of the vorticity is ascertained. Regular perturbations are then used to solve the vorticity equation that prescribes the mean flow motion. Subsequently, numerical simulations via a finite volume solver are carried out to gain further confidence in the analytical approximations. In illustrating the effects of the taper on flow conditions, comparisons of total pressure and velocity profiles in tapered and nontapered chambers are entertained. Finally, a comparison with the axisymmetric flow analog is presented.

  2. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R


    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  3. Volatile organometallic and semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.


    This article reports on a project concerned with the metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) of mercury-cadmium telluride (MCT) undertaken by a research consortium based in the Clayton area involving Monash University Chemistry Department, Telecom Research Laboratories, and CSIRO Division of Material Sciences and Technology. An M.R. Semicon 226 MOCVD reactor, operating near atmospheric presure with hydrogen carrier gas has been used. Most applications of MCT are direct consequence of its responsiveness to radiation in infrared region spectrum. The main aims of the project were to prepare and assess a range of volatile organometallics that might find use as a dopant sources for MCT, to prepare and study the properties of a range of different lanthanide complexes for MOCVD applications and to fully characterize the semiconductor wafers after growth. 19 refs., 3 figs

  4. The microspectroscopy beamline for the Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Ryan, C.; Cohen, D.D.


    A new multi-million dollar synchrotron facility is currently being built in Clayton, Victoria. This is a 3GeV electron machine, it will be a world class machine and contain state of the art beamline facilities for both Australian and overseas scientists. It is due for completion in mid-2007. This specialised beamline will provide sub-micron spatial resolution with the highest flux possible. It will combine 2D mapping with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF), micro X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (μ-XANES) and micro X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS) for elemental and chemical analysis to solve scientific problems that can only be understood using X-ray beams with sub-micron resolutions. In this paper we describe some key beamline components and give details about their performance specifications. 7 refs., 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. The effect of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a computational interstellar dust system (United States)

    Liffman, Kurt


    The effects of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a the interstellar dust system are computed using a Monte Carlo computer model. The Monte Carlo code has as its basis an analytic solution of the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium, described by Liffman and Clayton (1989). The model is subjected to numerous different interstellar processes as it transfers from one interstellar phase to another. Collisional fragmentation was found to be the dominant physical process that shapes the size spectrum of interstellar dust. It was found that, in the diffuse cloud phase, 90 percent of the refractory material is locked up in the dust grains, primarily due to accretion in the molecular medium. This result is consistent with the observed depletions of silicon. Depletions were found to be affected only slightly by diffuse cloud accretion.

  6. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.


    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. on the properties of solutions and some applications on the TOV differential equation with a model of nuclear equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmail, S.F.H.


    the mathematical formulation of numerous physical problems results in differential equations actually non-linear differential equations . in our study we are interested in solutions of differential equations which describe the structure of neutron star in non-relativistic and relativistic cases. the aim of this work is to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star, by solving the tolmann-oppenheimer-volkoff (TOV) differential equation using different models of the nuclear equation of state (EOS). analytically solutions are obtained for a simple form of the nuclear equation of state of Clayton model and poly trope model. for a more realistic equation of state the TOV differential equation is solved numerically using rung -Kutta method

  8. Application of Vine Copulas to Credit Portfolio Risk Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Geidosch


    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the superiority of vine copulas over conventional copulas when modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio. We show statistical and economic implications of replacing conventional copulas by vine copulas for a subportfolio of the Euro Stoxx 50 and the S&P 500 companies, respectively. Our study includes D-vines and R-vines where the bivariate building blocks are chosen from the Gaussian, the t and the Clayton family. Our findings are (i the conventional Gauss copula is deficient in modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio and economic capital is seriously underestimated; (ii D-vine structures offer a better statistical fit to the data than classical copulas, but underestimate economic capital compared to R-vines; (iii when mixing different copula families in an R-vine structure, the best statistical fit to the data can be achieved which corresponds to the most reliable estimate for economic capital.

  9. Fecal examination of the equids of Tabriz from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal helminthes infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eslami


    Full Text Available From July to October 2006, fecal samples were collected from 242 horses and ponies of Tabriz jockey clubs and 119 local equids in order to determine their EPG and parasitic fauna of gastrointestinal helminthes. After performing the Clayton- laen method of floatation test using zinc chloride and saturated sodium chloride solutions, it was determined that the feces of 40% of jockey club horses and 78.15% of local equids were infected by the eggs of parasitic gastrointestinal helminthes. Trichuris eggs were observed in 4.2% of the feces of local equids. Fecal culture revealed that all the eggs in the feces of jockey club horses were small strongyles while 2 of the local equids were infected by Strongyles vulgaris and the rest by small strongyles. Based on independent t-test, the differences between males and females and different age groups were insignificant.

  10. Impact of copula directional specification on multi-trial evaluation of surrogate endpoints (United States)

    Renfro, Lindsay A.; Shang, Hongwei; Sargent, Daniel J.


    Evaluation of surrogate endpoints using patient-level data from multiple trials is the gold standard, where multi-trial copula models are used to quantify both patient-level and trial-level surrogacy. While limited consideration has been given in the literature to copula choice (e.g., Clayton), no prior consideration has been given to direction of implementation (via survival versus distribution functions). We demonstrate that evenwith the “correct” copula family, directional misspecification leads to biased estimates of patient-level and trial-level surrogacy. We illustrate with a simulation study and a re-analysis of disease-free survival as a surrogate for overall survival in early stage colon cancer. PMID:24905465

  11. Coupling factors, visual rhythms, and synchronization ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Will


    Full Text Available The inter-group entrainment study by Lucas, Clayton, and Leante (2011 is an interesting research report that advances studies in both empirical ethnomusicology and entrainment research in several ways, and provides an important addition to the much needed empirical case studies on musical entrainment. I submit that the authors’ analysis of an instant of resistance to entrainment is a key demonstration of the complementarity of analytical and ethnographic approaches in entrainment research. Further, I suggest that the evidence for the influence of visual information on entrainment supports the idea that there are two types of visuo-temporal information, each with different influence on the entrainment process, those derived from static and those from moving visual objects. As a final point, I argue that if we take into consideration the possibility of higher-order synchronization, some of the authors’ interpretations would need modification.

  12. The use of copula functions for modeling the risk of investment in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof; Błachowicz, Tomasz


    In our work copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using the local Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) were used to investigate the risk of investment made in shares traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The combination of copula functions and the Hurst exponent calculated using local DFA is a new approach. For copula function analysis bivariate variables composed of shares prices of the PEKAO bank (a big bank with high capitalization) and other banks (PKOBP, BZ WBK, MBANK and HANDLOWY in decreasing capitalization order) and companies from other branches (KGHM-mining industry, PKNORLEN-petrol industry as well as ASSECO-software industry) were used. Hurst exponents were calculated for daily shares prices and used to predict high drops of those prices. It appeared to be a valuable indicator in the copula selection procedure, since Hurst exponent’s low values were pointing on heavily tailed copulas e.g. the Clayton one.

  13. 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Guralnick, David; Uhomoibhi, James


    This book presents the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, held 21-23 September 2016 at Clayton Hotel in Belfast, UK. We are currently witnessing a significant transformation in the development of education. The impact of globalisation on all areas of human life, the exponential acceleration of developments in both technology and the global markets, and the growing need for flexibility and agility are essential and challenging elements of this process that have to be addressed in general, but especially in the context of engineering education. To face these topical and very real challenges, higher education is called upon to find innovative responses. Since being founded in 1998, this conference has consistently been devoted to finding new approaches to learning, with a focus on collaborative learning. Today the ICL conferences have established themselves as a vital forum for the exchange of information on key trends and findings, and of practical lessons le...

  14. Bivariate copula in fitting rainfall data (United States)

    Yee, Kong Ching; Suhaila, Jamaludin; Yusof, Fadhilah; Mean, Foo Hui


    The usage of copula to determine the joint distribution between two variables is widely used in various areas. The joint distribution of rainfall characteristic obtained using the copula model is more ideal than the standard bivariate modelling where copula is belief to have overcome some limitation. Six copula models will be applied to obtain the most suitable bivariate distribution between two rain gauge stations. The copula models are Ali-Mikhail-Haq (AMH), Clayton, Frank, Galambos, Gumbel-Hoogaurd (GH) and Plackett. The rainfall data used in the study is selected from rain gauge stations which are located in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, during the period from 1980 to 2011. The goodness-of-fit test in this study is based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC).

  15. Review: La expansión del conocimiento en abierto: Los Moocs. Vázquez, E.; López-Meneses, E. y Sarasola, J.L. (2013. Barcelona: Octaedro, 119 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobos Sanchiz


    Full Text Available When Professor Clayton Christensen introduced the concept of disruptive innovation, he referred to it as the one produced with goods or services that, originally born as something almost residual, quickly become leader in their field. Well, according to this definition, MOOCs (Massive Open Online Course, as Lluís Anglada has already stated, are a clear example of disruption for several reasons: because of their cost, because they are based on new insights into the psychology of learning, and because they are adapted to the new social needs towards education.

  16. Design, Analysis, and Interpretation of Screening Studies for Human Factors Engineering Research. Revision. (United States)


    Ill-C 1 B1 .ANO SPACES "EPREIEN’r ZERO PERCENTj -ALL FACTORS PFE4 A T14jU61 F’ INCLuSIvj SPACES WITH4 ZEROES RHW*(tNT SOME PERCENT WLLjEp Tj EIMA2 THIS...4 so). l : b1 04 at m 0 aa 004 11 4 12 u t3 0. Ub 14 NSI33. ;. .* ** . U Z, L f0 Il 4NU A4. 1,41Jw 0 uMA WMA UN444<. H 43~IW a a. 1 A l13 93 .*L...Education Research Information Center Monash University Processing & Reference Facility Clayton, Victoria 3168 4833 Rugby Ave., Suite 303 Australia

  17. A 200-kW wind turbine generator conceptual design study (United States)


    A conceptual design study was conducted to define a 200 kW wind turbine power system configuration for remote applications. The goal was to attain an energy cost of 1 to 2 cents per kilowatt-hour at a 14-mph site (mean average wind velocity at an altitude of 30 ft.) The costs of the Clayton, New Mexico, Mod-OA (200-kW) were used to identify the components, subsystems, and other factors that were high in cost and thus candidates for cost reduction. Efforts devoted to developing component and subsystem concepts and ideas resulted in a machine concept that is considerably simpler, lighter in weight, and lower in cost than the present Mod-OA wind turbines. In this report are described the various innovations that contributed to the lower cost and lighter weight design as well as the method used to calculate the cost of energy.

  18. Exploring the link between environmental identity, behaviors and decision making (United States)

    Freed, Allison

    This study was conducted with undergraduate students at a large university to investigate the association between environmental identity, pro-environmental behaviors and environmental decision-making. This study explored how environmental identity as defined by Clayton (2003) influenced the type of pro-environmental behaviors individuals choose to participate in. Environmental decision-making based on Kahneman's (2003, 2011) System 1 and System 2 framework was also assessed in association with environmental identity. A survey including the Environmental Identity Survey (Clayton, 2003), the Environmentally Responsible Behaviors Index (Smith-Sebasto & D'Acosta, 1995), and a Decision Making Questionnaire were administered. After administering the surveys, eight participants were chosen for a 60-minute interview. The quantitative results of the study showed there was a significant relationship between environmental identity and participating in environmental behaviors more often. There was also a significant relation between environmental identity and making the decision to recycle in a fast and automatic way. The interview results showed that participants with both a strong and a weak environmental identity recycled often and thought it was a fast decision. The results of this study show that certain components of environmental identity are important, but other factors like the physical environment and social norms influence the thinking that goes into recycling more than environmental identity alone. This study provides evidence of the importance of social norms and environmental structures in fostering pro-environmental behaviors and influencing the type of thinking that goes into making environmental decisions. Keywords: environmental identity, environmental behaviors, System 1, System 2, recycling.

  19. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.


    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  20. The impact of different DNA extraction kits and laboratories upon the assessment of human gut microbiota composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (United States)

    Kennedy, Nicholas A; Walker, Alan W; Berry, Susan H; Duncan, Sylvia H; Farquarson, Freda M; Louis, Petra; Thomson, John M; Satsangi, Jack; Flint, Harry J; Parkhill, Julian; Lees, Charlie W; Hold, Georgina L


    Determining bacterial community structure in fecal samples through DNA sequencing is an important facet of intestinal health research. The impact of different commercially available DNA extraction kits upon bacterial community structures has received relatively little attention. The aim of this study was to analyze bacterial communities in volunteer and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient fecal samples extracted using widely used DNA extraction kits in established gastrointestinal research laboratories. Fecal samples from two healthy volunteers (H3 and H4) and two relapsing IBD patients (I1 and I2) were investigated. DNA extraction was undertaken using MoBio Powersoil and MP Biomedicals FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil DNA extraction kits. PCR amplification for pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was performed in both laboratories on all samples. Hierarchical clustering of sequencing data was done using the Yue and Clayton similarity coefficient. DNA extracted using the FastDNA kit and the MoBio kit gave median DNA concentrations of 475 (interquartile range 228-561) and 22 (IQR 9-36) ng/µL respectively (p<0.0001). Hierarchical clustering of sequence data by Yue and Clayton coefficient revealed four clusters. Samples from individuals H3 and I2 clustered by patient; however, samples from patient I1 extracted with the MoBio kit clustered with samples from patient H4 rather than the other I1 samples. Linear modelling on relative abundance of common bacterial families revealed significant differences between kits; samples extracted with MoBio Powersoil showed significantly increased Bacteroidaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, and lower Enterobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae (p<0.05). This study demonstrates significant differences in DNA yield and bacterial DNA composition when comparing DNA extracted from the same fecal sample with different extraction kits. This highlights the importance of ensuring that samples

  1. Teaching teamwork: an evaluation of an interprofessional training ward placement for health care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morphet J


    Full Text Available Julia Morphet,1 Kerry Hood,2 Robyn Cant,2 Julie Baulch,3 Alana Gilbee,3 Kate Sandry4 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 3Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Monash Health, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 4Dandenong Emergency Department, Monash Health, David St, Dandenong, Victoria, Australia Abstract: The establishment of interprofessional teamwork training in the preprofessional health care curriculum is a major challenge for teaching faculties. Interprofessional clinical placements offer an opportunity for teamwork education, as students in various professions can work and learn together. In this sequential, mixed-method study, focus group and survey techniques were used to evaluate students' educational experiences after 2-week ward-based interprofessional clinical placements. Forty-five senior nursing, medicine, and other health care students cared for patients in hospital wards under professional supervision, with nursing-medicine student "teams" leading care. Thirty-six students attended nine exit focus groups. Five central themes that emerged about training were student autonomy and workload, understanding of other professional roles, communication and shared knowledge, interprofessional teamwork/collaboration, and the "inner circle", or being part of the unit team. The learning environment was described as positive. In a postplacement satisfaction survey (n=38, students likewise rated the educational experience highly. In practicing teamwork and collaboration, students were able to rehearse their future professional role. We suggest that interprofessional clinical placements be regarded as an essential learning experience for senior preprofessional students. More work is needed to fully understand the effect of this interactive program on students' clinical learning and preparation for practice

  2. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  3. Simulated flow and solute transport, and mitigation of a hypothetical soluble-contaminant spill for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.


    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Park Service, to investigate the transport and factors affecting mitigation of a hypothetical spill of a soluble contaminant into the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. The study reach, 53 miles of the lower New River between Hinton and Fayette, is characterized as a pool-and-riffle stream that becomes narrower, steeper, and deeper in the downstream direction. A USGS unsteady-flow model, DAFLOW (Diffusion Analogy FLOW), and a USGS solute-transport model, BLTM (Branch Lagrangian Transport Model), were applied to the study reach. Increases in discharge caused decreases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. Decreases in discharge caused increases in peak concentration and traveltime of peak concentration. This study indicated that the effects of an accidental spill could be mitigated by regulating discharge from Bluestone Dam. Knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the spill, location and time of the spill, and discharge of the river can aid in determining a mitigation response.

  4. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  5. Stable transformation via particle bombardment in two different soybean regeneration systems. (United States)

    Sato, S; Newell, C; Kolacz, K; Tredo, L; Finer, J; Hinchee, M


    The Biolistics(®) particle delivery system for the transformation of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) was evaluated in two different regeneration systems. The first system was multiple shoot proliferation from shoot tips obtained from immature zygotic embryos of the cultivar Williams 82, and the second was somatic embryogenesis from a long term proliferative suspension culture of the cultivar Fayette. Bombardment of shoot tips with tungsten particles, coated with precipitated DNA containing the gene for β-glucuronidase (GUS), produced GUS-positive sectors in 30% of the regenerated shoots. However, none of the regenerants which developed into plants continued to produce GUS positive tissue. Bombardment of embryogenic suspension cultures produced GUS positive globular somatic embryos which proliferated into GUS positive somatic embryos and plants. An average of 4 independent transgenic lines were generated per bombarded flask of an embryogenic suspension. Particle bombardment delivered particles into the first two cell layers of either shoot tips or somatic embryos. Histological analysis indicated that shoot organogenesis appeared to involve more than the first two superficial cell layers of a shoot tip, while somatic embryo proliferation occurred from the first cell layer of existing somatic embryos. The different transformation results obtained with these two systems appeared to be directly related to differences in the cell types which were responsible for regeneration and their accessibility to particle penetration.

  6. Adultère et romantisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annik Houel


    Full Text Available En ce début de XIXème siècle, le combat que mène George Sand pour le droit des femmes à l’amour s’inscrit dans la tradition d’une contestation - qu’on peut qualifier de féministe - qui porte essentiellement sur les conditions du mariage, le plus souvent arrangé. Le leitmotiv de l’amour, qui traverse les oeuvres de la plupart des femmes qui l’ont précédée en littérature manifeste leur opposition au mariage tel qu’il leur est imposé, et l’adultère symbolise leur rêve : ainsi en va-t-il, dès le Moyen-Âge, pour Marie de France, Christine de Pisan, Marguerite de Navarre même, et bien sûr pour Madame de La Fayette avec La Princesse de Clèves qui incarne le clivage psychique entre corps et esprit auquel les femmes sont alors acculées.

  7. Characteristics of peak streamflows and extent of inundation in areas of West Virginia and southwestern Virginia affected by flooding, June 2016 (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Watson, Kara M.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Cauller, Stephen J.; White , Jeremy S.; Wicklein, Shaun M.


    Heavy rainfall occurred across central and southern West Virginia in June 2016 as a result of repeated rounds of torrential thunderstorms. The storms caused major flooding and flash flooding in central and southern West Virginia with Kanawha, Fayette, Nicholas, and Greenbrier Counties among the hardest hit. Over the duration of the storms, from 8 to 9.37 inches of rain was reported in areas in Greenbrier County. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 7 locations, and streamflows at 18 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations used in this study. Following the storms, U.S. Geological Survey hydrographers identified and documented 422 high-water marks in West Virginia, noting location and height of the water above land surface. Many of these high-water marks were used to create flood-inundation maps for selected communities of West Virginia that experienced flooding in June 2016. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, mapping boundaries, and water depth rasters are available online.

  8. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.


    The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.

  9. Practical assessment of magnetic methods for corrosion detection in an adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridge (United States)

    Fernandes, Bertrand; Titus, Michael; Nims, Douglas Karl; Ghorbanpoor, Al; Devabhaktuni, Vijay Kumar


    Magnetic methods are progressing in the detection of corrosion in prestressing strands in adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridges. This study is the first field trial of magnetic strand defect detection systems on an adjacent box-beam bridge. A bridge in Fayette County, Ohio, which was scheduled for demolition, was inspected. Damage to prestressed box-beams is often due to corrosion of the prestressing strands. The corroded strands show discontinuities and a reduced cross-sectional area. These changes, due to corrosion, are reflected in the magnetic signatures of the prestressing steel. Corrosion in the prestressing steel was detected using two magnetic methods, namely the 'magnetic flux leakage' (MFL) and the 'induced magnetic field'. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the ability of the magnetic methods to detect hidden corrosion in box-beams in the field and tackle the logistic problem of inspecting box-beams from the bottom. The inspections were validated by dissecting the bottom of the box-beams after the inspections. The results showed that the MFL method can detect hidden corrosion and strand breaks. Both magnetic field methods were also able to estimate corrosion by detecting the effective cross-sectional area of the strand in sections of the beams. Thus, it was shown that the magnetic methods can be used to predict hidden corrosion in prestressing strands of box-beams.

  10. Water quality of the Neuse River, North Carolina - Variability, pollution loads, and long-term trends (United States)

    Harned, Doughlas A.


    Interpretation of water-quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Neuse River, North Carolina, has identified water-quality variations, charactrized the current condition of the river in reference to water-quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Two sampling stations, Neuse River near Clayton (02087500) and Neuse River at Kinston (02089500) have more than 12 years of water-quality data collected during the period from 1955 to 1978. The Clayton station provides information on the upper fourth of the basin (1,129 mi 2) which includes several urbanized areas, including Raleigh, N.C., and part of Durham, N.C. The Kinston station provides information from the predominantly rural midsection of the basin (2,690 mi2). A network of temporary stations on small rural streams in the Neuse River and adjacent basins provide an estimate of baseline or es- sentially unpolluted water quality. Overall, the water quality of the Neuse River is satisfactory for most uses. However, dissolved-oxygen, iron, and manganese concentrations, pH, and bacterial concentrations often reach undesirable levels. Concentrations of cadmium, and lead also periodically peak at or above criterion levels for domestic water supply sources. Nutrient levels are generally high enough to allow rich algal growth. Sediment concentrations in the Neuse are high in comparison to pristine streams, however, the impacts of these high levels are difficult to quantify. Sediment and nutrient concentrations peak on the leading edge of flood discharges at Clayton. At Kinston, however, the discharge and sediment concentration peak almost simultaneously. Changes in algal dominance, from genera usually associated with organically enriched waters to genera that are less tolerant to organic enrichment, indicate improvement in water qualiy of the Neuse since 1973. These changes, along with a reduction


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia T. Pakhsarian


    Full Text Available The interest of contemporary literary theory and literary history in the problem of fictional space and in the space in the 18 th century novels in particular reveals both achievements and gaps in this field. The latest studies have shed light on the intimization and feminization of the fictional space in rococo novels and have defined the spatial units in such novels by Crébillon-fils as L’Écumoire ou Tanza ï et Néadarné, Le Sopha, and Les Égarements du cœur et de l’esprit. However, the inner-novel spatial relationships have been generally neglected. Juxtaposition of the topography of such novels as L’Astrée by Honoré d’Urfé, La Princesse de Clèves by Madame de La Fayette, and the novels by Crébillon-fils demonstrates that rhetorical theatricality of the baroque and classicist space had been replaced in these works by de-theatralization and topographical abstraction of rococo novels. Purely verbal, playful voyeurism of the novels by Crébillonfils does not match with topographical precision of pose and gesture as described in the frivolous erotic writings of the period (as, for example in “Thérèse-philosophe”. Transformation of rhetorical spatial topoi of the baroque and classicist periods occurs in the works of Crébillon-fils, as it does in the works of other authors of rocaille novels, through naturalizing and psychologizing the novel’s generic features.

  12. Urban sprawl and delayed ambulance arrival in the U.S. (United States)

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Gurka, Matthew J; O'Connor, Robert E


    Minimizing emergency medical service (EMS) response time is a central objective of prehospital care, yet the potential influence of built environment features such as urban sprawl on EMS system performance is often not considered. This study measures the association between urban sprawl and EMS response time to test the hypothesis that features of sprawling development increase the probability of delayed ambulance arrival. In 2008, EMS response times for 43,424 motor-vehicle crashes were obtained from the Fatal Analysis Reporting System, a national census of crashes involving > or =1 fatality. Sprawl at each crash location was measured using a continuous county-level index previously developed by Ewing et al. The association between sprawl and the probability of a delayed ambulance arrival (> or =8 minutes) was then measured using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for correlation among crashes from the same county. Urban sprawl is significantly associated with increased EMS response time and a higher probability of delayed ambulance arrival (p=0.03). This probability increases quadratically as the severity of sprawl increases while controlling for nighttime crash occurrence, road conditions, and presence of construction. For example, in sprawling counties (e.g., Fayette County GA), the probability of a delayed ambulance arrival for daytime crashes in dry conditions without construction was 69% (95% CI=66%, 72%) compared with 31% (95% CI=28%, 35%) in counties with prominent smart-growth characteristics (e.g., Delaware County PA). Urban sprawl is significantly associated with increased EMS response time and a higher probability of delayed ambulance arrival following motor-vehicle crashes in the U.S. The results of this study suggest that promotion of community design and development that follows smart-growth principles and regulates urban sprawl may improve EMS performance and reliability.

  13. Classic intrafascial supracervical hysterectomy (CISH): 10-year experience. (United States)

    Morrison, John E; Jacobs, Volker R


    We report and review herein our 10-year experience with classic intrafascial supracervical hysterectomy focusing on our long-term experience, evolution of the operative technique, and increased use of this technique. We performed a parallel, observational study with retrospective data to evaluate classic intrafascial supracervical hysterectomy, a laparoscopic hysterectomy technique, at Fayette Medical Center, a community hospital in Northwestern Alabama, USA. Patients comprised a consecutive series of 579 over a 10-year period from November 1992 through November 2002. The classic intrafascial supracervical hysterectomy technique, similar to standard supracervical hysterectomy, leaves the cardinal ligament, uterosacral ligament, vascular supply, and innervation to the upper vagina and cervix intact, but unlike supracervical hysterectomy removes the transition zone and endocervical canal. For 579 patients, the average age was 45.4 years (range, 22 to 92), follow-up was 75.3 months (range, 17 to 137), operating room time was 69 minutes (range, 44 to 370), blood loss was 72 mL (range, 10 to 765), length of hospital stay was 23.2 hours (range, 14 hours to 5 days), time to return to work was 13.2 days (range, 3 to 28). Complications include 11 cervical bleedings, 1 uterine artery bleeding, 1 pelvic hematoma, 1 postoperative ileus, and 16 mucoceles of the cervical stump. Three patients were converted from a laparoscopic to an open procedure (0.52%). Long-term follow-up of up to 137 months shows no adverse events thus far. Classic intrafascial supracervical hysterectomy is a safe procedure with a low short- and long-term complication rate. It has a short recuperation period and high patient satisfaction. It is the procedure of choice when hysterectomy is indicated for benign disease.

  14. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

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    Nenad Dolovac


    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  15. Smoke-free laws, gender, and reduction in hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Burkhart, Patricia V; Moser, Debra K


    We examined gender differences in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after the passage of a smoke-free law in Lexington, Kentucky. The initial legislation had exemptions not covering manufacturing facilities and government buildings, which may have put men at greater risk for AMI. We examined the effect of Lexington's smoke-free public places law on hospitalizations for AMI (i.e., heart attack) among men and women 40 months prior to and 32 months after enactment of the law. We used the statewide administrative database (Comp Data) for all hospital billing records for the four health-care systems in Lexington-Fayette County. Cases were included in the analysis if (1) the patient was $35 years of age; (2) the patient had a primary discharge diagnosis of AMI, with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code in the range of 410.00 to 410.99; and (3) the date of service was between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006. Among women, AMI hospitalizations declined 23% after the law took effect. The rate of AMI events among men did not change significantly. There was an overrepresentation of women in the hospitality industry and a disproportionate number of men working in manufacturing facilities and government worksites not mandated by the law. We found gender differences in the reduction of AMI hospitalizations following implementation of a smoke-free law that covered only some sectors of the workforce. Enacting smoke-free laws that cover all places of employment and strengthening existing partial laws may extend protection against AMIs to female and male workers.

  16. Estabelecimento do capim setária cv. Kazungula em condições de inundação Establishment of setaria grass cv. Kazungula in flooded conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maluf Haddad


    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo conhecer o comportamento da Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Moss var. sericea (Stapf Clayton cv. Kazungula quanto a capacidade de sobrevivência em diferentes condições de inundação por ocasião de seu estabelecimento. O mesmo foi dividido em duas etapas e instalado em condições de campo, utilizando-se caixas de cimento amianto cheias com solo de várzea. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Para a primeira etapa foram impostos como tratamentos as épocas de inundação: 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias após a semeadura com duração de 10 dias, sendo a testemunha irrigada por aspersão normal. Com exceção do tratamento onde a inundação foi iniciada 10 dias após a semeadura, não existiu diferença (PThe survival capacity Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Moss var. sericea (Stapf Clayton cv. Kazungula was studied under flooded conditions during the establishment period. The experimental data were collected in two phases. Flooded conditions were simulated using cement boxes full of mud soil from the field. The experimental design was completely randomized, replicated four times. The first phase had imposed 10 days of flooding after: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days from sowing. Treatments did not differ statistically (P<0.01 in terms of number of individuals saved at the end of this phase, except for the treatment in which the flooded condition was imposed 10 days after sowing. A higher tendency was observed in relation to the treatment in which the flooded condition was imposed immediately after sowing (0 days, suggesting a possible flooding inducement to this species seed germination. The second phase had flooding periods of: 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35 days immediately after sowing. The results showed that 15 days or more of flooded conditions, can affect the seed germination potential, reducing the number of emerging plants (P<0.05 and compromising their establishment.

  17. Hydrology of the Claiborne aquifer and interconnection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Gonthier, Gerard


    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, to define the hydrologic properties of the Claiborne aquifer and evaluate its connection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia. The effort involved collecting and compiling hydrologic data from the aquifer in subarea 4 of southwestern Georgia. Data collected for this study include borehole geophysical logs in 7 wells, and two 72-hour aquifer tests to determine aquifer properties.The top of the Claiborne aquifer extends from an altitude of about 200 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) in Terrell County to 402 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County, Georgia. The base of the aquifer extends from an altitude of about 60 feet above NAVD 88 in eastern Sumter County to about 750 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County. Aquifer thickness ranges from about 70 feet in eastern Early County to 400 feet in Decatur County.The transmissivity of the Claiborne aquifer, determined from two 72-hour aquifer tests, was estimated to be 1,500 and 700 feet squared per day in Mitchell and Early Counties, respectively. The storage coefficient was estimated to be 0.0006 and 0.0004 for the same sites, respectively. Aquifer test data from Mitchell County indicate a small amount of leakage occurred during the test. Groundwater-flow models suggest that the source of the leakage was the underlying Clayton aquifer, which produced about 2.5 feet of drawdown in response to pumping in the Claiborne aquifer. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining unit between the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers was simulated to be about 0.02 foot per day.Results from the 72-hour aquifer tests run for this study indicated no interconnection between the Claiborne and overlying Upper Floridan aquifers at the two test sites. Additional data are needed to monitor the effects that increased withdrawals from the Claiborne aquifer may have on future water resources.

  18. Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan N


    Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD

  19. Correlated O and Mg isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusions: II. Magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.; Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.


    Mg in two Allende Ca-Al rich inclusions shows large isotopic, mass-dependent fractionation which enriched the heavier isotopes. After normalization, Mg in these inclusions shows negative delta 26 Mg which appears to require the presence of nuclear effects in Mg distinct from 26 Al decay. The Mg mass fractionation is correlated with distinct but smaller fractionation effects for O reported by Clayton and Mayeda for the same inclusions (see companion paper). The observation of distinctive but uniform Mg isotopic composition in different phases within single Allende inclusions indicates that nuclear effects in O and Mg are not due to the entrapment of interstellar carrier grains as discrete entities, which are preserved as remnants, but are instead due to a homogenized mixture of components of extraordinary isotopic composition mixed with a component of ordinary solar system material and subjected to isotopic fractionation. The distinct O isotopic composition of different phases within a single inclusion is believed to be due to incomplete back-reaction of the higher temperature condensates with a cooler solar nebula of ''normal '' composition. The processes responsible for the O and Mg nuclear effects and the astrophysical site of their occurrence remain undefined

  20. Recent advances in canine leptospirosis: focus on vaccine development

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    Klaasen HLBM


    Full Text Available Henricus LBM (Eric Klaasen,1 Ben Adler2 1Global Companion Animals Research and Development, Merck Sharp and Dohme Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands; 2Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia Abstract: Leptospirosis is a global infection of humans and animals caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Leptospirosis is a major zoonosis, with infection acquired from wild and domestic animals. It is also a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic loss in production and companion animals. Leptospirosis in dogs is prevalent worldwide and as well as a cause of canine disease, it presents a zoonotic risk to human contacts. Canine leptospirosis does not differ greatly from the syndromes seen in other animal species, with hepatic, renal, and pulmonary involvement being the main manifestations. While the pathogenesis of disease is well documented at the whole animal level, the cellular and molecular basis remains obscure. Killed, whole-cell bacterin vaccines are licensed worldwide and have not changed greatly over the past several decades. Vaccine-induced immunity is restricted to serologically related serovars and is generally short-lived, necessitating annual revaccination. The appearance of new serovars as causes of canine leptospirosis requires constant epidemiological surveillance and tailoring of vaccines to cover emerging serovars. At the present time, there is no realistic prospect of alternative, non-bacterin vaccines in the foreseeable future. Keywords: canine leptospirosis, vaccines, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis

  1. Fecal-indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli pathogen data collected near a novel sub-irrigation water-treatment system in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007 (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli.A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  2. Can CCM law properly represent all extinction curves?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geminale, Anna; Popowski, Piotr


    We present the analysis of a large sample of lines of sight with extinction curves covering wavelength range from near-infrared (NIR) to ultraviolet (UV). We derive total to selective extinction ratios based on the Cardelli, Clayton and Mathis (1989, CCM) law, which is typically used to fit the extinction data both for diffuse and dense interstellar medium. We conclude that the CCM law is able to fit most of the extinction curves in our sample. We divide the remaining lines of sight with peculiar extinction into two groups according to two main behaviors: a) the optical/IR or/and UV wavelength region cannot be reproduced by the CCM formula; b) the optical/NIR and UV extinction data are best fit by the CCM law with different values of R v . We present examples of such curves. The study of both types of peculiar cases can help us to learn about the physical processes that affect dust in the interstellar medium, e.g., formation of mantles on the surface of grains, evaporation, growing or shattering

  3. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.


    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  4. Mixed models approaches for joint modeling of different types of responses. (United States)

    Ivanova, Anna; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert


    In many biomedical studies, one jointly collects longitudinal continuous, binary, and survival outcomes, possibly with some observations missing. Random-effects models, sometimes called shared-parameter models or frailty models, received a lot of attention. In such models, the corresponding variance components can be employed to capture the association between the various sequences. In some cases, random effects are considered common to various sequences, perhaps up to a scaling factor; in others, there are different but correlated random effects. Even though a variety of data types has been considered in the literature, less attention has been devoted to ordinal data. For univariate longitudinal or hierarchical data, the proportional odds mixed model (POMM) is an instance of the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM; Breslow and Clayton, 1993). Ordinal data are conveniently replaced by a parsimonious set of dummies, which in the longitudinal setting leads to a repeated set of dummies. When ordinal longitudinal data are part of a joint model, the complexity increases further. This is the setting considered in this paper. We formulate a random-effects based model that, in addition, allows for overdispersion. Using two case studies, it is shown that the combination of random effects to capture association with further correction for overdispersion can improve the model's fit considerably and that the resulting models allow to answer research questions that could not be addressed otherwise. Parameters can be estimated in a fairly straightforward way, using the SAS procedure NLMIXED.

  5. Renal colic and childbirth pain: female experience versus male perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S


    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Charlotte Gunner,3 Lucy Clayton,4 Suresh Venugopal,5 Nigel R Boucher,5 Bo Parys61Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; 2Urology Department, Charing Cross Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Urology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK; 4Psychiatry Department, Highbury Hospital, Nottingham, UK; 5Urology Department, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK; 6Urology Department, Rotherham General Hospital, Rotherham, UKIntroductionRenal colic is often described by patients as the worst pain ever experienced.1 Pain during childbirth is also similarly described.2 To date, no study has comparatively evaluated the pain of renal colic to that of childbirth in female patients who have experienced both. Furthermore, no such study has evaluated the perception that men with renal colic have with respect to the pain experienced during childbirth. Here we present our cross-sectional observational study to address these questions. The primary objectives of our study were to answer these questions and highlight the severity of renal colic which is not always faced and treated aggressively.  

  6. Disruptive innovation for social change. (United States)

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M


    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  7. Development of Quality Management Systems: How Have Disruptive Technological Innovations in Quality Management Affected Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Hellman


    Full Text Available This research investigates the history of quality and development of quality management systems. History of quality is investigated from Hammurabi’s law all the way to today’s reigning quality initiatives including ISO, Six Sigma and Lean manufacturing. In the last chapters the current state of quality management is being examined. The foresight method is also opened up and examined. The Innovator’s dilemma concept, originally presented by Clayton Christensen, is used to analyse how quality management systems have been evolved in the last 100 years. Special emphasis is placed on the US manufacturing in the 1970s and 1980s. Based on the literature, the concept of Innovator’s dilemma and the fall of US manufacturing are merged. The result is a prime example that the Innovator’s Dilemma is a universal phenomenon. The industry leader is trying to maintain its position and do everything right but still it is destined to fail. The causes and effects are being discussed in later chapters.

  8. Panel: challenging criminal charges for HIV transmission and exposure. (United States)

    Edwardh, Marlys; Adam, Barry; Joncas, Lucie; Clayton, Michaela


    Justice Edwin Cameron, of the Constitutional Court of South Africa, served as moderator. He said that this topic was particularly relevant for "an African/Canadian setting" because African countries may use Canadian developments as justification for their efforts to address HIV transmission and exposure through criminal law. Justice Cameron said that Canada is internationally perceived as a human rights-respecting state and, thus, sets an example, particularly for African nations, on how to comply with human rights issues. He added that in this particular case, however, Canada was sending the wrong message. This article contains summaries of the four presentations made during this panel. Marlys Edwardh reviews how the Supreme Court of Canada in Cuerrier interpreted the concepts of "endangering life" and "fraud". Barry Adam discusses the notion of a "duty to disclose" and how this affects HIV prevention. Lucie Joncas examines how the Supreme Court defined "fraud" in Cuerrier and describes a case before the Quebec Court of Appeal which may turn on whether the use of a condom or having a low viral load is considered not to constitute a significant risk of transmission. Finally, Michaela Clayton describes the trend in Southern African countries to adopt laws criminalizing HIV transmission or exposure, and explains that criminalization endangers women's health and lives.

  9. A hybrid absorbing boundary condition for frequency-domain finite-difference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang


    Liu and Sen (2010 Geophysics 75 A1–6; 2012 Geophys. Prospect. 60 1114–32) proposed an efficient hybrid scheme to significantly absorb boundary reflections for acoustic and elastic wave modelling in the time domain. In this paper, we extend the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) into the frequency domain and develop specific strategies for regular-grid and staggered-grid modelling, respectively. Numerical modelling tests of acoustic, visco-acoustic, elastic and vertically transversely isotropic (VTI) equations show significant absorptions for frequency-domain modelling. The modelling results of the Marmousi model and the salt model also demonstrate the effectiveness of the hybrid ABC. For elastic modelling, the hybrid Higdon ABC and the hybrid Clayton and Engquist (CE) ABC are implemented, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid Higdon ABC gets better absorption than the hybrid CE ABC, especially for S-waves. We further compare the hybrid ABC with the classical perfectly matched layer (PML). Results show that the two ABCs cost the same computation time and memory space for the same absorption width. However, the hybrid ABC is more effective than the PML for the same small absorption width and the absorption effects of the two ABCs gradually become similar when the absorption width is increased. (paper)

  10. On the reliability of Quake-Catcher Network earthquake detections (United States)

    Yildirim, Battalgazi; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Chung, Angela I.; Christensen, Carl M.; Lawrence, Jesse F.


    Over the past two decades, there have been several initiatives to create volunteer‐based seismic networks. The Personal Seismic Network, proposed around 1990, used a short‐period seismograph to record earthquake waveforms using existing phone lines (Cranswick and Banfill, 1990; Cranswicket al., 1993). NetQuakes (Luetgert et al., 2010) deploys triaxial Micro‐Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors in private homes, businesses, and public buildings where there is an Internet connection. Other seismic networks using a dense array of low‐cost MEMS sensors are the Community Seismic Network (Clayton et al., 2012; Kohler et al., 2013) and the Home Seismometer Network (Horiuchi et al., 2009). One main advantage of combining low‐cost MEMS sensors and existing Internet connection in public and private buildings over the traditional networks is the reduction in installation and maintenance costs (Koide et al., 2006). In doing so, it is possible to create a dense seismic network for a fraction of the cost of traditional seismic networks (D’Alessandro and D’Anna, 2013; D’Alessandro, 2014; D’Alessandro et al., 2014).

  11. To Think and Watch the Evil: The Turn of the Screw as Cultural Reference in Television from Dark Shadows to C.S.I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Viola Sborgi


    Full Text Available Since its first publication, Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw (1898 has always haunted the imagination of artists (Benjamin Britten, Jack Clayton, Amenábar and has been widely used as a source for television narratives (Dan Curtis, US TV version starring Colin Firth, Tim Fywell. In serial productions, James’s story has been the object of extensive quotation and allusion, from the 1960 gothic soap opera Dark Shadows to the C.S.I. episode Turn of the Screw (Season 4, Episode 21. A milestone in literary history, the story now embodies a set of cultural references conveying different, complex meanings, which can only be disclosed in the light of contemporary forms of representing reality. The novella appeals to two apparently opposite tendencies in contemporary television: the morbid display of the real (C.S.I. and the quest for the supernatural (Buffy The Vampire Slayer, among others. A line can be traced from Dark Shadows, the show that pioneered the genre, to contemporary horror soaps about vampires and supernatural phenomena. This paper shows the ways in which James’ sophisticated novella makes its way through popular culture, and how its constant ambiguous, dilemmatic interplay between reality and imagination can be related to the double-sided drive of the contemporary public towards hyper-reality and the supernatural.

  12. Results from the Big Spring basin water quality monitoring and demonstration projects, Iowa, USA (United States)

    Rowden, R.D.; Liu, H.; Libra, R.D.


    Agricultural practices, hydrology, and water quality of the 267-km2 Big Spring groundwater drainage basin in Clayton County, Iowa, have been monitored since 1981. Land use is agricultural; nitrate-nitrogen (-N) and herbicides are the resulting contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Ordovician Galena Group carbonate rocks comprise the main aquifer in the basin. Recharge to this karstic aquifer is by infiltration, augmented by sinkhole-captured runoff. Groundwater is discharged at Big Spring, where quantity and quality of the discharge are monitored. Monitoring has shown a threefold increase in groundwater nitrate-N concentrations from the 1960s to the early 1980s. The nitrate-N discharged from the basin typically is equivalent to over one-third of the nitrogen fertilizer applied, with larger losses during wetter years. Atrazine is present in groundwater all year; however, contaminant concentrations in the groundwater respond directly to recharge events, and unique chemical signatures of infiltration versus runoff recharge are detectable in the discharge from Big Spring. Education and demonstration efforts have reduced nitrogen fertilizer application rates by one-third since 1981. Relating declines in nitrate and pesticide concentrations to inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides at Big Spring is problematic. Annual recharge has varied five-fold during monitoring, overshadowing any water-quality improvements resulting from incrementally decreased inputs. ?? Springer-Verlag 2001.

  13. On Al-26 and other short-lived interstellar radioactivity (United States)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.


    Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.

  14. Environmental Public Health Tracking: Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange-Atlanta (HEXIX-Atlanta: A cooperative Program Between CDC and NASA for Development of an Environmental Public Health Tracking Network in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Niskar, Amanda Sue


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is coordinating HELIX- Atlanta to provide information regarding the five-county Metropolitan Atlanta Area (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinett) via a network of integrated environmental monitoring and public health data systems so that all sectors can take action to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. The HELIX-Atlanta Network is a tool to access interoperable information systems with optional information technology linkage functionality driven by scientific rationale. HELIX-Atlanta is a collaborative effort with local, state, federal, and academic partners, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified the following HELIX-Atlanta initial focus areas: childhood lead poisoning, short-latency cancers, developmental disabilities, birth defects, vital records, respiratory health, age of housing, remote sensing data, and environmental monitoring, HELIX-Atlanta Partners identified and evaluated information systems containing information on the above focus areas. The information system evaluations resulted in recommendations for what resources would be needed to interoperate selected information systems in compliance with the CDC Public Health Information Network (PHIN). This presentation will discuss the collaborative process of building a network that links health and environment data for information exchange, including NASA remote sensing data, for use in HELIX-Atlanta.

  15. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa (United States)

    Eash, David A.


    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  16. Simplex optimization of the variables influencing the determination of pefloxacin by time-resolved chemiluminescence (United States)

    Murillo Pulgarín, José A.; Alañón Molina, Aurelia; Jiménez García, Elisa


    A new chemiluminescence (CL) detection system combined with flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pefloxacin is proposed. The determination is based on an energy transfer from Pefloxacin to terbium (III). The metal ion enhances the weak CL signal produced by the KMnO4/H2SO3/Pefloxacin system. A modified simplex method was used to optimize chemical and instrumental variables. The influence of the interaction of the permanganate, Tb (III), sodium sulphite and sulphuric acid concentrations, flow rate and injected sample volume was thoroughly investigated by using a modified simplex optimization procedure. The results revealed a strong direct relationship between flow rate and CL intensity throughout the studied range that was confirmed by a gamma test. The response factor for the CL emission intensity was used to assess performance in order to identify the optimum conditions for maximization of the response. Under such conditions, the CL response was proportional to the Pefloxacin concentration over a wide range. The detection limit as calculated according to Clayton's criterion 13.7 μg L- 1. The analyte was successfully determined in milk samples with an average recovery of 100.6 ± 9.8%.

  17. Airborne In-Situ Trace Gas Measurements of Multiple Wildfires in California (2013-2014) (United States)

    Iraci, L. T.; Yates, E. L.; Tanaka, T.; Roby, M.; Gore, W.; Clements, C. B.; Lareau, N.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Quayle, B.; Schroeder, W.


    Biomass burning emissions are an important source of a wide range of trace gases and particles that can impact local, regional and global air quality, climate forcing, biogeochemical cycles and human health. In the western US, wildfires dominate over prescribed fires, contributing to atmospheric trace gas budgets and regional and local air pollution. Limited sampling of emissions from wildfires means western US emission estimates rely largely on data from prescribed fires, which may not be a suitable proxy for wildfire emissions. We report here in-situ measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and water vapor from the plumes of a variety of wildfires sampled in California in the fire seasons of 2013 and 2014. Included in the analysis are the Rim Fire (August - October 2013, near Yosemite National Park), the Morgan Fire (September 2013, near Clayton, CA), and the El Portal Fire (July - August 2014, in Yosemite National Park), among others. When possible, fires were sampled on multiple days. Emission ratios and estimated emission factors will be presented and discussed in the context of fuel composition, plume structure, and fire phase. Correlations of plume chemical composition to MODIS/VIIRS Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and other remote sensing information will be explored. Furthermore, the role of plumes in delivery of enhanced ozone concentrations to downwind municipalities will be discussed.

  18. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  19. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, A.J.


    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO 2 solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units

  20. Kerogen chemistry 5. Anhydride formation in, solvent swelling of, and loss of organics on demineralization of Kimmeridge shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, John W.; Flores, Carlos Islas


    The results of three short and related, but experimentally independent, studies of 4 Kimmeridge shales and their kerogens are reported. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) studies of the kerogens reveal that three of the four show evidence of anhydride formation when heated at 20 C/min between 50 C and 180 C. There is no regular rank dependence of anhydride formation. After solvent swelling in tetrahydrofuran (THF), extracted organics were isolated from the THF and the recovered kerogens were swollen a second time in fresh THF. The second solvent swelling ratios were slightly larger than the first because the presence of the extracts in the original THF lowers solvent activity thus reducing swelling. The shales were demineralized in the usual way except that methylene chloride was added to dissolve any organics that were liberated from the rock as a consequence of mineral dissolution. Small amounts of organics were found in the methylene chloride supporting Price and Clayton's conclusion that organics are expelled from the kerogen and are present in lacunae in the minerals. (author)

  1. Tail dependence and information flow: Evidence from international equity markets (United States)

    Al Rahahleh, Naseem; Bhatti, M. Ishaq; Adeinat, Iman


    Bhatti and Nguyen (2012) used the copula approach to measure the tail dependence between a number of international markets. They observed that some country pairs exhibit only left-tail dependence whereas others show only right-tail. However, the flow of information from uni-dimensional (one-tail) to bi-dimensional (two-tails) between various markets was not accounted for. In this study, we address the flow of information of this nature by using the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC-GARCH) model. More specifically, we use various versions of the DCC models to explain the nexus between the information flow of international equity and to explain the stochastic forward vs. backward dynamics of financial markets based on data for a 15-year period comprising 3,782 observations. We observed that the information flow between the US and Hong Kong markets and between the US and Australian markets are bi-directional. We also observed that the DCC model captures a wider co-movement structure and inter-connectedness compared to the symmetric Joe-Clayton copula.

  2. Development of a computer code for the calculation of stellar evolution, with applications to solar models of low neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, M.J.


    A general purpose computer code has been developed to allow the detailed calculation of evolutionary sequences of hydrostatic stellar models under many circumstances of astrophysical interest. Solution of the structure equations is by the relaxation technique throughout the star without explicit integration and fitting for the outer envelope. A new matrix method of algebraic solution of the finite difference equations is employed, together with a modification of that method for the treatment of the central boundary condition. The method is easily adapted to an integration technique for the construction of initial models. It is demonstrated how the matrix technique allows determination of the derivatives of the matching condition in a single integration. The modification of the code for the purpose of detailed evolutionary calculation of a portion of a star is presented through the modification of the boundary conditions to represent in simple fashion the remainder of the star. Stability and convergence problems encountered in earlier versions of the code are discussed, as well as the techniques used to overcome them. The structure of the code is highly modular, so as to easily accommodate changes in input physics. Following the ad hoc suggestion of Clayton (1974), the calculations were repeated with the high energy tail of the Maxwell distribution of relative ion velocities depleted by various amounts. As an example of the technique of evolving a portion of a star a second application to the solar neutrino problem is made

  3. Treatment of a traumatic atrophic depressed scar with hyaluronic acid fillers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain SN


    Full Text Available Syed Nazim Hussain,1 Greg J Goodman,2,3 Eqram Rahman4 1Royal Lush Skin Hair & Laser Clinic, Saket, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Primary Care, Monash University, Clayton, 3Skin and Cancer Foundation Inc, Carlton, VIC, Australia; 4Faculty of Medical Science, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK Background: Hyaluronic acid filler has been documented in the treatment of atrophic depressed acne scars relatively frequently in the literature but rarely in chronic depressed traumatic atrophic facial scars.Methods: This case report discusses the use of hyaluronic acid fillers in the correction of a post-traumatic facial atrophic scar on the right cheek.Results: The right cheek scar was substantially corrected with one session of two different hyaluronic acids injected in a deep and superficial plane.Conclusion: Relatively accurate, simple and effective correction of this atrophic traumatic scar may suggest that fillers are a suitable alternative to surgery for such scars. Keywords: scarring, scar correction, filler, hyaluronic acid, facial scar

  4. Frequency domain finite-element and spectral-element acoustic wave modeling using absorbing boundaries and perfectly matched layer (United States)

    Rahimi Dalkhani, Amin; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Mahdavi Basir, Hadi


    Wave propagation modeling as a vital tool in seismology can be done via several different numerical methods among them are finite-difference, finite-element, and spectral-element methods (FDM, FEM and SEM). Some advanced applications in seismic exploration benefit the frequency domain modeling. Regarding flexibility in complex geological models and dealing with the free surface boundary condition, we studied the frequency domain acoustic wave equation using FEM and SEM. The results demonstrated that the frequency domain FEM and SEM have a good accuracy and numerical efficiency with the second order interpolation polynomials. Furthermore, we developed the second order Clayton and Engquist absorbing boundary condition (CE-ABC2) and compared it with the perfectly matched layer (PML) for the frequency domain FEM and SEM. In spite of PML method, CE-ABC2 does not add any additional computational cost to the modeling except assembling boundary matrices. As a result, considering CE-ABC2 is more efficient than PML for the frequency domain acoustic wave propagation modeling especially when computational cost is high and high-level absorbing performance is unnecessary.

  5. Identification of quantitative trait Loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in a maize recombinant inbred line population. (United States)

    Balint-Kurti, P J; Krakowsky, M D; Jines, M P; Robertson, L A; Molnár, T L; Goodman, M M; Holl, J B


    ABSTRACT A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the maize lines NC300 (resistant) and B104 (susceptible) was evaluated for resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB) disease caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O and for days to anthesis in four environments (Clayton, NC, and Tifton, GA, in both 2004 and 2005). Entry mean and average genetic correlations between disease ratings in different environments were high (0.78 to 0.89 and 0.9, respectively) and the overall entry mean heritability for SLB resistance was 0.89. When weighted mean disease ratings were fitted to a model using multiple interval mapping, seven potential quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, the two strongest being on chromosomes 3 (bin 3.04) and 9 (bin 9.03-9.04). These QTL explained a combined 80% of the phenotypic variation for SLB resistance. Some time-point-specific SLB resistance QTL were also identified. There was no significant correlation between disease resistance and days to anthesis. Six putative QTL for time to anthesis were identified, none of which coincided with any SLB resistance QTL.

  6. The rectal microbiota of cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and uninfected controls. (United States)

    Weese, J S; Nichols, J; Jalali, M; Litster, A


    Rectal swabs were collected from 31 cats, 16 with FIV infection and 15 uninfected controls, to evaluate and compare the rectal bacterial microbiota in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection and uninfected controls. The rectal microbiota was characterized via next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene (V4 region) polymerase chain reaction products. Eighteen different phyla were identified. Firmicutes dominated in both groups, followed by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, but there were no significant differences between groups. When predominant orders are compared, FIV-infected cats had significant higher median relative abundances of Bifidobacteriales (P=0.022), Lactobacillales (P=0.022) and Aeromonadales (P=0.043). No differences were identified in the 50 most common genera when adjusted for false discovery rate. There were significant differences in community membership (Jaccard index, unifrac P=0.008, AMOVA P<0.001) and community structure (Yue&Clayton index, unifrac P=0.03, AMOVA P=0.005) between groups. However, only one metacommunity (enterotype) was identified. The rectal microbiota differed between cats with FIV infection and uninfected controls. Some of the changes that were noted have been associated with 'dysbiosis' and proinflammatory states in other species, so it is possible that subclinical alteration in the intestinal microbiota could influence the health of FIV-infected cats. Evaluation of the reasons for microbiota alteration and the potential impact on cat health is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Stoliarenko


    Full Text Available The term "blended learning" described by domestic and foreign scientists is considered in the article. A number of advantages of blended learning have been marked out in comparison with traditional one: flexibility, learning personification, increase of motivation of students to training, variety of forms of arrangement of educational process and forms of presentation of teaching material and increase of efficiency of activity of the teacher. A set of key competencies a teacher should possess to support effective activity in the mixed educational environment has been analyzed. The scientists of the Learning Accelerator organization engaged in support of introduction of blended learning in American schools presented it. It is determined that its main difference from a teacher who uses traditional methods and training forms – desire to experiment, introducing various innovative pedagogical technologies in educational process to achieve maximum result. There is also a desire to create favorable conditions for successful learning of each student considering strong and weak sides. The scientists of Clayton Christensen Institute designed the models of organization of blended learning. These models were analyzed. Two expedient models for implementation in higher school, in particular, in preparation of future teachers of informatics have been defined: station rotation and "flipped classroom".

  8. Volatility spillover between crude oil and exchange rate: A copula-CARR approach (United States)

    Pu, Y. J.; Guo, M. Y.


    Oil provides a powerful impetus for modern society's production and life. The influences of oil price fluctuations on socio-economic development are obvious, and it draws more attention from scholars. However, the distribution of oil is highly centralized, which leads to the vast majority of oil trading through foreign trade. As a result, exchange rate plays an important role in the oil business. Study on the relationship between exchange rate and crude oil gradually becomes a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, we use copula and CARR model to study correlation structure and relationship between crude oil price and exchange rate. We establish CARR models as marginal models and use five copulas which are Gaussian Copula, Student-t Copula, Gumbel Copula, Clayton Copula and Frank Copula to study the correlation structure between NYMEX crude oil price range and U. S. Dollar Index range. Furthermore, we use Copula-CARR model with structural breaks to detect the change points in the correlation structure between NYMEX crude oil price range and U. S. Dollar Index range. Empirical results show that the change points are closely related to the actual economic events.

  9. MOD-0A 200 kW wind turbine generator design and analysis report (United States)

    Anderson, T. S.; Bodenschatz, C. A.; Eggers, A. G.; Hughes, P. S.; Lampe, R. F.; Lipner, M. H.; Schornhorst, J. R.


    The design, analysis, and initial performance of the MOD-OA 200 kW wind turbine generator at Clayton, NM is documented. The MOD-OA was designed and built to obtain operation and performance data and experience in utility environments. The project requirements, approach, system description, design requirements, design, analysis, system tests, installation, safety considerations, failure modes and effects analysis, data acquisition, and initial performance for the wind turbine are discussed. The design and analysis of the rotor, drive train, nacelle equipment, yaw drive mechanism and brake, tower, foundation, electricl system, and control systems are presented. The rotor includes the blades, hub, and pitch change mechanism. The drive train includes the low speed shaft, speed increaser, high speed shaft, and rotor brake. The electrical system includes the generator, switchgear, transformer, and utility connection. The control systems are the blade pitch, yaw, and generator control, and the safety system. Manual, automatic, and remote control are discussed. Systems analyses on dynamic loads and fatigue are presented.

  10. Design, evaluation, and fabrication of low-cost composite blades for intermediate-size wind turbines (United States)

    Weingart, O.


    Low cost approaches for production of 60 ft long glass fiber/resin composite rotor blades for the MOD-OA wind turbine were identified and evaluated. The most cost-effective configuration was selected for detailed design. Subelement and subscale specimens were fabricated for testing to confirm physical and mechanical properties of the composite blade materials, to develop and evaluate blade fabrication techniques and processes, and to confirm the structural adequacy of the root end joint. Full-scale blade tooling was constructed and a partial blade for tool and process tryout was built. Then two full scale blades were fabricated and delivered to NASA-LeRC for installation on a MOD-OA wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico for operational testing. Each blade was 60 ft. long with 4.5 ft. chord at root end and 2575 lbs weight including metal hub adapter. The selected blade configuration was a three cell design constructed using a resin impregnated glass fiber tape winding process that allows rapid wrapping of primarily axially oriented fibers onto a tapered mandrel, with tapered wall thickness. The ring winder/transverse filament tape process combination was used for the first time on this program to produce entire rotor blade structures. This approach permitted the complete blade to be wound on stationary mandrels, an improvement which alleviated some of the tooling and process problems encountered on previous composite blade programs.

  11. NGC 4622:. A clear example of spiral density wave star formation unused in textbooks. (United States)

    Byrd, Gene G.


    hypotheses about NGC 4622’s arms. This work was supported by NSAS/STScI grant 8707 to the Univ. of Alabama and NSF grant AST 02-0177 to Bevill State College, Fayette, AL. Also see

  12. Thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Maryland, and Pennsylvania: Chapter F.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Hower, James C.; Grady, William C.; Levine, Jeffrey R.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.


    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin and part of the Black Warrior basin were determined by compiling previously published and unpublished percent-vitrinite-reflectance (%R0) measurements and preparing isograd maps on the basis of the measurements. The isograd values range from 0.6 %R0 in Ohio and the western side of the Eastern Kentucky coal field to 5.5 %R0 in the Southern field in the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, Schuylkill County, Pa. The vitrinite-reflectance values correspond to the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) coal-rank classes of high-volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite, respectively. In general, the isograds show that thermal maturity patterns of Pennsylvanian coals within the Appalachian basin generally decrease from east to west. In the Black Warrior basin of Alabama, the isograds show a circular pattern with the highest values (greater than 1.6 %R0) centered in Jefferson County, Ala. Most of the observed patterns can be explained by variations in the depth of burial, variations in geothermal gradient, or a combination of both; however, there are at least four areas of higher ranking coal in the Appalachian basin that are difficult to explain by these two processes alone: (1) a set of west- to northwest-trending salients centered in Somerset, Cambria, and Fayette Counties, Pa.; (2) an elliptically shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; (3) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region in eastern Pennsylvania; and (4) the eastern part of the Black Warrior coal field in Alabama. The areas of high-ranking coal in southwestern Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to the higher heat flow from these fluids, the Pennsylvania

  13. Hydrologic conditions, groundwater quality, and analysis of sink hole formation in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, 2009 (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.; McCranie, John M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albany Water, Gas, and Light Commission has conducted water resources investigations and monitored groundwater conditions and availability in the Albany, Georgia, area since 1977. This report presents an overview of hydrologic conditions, water quality, and groundwater studies in the Albany area of Dougherty County, Georgia, during 2009. Historical data also are presented for comparison with 2009 data. During 2009, groundwater-level data were collected in 29 wells in the Albany area to monitor water-level trends in the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Providence aquifers. Groundwater-level data from 21 of the 29 wells indicated an increasing trend during 2008–09. Five wells show no trend due to lack of data and three wells have decreasing trends. Period-of-record water levels (period of record ranged between 1957–2009 and 2003–2009) declined slightly in 10 wells and increased slightly in 4 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer; declined in 1 well and increased in 2 wells tapping the Claiborne aquifer; declined in 4 wells and increased in 2 wells tapping the Clayton aquifer; and increased in 1 well tapping the Providence aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples collected during 2009 from 12 wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of a well field located southwest of Albany indicate that overall concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen increased slightly from 2008 in 8 wells. A maximum concentration of 12.9 milligrams per liter was found in a groundwater sample from a well located upgradient from the well field. The distinct difference in chemical constituents of water samples collected from the Flint River and samples collected from wells located in the well-field area southwest of Albany indicates that little water exchange occurs between the Upper Floridan aquifer and Flint River where the river flows adjacent to, but downgradient of, the well field. Water

  14. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Bryant


    Full Text Available - R.H. Barnes, Janet Hoskins, Biographical objects; How things tell the stories of people’s lives. London: Routledge, 1998, x + 213 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Ann Kumar, Java and modern Europe; Ambiguous encounters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1997, vii + 472 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Lenore Manderson, Sickness and the state; Health and illness in colonial Malaya, 1870-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xix + 315 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Bambang Widoyo, Gapit; 4 naskah drama berbahasa Jawa: Rol, Leng, Tuk dan Dom. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Benteng Budaya, 1998, xiv + 302 pp. - James T. Collins, Bernd Nothofer, Reconstruction, classification, description; Festschrift in honor of Isidore Dyen. Hamburg: Abera, 1996, xiv + 259 pp. - J.R. Flenley, Kristina R.M. Beuning, Modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate in lowland East Java, Indonesia. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1996, 51 pp. + 49 plates. [Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 14.] - Gregory Forth, Karl-Heinze Kohl, Der Tod der Riesjungfrau; Mythen, Kulte und Allianzen in einer ostindonesischen Lokalkultur. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1998, 304 pp. [Religionsethnologische Studien des Frobenius-Instituts Frankfurt am Main, Band I.] - J. van Goor, Brook Barrington, Empires, imperialism and Southeast Asia; Essays in honour of Nicholas Tarling. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1997, v + 250 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 43.] - Mies Grijns, Penny van Esterik, Women of Southeast Asia. DeKalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 1996, xiv + 229 pp. ‘Monographs on Southeast Asia, Occasional Paper 17; Second, revised edition.] - Hans Hagerdal, Alfons van der Kraan, Bali at war; A history of the Dutch-Balinese conflict of 1846-49. Clayton, Victoria: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1995, x + 240 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 34]. - Volker Heeschen, Jurg Wassmann, Das Ideal des leicht gebeugten Menschen; Eine ethnokognitive

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available -Barbara Watson Andaya, Susan Blackburn, Love, sex and power; Women in Southeast Asia. Clayton VIC: Monash Asia Institute, 2001, iv + 144 pp. [Monash papers on Southeast Asia 55.] -Kathryn Gay Anderson, Juliette Koning ,Women and households in Indonesia; Cultural notions and social practices. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, xiii + 354 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian studies, studies in Asian topics 27.], Marleen Nolten, Janet Rodenburg (eds -Greg Bankoff, Takeshi Kawanaka, Power in a Philippine city. Chiba: Institute of developing economies, 2002, 118 pp. [IDE Occasional papers series 38.] -René van den Berg, John Lynch ,The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002, xvii + 924 pp., Malcolm Ross, Terry Crowley (eds -H.J.M. Claessen, Douglas Oliver, Polynesia in early historic times. Honolulu: Bess Press, 2002, 305 pp. -Harold Crouch, Andrew Rosser, The politics of economic liberalisation in Indonesia; State, market and power. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002, xv + 232 pp. -Hans Hägerdal, Arend de Roever, De jacht op sandelhout; De VOC en de tweedeling van Timor in de zeventiende eeuw. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2002, 383 pp. -Fiona Harris, Lorraine V. Aragon ,Structuralism's transformations; Order and revision in Indonesian and Malaysian societies; Paper written in honor of Clark E. Cunningham. Tempe AZ: Arizona State University Press, 1999, lxii + 402 pp., Susan D. Russell (eds -David Henley, Christiaan Heersink, Dependence on green gold: A socio-economic history of the Indonesian coconut island Selayar. Leiden: KITlV Press, 1999, xviii + 371 pp. [Verhandelingen 184.] -David Hicks, James T. Siegel ,Southeast Asia over three generations; Essays presented to Benedict R.O'G. Anderson 2003, 398 pp. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Southeast Asia program. [Studies on Southeast Asia 36.], Audrey R. Kahin (eds -Janny de Jong, L. de Jong, The collapse of a colonial society; The Dutch in Indonesia during the second world war. With an introduction by

  16. The oral microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Poovorawan, Yong; Dahlén, Gunnar; Wade, William G


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a range of oral conditions, and increased numbers of disease-associated microbial species have previously been found in HIV-positive subjects. The aim of this study was to use next-generation sequencing to compare the composition of the oral microbiome in HIV-positive and -negative individuals. Plaque and saliva were collected from 37 HIV-positive individuals and 37 HIV-negative individuals, and their bacterial composition determined by pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA genes. A total of 855,222 sequences were analysed. The number of species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected was significantly lower in the saliva of HIV-positive individuals (mean = 303.3) than in that of HIV-negative individuals (mean = 365.5) (P PCoA) based on community membership (Jaccard index) and structure (Yue and Clayton measure of dissimilarity) showed significant separation of plaque and saliva samples [analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), P PCoA plots did not show any clear separation based on HIV status. However, AMOVA indicated that there was a significant difference in the community membership of saliva between HIV-positive and -negative groups (P = 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis effect size revealed an OTU identified as Haemophilus parainfluenzae to be significantly associated with HIV-positive individuals, whilst Streptococcus mitis/HOT473 was most significantly associated with HIV-negative individuals. In conclusion, this study has confirmed that the microbial composition of saliva and plaque is different. The oral microbiomes of HIV-positive and -negative individuals were found to be similar overall, although there were minor but significant differences in the composition of the salivary microbiota of the two groups.

  17. Mapping your innovation strategy. (United States)

    Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib


    In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive.

  18. AKT-independent PI3-K signaling in cancer – emerging role for SGK3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruhn MA


    Full Text Available Maressa A Bruhn,1,6 Richard B Pearson,1–4 Ross D Hannan,1–5 Karen E Sheppard1–3 1Division of Cancer Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia Abstract: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K signaling pathway plays an important role in a wide variety of fundamental cellular processes, largely mediated via protein kinase B/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (PKB/AKT signaling. Given the crucial role of PI3-K/AKT signaling in regulating processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and survival, it is not surprising that components of this pathway are frequently dysregulated in cancer, making the AKT kinase family members important therapeutic targets. The large number of clinical trials currently evaluating PI3-K pathway inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy further emphasizes this. The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (SGK family is made up of three isoforms, SGK1, 2, and 3, that are PI3-K-dependent, serine/threonine kinases, with similar substrate specificity to AKT. Consequently, the SGK family also regulates similar cell processes to the AKT kinases, including cell proliferation and survival. Importantly, there is emerging evidence demonstrating that SGK3 plays a critical role in AKT-independent oncogenic signaling. This review will focus on the role of SGK3 as a key effector of AKT-independent PI3-K oncogenic signaling. Keywords: SGK3, AKT, PI3-kinase, mTOR, cancer

  19. Efecto de tipos de labranza sobre la población de malezas en caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram\\u00F3n Le\\u00F3n


    Full Text Available En dos lotes de caña de azúcar, uno con baja presión de malezas (lote 1 y otro con alta (lote 2, se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos: cosecha en verde con rastrojo (VCR, cosecha en verde sin rastrojo (VSR, cosecha con quema sin labranza (QSL y cosecha con quema con labranza (QCL. Se evaluó las especies de malezas así como su población y cobertura del suelo hasta los 75 días después de cosecha, tanto en el surco como en el entre-surco. Además, se evaluó la altura y el número de tallos del cultivo por metro lineal. No se observaron diferencias entre las poblaciones de malezas en el lote 1. En el lote 2 las malezas se vieron beneficiadas por la labranza y por la quema; así los tratamientos QSL y QCL mostraron las mayores coberturas, siendo este último el que presentó las poblaciones más altas y en el que se dió una disminución en el número y altura de tallos de la caña de azúcar. Cyperus rotundus L. y Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour Clayton presentaron las mayores coberturas, especialmente en QCL. En el surco se dio un desarrollo superior de las poblaciones de malezas, al observado en el entre-surco, ya que presentó mejores condiciones de germinación y disponibilidad de nutrimentos

  20. Cultivating Bakhtin in the garden: Children's ecological narratives on becoming community gardeners (United States)

    Grugel, Annie H.


    This dissertation illustrates how a children's community garden, designed specifically to promote intergenerational, multi-sociocultural relationships, is an "ideological environment" linking individuals and their community and connecting people with nature, in order to promote feelings of belonging, social connection, and encourage a sense of stewardship and identification with the environment (Bakhtin, 1978). By spending time in a community garden, responding to the natural ecosystems which exist on this land, and reflecting, through image and story about our childhood experience, the participants and I engaged in the dialogic process of what Thomashow (1996) refers to as "doing ecological identity work." Throughout this study I question how our past experiences with nature in ideological environments shape our ecological epistemologies, and how the dialogic process of becoming a gardener within the context of a community garden shapes a person's ecological identity. To frame this exploration of ecological identity work as a dialogic process and its role in the development of an ecological identity, I draw from sociocultural theory (Holland, et al., 1998), Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, and ecological identity studies (Clayton and Opotow, 2003; Cobb, 1993; Orr, 1994, 2006; Sobel, 1996, 2008; Thomashow, 1996). A large body of scholarly writing done by environmental researchers is devoted to examining and describing how adults, who self-identify as environmentalists, developed an ecological worldview. However, only a fraction of research is devoted to theorizing how children develop an environmental epistemology. In this study, I focus on how community gardens are dialogic spaces that provide a place for elementary-aged children to "experience" the discourse of gardening. Here, I describe the discourses that shape the garden and describe how gardeners, as a result of their collaborative experiences between human and non-human actors, take up social and dialogical

  1. Keeping track of time: evidence for episodic-like memory in great apes. (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Haun, Daniel; Colmenares, Fernando; Call, Josep


    Episodic memory, as defined by Tulving, can be described in terms of behavioural elements (what, where and when information) but it is also accompanied by an awareness of one's past (chronesthesia) and a subjective conscious experience (autonoetic awareness). Recent experiments have shown that corvids and rodents recall the where, what and when of an event. This capability has been called episodic-like memory because it only fulfils the behavioural criteria for episodic memory. We tested seven chimpanzees, three orangutans and two bonobos of various ages by adapting two paradigms, originally developed by Clayton and colleagues to test scrub jays. In Experiment 1, subjects were fed preferred but perishable food (frozen juice) and less preferred but non-perishable food (grape). After the food items were hidden, subjects could choose one of them either after 5 min or 1 h. The frozen juice was still available after 5 min but melted after 1 h and became unobtainable. Apes chose the frozen juice significantly more after 5 min and the grape after 1 h. In Experiment 2, subjects faced two baiting events happening at different times, yet they formed an integrated memory for the location and time of the baiting event for particular food items. We also included a memory task that required no temporal encoding. Our results showed that apes remember in an integrated fashion what, where and when (i.e., how long ago) an event happened; that is, apes distinguished between different events in which the same food items were hidden in different places at different times. The temporal control of their choices was not dependent on the familiarity of the platforms where the food was hidden. Chimpanzees' and bonobos' performance in the temporal encoding task was age-dependent, following an inverted U-shaped distribution. The age had no effect on the performance of the subjects in the task that required no temporal encoding.

  2. New advances in the treatment of generalized lipodystrophy: role of metreleptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez AJ


    Full Text Available Alexander J Rodriguez,1 Claudio A Mastronardi,2 Gilberto J Paz-Filho2 1Department of Medicine, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, VIC, 2Department of Genome Sciences, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Recombinant methionyl human leptin or metreleptin is a synthetic leptin analog that has been trialed in patients with leptin-deficient conditions, such as leptin deficiency due to mutations in the leptin gene, hypothalamic amenorrhea, and lipodystrophy syndromes. These syndromes are characterized by partial or complete absence of adipose tissue and hormones derived from adipose tissue, most importantly leptin. Patients deficient in leptin exhibit a number of severe metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hepatic steatosis, which can progress to diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, and hepatic cirrhosis, respectively. For the management of these abnormalities, multiple therapies are usually required, and advanced stages may be progressively difficult to treat. Following many successful trials, the US Food and Drug Administration approved metreleptin for the treatment of non-HIV-related forms of generalized lipodystrophy. Leptin replacement therapy with metreleptin has, in many cases, reversed these metabolic complications, with improvements in glucose-insulin-lipid homeostasis, and regression of fatty liver disease. Besides being effective, a daily subcutaneous administration of metreleptin is generally safe, but the causal association between metreleptin and immune complications (such as lymphoma is still unclear. Moreover, further investigation is needed to elucidate mechanisms by which metreleptin leads to the development of anti-leptin antibodies. Herein, we review clinical aspects of generalized lipodystrophy and the pharmacological profile of metreleptin. Further, we examine studies that assessed the safety and efficacy of

  3. Ultra-pure, water-dispersed Au nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation and fragmentation

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    Kubiliūtė R


    Full Text Available Reda Kubiliūtė,1,2 Ksenia A Maximova,3 Alireza Lajevardipour,1 Jiawey Yong,1 Jennifer S Hartley,1 Abu SM Mohsin,1 Pierre Blandin,3 James WM Chon,1 Marc Sentis,3 Paul R Stoddart,1 Andrei Kabashin,3 Ričardas Rotomskis,2 Andrew HA Clayton,1,4 Saulius Juodkazis1,4 1Centre for Micro-Photonics and Industrial Research Institute Swinburne, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia; 2Laboratory of Biomedical Physics, Vilnius University Institute of Oncology, Baublio, Vilnius, Lithuania; 3Aix-Marseille University, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, Lasers, Plasmas and Photonics Processing Laboratory, Campus de Luminy, Marseille, France; 4The Australian National Fabrication Facility, Victoria node, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia Abstract: Aqueous solutions of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles have been prepared by methods of femtosecond laser ablation from a solid target and fragmentation from already formed colloids. Despite the absence of protecting ligands, the solutions could be (1 fairly stable and poly size-dispersed; or (2 very stable and monodispersed, for the two fabrication modalities, respectively. Fluorescence quenching behavior and its intricacies were revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in rhodamine 6G water solution. We show that surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G on gold nanoparticles can be detected with high fidelity down to micromolar concentrations using the nanoparticles. Application potential of pure gold nanoparticles with polydispersed and nearly monodispersed size distributions are discussed. Keywords: nanotechnologies applications, methods of nanofabrication and processing, materials for nanomedicine

  4. Finite-Difference Modeling of Seismic Wave Scattering in 3D Heterogeneous Media: Generation of Tangential Motion from an Explosion Source (United States)

    Hirakawa, E. T.; Pitarka, A.; Mellors, R. J.


    Evan Hirakawa, Arben Pitarka, and Robert Mellors One challenging task in explosion seismology is development of physical models for explaining the generation of S-waves during underground explosions. Pitarka et al. (2015) used finite difference simulations of SPE-3 (part of Source Physics Experiment, SPE, an ongoing series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site) and found that while a large component of shear motion was generated directly at the source, additional scattering from heterogeneous velocity structure and topography are necessary to better match the data. Large-scale features in the velocity model used in the SPE simulations are well constrained, however, small-scale heterogeneity is poorly constrained. In our study we used a stochastic representation of small-scale variability in order to produce additional high-frequency scattering. Two methods for generating the distributions of random scatterers are tested. The first is done in the spatial domain by essentially smoothing a set of random numbers over an ellipsoidal volume using a Gaussian weighting function. The second method consists of filtering a set of random numbers in the wavenumber domain to obtain a set of heterogeneities with a desired statistical distribution (Frankel and Clayton, 1986). This method is capable of generating distributions with either Gaussian or von Karman autocorrelation functions. The key parameters that affect scattering are the correlation length, the standard deviation of velocity for the heterogeneities, and the Hurst exponent, which is only present in the von Karman media. Overall, we find that shorter correlation lengths as well as higher standard deviations result in increased tangential motion in the frequency band of interest (0 - 10 Hz). This occurs partially through S-wave refraction, but mostly by P-S and Rg-S waves conversions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore

  5. Developing critical thinking, creativity and innovation skills of undergraduate students (United States)

    Shoop, Barry L.


    A desirable goal of engineering education is to teach students how to be creative and innovative. However, the speed of technological innovation and the continual expansion of disciplinary knowledge leave little time in the curriculum for students to formally study innovation. At West Point we have developed a novel upper-division undergraduate course that develops the critical thinking, creativity and innovation of undergraduate science and engineering students. This course is structured as a deliberate interactive engagement between students and faculty that employs the Socratic method to develop an understanding of disruptive and innovative technologies and a historical context of how social, cultural, and religious factors impact the acceptance or rejection of technological innovation. The course begins by developing the background understanding of what disruptive technology is and a historical context about successes and failures of social, cultural, and religious acceptance of technological innovation. To develop this framework, students read The Innovator's Dilemma by Clayton M. Christensen, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn, The Discoverers by Daniel J. Boorstin, and The Two Cultures by C.P. Snow. For each class meeting, students survey current scientific and technical literature and come prepared to discuss current events related to technological innovation. Each student researches potential disruptive technologies and prepares a compelling argument of why the specific technologies are disruptive so they can defend their choice and rationale. During course meetings students discuss the readings and specific technologies found during their independent research. As part of this research, each student has the opportunity to interview forward thinking technology leaders in their respective fields of interest. In this paper we will describe the course and highlight the results from teaching this course over the past five years.

  6. Periodo de interferencia de arvenses en el cultivo de berenjena (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramendiz-Tatis Hermes


    Full Text Available

    Dada la importancia de la berenjena en la horticultura del Caribe colombiano, el presente trabajo buscó establecer las bases de un manejo sustentable e integrado de malezas en este cultivo, basado en el período de máxima interferencia de aquellas sobre este. El estudio se realizó en la Universidad de Córdoba, ubicada en Montería (8°39’ N; 75°58’ W. El diseño experimental consistió en bloques completamente aleatorizados, con cuatro repeticiones y siete tratamientos relacionados con periodos crecientes de control de arvenses, seguidos por ausencia de control. Los resultados muestran que las arvenses con mayor presencia fueron paja mona (Leptochloa filiformis [Lam.] Beauv., caminadora (Rottboellia cochinchinensis [Lour.] W.D. Clayton, liendre de puerco (Echinochloa colona [L.] Link., coquito (Cyperus rotundus L. y bledo (Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Las arvenses afectaron la altura de la planta, el diámetro del tallo, y el rendimiento y calidad del fruto. Este último parámetro no se ve afectado cuando el cultivar lila se mantiene limpio durante los primeros 40 días. Al considerar el tipo de productor de esta hortaliza en el valle del Sinú, se sugiere utilizar: i para áreas pequeñas, métodos físicos, como el arranque manual o corte con machete u otra herramienta, y prácticas culturales; ii para áreas grandes, la combinación de herbicidas de presiembra con métodos físicos y culturales.

  7. Análise dos co-movimentos entre os mercados de capitais do Brasil e dos EUA

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    Daniel Reed Bergmann


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a teoria de cópulas é utilizada para analisar os co-movimentos entre os mercados de capitais do Brasil e dos EUA. Na finalidade de implementação de uma estratégia de alocação de ativos é importante entender os eventos extremos - tanto os positivos (boom como os negativos (crashes - e seus efeitos sobre os mercados. Os índices de mercado usados são o IBOVESPA e o S&P 500 cobrindo o período de 03/2001 a 04/2007. A aderência aos log-retornos das principais cópulas encontradas na literatura financeira é avaliada. Os seguintes critérios foram escolhidos: o Log-likelihod, o critério de informação de Akaike e o critério de informação bayesiano. Os resultados mostram que a cópula de Joe-Clayton simetrizada é a mais adequada para modelar a estrutura de dependência entre os log-retornos do IBOVESPA e os do S&P500. Este trabalho difere de alguns estudos já realizados [e.g. Mendes e Moretti(2005 e Canela e Collazo(2005], pois leva em consideração a modelagem de cópulas dinâmicas introduzida por Patton (2006. Finalmente, através dos índices de dependência caudal ao longo do tempo, pode-se concluir que a ocorrência de eventos extremos negativos (crashes no mercado norte americano tende a afetar mais o mercado brasileiro quando da comparação da ocorrência dos eventos extremos positivos (booms.

  8. Epidemiology of Eimeria species in selected broiler farms of Khoy suburb, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri, M.


    Full Text Available Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is an economically-important disease of poultry production industry worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different Eimeria species in the farmed broilers of Khoy city, West Azarbaijan, North West Iran. A total of 26 broiler farms of different production capacities were arbitrarily selected and examined in 2013. In each of the farms, Litters of two broilers farms were randomly sampled twice a week and examined. The intensity of infection with each of the Eimeria species was assessed on the basis of number of oocysts per gram of litter using Clayton-Lane and McMaster methods. Eimeria species diversity was determined by using oocyst sporulation technique in 2% potassium dichromate solution. Results indicated that 23.08% (6/26 of the broiler farms were infected with Eimeria oocysts. The maximum litter infection rate (7.5×103 was observed in fifth week of the rearing period. The litter infection rate was significantly correlated with kinds of water dispenser, feeder, ventilation, and density. The litters were infected with five Eimeria species; E. maxima (32.67% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. mitis (24% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. acervulina (18% in 5 farms (19.23%, E. tenella (14.67% in 4 farms (15.38%, and E. necatrix (10.67% in 3 farms (11.58%. Results of this study uncovered high rates of litter infection with various Eimeria species in the studied farms, suggesting the establishment of firm health management strategies in the region.

  9. Estimates of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes in a biofiltration system (United States)

    Daly, E.; Niculescu, A.; Beringer, J.; Deletic, A.


    Biofiltration systems (or biofilters, bioretention systems or rain gardens) have been adopted to improve the quality of urban aquatic ecosystems and to reduce volumes and peaks of stormwater runoff. Given their good performances, it is likely that the implementation of such systems in urban areas will greatly increase in the future. As an example, the city of Melbourne (Australia) is planning to install 10,000 biofiltration systems within its area by 2013. Because biofiltration systems are commonly installed in urban areas, along roads and highways, their vegetation is often under atmospheric CO2 concentrations higher than average ambient conditions (i.e., above 380 ppm). Additionally, since these systems are designed to receive runoff from large catchment areas (typically around 50-100 times the area of the biofilter), their vegetation rarely experiences water and nitrogen limitations. These surrounding environmental conditions suggest that biofilters might experience high evapotranspiration (ET) rates and CO2 assimilation via photosynthesis, which could potentially provide benefits to the local microclimate in terms of temperature reduction (cooling due to enhanced ET) and CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, in addition to the benefit related to stormwater treatment. These hypotheses have been strengthen by preliminary tests based on laboratory experiments with soil columns vegetated with C.appressa, in which ET has been estimated to be as high as 0.7-0.8 cm per day. To further study these processes, several measurements are being performed in a biofiltration system installed at Monash University, Clayton Campus (Melbourne, VIC). This biofilter receives runoff diverted from a 100% impervious car park and discharges the treated stormwater to an adjacent pond. A chamber that encloses part of the vegetation in the biofilter has been constructed to monitor water and greenhouse gas fluxes. Preliminary results on daily patterns of water and CO2 fluxes within the system in

  10. Conduits to care: call lights and patients’ perceptions of communication

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    Montie M


    Full Text Available Mary Montie,1 Clayton Shuman,1 Jose Galinato,1 Lance Patak,2 Christine A Anderson,1 Marita G Titler1 1Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA, USA Background: Call light systems remain the primary means of hospitalized patients to initiate communication with their health care providers. Although there is vast amounts of literature discussing patient communication with their health care providers, few studies have explored patients’ perceptions concerning call light use and communication. The specific aim of this study was to solicit patients’ perceptions regarding their call light use and communication with nursing staff. Methods: Patients invited to this study met the following inclusion criteria: proficient in English, been hospitalized for at least 24 hours, aged ≥21 years, and able to communicate verbally (eg, not intubated. Thirty participants provided written informed consent, were enrolled in the study, and completed interviews. Results: Using qualitative descriptive methods, five major themes emerged from patients’ perceptions (namely; establishing connectivity, participant safety concerns, no separation: health care and the call light device, issues with the current call light, and participants’ perceptions of “nurse work”. Multiple minor themes supported these major themes. Data analysis utilized the constant comparative methods of Glaser and Strauss. Discussion: Findings from this study extend the knowledge of patients’ understanding of not only why inconsistencies occur between the call light and their nurses, but also why the call light is more than merely a device to initiate communication; rather, it is a direct conduit to their health care and its delivery. Keywords: nurse–patient communication, medical technology, quality of care, qualitative research

  11. Holding fast. (United States)

    Gourville, John T


    CEO Peter Walsh faces a classic innovator's dilemma. His company, Crescordia, produces high-quality metal plates, pins, and screws that orthopedic surgeons use to repair broken bones. In fact, because the company has for decades refused to compromise on quality, there are orthopedic surgeons who use nothing but Crescordia hardware. And now these customers have begun to clamor for the next generation technology: resorbable hardware. Resorbables offer clear advantages over the traditional hardware. Like dissolving sutures, resorbable plates and screws are made of biodegradable polymers. They hold up long enough to support a healing bone, then gradually and harmlessly disintegrate in the patient's body. Surgeons are especially looking forward to using resorbables on children, so kids won't have to undergo a second operation to remove the old hardware after their bones heal, a common procedure in pediatrics. The new products, however, are not yet reliable; they fail about 8% of the time, sometimes disintegrating before the bone completely heals and sometimes not ever fully disintegrating. That's why Crescordia, mindful of its hard-earned reputation, has delayed launching a line using the new technology. But time is running out. A few competitors have begun to sell resorbables despite their imperfections, and these companies are picking up market share. Should Crescordia join the fray and risk tarnishing its brand? Or should the company sit tight until it can offer a perfect product? Commenting on this fictional case study are Robert A. Lutz, vice chairman of product development at General Motors; Clayton M. Christensen, the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School; Jason Wittes, a senior equity analyst covering medical supplies and devices at Leerink Swann; and Nick Galakatos, a general partner of MPM Capital.

  12. Break free from the product life cycle. (United States)

    Moon, Youngme


    Most firms build their marketing strategies around the concept of the product life cycle--the idea that after introduction, products inevitably follow a course of growth, maturity, and decline. It doesn't have to be that way, says HBS marketing professor Youngme Moon. By positioning their products in unexpected ways, companies can change how customers mentally categorize them. In doing so, they can shift products lodged in the maturity phase back--and catapult new products forward--into the growth phase. The author describes three positioning strategies that marketers use to shift consumers' thinking. Reverse positioning strips away"sacred" product attributes while adding new ones (JetBlue, for example, withheld the expected first-class seating and in-flight meals on its planes while offering surprising perks like leather seats and extra legroom). Breakaway positioning associates the product with a radically different category (Swatch chose not to associate itself with fine jewelry and instead entered the fashion accessory category). And stealth positioning acclimates leery consumers to a new offering by cloaking the product's true nature (Sony positioned its less-than-perfect household robot as a quirky pet). Clayton Christensen described how new, simple technologies can upend a market. In an analogous way, these positioning strategies can exploit the vulnerability of established categories to new positioning. A company can use these techniques to go on the offensive and transform a category by demolishing its traditional boundaries. Companies that disrupt a category through positioning create a lucrative place to ply their wares--and can leave category incumbents scrambling.

  13. A Diverging View of Role Modeling in Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjit Sandhu


    Full Text Available Research in the area of role modeling has primarily focused on the qualities and attributes of exceptional role models, and less attention has been given to the act of role modeling itself (Elzubeir & Rizk, 2001; Jochemsen-van der Leeuw, van Dijk, van Etten-Jamaludin, & Wieringa-de Waard, 2013; Wright, 1996; Wright, Wong, & Newill, 1997. A standardized understanding of role modeling in medical education remains elusive (Kenny, Mann, & MacLeod, 2003. This is problematic given that role modeling is pervasively documented as an approach to teaching (Reuler & Nardone, 1994. Our study attempts to fill a void in this body of research by looking at what faculty are thinking, saying, and doing when they say they are role modeling. Individual semi-structured interviews with faculty members were conducted in the Department of General Surgery at Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods for themes surrounding teaching and role modeling. Three major themes emerged from the data: (1 faculty members think they are teaching when they are acting professionally; (2 faculty members become aware of teaching opportunities and act on them; and (3 faculty members employ evidence-based teaching methods, but they are incorrectly labeling them as “role modeling.” As a whole, our findings should help distinguish between role modeling as roles and responsibilities enacted while doing one’s job well, and teaching as facilitated instruction that helps connect knowledge with action (Clayton, 2006; Fassbinder, 2007. Contributing to a better understanding of how teaching is separate from role modeling has the potential to improve the scope and quality of teaching, ultimately enhancing the learning experience for trainees.

  14. 2012 international year for sustainable energy for all: African Frontrunnership in rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahama, Amadu


    2012 has been declared the “International Year for Sustainable Energy for All” by the UN. While Africa remains the most ‘underpowered’ continent, the prognosis for a brighter future is looking good, as key stakeholders (governments, private sector, civil society, and the donor community) have mobilized at an unprecedented scale to experiment with new policies, regulatory frameworks, and business models to rapidly upscale access to sustainable energy. The top-down, central grid expansion approach to increasing electricity access is very capital intensive and yet has gained considerable momentum at the expense of lower cost options that utilize decentralized off-grid solutions. A decentralized bottom-up approach could also use indigenous renewable energy sources and foster more significant linkages with livelihood opportunities in the rural un-served territories. This paper evaluates the emerging experiments through the lenses of C.K. Prahalad's “bottom of the pyramid” theory and Clayton Christensen's “disruptive technologies” perspective. Three front-runner initiatives involving new business models, innovative technologies, and institutional capacity building will be analyzed. In addition, the paper examines a regulatory policy initiative designed to stimulate clean energy investments in Ghana. Though the examples are all from Ghana, they illustrate general challenges to sub-Saharan Africa as a whole. - Highlights: ► An analysis of innovative electricity access case studies from Ghana. ► Off-grid electrification options are keys to expanding electricity access in Africa. ► Base of the pyramid strategies for rural electrification has a niche in Africa. ► International collaboration will be crucial to achieve universal electricity access.

  15. Earthquake behavior of the Enriquillo fault zone, Haiti revealed by interactive terrain visualization (United States)

    Cowgill, E.; Bernardin, T. S.; Oskin, M. E.; Bowles, C. J.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Kreylos, O.; Elliott, A. J.; Bishop, M. S.; Gold, R. D.; Morelan, A.; Bawden, G. W.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.


    documented offset landforms including fluvial terrace risers near Dumay (6.3 +0.9/-1.3 m) and Chauffard/Jameau (32.2 +1.8/-3.1 m), a channel (52 +18/-13 m) ~500 m east of the Chauffard/Jameau site, and an alluvial fan near Fayette (8.6 +2.8/-2.5 m). Based on the fault-trace morphology and distribution of sites where we see 6-8 m offsets, we estimate the probable along-strike extent of past surface rupture was 40 to 60 km along this fault reach. Application of moment-rupture area relationships to these observations suggest that an earthquake similar to, or larger than the Mw 7.0 2010 event is possible along the Enriquillo fault near Port-au-Prince. We deduce that the 2010 earthquake was a relatively small event on a boundary between fault segments that ruptured in 1751 and 1770, based on new analysis of historical damage reports and the gap of well-defined fault-zone morphology where the 2010 earthquake occurred.

  16. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997 (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.


    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  17. Origin and formation qualification of Khur o Biabanak agates, Isfahan province

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    Forough Malek Mahmoudi


    -deuterium stable isotopic analysis. The isotopic distribution of mineral-fluid is affected by temperature changes. A variety of methods for determining the oxygen isotope distribution coefficient between quartz and fluid at different temperatures are presented. The Clayton et al. (Clayton et al., 1972 equation was used to calculate the oxygen distribution coefficient between water and quartz. 103lnα (Qz−H2O = (3.38* 1010 /T2* – 2.9 Due to the lack of water in quartz structure, all deuterium could be estimated as hydrothermal fluids deuterium. Therefore, no correction is needed. Study of oxygen and deuterium stable isotopes in two samples of silica and comparing the results with normal reservoirs of silica samples, determines the type of atmospheric water. Analysis of two silicic samples and comparison with some natural reservoirs suggests that hydrothermal fluids has atmospheric source. Discussion The Khur agates formed in the cavities of Eocene volcanics with andesitic basalt composition within the Khur bentonite horizon. Field observation indicates that the Khur agates formed independent of faults and joints. According to the XRD analysis, their composition mainly consists of silica and calcite, as well as dolomite and barite in lower quantities. Trace elements and REEs in both silicic samples and andesitic host rock has same trend with large amount of depletion in the silicic samples. Mineralogical evidence suggests that Tashtab agates formed as a result of periodic eruption of low temperature hydrothermal fluids. Also, oxygen and deuterium stable isotope data resemble hydrothermal fluids with atmospheric origin. Acknowledgments This paper stems from M.Sc. thesis carried out by the first author. It has financially been supported by the University of Isfahan. References Burkhard, M., 1993. Calcite twins, their geometry, appearance and review. Journal of Structural Geology, 15(3-5: 351-368. Clayton, R.N., O’Neil, J.R. and Mayeda, T.K, 1972. Oxygen isotope exchange between

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Termorshuizen


    Full Text Available - Adriaan Bedner, Joachim Sterly, Simbu plant-lore; Plants used by the people in the Central Highlands of New Guinea; Volume 1: The people and their plant-lore; Volume 2: Botanical survey of Simbu plants; Volume 3: Ethnographical key. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1997, 23 9 + 323 + 275 pp. - H.J.M. Claessen, Jan Rensel, Home in the islands; Housing and social change in the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1997, vii + 264 pp., Margaret Rodman (eds. - Peter van Eeuwijk, Norbert Kohnen, Traditionelle Medizin auf den Philippinen; Angstbewältigung und kognition bei Krankheiten. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1992, 396 pp. [Beiträge zur Südasienforschung 154.] - C.D. Grijns, William A. Smalley, Linguistic diversity and national unity; Language ecology in Thailand. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994, xv + 436 pp. - Nico Kaptein, Ulrike Freitag, Hadhrami traders, scholars, and statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. Leiden: Brill, 1997, x + 392 pp., William G. Clarence-Smith (eds. - Elsbeth Locher-Scholten, Raden Ajeng Kartini, On feminism and nationalism; Kartini’s letters to Stella Zeehandelar 1899-1903, translated and with an introduction by Joost Coté. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Instiute, Monash University, xxiii + 129 pp. - Alison Murray, L. Manderson, Sites of desire, economies of pleasure: Sexualities in Asia and the Pacific. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997, xii + 367 pp., M. Jolly (eds. - Chris Penders, Harry A. Poeze, Politiek-Politioneele Overzichten van Nederlandsch-Indië, Deel IV, 1935-1941. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 1994, xciv + 485 pp. - Kathryn Robinson, Henk Schulte Nordholt, The spell of power; A history of Balinese politics 1650-1940. Leiden: The KITLV Press, 1996, ix + 389 pp. [VKI 170.] - Eric Tagliacozzo, Carl A. Trocki, Gangsters, democracy, and the state in Southeast Asia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program, 1998, 94 pp. [Cornell University Southeast Asia Program

  19. Influência do teor de polipropileno modificado com anidrido maleico nas propriedades do nanocompósito PP/EPDM/argila organofílica Influence from the concentration of interfacial agent on the properties of PP/EPDM/organoclay nanocomposites

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    Fernanda C. F. Braga


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram obtidos nanocompósitos de elastômeros termoplásticos à base de PP/EPDM/argila organofílica pela técnica de intercalação no estado fundido em câmara interna de mistura. Foram preparados concentrados de PP-MA (agente interfacial e Claytone 40 (argila organofílica nas proporções de 1:1, 2:1 e 3:1 que posteriormente foram adicionados na matriz PP/EPDM, previamente preparada, mantendo o teor de argila fixo em 5% (em massa. Foram investigadas as propriedades mecânicas de módulo elástico, tração e alongamento na ruptura, reologia e morfologia, a fim de estabelecer a influência da razão PP-MA/argila organofílica no comportamento dos nanocompósitos. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de teores crescentes de PP-MA melhorou a dispersão da argila organofílica na matriz de PP/EPDM. Conforme revelado pela difração de raio X e confirmados pela reometria foram obtidos nanocompósitos com estruturas mistas intercaladas e esfoliadas, que resultaram em maiores valores de módulo e deformação na ruptura.In this work, nanocomposites were prepared with PP/EPDM thermoplastic elastomer and organoclay by melt intercalation in an internal mixture chamber. Masterbatches composed of PP-MA/organoclay in proportions of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were prepared and further added to a PP/EPDM thermoplastic elastomer, keeping the clay content fixed at 5% (by weight. The tensile properties, rheology and the morphology (organoclay dispersion, crystalline structure and crystallinity degree of nanocomposites were studied to establish the influence of the PP-MA/Organoclay ratio in the system. The results showed that the addition of increasing levels of PP-MA improved the dispersion of organoclay in the PP/EPDM matrix. As revealed in x-ray diffraction and confirmed by rheology measurements nanocomposites were obtained with mixed intercalated and exfoliated structures, resulting in higher tensile modulus and elongation at break.

  20. Tailored antihypertensive drug therapy prescribed to older women attenuates circulating levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo JO


    Full Text Available Juliana O Toledo,1 Clayton F Moraes,2,3 Vinícius C Souza,2 Audrey C Tonet-Furioso,2 Luís CC Afonso,4 Cláudio Córdova,3 Otávio T Nóbrega1,2 1Graduate Program in Health Sciences, 2Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, University of Brasília, Brasília, 3Graduate Program in Gerontology, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Research Center in Biological Sciences, Federal University of Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil Objective: To test the hypothesis that antihypertensive drug therapy produces anti-inflammatory effects in clinical practice, this study investigated circulating levels of selected proinflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and interferon-γ [INF-γ] in response to multivariate drug directions for blood pressure (BP control.Methods: Prospective study involving 110 hypertensive, community-dwelling older women with different metabolic disorders. A short-term BP-lowering drug therapy was conducted according to current Brazilian guidelines on hypertension, and basal cytokine levels were measured before and after intervention.Results: Interventions were found to represent current hypertension-management practices in Brazil and corresponded to a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP levels in a whole-group analysis, as well as when users and nonusers of the most common therapeutic classes were considered separately. Considering all patients, mean IL-6 and TNF-α levels showed a significant decrease in circulating concentrations (P<0.01 at the endpoint compared with baseline, whereas the mean INF-γ level was not significantly different from baseline values. In separate analyses, only users of antagonists of the renin–angiotensin system and users of diuretics exhibited the same significant treatment-induced reduction in serum IL-6 and TNF-α observed in the whole group.Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that a clinically guided antihypertensive treatment is effective in

  1. Patients' and partners' perspectives of chronic illness and its management. (United States)

    Checton, Maria G; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Venetis, Maria K


    This study is framed in theories of illness uncertainty (Babrow, A. S., 2007, Problematic integration theory. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 181-200). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Babrow & Matthias, 2009; Brashers, D. E., 2007, A theory of communication and uncertainty management. In B. B. Whaley & W. Samter (Eds.), Explaining communication: Contemporary theories and exemplars (pp. 201-218). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Hogan, T. P., & Brashers, D. E. (2009). The theory of communication and uncertainty management: Implications for the wider realm of information behavior. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications, (pp. 45-66). New York, NY: Routledge; Mishel, M. H. (1999). Uncertainty in chronic illness. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 17, 269-294; Mishel, M. H., & Clayton, M. F., 2003, Theories of uncertainty. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr (Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing (pp. 25-48). New York, NY: Springer) and health information management (Afifi, W. A., & Weiner, J. L., 2004, Toward a theory of motivated information management. Communication Theory, 14, 167-190. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00310.x; Greene, K., 2009, An integrated model of health disclosure decision-making. In T. D. Afifi & W. A. Afifi (Eds.), Uncertainty and information regulation in interpersonal contexts: Theories and applications (pp. 226-253). New York, NY: Routledge) and examines how couples experience uncertainty and interference related to one partner's chronic health condition. Specifically, a model is hypothesized in which illness uncertainty (i.e., stigma, prognosis, and symptom) and illness interference predict communication efficacy and health condition management. Participants include 308 dyads in which one partner has a chronic health condition. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that there

  2. Effect Size in Efficacy Trials of Women With Decreased Sexual Desire. (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H


    Regarding hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in women, some reviewers judge the effect size small for medications vs placebo, but substantial for cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or mindfulness meditation training (MMT) vs wait list. However, we lack comparisons of the effect sizes for the active intervention itself, for the control treatment, and for the differential between the two. For efficacy trials of HSDD in women, compare effect sizes for medications (testosterone/testosterone transdermal system, flibanserin, and bremelanotide) and placebo vs effect sizes for psychotherapy and wait-list control. We conducted a literature search for mean changes and SD on main measures of sexual desire and associated distress in trials of medications, CBT, or MMT. Effect size was used as it measures the magnitude of the intervention without confounding by sample size. Cohen d was used to determine effect sizes. For medications, mean (SD) effect size was 1.0 (0.34); for CBT and MMT, 1.0 (0.36); for placebo, 0.55 (0.16); and for wait list, 0.05 (0.26). Recommendations of psychotherapy over medication for treatment of HSDD are premature and not supported by data on effect sizes. Active participation in treatment conveys considerable non-specific benefits. Caregivers should attend to biological and psychosocial elements, and patient preference, to optimize response. Few clinical trials of psychotherapies were substantial in size or utilized adequate control paradigms. Medications and psychotherapies had similar, large effect sizes. Effect size of placebo was moderate. Effect size of wait-list control was very small, about one quarter that of placebo. Thus, a substantial non-specific therapeutic effect is associated with receiving placebo plus active care and evaluation. The difference in effect size between placebo and wait-list controls distorts the value of the subtraction of effect of the control paradigms to estimate intervention effectiveness. Pyke RE, Clayton AH

  3. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D


    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An independent researcher external to the medical school conducted the interviews using a topic guide. Audio recordings were not made, but detailed notes including verbatim statements were recorded. At least two research team members analyzed interview records for emergent themes. Human research ethics approval was obtained. Results: Twelve interviews were conducted. Participants offered rich imaginings on the role of the school and expectations and opportunities for students. Most participants expressed strong and positive views, especially in addressing long-term health workforce issues. It was considered important that students live, mix, and study in the community. Some participants had very clear ideas about the need of the school to address specified needs, such as indigenous health, obesity, aging, drug and alcohol problems, teenage pregnancy, ethnic diversity, and working with people of low socioeconomic status. Conclusion: This study has initiated a dialogue with potential

  4. Radiographic Progression-Free Survival as a Clinically Meaningful End Point in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: The PREVAIL Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Beer, Tomasz M; Loriot, Yohann; Higano, Celestia S; Armstrong, Andrew J; Sternberg, Cora N; de Bono, Johann S; Tombal, Bertrand; Parli, Teresa; Bhattacharya, Suman; Phung, De; Krivoshik, Andrew; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Michael J


    Drug development for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has been limited by a lack of clinically relevant trial end points short of overall survival (OS). Radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) as defined by the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 (PCWG2) is a candidate end point that represents a clinically meaningful benefit to patients. To demonstrate the robustness of the PCWG2 definition and to examine the relationship between rPFS and OS. PREVAIL was a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational study that enrolled 1717 chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer from September 2010 through September 2012. The data were analyzed in November 2016. Patients were randomized 1:1 to enzalutamide 160 mg or placebo until confirmed radiographic disease progression or a skeletal-related event and initiation of either cytotoxic chemotherapy or an investigational agent for prostate cancer treatment. Sensitivity analyses (SAs) of investigator-assessed rPFS were performed using the final rPFS data cutoff (May 6, 2012; 439 events; SA1) and the interim OS data cutoff (September 16, 2013; 540 events; SA2). Additional SAs using investigator-assessed rPFS from the final rPFS data cutoff assessed the impact of skeletal-related events (SA3), clinical progression (SA4), a confirmatory scan for soft-tissue disease progression (SA5), and all deaths regardless of time after study drug discontinuation (SA6). Correlations between investigator-assessed rPFS (SA2) and OS were calculated using Spearman ρ and Kendall τ via Clayton copula. In the 1717 men (mean age, 72.0 [range, 43.0-93.0] years in enzalutamide arm and 71.0 [range, 42.0-93.0] years in placebo arm), enzalutamide significantly reduced risk of radiographic progression or death in all SAs, with hazard ratios of 0.22 (SA1; 95% CI, 0.18-0.27), 0.31 (SA2; 95% CI, 0.27-0.35), 0.21 (SA3; 95% CI, 0.18-0.26), 0.21 (SA4; 95% CI, 0.17-0.26), 0

  5. Police custody health care: a review of health morbidity, models of care and innovations within police custody in the UK, with international comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinnon IG


    Full Text Available Iain G McKinnon,1,2 Stuart DM Thomas,3–5 Heather L Noga,6 Jane Senior7 1Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Academic Psychiatry, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, 2Northumberland Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 4Legal Intersections Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 5Southern Clinical School, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 6School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; 7Offender Health Research Network, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: This paper is a scoping review of the available evidence regarding health care issues in police custody. It describes the types and prevalence of health disorders encountered in custody and provides an overview of current practice and recent innovations in police custody health care. In contrast to the health of prisoners, the health of police custody detainees has, until recently, received little academic or clinical attention. Studies on health care in police custody identified for this review are limited to a few geographical jurisdictions, including the UK, continental Europe, North America, and Australia. There are significant health concerns among police detainees including acute injury, chronic physical health problems, mental and cognitive disorders, and the risks associated with drug and alcohol intoxication or withdrawal. There is some evidence that deaths in police custody have reduced where attention has been paid to the latter issue. Police personnel continue to experience difficulties identifying detainees with health issues relevant to their safe detention, but research shows that the use of evidence-based screening tools improves detection of such morbidities. Innovations in police custody health care mainly relate to detainees with mental disorders, including improved identification of illness

  6. Multi-Trial Evaluation of Progression-Free Survival (PFS) as a Surrogate Endpoint for Overall Survival (OS) in First-Line Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (ES-SCLC) (United States)

    Foster, Nathan R.; Renfro, Lindsay A.; Schild, Steven E.; Redman, Mary W.; Wang, Xiaofei F.; Dahlberg, Suzanne E.; Ding, Keyue; Bradbury, Penelope A.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Gandara, David R.; Shibata, Taro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Vokes, Everett E.; Adjei, Alex A.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.


    Introduction We previously reported that PFS may be a candidate surrogate endpoint for OS in first-line ES-SCLC using data from 3 randomized trials (Foster, Cancer 2011). In this validation study (N0424-Alliance), we assessed the patient- and trial-level surrogacy of PFS using data from 7 new first-line phase II/III ES-SCLC trials and across all 10 trials as well (7 new, 3 previous). Methods Individual patient data were utilized across the 7 new trials (2259 patients) and all 10 trials (2855 patients). Patient-level surrogacy (Kendall’s τ) was assessed using the Clayton copula bivariate survival model. Trial-level surrogacy was assessed via association of the log hazard ratios on OS and PFS across trials, including weighted (by trial size) least squares regression of Cox model effects (WLS R2) and correlation of the copula effects (Copula R2). The minimum effect on the surrogate (MES) needed to detect a non-zero treatment effect on OS was also calculated. Results The median OS and PFS across all 10 trials were 9.8 and 5.9 months, respectively. PFS showed strong surrogacy within the 7 new trials (Copula R2 = 0.90 (SE=0.27); WLS R2 = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.95); MES=0.67; Kendall’s τ = 0.58) and across all 10 trials (Copula R2 =0.81 (SE=0.25); WLS R2=0.77 (95% CI: 0.47–0.91); MES=0.70; Kendall’s τ =0.57). Conclusions PFS demonstrated strong surrogacy for OS in first-line ES-SCLC based on this external validation study of individual patient data. PFS is a good alternative endpoint to OS and should be considered when resource constraints (time or patient) might make it useful or desirable in place of OS. Additional analyses are needed to assess its appropriateness for targeted agents in this disease setting. PMID:26134227

  7. Dynamic Topography Revisited (United States)

    Moresi, Louis


    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  8. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SM


    Full Text Available Shan-Mei Wang,1,* Xian He,2,* Nan Li,1,* Feng Yu,3 Yang Hu,1 Liu-Sheng Wang,1 Peng Zhang,4 Yu-Kui Du,1 Shan-Shan Du,1 Zhao-Fang Yin,1 Ya-Ru Wei,1 Xavier Mulet,5 Greg Coia,6 Dong Weng,1 Jian-Hua He,3 Min Wu,7 Hui-Ping Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, 2School of Medicine, Suzhou University, SuZhou, 3Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4Department of Chest Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 5CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, 6CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 7Department of Basic Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high

  9. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance. (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H


    Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale measures the most relevant element of sexual desire, but it would be meaningful to include 4 or 5 more sexual symptoms as end points: sexual thoughts/fantasies, frequency of sexual activity, receptivity, initiations, and possibly avoidance of sexual situations. The Elements of Desire Questionnaire and a measure of sexual frequency may suffice. Responder and remitter analyses show the clinical relevance of a treatment and enable comparisons across trials. Pyke RE, Clayton AH. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance. Sex Med Rev 2017;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Hybrid pH sensor for long-term seawater pH monitoring. (United States)

    Nakano, Y.; Egashira, T.; Miwa, T.; Kimoto, H.


    We have been developing the in situ pH sensor (Hybrid pH sensor: HpHS) for the long-term seawater pH monitoring. We are planning to provide the HpHS for researchers and environmental consultants for observation of the CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) monitoring system, the coastal environment monitoring system (e.g. Blue Carbon) and ocean acidification. The HpHS has two types of pH sensors (i.e. potentiometric pH sensor and spectrophotometric pH sensor). The spectrophotometric pH sensor can measure pH correctly and stably, however it needs large power consumption and a lot of reagents in a long period of observation. The pH sensor used m-cresol purple (mCP) as an indicator of pH (Clayton and Byrne, 1993 and Liu et al., 2011). We can choose both coefficients before deployment. On the other hand, although the potentiometric pH sensor is low power consumption and high-speed response (within 10 seconds), drifts in the pH of the potentiometric measurements may possibly occur for a long-term observation. The HpHS can measure in situ pH correctly and stably combining advantage of both pH sensors. The HpHS consists of an aluminum pressure housing with optical cell (main unit) and an aluminum silicon-oil filled, pressure-compensated vessel containing pumps and valves (diaphragm pump and valve unit) and pressure-compensated reagents bags (pH indicator, pure water and Tris buffer or certified reference material: CRM) with an ability to resist water pressure to 3000m depth. The main unit holds system control boards, pump drivers, data storage (micro SD card), LED right source, photodiode, optical cell and pressure proof windows. The HpHS also has an aluminum pressure housing that holds a rechargeable lithium-ion battery or a lithium battery for the power supply (DC 24 V). The HpHS is correcting the value of the potentiometric pH sensor (measuring frequently) by the value of the spectrophotometric pH sensor (measuring less frequently). It is possible to calibrate in

  11. Groundwater conditions in Georgia, 2015–16 (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 157 wells during calendar years 2015 and 2016. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 5 years) for several of these wells, data for 147 wells are presented in this report. These wells include 15 in the surficial aquifer system, 18 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 59 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 13 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 9 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 8 in the Clayton aquifer, 16 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 6 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally rose during the 10-year period from 2007 through 2016, with water levels rising in 105 wells and declining in 31 wells; insufficient data prevented determination of a 10-year trend in 11 wells. Water levels declined over the long-term period of record at 80 wells, increased at 62 wells, and remained relatively constant at 5 wells.In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level data were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Brunswick–Glynn County area during October 2015 and October 2016 and in the Albany–Dougherty County area during December 2015 and November and December 2016. Periodic water-level measurements were also collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Cretaceous aquifer system in the Augusta–Richmond County area during July 2015 and June 2016. In general, water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer were higher during 2015 than during 2016 in the Brunswick–Glynn County and Albany–Dougherty County areas due to higher precipitation during 2015

  12. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned (United States)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.


    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  13. The effects of novel surface treatments on the wear and fatigue properties of steel and chilled cast iron (United States)

    Carroll, Jason William

    predicting the wear results. The empirical model of Clayton and Su and extended by Afferente and Ciavarella, also provided reasonable semi-quantitative contact fatigue life models for these steels.

  14. Characterizing sexual function in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a pooled analysis of three vilazodone studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton AH


    Full Text Available Anita H Clayton,1 Suresh Durgam,2 Xiongwen Tang,2 Changzheng Chen,2 Adam Ruth,3 Carl Gommoll2 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 2Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, 3Prescott Medical Communications Group, Chicago, IL, USA Background: Vilazodone has been shown to reduce core symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Since sexual dysfunction (SD is not well characterized in GAD, a post hoc analysis of these trials was conducted to evaluate the effects of vilazodone on sexual functioning in GAD patients. Materials and methods: Data were pooled from one fixed-dose trial of vilazodone 20 and 40 mg/day (NCT01629966 and two flexible-dose studies of vilazodone 20–40 mg/day (NCT01766401, NCT01844115 in adults with GAD. Sexual functioning was assessed using the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ. Outcomes included mean change from baseline to end of treatment (EOT in CSFQ total score and percentage of patients shifting from SD at baseline (CSFQ total score ≤47 for males, ≤41 for females to normal functioning at EOT. Treatment-emergent adverse events related to sexual functioning were also analyzed. Results: A total of 1,373 patients were included in the analyses. SD at baseline was more common in females (placebo, 46.4%; vilazodone, 49% than in males (placebo, 35.1%; vilazodone, 40.9%. CSFQ total score improvement was found in both females (placebo, +1.2; vilazodone, +1.6 and males (placebo, +2.1; vilazodone, +1.0, with no statistically significant differences between treatment groups. The percentage of patients who shifted from SD at baseline to normal sexual functioning at EOT was higher in males (placebo, 40.6%; vilazodone, 35.7% than in females (placebo, 24.9%; vilazodone, 34.9%; no statistical testing was performed. Except for erectile dysfunction and delayed ejaculation in vilazodone

  15. Validation of Progression‐Free Survival as a Surrogate Endpoint for Overall Survival in Malignant Mesothelioma: Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B and North Central Cancer Treatment Group (Alliance) Trials (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Hodgson, Lydia; George, Stephen L.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Foster, Nate R.; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Crawford, Jeffrey; Kratzke, Robert; Adjei, Alex A.; Kindler, Hedy L.; Vokes, Everett E.; Pang, Herbert


    Abstract Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate whether progression‐free survival (PFS) can be considered a surrogate endpoint for overall survival (OS) in malignant mesothelioma. Materials and Methods. Individual data were collected from 15 Cancer and Leukemia Group B (615 patients) and 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (101 patients) phase II trials. The effects of 5 risk factors for OS and PFS, including age, histology, performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk score, were used in the analysis. Individual‐level surrogacy was assessed by Kendall's tau through a Clayton bivariate Copula survival (CBCS) model. Summary‐level surrogacy was evaluated via the association between logarithms of the hazard ratio (log HR)—log HROS and log HRPFS—measured in R2 from a weighted least‐square (WLS) regression model and the CBCS model. Results. The median PFS for all patients was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8–3.5 months) and the median OS was 7.2 months (95% CI, 6.5–8.0 months). Moderate correlations between PFS and OS were observed across all risk factors at the individual level, with Kendall's tau ranging from 0.46 to 0.47. The summary‐level surrogacy varied among risk factors. The Copula R2 ranged from 0.51 for PS to 0.78 for histology. The WLS R2 ranged from 0.26 for EORTC and PS to 0.67 for age. Conclusions. The analyses demonstrated low to moderate individual‐level surrogacy between PFS and OS. At the summary level, the surrogacy between PFS and OS varied significantly across different risk factors. With a short postprogression survival and a moderate correlation between PFS and OS, there is no evidence that PFS is a valid surrogate endpoint for OS in malignant mesothelioma. Implications for Practice. For better disease management and for more efficient clinical trial designs, it is important to know if progression‐free survival (PFS) is

  16. Origin and Evolution of the Elements (United States)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Rauch, Michael


    Introduction; List of participants; 1. Mount Wilson Observatory contributions to the study of cosmic abundances of the chemical elements George W. Preston; 2. Synthesis of the elements in stars: B2FH and beyond E. Margaret Burbidge; 3. Stellar nucleosynthesis: a status report 2003 David Arnett; 4. Advances in r-process nucleosynthesis John J. Cowan and Christopher Sneden; 5. Element yields of intermediate-mass stars Richard B. C. Henry; 6. The impact of rotation on chemical abundances in red giant branch stars Corinne Charbonnel; 7. s-processing in AGB stars and the composition of carbon stars Maurizio Busso, Oscar Straniero, Roberto Gallino, and Carlos Abia; 8. Models of chemical evolution Francesca Matteucci; 9. Model atmospheres and stellar abundance analysis Bengt Gustafsson; 10. The light elements: lithium, beryllium, and boron Ann Merchant Boesgaard; 11. Extremely metal-poor stars John E. Norris; 12. Thin and thick galactic disks Poul E. Nissen; 13. Globular clusters and halo field stars Christopher Sneden, Inese I. Ivans and Jon P. Fulbright; 14. Chemical evolution in ω Centauri Verne V. Smith; 15. Chemical composition of the Magellanic Clouds, from young to old stars Vanessa Hill; 16. Detailed composition of stars in dwarf spheroidal galaxies Matthew D. Shetrone; 17. The evolutionary history of Local Group irregular galaxies Eva K. Grebel; 18. Chemical evolution of the old stellar populations of M31 R. Michael Rich; 19. Stellar winds of hot massive stars nearby and beyond the Local Group Fabio Bresolin and Rolf P. Kudritzki; 20. Presolar stardust grains Donald D. Clayton and Larry R. Nittler; 21. Interstellar dust B. T. Draine; 22. Interstellar atomic abundances Edward B. Jenkins; 23. Molecules in the interstellar medium Tommy Wiklind; 24. Metal ejection by galactic winds Crystal L. Martin; 25. Abundances from the integrated light of globular clusters and galaxies Scott C. Trager; 26. Abundances in spiral and irregular galaxies Donald R. Garnett; 27

  17. Prediction of lateral surface, volume and sphericity of pomegranate using MLP artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rohani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fast and accurate determination of geometrical properties of agricultural products has many applications in agricultural operations like planting, cultivating, harvesting and post-harvesting. Calculations related to storing, shipping and storage-coating materials as well as peeling time and surface-microbial concentrations are some applications of estimating product volume and surface area. Sphericity is also a parameter by which the shape differences between fruits, vegetables, grains and seeds can be quantified. This parameter is important in grading systems and inspecting rolling capability of agricultural products. Bayram presented a new dimensional method and equation to calculate the sphericity of certain shapesand some granular food materials (Bayram, 2005. Kumar and Mathew proposed atheoretically soundmethod for estimating the surface area of ellipsoidal food materials (Kumar and Mathew, 2003. Clayton et al. used non-linear regression models for calculation of apple surface area using the fruit mass or volume (Clayton et al., 1995. Humeida and Hobani predicted surface area and volume of pomegranates based on the weight and geometrical diametermean (Humeida and Hobani, 1993. Wang and Nguang designeda low cost sensor system to automatically compute the volume and surface area of axi-symmetricagricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes and tamarillos (Wang and Nguang, 2007. The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of Artificial Neural Network (ANN technique as an alternative method to predict the volume, surface area and sphericity of pomegranates. Materials and methods: The water displacement method (WDM was used for measuring the actual volume of pomegranates. Also, the sphericity and surface area are computed by using analytical methods. In this study, the neural MLP models were designed based upon the three nominal diameters of pomegranatesas variable inputs, while the output model consisted

  18. EAARL coastal topography-western Florida, post-Hurricane Charley, 2004: seamless (bare earth and submerged. (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Wright, C. Wayne; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, John C.; Yates, Xan


    processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the 'bare earth' under vegetation. For more information about similar projects, please visit the Decision Support for Coastal Science and Management website. Selected References Brock, J.C., Wright, C.W., Sallenger, A.H., Krabill, W.B., and Swift, R.N., 2002, Basis and methods of NASA airborne topographic mapper Lidar surveys for coastal studies: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 18, no. 1, p. 1-13. Crane, Michael, Clayton, Tonya, Raabe, Ellen, Stoker, Jason, Handley, Larry, Bawden, Gerald, Morgan, Karen, and Queija, Vivian, 2004, Report of the U.S. Geological Survey Lidar workshop sponsored by the Land Remote Sensing Program and held in St. Petersburg, FL, November 2002: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2004-1456, 72 p. Nayegandhi, Amar, Brock, J.C., and Wright, C.W., 2009, Small-footprint, waveform-resolving Lidar estimation of submerged and sub-canopy topography in coastal environments: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 30, no. 4, p. 861-878. Sallenger, A.H., Wright, C.W., and Lillycrop, Jeff, 2005, Coastal impacts of the 2004 hurricanes measured with airborne Lidar; initial results: Shore and Beach, v. 73, nos. 2-3, p. 10-14. Resources Included Readme.txt File

  19. Three-dimensional seismic depth migration (United States)

    Zhou, Hongbo


    One-pass 3-D modeling and migration for poststack seismic data may be implemented by replacing the traditional 45sp° one-way wave equation (a third-order partial differential equation) with a pair of second and first order partial differential equations. Except for an extra correction term, the resulting second order equation has a form similar to Claerbout's 15sp° one-way wave equation, which is known to have a nearly circular horizontal impulse response. In this approach, there is no need to compensate for splitting errors. Numerical tests on synthetic data show that this algorithm has the desirable attributes of being second-order in accuracy and economical to solve. A modification of the Crank-Nicholson implementation maintains stability. Absorbing boundary conditions play an important role in one-way wave extrapolations by reducing reflections at grid edges. Clayton and Engquist's 2-D absorbing boundary conditions for one-way wave extrapolation by depth-stepping in the frequency domain are extended to 3-D using paraxial approximations of the scalar wave equation. Internal consistency is retained by incorporating the interior extrapolation equation with the absorbing boundary conditions. Numerical schemes are designed to make the proposed absorbing boundary conditions both mathematically correct and efficient with negligible extra cost. Synthetic examples illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm for extrapolation with the 3-D 45sp° one-way wave equation. Frequency-space domain Butterworth and Chebyshev dip filters are implemented. By regrouping the product terms in the filter transfer function into summations, a cascaded (serial) Butterworth dip filter can be made parallel. A parallel Chebyshev dip filter can be similarly obtained, and has the same form as the Butterworth filter; but has different coeffcients. One of the advantages of the Chebyshev filter is that it has a sharper transition zone than that of Butterworth filter of the same order. Both

  20. Circumstances of falls and falls-related injuries in a cohort of older patients following hospital discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill AM


    Full Text Available Anne-Marie Hill,1 Tammy Hoffmann,2,3 Terry P Haines4,51School of Physiotherapy, Institute for Health Research, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, WA, 2Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice, Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, 3School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, 4School of Primary Health Care, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 5Allied Health Research Unit, Kingston Centre, Southern Health, Clayton, VIC, AustraliaBackground: Older people are at increased risk of falls after hospital discharge. This study aimed to describe the circumstances of falls in the six months after hospital discharge and to identify factors associated with the time and location of these falls.Methods: Participants in this randomized controlled study comprised fallers (n = 138 who were part of a prospective observational cohort (n = 343 nested within a randomized controlled trial (n = 1206. The study tested patient education on falls prevention in hospital compared with usual care in older patients who were discharged from hospital and followed for six months after hospital discharge. The outcome measures were number of falls, falls-related injuries, and the circumstances of the falls, measured by use of a diary and a monthly telephone call to each participant.Results: Participants (mean age 80.3 ± 8.7 years reported 276 falls, of which 150 (54.3% were injurious. Of the 255 falls for which there were data available about circumstances, 190 (74.5% occurred indoors and 65 (25.5% occurred in the external home environment or wider community. The most frequent time reported for falls was the morning (between 6 am and 10 am when 79 (28.6% falls, including 49 (32.7% injurious falls, occurred. The most frequently reported location for falls (n = 80, 29.0%, including injurious falls (n = 42, 28.0%, was the bedroom. Factors associated with falling in the bedroom included

  1. Groundwater conditions in Georgia, 2010–2011 (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Gordon, Debbie W.; Painter, Jaime A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 186 wells during calendar year 2010 and at 181 wells during calendar year 2011. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 168 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer system and equivalent sediments, 70 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 14 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 8 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally declined during the 2010 through 2011 calendar-year period, with water levels declining in 158 wells and rising in 10. Water levels declined over the period of record at 106 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 6 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during May–June 2010, and in the following areas in Georgia: the Brunswick area during August 2010 and August 2011, in the Albany–Dougherty County area during November 2010 and November 2011, and in the Augusta–Richmond County area during October 2010 and August 2011. In general, water levels in these areas were lower during 2011 than during 2010; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the

  2. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel


    the German and French Weather Services (Deutscher Wetterdienst and Météo-France). Historical fire events are taken from Prométhée database. Time series 2000-2010 are used as learning data and data from 2011 is used as the validation data. The resulting model can support real-time fire risk estimation for improved allocation of firefighting resources and planning of other mitigation actions. [1] Keeley, J.E.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.A.; Pausas, J.G.; Rundel, P.W. (2012): Fire in Mediterranean ecosystems: ecology, evolution and management. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp.515 [2] Lawson, B.D.; Armitage, O.B. (2008): Weather Guide for the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. [3] Van Wagner, C.E.; Pickett, T.L. (1985): Equations and FORTRAN Program for the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Forestry Technical Report 33. Canadian Forestry Service, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada [4] Syphard, A.D.; Radeloff, V.C.; Keuler, N.S.; Taylor, R.S.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Clayton, M.K. (2008): Predicting spatial patterns of fire on a southern California landscape. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 17, pp.602-613 [5] Papakosta, P.; Klein, F.; König, S.; Straub, D. (2012): Linking spatio-temporal data to the Fire Weather Index to estimate the probability of wildfire in the Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.14, EGU2012-12737, EGU General Assembly 2012

  3. Safety of Flibanserin in Women Treated With Antidepressants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Croft, Harry A; Yuan, James; Brown, Louise; Kissling, Robert


    receiving placebo; remission of anxiety based on the Beck Anxiety Inventory was noted in 16.4% and 2.7% of patients, respectively. The results of this study support the safety of flibanserin in premenopausal women being treated with a serotonergic antidepressant. No increased risks were observed when adding flibanserin to a stable selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor treatment regimen. This was a well-designed, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The primary limitation was the early study discontinuation by the sponsor, which decreased the sample size and duration of treatment. In this small trial, flibanserin 100 mg qhs was generally safe and well tolerated in premenopausal women with mild or remitted depression taking a serotonergic antidepressant. Clayton AH, Croft HA, Yuan J, et al. Safety of Flibanserin in Women Treated With Antidepressants: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Sex Med 2018;15:43-51. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies at Dounreay on the repopulation of offshore sediments by hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, Ron; Toole, Joe; Innes, Steve


    Since 2000, much of the effort of diving surveys offshore of Dounreay to locate the presence of radioactive particles in the seabed sediments has been directed to a programme of repopulation studies, in which selected areas of the seabed have been surveyed a number of times and cleared of identified particles on each occasion. This work has led to an understanding of the distribution of particles within the seabed off Dounreay. The two-population model originally proposed by Atkinson (2001 UKAEA Document reference 000052) and further refined into three populations by Clayton and Atkinson (2002 UKAEA Document PSG Issue Note (02)33) has been substantially confirmed by the extended data set now available. It is apparent that the upper layers of the seabed sediments, containing a population of particles, are essentially mobile. These sediments migrate over the seabed driven by tidal wave and surge induced seabed currents, recontaminating areas which have been previously cleared of particles. The number of particles present in this layer at any given location has not been effectively reduced by the removal of particles over the years, nor has the distribution of activity within this population varied significantly. The highest concentration of particles, and the most active, reside close to and to the northeast of the effluent diffuser outfall. Particle numbers and their activity decrease with distance from the diffuser, and the rate of decrease is significantly greater to the southwest compared to the northeast. By contrast, there is evidence that the population of particles retained in the deeper sediments has changed significantly as a result of the repopulation surveys. Close to the diffuser, the population of particles identified at depth during initial surveys is high and contains significantly more highly active particles than are found in the surface sediments. It is also evident that once the deeper sediments are cleared of particles, the level of repopulation

  5. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions (United States)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario


    Sensing (DTS), a fibre optical method for temperature determination over long distances (Selker et al., 2006). Thermal signatures were determined in a small urban stream before and after restoration and compared to streams in natural and near-natural settings. BWG BUNDESAMT FÜR WASSER UND GEOLOGIE, 2003. Die Geschichte des Hochwasserschutzes in der Schweiz. Bericht des BWG, Serie Wasser. Biel. 208 p. EA ENVIRONMENT AGENCY (UK), 2009. The Hyporheic Handbook: A handbook on the groundwater-surface water interface and hyporheic zone for environment managers. Bristol. 280 p. ANDREA, F., GSCHÖPF, C., BLASCHKE, A.P., WEIGELHOFER, G., AND RECKENDORFER, W., 2012. Ecological niche models for the evaluation of management options in urban floodplain - conservation vs. restoration purposes. Environ. Sci. Policy, PALMER, M.A., BERNHARDT, E.S., ALLAN, J.D., LAKE, P.S., ALEXANDER, G., BROOKS, S., CARR, J., CLAYTON, S., DAHM, C.N., FOLLSTAD SHAH, J., GALAT, D.L., LOSS, S.G., GOODWIN, P., HART, D.D., HASSETT, B., JENKINSON, R., KONDOLF, G.M., LAVE, R., MEYER, J.L., O`DONNELL, T.K., PAGANO, L. AND SUDDUTH, E., 2005. Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, pp. 208 - 217. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2005.01004.x. WORTLEY, L., HERO, J-M., HOWES, M., 2013. Evaluating Ecological Restoration Success: A Review of the Literature. Restoration Ecology, 21 (5), pp. 537 - 543. DOI 10.1111/rec.12028. SELKER, J.S., THEVENAZ, L., HUWALD, H., MALLET, A., LUXEMBURG, W., VAN DE GIESEN, N., STEJSKAL, M., ZEMAN, J., WESTHOFF, M., AND PARLANGE, M.B., 2006. Distributed fibre-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems. Water Resources Research, 42(12), W12202.

  6. Developing reciprocity, intercultural communicative competence, and content learning through international service learning


    VILBER, Aurelio; MALAQUE, Cherry; MONSANTO, Kayumangi; GUMALAL, Jeraline; Lou ALLEGO, Ivan; オレリオ, ビルバー; チェリー, マラケー; カユマンギ, マンサント; シェラリン, グムラン; アイバン, ルー・アルゴ



  7. Soil-atmosphere greenhouse-gas exchange in a bioretention system (United States)

    Daly, E.; Chan, H.; Beringer, J.; Livesley, S. J.


    Bioretention systems are a popular green-technology for the management of urban stormwater runoff in many countries. They typically consist of a trench filled with a highly permeable soil medium that supports vegetation; runoff is diverted to bioretention systems and, by percolating through the filter medium, is subjected to a number of treatment processes. Nitrogen (N) is one of the key pollutants targeted by bioretention systems, which are able to reduce N concentrations considerably from inflow to outflow. To increase N removal, a saturated zone at the bottom of the filter medium is often artificially generated, to both enhance the denitrification process and increase the water available to the vegetation between inflow events. Although studies on the N-removal performance of bioretention systems are widely available in the literature, less is known about the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially nitrous oxide (N2O), between the bioretention systems and the atmosphere. Here, we present an experimental pilot study to measure N2O and CO2 soil emissions in a bioretention system installed on the Clayton Campus of Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. The bioretention system is divided into three cells, each 15 m2; the system as a whole receives water run-off from 4500 m2 of impervious car park. We monitored two cells with mostly sandy-loam vegetated with native sedges (mainly Carex Appressa and Lomandra Longifolia), one with and one without a saturated zone. Three manual flux chambers were installed in both cells. Gas flux samples were taken twice a week at about 11 am between the 2nd of March and the 18th of May 2011 (late summer and fall). Since October 2010, air-phase soil CO2 concentration profiles were measured continuously using solid-state infrared CO2 transmitters (GMT-221 model, Vaisala, Finland), along with soil moisture and soil temperature. Preliminary analysis of the chamber data (March only) showed that N2O fluxes were in general below 50

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    University Press, xiv + 299 pp. [Yale Southeast Asia studies monograph 48.] 1999 -Bernice de Jong Boers, Peter Just, Dou Donggo justice; Conflict and morality in an Indonesian society. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, xi + 263 pp. -Nico J.G. Kaptein, Howard M. Federspiel, Islam and ideology in the emerging Indonesian state; The Persatuan Islam (PERSIS, 1923 to 1957. Leiden: Brill, 2001, xii + 365 pp. -Gerrit Knaap, Els M. Jacobs, Koopman in Azië; De handel van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie tijdens de 18de eeuw. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2000, 304 pp. -Toon van Meijl, Bruce M. Knauft, From primitive to postcolonial in Melanesia and anthropology. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1999, x + 320 pp. -Jennifer Nourse, Juliette Koning ,Women and households in Indonesia; Cultural notions and social practices. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, xiii + 354 pp., Marleen Nolten, Janet Rodenburg (eds -Sandra Pannell, Clayton Fredericksen ,Altered states; Material culture transformations in the Arafura region. Darwin: Northern Territory University Press, 2001, xiv + 160 pp., Ian Walters (eds -Anne Sofie Roald, Alijah Gordon, The propagation of Islam in the Indonesian-Malay archipelago. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian sociological research institute, 2001, xxv + 472 pp. -M.J.C. Schouten, Mary Taylor Huber ,Gendered missions; Women and men in missionary discourse and practice. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999, x + 252 pp., Nancy C. Lutkehaus (eds -Karel Steenbrink, Nakamura Mitsuo ,Islam and civil society in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian studies, 2001, 211 pp., Sharon Siddique, Omar Farouk Bajunid (eds -Heather Sutherland, Robert Cribb, Historical atlas of Indonesia, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, x + 256 pp. -Sikko Visscher, Lee Kam Hing ,The Chinese in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 2000, xxix + 418 pp., Tan Chee-Beng (eds -Edwin Wieringa, Jane Drakard, A kingdom of words; Language and power in Sumatra. Kuala

  9. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor


    The ability of short but intense laser pulses to generate high-energy electrons and ions from gaseous and solid targets has been well known since the early days of the laser fusion program. However, during the past decade there has been an explosion of experimental and theoretical activity in this area of laser-matter interaction, driven by the prospect of realizing table-top plasma accelerators for research, medical and industrial uses, and also relatively small and inexpensive plasma accelerators for high-energy physics at the frontier of particle physics. In this focus issue on laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators, the latest advances in this field are described. Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators Contents Slow wave plasma structures for direct electron acceleration B D Layer, J P Palastro, A G York, T M Antonsen and H M Milchberg Cold injection for electron wakefield acceleration X Davoine, A Beck, A Lifschitz, V Malka and E Lefebvre Enhanced proton flux in the MeV range by defocused laser irradiation J S Green, D C Carroll, C Brenner, B Dromey, P S Foster, S Kar, Y T Li, K Markey, P McKenna, D Neely, A P L Robinson, M J V Streeter, M Tolley, C-G Wahlström, M H Xu and M Zepf Dose-dependent biological damage of tumour cells by laser-accelerated proton beams S D Kraft, C Richter, K Zeil, M Baumann, E Beyreuther, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, Y Dammene, W Enghardt, U Helbig, L Karsch, T Kluge, L Laschinsky, E Lessmann, J Metzkes, D Naumburger, R Sauerbrey, M. Scḧrer, M Sobiella, J Woithe, U Schramm and J Pawelke The optimum plasma density for plasma wakefield excitation in the blowout regime W Lu, W An, M Zhou, C Joshi, C Huang and W B Mori Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET M J Hogan, T O Raubenheimer, A Seryi, P Muggli, T Katsouleas, C Huang, W Lu, W An, K A Marsh, W B Mori, C E Clayton and C Joshi Electron trapping and acceleration on a downward density ramp: a two-stage approach R M G M Trines, R Bingham, Z Najmudin

  10. Total nitrogen and suspended-sediment loads and identification of suspended-sediment sources in the Laurel Hill Creek watershed, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, water years 2010-11 (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Gellis, Allen C.; Galeone, Daniel G.


    Laurel Hill Creek is a watershed of 125 square miles located mostly in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, with small areas extending into Fayette and Westmoreland Counties. The upper part of the watershed is on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 303(d) list of impaired streams because of siltation, nutrients, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the annual sediment load, (2) estimate the annual nitrogen load, and (3) identify the major sources of fine-grained sediment using the sediment-fingerprinting approach. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was done in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District. Discharge, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data were collected at two streamflow-gaging stations—Laurel Hill Creek near Bakersville, Pa., (station 03079600) and Laurel Hill Creek at Ursina, Pa., (station 03080000)—and one ungaged stream site, Laurel Hill Creek below Laurel Hill Creek Lake at Trent (station 03079655). Concentrations of nutrients generally were low. Concentrations of ammonia were less than 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and concentrations of phosphorus were less than 0.3 mg/L. Most concentrations of phosphorus were less than the detection limit of 0.02 mg/L. Most water samples had concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite less than 1.0 mg/L. At the Bakersville station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.63 to 1.3 mg/L in base-flow samples and from 0.57 to 1.5 mg/L in storm composite samples. Median concentrations were 0.88 mg/L in base-flow samples and 1.2 mg/L in storm composite samples. At the Ursina station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.25 to 0.92 mg/L in base-flow samples; the median concentration was 0.57 mg/L. The estimated total nitrogen load at the Bakersville station was 262 pounds (lb) for 11 months of the 2010 water year (November 2009 to September 2010) and 266 lb for the 2011 water year. Most of the total

  11. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ? Parakitri


    , Culture and language development, Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language No. 6, Cambridge University Press, 227 + 10 pp. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, Death rituals and life in the societies of the Kula Ring, Dekalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1989. 280 pp., maps, figs., bibliogr., Roy Wagner (eds. - Denis Monnerie, Frederick H. Damon, From Muyuw to the Trobriands; Transformations along the northern side of the Kula ring, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1990. xvi + 285 pp., maps, figs., illus., apps., bibliogr., index. - David S. Moyer, Jeremy Boissevain, Dutch dilemmas; Anthropologists look at the Netherlands, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1989, v + 186 pp., Jojada Verrips (eds. - Gert Oostindie, B.H. Slicher van Bath, Indianen en Spanjaarden; Een ontmoeting tussen twee werelden, Latijns Amerika 1500-1800. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker, 1989. 301 pp. - Parakitri, C.A.M. de Jong, Kompas 1965-1985; Een algemene krant met een katholieke achtergrond binnen het religieus pluralisme van Indonesie, Kampen: Kok, 1990. - C.A. van Peursen, J. van Baal, Mysterie als openbaring. Utrecht: ISOR, 1990. - Harry A. Poeze, R.A. Longmire, Soviet relations with South-East Asia; An historical survey. London-New York: Kegan Paul International, 1989, x + 176 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Ann Swift, The road to Madiun; The Indonesian communist uprising of 1948. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project (Monograph series 69, 1989, xii + 116 pp. - Alex van Stipriaan, Cornelis Ch. Goslinga, The Dutch in the Caribbean and in Surinam 1791/5 - 1942, Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1990. xii + 812 pp. - A. Teeuw, Keith Foulcher, Social commitment in literature and the arts: The Indonesian ‘Institute of People’s culture’ 1950-1965, Clayton, Victoria: Southeast Asian studies, Monash University (Centre of Southeast Asian studies, 1986, vii + 234 pp. - Elly Touwen-Bouwsma, T. Friend, The blue-eyed enemy; Japan against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. New

  12. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly


    inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these commodities in the face of growing land scarcity (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). If high-yield plantations displace low-yield plantations they too may follow the path of industrial agriculture and resume destruction of the forests that conservation efforts aim to protect. Without clear incentives to spare land, we could be trading forest for higher yields. References Angelsen A and Kaimowitz D 2001 Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation (New York: CABI Publishing) ( files/books/bangelsen0101e0.pdf) Butler R and Laurance W 2010 Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 2 1-10 Gibbs H K, Johnston M, Foley J A, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N and Zaks D 2008 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001 Gibbs H K, Ruesch A S, Achard F, Clayton M K, Holmgren P, Ramankutty N and Foley J A 2010 Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 107 16732-7 Gutiérrez-Vélez V H, DeFries R, Pinedo-Vásquez M, Uriarte M, Padoch C, Baethgen W, Fernandes K and Lim Y 2011 High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon Environ. Res. Lett. 6 044029 Koh L and Wilcove D 2008 Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conserv. Lett. 1 60-4 Lambin E and Meyfroidt P 2011 Inaugural article: global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 93465-72 Morton D C et al 2006 Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103 14637-41

  13. Effect of dietary protein sources of on blood or milk urea nitrogen of native cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, N R; Huque, K S; Asaduzzaman, M. [Animal Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)], E-mail:


    T{sub 4} treatment groups. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content in morning milk was lower compared to evening milk. This similar findings also reported by Broderick and Clayton, (1997), they reported that MUN concentrations was generally lower for samples collected at morning milking. Others explained that the differences of MUN in morning or evening milk might be influenced by the differences in feeding to milking intervals. These data show that feeding urea or protein of organic sources had effect on BSU and MUN contents in the morning milk but had no significant effect on evening milk. The lower BSU or MUN content in milk of the cows fed urea and molasses either in daily meals or as mix with concentrates may be due mainly to a lower CP intake compared to UMS and Matikalai. The results and discussion evinced no significant effect of feeding urea or organic protein on milk protein per cent (%). Determination of dietary protein concentration or sources on different components of milk protein is important to identify to determine feeding effect of urea on the quality of milk. Further detail study, may be worth a try to answer these questions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvino José Assmann


    of biopolitics, calling the attention to distinctions and identities between historically different mechanisms of power. The author tries to call the attention to the polissemic character of the notion of biopolitics. In the fourth article, Cláudia Hausman Silveira, doctoral student at the Interdisciplinary Program of Post-Graduation in Human sciences (DICH at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC, presents the issue of the family health, comparing the models that have inspired the construction of the Program of Family Health in Brazil, observing their differences and similarities. Moreover, she makes a comparative analysis among the Cuban, English, Canadian and Brazilian models, concluding that the Program multiprofessional proposal of work in interdisciplinary teams, in accordance with the Only System of Health (SUS, can assist in the fulfillment of the health law in the country. In the fifth article, the environmental issue is treated under the pedagogical point of view. Clayton Ângelo Silva Costa, Master in Environmental Sciences (UEMG presents results of a research carried through with private school teachers in the city of Contagem, Minas Gerais, showing the obstacles involving the application of the environmental education interdisciplinary project, focusing aspects of the atmospheric pollution. The last article approaches aspects of the Humanitarian International law. Geovane Machado Alves, Master’s Degree student in Public Law from the University of the Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS, starts from the concept of solidarity and humanitarian intervention, and questions the Brazilian performance in Haiti as well as the legal paradigm of the international solidarism and its repercussions. Closing this issue, the theme is the public university itself and its current impasses and challenges. Héctor Ricardo Leis, PhD in Philosophy from the PUC-RJ, associated professor of the Sociology Department, and Selvino J. Assmann, PhD in Philosophy from the

  15. Groundwater conditions and studies in Georgia, 2008-2009 (United States)

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Painter, Jaime A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey collects groundwater data and conducts studies to monitor hydrologic conditions, better define groundwater resources, and address problems related to water supply, water use, and water quality. In Georgia, water levels were monitored continuously at 179 wells during 2008 and 181 wells during 2009. Because of missing data or short periods of record (less than 3 years) for several of these wells, a total of 161 wells are discussed in this report. These wells include 17 in the surficial aquifer system, 19 in the Brunswick aquifer and equivalent sediments, 66 in the Upper Floridan aquifer, 16 in the Lower Floridan aquifer and underlying units, 10 in the Claiborne aquifer, 1 in the Gordon aquifer, 11 in the Clayton aquifer, 12 in the Cretaceous aquifer system, 2 in Paleozoic-rock aquifers, and 7 in crystalline-rock aquifers. Data from the well network indicate that water levels generally rose during the 2008-2009 period, with water levels rising in 135 wells and declining in 26. In contrast, water levels declined over the period of record at 100 wells, increased at 56 wells, and remained relatively constant at 5 wells. In addition to continuous water-level data, periodic water-level measurements were collected and used to construct potentiometric-surface maps for the Upper Floridan aquifer in Camden, Charlton, and Ware Counties, Georgia, and adjacent counties in Florida during September 2008 and May 2009; in the Brunswick, Georgia area during July 2008 and July-August 2009; and in the City of Albany-Dougherty County, Georgia area during November 2008 and November 2009. In general, water levels in these areas were higher during 2009 than during 2008; however, the configuration of the potentiometric surfaces in each of the areas showed little change. Groundwater quality in the Floridan aquifer system is monitored in the Albany, Savannah, Brunswick, and Camden County areas of Georgia. In the Albany area, nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the

  16. Young Stars in Orion May Solve Mystery of Our Solar System (United States)


    very close to the Solar System's progenitor gas cloud, simultaneously triggering its collapse and seeding it with short-lived isotopes. Solar flares could produce such isotopes, but the flares would have to be hundreds of thousands of times more powerful and hundreds of times more frequent than those our Sun generates. Enter the stars in the Orion Nebula. This star-forming region has several dozen new stars nearly identical to our Sun, only much younger. Feigelson's team used Chandra to study the flaring in these analogs of the early Sun and found that nearly all exhibit extremely high levels of X-ray flaring--powerful and frequent enough to forge many of the kinds of isotopes found in the ancient meteorites from the early solar system. "This is a very exciting result for space X-ray astronomy," said Donald Clayton, Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Clemson University. "The Chandra Penn State team has shown that stellar-flare acceleration produces radioactive nuclei whether we want them or not. Now the science debate can concentrate on whether such irradiation made some or even all of the extinct radioactivities that were present when our solar system was formed, or whether some contamination of our birth molecular cloud by external material is also needed." "This is an excellent example of how apparently distant scientific fields, like X-ray astronomy and the origins of solar systems, can in fact be closely linked," said Feigelson. The Orion observation was made with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer, which was conceived and developed for NASA by Penn State and Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Gordon Garmire, the Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Penn State. The Penn State observation team includes Pat Broos, James Gaffney, Gordon Garmire, Leisa Townsley and Yohko Tsuboi. Collaborators also include Lynne Hillenbrand of CalTech and Steven Pravdo of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Background

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available -Martin Baier, Han Knapen, Forests of fortune?; The environmental history of Southeast Borneo, 1600-1880. Leiden: The KITLV Press, 2001, xiv + 487 pp. [Verhandelingen 189] -Jean-Pascal Bassino, Per Ronnas ,Entrepreneurship in Vietnam; Transformations and dynamics. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS and Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001, xii + 354 pp., Bhargavi Ramamurty (eds -Adriaan Bedner, Renske Biezeveld, Between individualism and mutual help; Social security and natural resources in a Minangkabau village. Delft: Eburon, 2001, xi + 307 pp. -Linda Rae Bennett, Alison Murray, Pink fits; Sex, subcultures and discourses in the Asia-Pacific. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 2001, xii + 198 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 53.] -Peter Boomgaard, Laurence Monnais-Rousselot, Médecine et colonisation; L'aventure indochinoise 1860-1939. Paris: CNRS Editions, 1999, 489 pp. -Ian Coxhead, Yujiro Hayami ,A rice village saga; Three decades of Green revolution in the Philippines. Houndmills, Basingstoke: MacMillan, 2000, xviii + 274 pp., Masao Kikuchi (eds -Robert Cribb, Frans Hüsken ,Violence and vengeance; Discontent and conflict in New Order Indonesia. Saarbrücken: Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik, 2002, 163 pp. [Nijmegen Studies in Development and Cultural Change 37.], Huub de Jonge (eds -Frank Dhont, Michael Leifer, Asian nationalism. London: Routledge, 2000, x + 210 pp. -David van Duuren, Joseph Fischer ,The folk art of Bali; The narrative tradition. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1998, xx + 116 pp., Thomas Cooper (eds -Cassandra Green, David J. Stuart-Fox, Pura Besakih; Temple, religion and society in Bali. Leiden: KITLV Press, xvii + 470 pp. [Verhandelingen 193.] -Hans Hägerdal, Vladimir I. Braginsky ,Images of Nusantara in Russian literature. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1999, xxvi + 516 pp., Elena M. Diakonova (eds -Hans Hägerdal, David Chandler, A history of Cambodia (third edition. Boulder

  18. Rubitecan: 9-NC, 9-Nitro-20(S)-camptothecin, 9-nitro-camptothecin, 9-nitrocamptothecin, RFS 2000, RFS2000. (United States)


    similar to the one at the centre of rubitecan. In addition, SuperGen was also issued US patent No. 6,485,514 in December 2002, covering the local delivery of rubitecan via stents and/or catheters to sites of proliferating cells. Stent- or catheter-delivered rubitecan may be beneficial in certain types of cardiac procedures, such as ablation or angioplasty, as well as for direct injection into a certain number of solid tumours. SuperGen is also developing an inhaled, liposomal formulation of rubitecan. It acquired the worldwide rights to this formulation from the Clayton Foundation in December 1999. Inhaled rubitecan is in clinical trials in the US for the treatment of lung cancer and pulmonary metastatic cancer. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  19. Personal Exposure to Mixtures of Volatile Organic Compounds: Modeling and Further Analysis of the RIOPA Data (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong


    semi-parametric Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) of normal distributions for three individual VOCs (chloroform, 1,4-DCB, and styrene). Goodness of fit for these full distribution models was also evaluated using simulated data. Specific Aim 2 Mixtures in the RIOPA VOC data set were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and by toxicologic mode of action. Dependency structures of a mixture’s components were examined using mixture fractions and were modeled using copulas, which address correlations of multiple components across their entire distributions. Five candidate copulas (Gaussian, t, Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) were evaluated, and the performance of fitted models was evaluated using simulation and mixture fractions. Cumulative cancer risks were calculated for mixtures, and results from copulas and multivariate lognormal models were compared with risks based on RIOPA observations. Specific Aim 3 Exposure determinants were identified using stepwise regressions and linear mixed-effects models (LMMs). RESULTS Specific Aim 1 Extreme value exposures in RIOPA typically were best fitted by three-parameter generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions, and sometimes by the two-parameter Gumbel distribution. In contrast, lognormal distributions significantly underestimated both the level and likelihood of extreme values. Among the VOCs measured in RIOPA, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with the greatest cancer risks; for example, for the highest 10% of measurements of 1,4-DCB, all individuals had risk levels above 10−4, and 13% of all participants had risk levels above 10−2. Of the full-distribution models, the finite mixture of normal distributions with two to four clusters and the DPM of normal distributions had superior performance in comparison with the lognormal models. DPM distributions provided slightly better fit than the finite mixture distributions; the advantages of the DPM model were avoiding certain convergence issues associated

  20. Personal exposure to mixtures of volatile organic compounds: modeling and further analysis of the RIOPA data. (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Su, Feng-Chiao; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Jia, Chunrong


    -parametric Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) of normal distributions for three individual VOCs (chloroform, 1,4-DCB, and styrene). Goodness of fit for these full distribution models was also evaluated using simulated data. Specific Aim 2. Mixtures in the RIOPA VOC data set were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF) and by toxicologic mode of action. Dependency structures of a mixture's components were examined using mixture fractions and were modeled using copulas, which address correlations of multiple components across their entire distributions. Five candidate copulas (Gaussian, t, Gumbel, Clayton, and Frank) were evaluated, and the performance of fitted models was evaluated using simulation and mixture fractions. Cumulative cancer risks were calculated for mixtures, and results from copulas and multivariate lognormal models were compared with risks based on RIOPA observations. Specific Aim 3. Exposure determinants were identified using stepwise regressions and linear mixed-effects models (LMMs). Specific Aim 1. Extreme value exposures in RIOPA typically were best fitted by three-parameter generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions, and sometimes by the two-parameter Gumbel distribution. In contrast, lognormal distributions significantly underestimated both the level and likelihood of extreme values. Among the VOCs measured in RIOPA, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) was associated with the greatest cancer risks; for example, for the highest 10% of measurements of 1,4-DCB, all individuals had risk levels above 10(-4), and 13% of all participants had risk levels above 10(-2). Of the full-distribution models, the finite mixture of normal distributions with two to four clusters and the DPM of normal distributions had superior performance in comparison with the lognormal models. DPM distributions provided slightly better fit than the finite mixture distributions; the advantages of the DPM model were avoiding certain convergence issues associated with the finite mixture

  1. Heavy Element Staining of Sedimentary Organic Matter Functional Groups for Backscattered Electron Imaging Marquage par éléments lourds de la matière organique sédimentaire pour la microscopie électronique en électrons rétrodiffusés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin-Geindre S.


    , 1992. Son imagerie est basée sur les contrastes de numéro atomique (Z existant entre les divers constituants. La matière organique apparaît noire et les minéraux gris. Cependant il n'est pas possible de distinguer plusieurs types de matière organique avec le MEB/ER. Afin de mettre en évidence des contrastes au MEB/ER entre différentes matières organiques, les échantillons ont été marqués par des éléments lourds qui ont la particularité de se fixer de manière sélective et spécifique sur les groupes fonctionnels. Cette méthode est largement employée par la biologie cellulaire pour révéler divers corps organiques (Soligo et Lambertenghi-Deliliers, 1987; Langsdorff et al. , 1990; Clark, 1991; Namimatsu, 1992 ou bien par la science des matériaux dans le domaine des polymères (Sawyer et Grubb, 1987; Ohlsson et Törnell, 1990; Sue et al. , 1991; Janik et al. , 1992. L'application à la géologie et à la pétrographie est restée jusqu'à présent assez réduite : sédiments argileux (Whitlatch et Johnson, 1974; Green et al. , 1979; Bishop et al. , 1992; Hillier et Clayton, 1992, charbons (Corcoran et Stephens, 1987; Sommerfeld et al. , 1992, sols (Foster, 1981. Les éléments lourds utilisés pour le marquage sont très variés et présentent une spécificité plus ou moins large (Reynolds, 1963; Lewis et Knight, 1976; Takeuchi et Takeuchi, 1990. La matière organique sédimentaire est un mélange complexe de macromolécules dont la composition dépend de la nature de la matière organique originelle et de son degré d'évolution (Tissot et Welte, 1984. La matière organique peu évoluée possède de nombreuses variétés de groupes fonctionnels (Rouxhet et al. , 1980; Béhar et Vandenbroucke, 1987. La faisabilité de la méthode a d'abord été testée sur des polymères contenant des fonctions chimiques susceptibles d'exister dans les kérogènes naturels (tableau 1. Puis elle a été appliquée à des sédiments presque exclusivement formés de

  2. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neurology and Follow-up"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors