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Sample records for wing wind-tunnel model

  1. Static Aeroelastic Scaling and Analysis of a Sub-Scale Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the development of a scaled wind tunnel model for static aeroelastic similarity with a full-scale wing model. The full-scale aircraft model is based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with flexible wing structures referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The baseline stiffness of the ESAC wing represents a conventionally stiff wing model. Static aeroelastic scaling is conducted on the stiff wing configuration to develop the wind tunnel model, but additional tailoring is also conducted such that the wind tunnel model achieves a 10% wing tip deflection at the wind tunnel test condition. An aeroelastic scaling procedure and analysis is conducted, and a sub-scale flexible wind tunnel model based on the full-scale's undeformed jig-shape is developed. Optimization of the flexible wind tunnel model's undeflected twist along the span, or pre-twist or wash-out, is then conducted for the design test condition. The resulting wind tunnel model is an aeroelastic model designed for the wind tunnel test condition.

  2. Aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the DARPA Smart Wing Phase II wind tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brian P.; Martin, Christopher A.; Cowan, David L.

    2001-06-01

    A wind tunnel demonstration was conducted on a scale model of an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV). The model was configured with traditional hinged control surfaces and control surfaces manufactured with embedded shape memory alloys. Control surfaces constructed with SMA wires enable a smooth and continuous deformation in both the spanwise and cordwise directions. This continuous shape results in some unique aerodynamic effects. Additionally, the stiffness distribution of the model was selected to understand the aeroelastic behavior of a wing designed with these control surfaces. The wind tunnel experiments showed that the aerodynamic performance of a wing constructed with these control surfaces is significantly improved. However, care must be taken when aeroelastic effects are considered since the wing will show a more rapid reduction in the roll moment due to increased moment arm about the elastic axis. It is shown, experimentally, that this adverse effect is easily counteracted using leading edge control surfaces.

  3. Finite element analysis of high aspect ratio wind tunnel wing model: A parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosly, N. A.; Harmin, M. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Procedure for designing the wind tunnel model of a high aspect ratio (HAR) wing containing geometric nonlinearities is described in this paper. The design process begins with identification of basic features of the HAR wing as well as its design constraints. This enables the design space to be narrowed down and consequently, brings ease of convergence towards the design solution. Parametric studies in terms of the spar thickness, the span length and the store diameter are performed using finite element analysis for both undeformed and deformed cases, which respectively demonstrate the linear and nonlinear conditions. Two main criteria are accounted for in the selection of the wing design: the static deflections due to gravitational loading should be within the allowable margin of the size of the wind tunnel test section and the flutter speed of the wing should be much below the maximum speed of the wind tunnel. The findings show that the wing experiences a stiffness hardening effect under the nonlinear static solution and the presence of the store enables significant reduction in linear flutter speed.

  4. Computational Design and Analysis of a Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing for a Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynde, Michelle N.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    A natural laminar flow (NLF) wind tunnel model has been designed and analyzed for a wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The NLF design method is built into the CDISC design module and uses a Navier-Stokes flow solver, a boundary layer profile solver, and stability analysis and transition prediction software. The NLF design method alters the pressure distribution to support laminar flow on the upper surface of wings with high sweep and flight Reynolds numbers. The method addresses transition due to attachment line contamination/transition, Gortler vortices, and crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting modal instabilities. The design method is applied to the wing of the Common Research Model (CRM) at transonic flight conditions. Computational analysis predicts significant extents of laminar flow on the wing upper surface, which results in drag savings. A 5.2 percent scale semispan model of the CRM NLF wing will be built and tested in the NTF. This test will aim to validate the NLF design method, as well as characterize the laminar flow testing capabilities in the wind tunnel facility.

  5. New methodologies for calculation of flight parameters on reduced scale wings models in wind tunnel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mosbah, Abdallah

    In order to improve the qualities of wind tunnel tests, and the tools used to perform aerodynamic tests on aircraft wings in the wind tunnel, new methodologies were developed and tested on rigid and flexible wings models. A flexible wing concept is consists in replacing a portion (lower and/or upper) of the skin with another flexible portion whose shape can be changed using an actuation system installed inside of the wing. The main purpose of this concept is to improve the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft, and especially to reduce the fuel consumption of the airplane. Numerical and experimental analyses were conducted to develop and test the methodologies proposed in this thesis. To control the flow inside the test sections of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel of LARCASE, numerical and experimental analyses were performed. Computational fluid dynamics calculations have been made in order to obtain a database used to develop a new hybrid methodology for wind tunnel calibration. This approach allows controlling the flow in the test section of the Price-Paidoussis wind tunnel. For the fast determination of aerodynamic parameters, new hybrid methodologies were proposed. These methodologies were used to control flight parameters by the calculation of the drag, lift and pitching moment coefficients and by the calculation of the pressure distribution around an airfoil. These aerodynamic coefficients were calculated from the known airflow conditions such as angles of attack, the mach and the Reynolds numbers. In order to modify the shape of the wing skin, electric actuators were installed inside the wing to get the desired shape. These deformations provide optimal profiles according to different flight conditions in order to reduce the fuel consumption. A controller based on neural networks was implemented to obtain desired displacement actuators. A metaheuristic algorithm was used in hybridization with neural networks, and support vector machine approaches and their

  6. Aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel investigations using the active flexible wing model - Status and recent accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Thomas; Perry, Boyd, III; Tiffany, Sherwood; Cole, Stanley; Buttrill, Carey; Adams, William, Jr.; Houck, Jacob; Srinathkumar, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the joint NASA/Rockwell Active Flexible Wing Wind-Tunnel Test Program. The objectives of the program are to develop and validate the analysis, design and test methodologies required to apply multifunction active control technology for improving aircraft performance and stability. Major tasks of the program include designing digital multiinput/multioutput flutter-suppression and rolling-maneuver-load-alleviation concepts for a flexible full-span wind-tunnel model, obtaining an experimental data base for the basic model and each control concept, and providing comparisons between experimental and analytical results to validate the methodologies. This program is also providing the opportunity to improve real-time simulation techniques and to gain practical experience with digital control law implementation procedures.

  7. Insights into Airframe Aerodynamics and Rotor-on-Wing Interactions from a 0.25-Scale Tiltrotor Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.

  8. Computed and Experimental Flutter/LCO Onset for the Boeing Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Funk, Christie J.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model and compares the results to linear MSC. Nastran flutter analysis and preliminary data from a recent wind-tunnel test of that model at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The simulated conditions under consideration are zero angle of attack, so that structural nonlinearity can be neglected. It is found that, for Mach number greater than 0.78, the linear flutter analysis predicts flutter onset dynamic pressure below the wind-tunnel test and that predicted by the Navier-Stokes analysis. Furthermore, the wind-tunnel test revealed that the majority of the high structural dynamics cases were wing limit cycle oscillation (LCO) rather than flutter. Most Navier-Stokes simulated cases were also LCO rather than hard flutter. There is dip in the wind-tunnel test flutter/LCO onset in the Mach 0.76-0.80 range. Conditions tested above that Mach number exhibited no aeroelastic instability at the dynamic pressures reached in the tunnel. The linear flutter analyses do not show a flutter/LCO dip. The Navier-Stokes simulations also do not reveal a dip; however, the flutter/LCO onset is at a significantly higher dynamic pressure at Mach 0.90 than at lower Mach numbers. The Navier-Stokes simulations indicate a mild LCO onset at Mach 0.82, then a more rapidly growing instability at Mach 0.86 and 0.90. Finally, the modeling issues and their solution related to the use of a beam and pod finite element model to generate the Navier-Stokes structure mode shapes are discussed.

  9. Aeroelastic Analysis of a Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data analysis of a flexible wing wind tunnel model with a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF) design for drag minimization tested at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory (UWAL). The wind tunnel test was designed to explore the relative merit of the VCCTEF concept for improved cruise efficiency through the use of low-cost aeroelastic model test techniques. The flexible wing model is a 10%-scale model of a typical transport wing and is constructed of woven fabric composites and foam core. The wing structural stiffness in bending is tailored to be half of the stiffness of a Boeing 757-era transport wing while the torsional stiffness is about the same. This stiffness reduction results in a wing tip deflection of about 10% of the wing semi-span. The VCCTEF is a multi-segment flap design having three chordwise camber segments and five spanwise flap sections for a total of 15 individual flap elements. The three chordwise camber segments can be positioned appropriately to create a desired trailing edge camber. Elastomeric material is used to cover the gaps in between the spanwise flap sections, thereby creating a continuous trailing edge. Wind tunnel data analysis conducted previously shows that the VCCTEF can achieve a drag reduction of up to 6.31% and an improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio (L=D) of up to 4.85%. A method for estimating the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the flexible wingUWAL wind tunnel model from static load test data is presented. The resulting estimation indicates that the stiffness of the flexible wing is significantly stiffer in torsion than in bending by as much as 9 to 1. The lift prediction for the flexible wing is computed by a coupled aerodynamic-structural model. The coupled model is developed by coupling a conceptual aerodynamic tool Vorlax with a finite-element model of the flexible wing via an automated geometry deformation tool. Based on the comparison of the lift curve slope

  10. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  11. Wind-tunnel tests on model wing with Fowler flap and specially developed leading-edge slot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Fred E; Platt, Robert C

    1933-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel to find the increase in maximum lift coefficient which could be obtained by providing a model wing with both a Fowler trailing-edge extension flap and a Handley Page type leading-edge slot. A conventional Handley page slot proportioned to operate on the plain wing without a flap gave but a slight increase with the flap; so a special form of slot was developed to work more effectively with the flap. With the best combined arrangement the maximum lift coefficient based on the original area was increased from 3.17, for the Fowler wing, to 3.62. The minimum drag coefficient with both devices retracted was increased in approximately the same proportion. Tests were also made with the special-type slot on the plain wing without the flap. The special slot, used either with or without the Fowler flap, gave definitely higher values of the maximum lift coefficient than the slots of conventional form, with an increase of the same order in the minimum drag coefficient.

  12. Preliminary wing model tests in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Max M

    1926-01-01

    This report contains the results of a series of tests with three wing models. By changing the section of one of the models and painting the surface of another, the number of models tested was increased to five. The tests were made in order to obtain some general information on the air forces on wing sections at a high Reynolds number and in particular to make sure that the Reynolds number is really the important factor, and not other things like the roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge. The few tests described in this report seem to indicate that the air forces at a high Reynolds number are not equivalent to respective air forces at a low Reynolds number (as in an ordinary atmospheric wind tunnel). The drag appears smaller at a high Reynolds number and the maximum lift is increased in some cases. The roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge do not materially change the results, so that we feel confident that tests with systematic series of different wing sections will bring consistent results, important and highly useful to the designer.

  13. Aeroservoelastic Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Free-Flying, Joined-Wing SensorCraft Model for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Castelluccio, Mark A.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind-tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, exible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a full-span, aeroelastically scaled, wind-tunnel model of a joined-wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to acquire a basic aerodynamic data set. In the second and third tests, the same wind-tunnel model was mated to a new, two-degree-of-freedom, beam mount. This mount allowed the full-span model to translate vertically and pitch. Trimmed flight at -10% static margin and gust load alleviation were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees of freedom required that the model be own in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort. The balance and free ying wind-tunnel tests will be summarized. The design of the trim and gust load alleviation control laws along with the associated results will also be discussed.

  14. Aeroelastic Analysis of SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Wind-Tunnel Model Using FUN3D and a Nonlinear Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Scott, Robert C.; Allen, Timothy J.; Sexton, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given in recent years to the design of highly flexible aircraft. The results of numerous studies demonstrate the significant performance benefits of strut-braced wing (SBW) and trussbraced wing (TBW) configurations. Critical aspects of the TBW configuration are its larger aspect ratio, wing span and thinner wings. These aspects increase the importance of considering fluid/structure and control system coupling. This paper presents high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulations of the dynamic response of the flexible Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) truss-braced wing wind-tunnel model. The latest version of the SUGAR TBW finite element model (FEM), v.20, is used in the present simulations. Limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) of the TBW wing/strut/nacelle are simulated at angle-of-attack (AoA) values of -1, 0 and +1 degree. The modal data derived from nonlinear static aeroelastic MSC.Nastran solutions are used at AoAs of -1 and +1 degrees. The LCO amplitude is observed to be dependent on AoA. LCO amplitudes at -1 degree are larger than those at +1 degree. The LCO amplitude at zero degrees is larger than either -1 or +1 degrees. These results correlate well with both wind-tunnel data and the behavior observed in previous studies using linear aerodynamics. The LCO onset at zero degrees AoA has also been computed using unloaded v.20 FEM modes. While the v.20 model increases the dynamic pressure at which LCO onset is observed, it is found that the LCO onset at and above Mach 0.82 is much different than that produced by an earlier version of the FEM, v. 19.

  15. Wind tunnel tests for a flapping wing model with a changeable camber using macro-fiber composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Kwan; Han, Jae-Hung; Kwon, Ki-Jung

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, a biomimetic flexible flapping wing was developed on a real ornithopter scale by using macro-fiber composite (MFC) actuators. With the actuators, the maximum camber of the wing can be linearly changed from −2.6% to +4.4% of the maximum chord length. Aerodynamic tests were carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics, particularly the camber effect, the chordwise flexibility effect and the unsteady effect. Although the chordwise wing flexibility reduces the effective angle of attack, the maximum lift coefficient can be increased by the MFC actuators up to 24.4% in a static condition. Note also that the mean values of the perpendicular force coefficient rise to a value of considerably more than 3 in an unsteady aerodynamic flow region. Additionally, particle image velocimetry (PIV) tests were performed in static and dynamic test conditions to validate the flexibility and unsteady effects. The static PIV results confirm that the effective angle of attack is reduced by the coupling of the chordwise flexibility and the aerodynamic force, resulting in a delay in the stall phenomena. In contrast to the quasi-steady flow condition of a relatively high advance ratio, the unsteady aerodynamic effect due to a leading edge vortex can be found along the wing span in a low advance ratio region. The overall results show that the chordwise wing flexibility can produce a positive effect on flapping aerodynamic characteristics in quasi-steady and unsteady flow regions; thus, wing flexibility should be considered in the design of efficient flapping wings

  16. Wind Tunnel Interference on Wings, Bodies and Airscrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1933-09-13

    convenientmethod of experiment is to investigate the behaviour of a model in the artificial stream of a wind tunnel, and the limited extent of this...f. lUZ across its span bas been obtained closed elliptictunnel, is by Rosenhead"’ in terms of elliptic functions. The resulting for-6 m sinb 0 cosh 0

  17. Design and wind tunnel tests of winglets on a DC-10 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind tunnel test utilizing a 4.7 percent scale semi-span model in the Langley Research Center 8-foot transonic pressure wind tunnel to establish the cruise drag improvement potential of winglets as applied to the DC-10 wide body transport aircraft. Winglets were investigated on both the DC-10 Series 10 (domestic) and 30/40 (intercontinental) configurations and compared with the Series 30/40 configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that for the DC-10 winglets provide approximately twice the cruise drag reduction of wing-tip extensions for about the same increase in bending moment at the wing fuselage juncture. Furthermore, the winglet configurations achieved drag improvements which were in close agreement to analytical estimates. It was observed that relatively small changes in wing-winglet tailoring effected large improvements in drag and visual flow characteristics. All final winglet configurations exhibited visual flow characteristics on the wing and winglets

  18. Gust response analysis and wind tunnel test for a high-aspect ratio wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical nonlinear aeroelastic response analysis for a flexible high-aspect ratio wing excited by harmonic gust load is presented along with a companion wind tunnel test. A multidisciplinary coupled numerical calculation is developed to simulate the flexible model wing undergoing gust load in the time domain via discrete nonlinear finite element structural dynamic analysis and nonplanar unsteady vortex lattice aerodynamic computation. A dynamic perturbation analysis about a nonlinear static equilibrium is also used to determine the small perturbation flutter boundary. A novel noncontact 3-D camera measurement analysis system is firstly used in the wind tunnel test to obtain the spatial large deformation and responses. The responses of the flexible wing under different static equilibrium states and frequency gust loads are discussed. The fair to good quantitative agreements between the theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented analysis method is an acceptable way to predict the geometrically nonlinear gust response for flexible wings.

  19. Roll plus maneuver load alleviation control system designs for the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.

    1991-01-01

    Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.

  20. Morphing wing system integration with wind tunnel testing =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezguez, Mohamed Sadok

    Preserving the environment is a major challenge for today's aviation industry. Within this context, the CRIAQ MDO 505 project started, where a multidisciplinary approach was used to improve aircraft fuel efficiency. This international project took place between several Canadian and Italian teams. Industrial teams are Bombardier Aerospace, Thales Canada and Alenia Aermacchi. The academic partners are from Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal and Naples University. Teams from 'CIRA' and IAR-NRC research institutes had, also, contributed on this project. The main objective of this project is to improve the aerodynamic performance of a morphing wing prototype by reducing the drag. This drag reduction is achieved by delaying the flow transition (from laminar to turbulent) by performing shape optimization of the flexible upper skin according to different flight conditions. Four linear axes, each one actuated by a 'BLDC' motor, are used to morph the skin. The skin displacements are calculated by 'CFD' numerical simulation based on flow parameters which are Mach number, the angle of attack and aileron's angle of deflection. The wing is also equipped with 32 pressure sensors to experimentally detect the transition during aerodynamic testing in the subsonic wind tunnel at the IAR-NRC in Ottawa. The first part of the work is dedicated to establishing the necessary fieldbus communications between the control system and the wing. The 'CANopen' protocol is implemented to ensure real time communication between the 'BLDC' drives and the real-time controller. The MODBUS TCP protocol is used to control the aileron drive. The second part consists of implementing the skin control position loop based on the LVDTs feedback, as well as developing an automated calibration procedure for skin displacement values. Two 'sets' of wind tunnel tests were carried out to, experimentally, investigate the morphing wing controller effect; these tests also offered the

  1. Insights into Airframe Aerodynamics and Rotor-on-Wing Interactions from a 0.25-Scale Tiltrotor Wind Tunnel Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, L. A; Lillie, D; McCluer, M; Yamauchi, G. K; Derby, M. R

    2002-01-01

    A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics...

  2. Glide back booster wind tunnel model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, M. V.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Stoica, C. I.; Niculescu, M. L.; Neculaescu, A. M.; Persinaru, A. G.; Boscoianu, M.

    2017-07-01

    Affordable space access requires partial or ideally full launch vehicle reuse, which is in line with clean environment requirement. Although the idea is old, the practical use is difficult, requiring very large technology investment for qualification. Rocket gliders like Space Shuttle have been successfullyoperated but the price and correspondingly the energy footprint were found not sustainable. For medium launchers, finally there is a very promising platform as Falcon 9. For very small launchers the situation is more complex, because the performance index (payload to start mass) is already small, versus medium and heavy launchers. For partial reusable micro launchers this index is even smaller. However the challenge has to be taken because it is likely that in a multiyear effort, technology is going to enable the performance recovery to make such a system economically and environmentally feasible. The current paper is devoted to a small unitary glide back booster which is foreseen to be assembled in a number of possible configurations. Although the level of analysis is not deep, the solution is analyzed from the aerodynamic point of view. A wind tunnel model is designed, with an active canard, to enablea more efficient wind tunnel campaign, as a national level premiere.

  3. Low-speed wind tunnel test results of the Canard Rotor/Wing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Steven M.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Rutherford, John W.; Swanson, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The Canard Rotor/Wing (CRW), a high-speed rotorcraft concept, was tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in Mountain View, California. The 1/5-scale model was tested to identify certain low-speed, fixed-wing, aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration and investigate the effectiveness of two empennages, an H-Tail and a T-Tail. The paper addresses the principal test objectives and the results achieved in the wind tunnel test. These are summarized as: i) drag build-up and differences between the H-Tail and T-Tail configuration, ii) longitudinal stability of the H-Tail and T-Tail configurations in the conversion and cruise modes, iii) control derivatives for the canard and elevator in the conversion and cruise modes, iv) aerodynamic characteristics of varying the rotor/wing azimuth position, and v) canard and tail lift/trim capability for conversion conditions.

  4. Wall Correction Model for Wind Tunnels with Open Test Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In th paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, that is based on a onedimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. Generally......, the corrections from the model are in very good agreement with the CFD computaions, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections. Keywords: Wind tunnel correction, momentum theory...

  5. Wind Tunnel Management and Resource Optimization: A Systems Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Derya, A.; Aasen, Curtis A.

    2000-01-01

    Time, money, and, personnel are becoming increasingly scarce resources within government agencies due to a reduction in funding and the desire to demonstrate responsible economic efficiency. The ability of an organization to plan and schedule resources effectively can provide the necessary leverage to improve productivity, provide continuous support to all projects, and insure flexibility in a rapidly changing environment. Without adequate internal controls the organization is forced to rely on external support, waste precious resources, and risk an inefficient response to change. Management systems must be developed and applied that strive to maximize the utility of existing resources in order to achieve the goal of "faster, cheaper, better". An area of concern within NASA Langley Research Center was the scheduling, planning, and resource management of the Wind Tunnel Enterprise operations. Nine wind tunnels make up the Enterprise. Prior to this research, these wind tunnel groups did not employ a rigorous or standardized management planning system. In addition, each wind tunnel unit operated from a position of autonomy, with little coordination of clients, resources, or project control. For operating and planning purposes, each wind tunnel operating unit must balance inputs from a variety of sources. Although each unit is managed by individual Facility Operations groups, other stakeholders influence wind tunnel operations. These groups include, for example, the various researchers and clients who use the facility, the Facility System Engineering Division (FSED) tasked with wind tunnel repair and upgrade, the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Fabrication (FAB) group which fabricates repair parts and provides test model upkeep, the NASA and LARC Strategic Plans, and unscheduled use of the facilities by important clients. Expanding these influences horizontally through nine wind tunnel operations and vertically along the NASA management structure greatly increases the

  6. Transonic pressure measurements and comparison of theory to experiment for an arrow-wing configuration. Volume 1: Experimental data report, base configuration and effects of wing twist and leading-edge configuration. [wind tunnel tests, aircraft models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.

  7. Wind tunnel and numerical data on the ventilation performance of windcatcher with wing wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Nejat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled “Evaluation of a two-sided windcatcher integrated with wing wall (as a new design and comparison with a conventional windcatcher” (P. Nejat, J.K. Calautit, M.Z.A. Majid, B.R. Hughes, I. Zeynali, F. Jomehzadeh, 2016 [1] which presents the effect of wing wall on the air flow distribution under using the windcatchers as a natural ventilation equipment. Here, we detail the wind tunnel testing and numerical set-up used for obtaining the data on ventilation rates and indoor airflow distribution inside a test room with a two-sided windcatcher and wing wall. Three models were integrated with wing wall angled at 30°, 45° and 60° and another windcatcher was a conventional two-sided device. The computer-aided design (CAD three-dimensional geometries which were produced using Solid Edge modeler are also included in the data article.

  8. Wind tunnel and numerical data on the ventilation performance of windcatcher with wing wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Payam; Calautit, John Kaiser; Abd Majid, Muhd Zaimi; Hughes, Ben Richard; Zeynali, Iman; Jomehzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled "Evaluation of a two-sided windcatcher integrated with wing wall (as a new design) and comparison with a conventional windcatcher" (P. Nejat, J.K. Calautit, M.Z.A. Majid, B.R. Hughes, I. Zeynali, F. Jomehzadeh, 2016) [1] which presents the effect of wing wall on the air flow distribution under using the windcatchers as a natural ventilation equipment. Here, we detail the wind tunnel testing and numerical set-up used for obtaining the data on ventilation rates and indoor airflow distribution inside a test room with a two-sided windcatcher and wing wall. Three models were integrated with wing wall angled at 30°, 45° and 60° and another windcatcher was a conventional two-sided device. The computer-aided design (CAD) three-dimensional geometries which were produced using Solid Edge modeler are also included in the data article.

  9. Proportional fuzzy feed-forward architecture control validation by wind tunnel tests of a morphing wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Joël Tchatchueng Kammegne

    2017-04-01

    wing for a specified flight condition. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control system by use of a proportional fuzzy feed-forward methodology are demonstrated experimentally through bench and wind tunnel tests of the morphing wing model.

  10. Validation of morphing wing methodologies on an unmanned aerial system and a wind tunnel technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Oliviu Sugar

    , the spanwise number of actuation stations as well as the displacement limits were established. The performance improvements obtained and the limitations of the morphing wing concept were studied. To verify the optimization results, high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations were also performed, giving very accurate indications of the obtained gains. For the morphing model based on an aircraft wing tip, the skin shapes were optimized in order to control laminar flow on the upper surface. An automated structured mesh generation procedure was developed and implemented. To accurately capture the shape of the skin, a precision scanning procedure was done and its results were included in the numerical model. High-fidelity simulations were performed to determine the upper surface transition region and the numerical results were validated using experimental wind tunnel data.

  11. Comparison of analytical and wind-tunnel results for flutter and gust response of a transport wing with active controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I.; Perry, B., III; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two flutter suppression control laws wre designed and tested on a low speed aeroelastic model of a DC-10 derivative wing. Both control laws demontrated increases in flutter speed in excess of 25 percent above the passive wing flutter speed. In addition, one of the control laws was effective in reducing loads due to turbulence generated in the wind tunnel. The effect of variations in gain and phase on the closed-loop performance was measured and is compared with predictions. In general, both flutter and gust response predictions agree reasonably well with experimental data.

  12. Wind Tunnel Experiments with Active Control of Bridge Section Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes results of wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section model where movable flaps are integrated in the bridge girder so each flap is the streamlined part of the edge of the girder. This active control flap system is patented by COWIconsult and may be used to increase...

  13. Development of Delta Wing Aerodynamics Research in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabudin Mat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind tunnel experiment on two delta wing configurations which are differentiated by their leading edge profiles: sharp and round-edged wings. The experiments were performed as a part of the delta wing aerodynamics research development in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, low speed tunnel (UTM-LST. Steady load balance and flow visualization tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 × 106, respectively. The flow measurement at low Reynolds number was also performed at as low as speed of 5 m/s. During the experiments, laser with smoke flow visualizations test was performed on both wings. The study has identified interesting features of the interrelationship between the conventional leading edge primary vortex and the occurrence and development of the vortex breakdown above the delta wings. The results conclude the vortex characteristics are largely dependent on the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge radii of the wing.

  14. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  15. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  16. Wind Tunnel Modeling Of Wind Flow Over Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.; Cochran, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will describe the finding of an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) wind tunnel study conducted as part of the Bolund Experiment. This experiment was sponsored by Risø DTU (National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark) during the fall of 2009 to enable a blind comparison of various air flow models in an attempt to validate their performance in predicting airflow over complex terrain. Bohlund hill sits 12 m above the water level at the end of a narrow isthmus. The island features a steep escarpment on one side, over which the airflow can be expected to separate. The island was equipped with several anemometer towers, and the approach flow over the water was well characterized. This study was one of only two only physical model studies included in the blind model comparison, the other being a water plume study. The remainder were computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, including both RANS and LES. Physical modeling of air flow over topographical features has been used since the middle of the 20th century, and the methods required are well understood and well documented. Several books have been written describing how to properly perform ABL wind tunnel studies, including ASCE manual of engineering practice 67. Boundary layer wind tunnel tests are the only modelling method deemed acceptable in ASCE 7-10, the most recent edition of the American Society of Civil Engineers standard that provides wind loads for buildings and other structures for buildings codes across the US. Since the 1970’s, most tall structures undergo testing in a boundary layer wind tunnel to accurately determine the wind induced loading. When compared to CFD, the US EPA considers a properly executed wind tunnel study to be equivalent to a CFD model with infinitesimal grid resolution and near infinite memory. One key reason for this widespread acceptance is that properly executed ABL wind tunnel studies will accurately simulate flow separation

  17. Design, Development and Tests in Real Time of Control Methodologies for a Morphing Wing in Wind Tunnel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchatchueng Kammegne, Michel Joel

    In order to leave a cleaner environmental space to future generations, the international community has been mobilized to find green solutions that are effective and feasible in all sectors. The CRIAQ MDO505 project was initiated to test the morphing wingtip (wing and aileron) technology as one of these possible solutions. The main objectives of this project are: the design and manufacturing of a morphing wing prototype, the extension and control of the laminar region over the extrados, and to compare the effects of morphing and rigid aileron in terms of lift, drag and pressure distributions. The advantage of the extension of the laminar region over a wing is the drag reduction that results by delaying the transition towards its trailing edge. The location of the transition region depends on the flight case and it is controlled, for a morphing wing, via the actuators positions and displacements. Therefore, this thesis work focuses on the control of the actuators positions and displacements. This thesis presents essentially the modeling, instrumentation and wind tunnel testing results. Three series of wind tunnel tests with different values of aileron deflection angle, angle of attack and Mach number have been performed in the subsonic wind tunnel of the IAR-NRC. The used wing airfoil consisted of stringers, ribs, spars and a flexible upper surface mad of composite materials (glass fiber carbon), a rigid aileron and flexible aileron. The aileron was able to move between +/-6 degrees. The demonstrator's span measures 1.5 m and its chord measures 1.5 m. Structural analyses have been performed to determine the plies orientation, and the number of fiberglass layers for the flexible skin. These analyses allowed also to determine the actuator's forces to push and pull the wing upper surface. The 2D XFoil and 3D solvers Fluent were used to find the optimized airfoil and the optimal location of the transition for each flight case. Based on the analyses done by the

  18. Wall correction model for wind tunnels with open test section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2006-01-01

    In the paper we present a correction model for wall interference on rotors of wind turbines or propellers in wind tunnels. The model, which is based on a one-dimensional momentum approach, is validated against results from CFD computations using a generalized actuator disc principle. In the model...... the exchange of axial momentum between the tunnel and the ambient room is represented by a simple formula, derived from actuator disc computations. The correction model is validated against Navier-Stokes computations of the flow about a wind turbine rotor. Generally, the corrections from the model are in very...... good agreement with the CFD computations, demonstrating that one-dimensional momentum theory is a reliable way of predicting corrections for wall interference in wind tunnels with closed as well as open cross sections....

  19. Comparison of the NASA Common Research Model European Transonic Wind Tunnel Test Data to NASA Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Melissa; Quest, Juergen; Rudnik, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment and surface pressure data are presented herein.

  20. Predicting the aeroelastic behavior of a wind-tunnel model using transonic small disturbance theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center, is applied to the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model for prediction of the model's transonic aeroelastic behavior. Static aeroelastic solutions using CAP-TSD are computed. Dynamic (flutter) analyses are then performed as perturbations about the static aeroelastic deformations of the AFW. The accuracy of the static aeroelastic procedure is investigated by comparing analytical results to those from AFW wind-tunnel experiments. Dynamic results are presented in the form of root loci at different Mach numbers for a heavy gas and for air test mediums. The resultant flutter boundaries for both gases, and the effects of viscous damping and angle of attack on the flutter boundary in air, are also presented.

  1. The Effect of Layer Thickness on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wind Tunnel RP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, S.; Adelnia, R.; Aghanajafi, C.

    Nowadays, rapid prototyping (RP) methods are widely used to produce wind tunnel testing models. Layer thickness is an important parameter that affects aerodynamic characteristics of wind tunnel models. This paper describes the effects of Layer thickness, using rapid prototyping, on aerodynamic coefficients to construct wind tunnel testing models. Three models were evaluated. These models were fabricated from ABSi by fused deposition method (FDM). The layer thickness was 0.178 mm, 0.254 mm and 0.33 mm. The surface roughness for each model was 25 μm, 63 μm and 160 μm (RZ) determined by PERTHOMETER2. A wing-body-tail configuration was chosen for the actual study. Testing covered the Mach no. range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 1.2 at an angle-of-attack range of -4° to +16° at zero sideslip. Coefficients of normal force, axial force, pitching moment, and lift over drag are shown at each of these mach numbers. Results from this study show that layer thickness does have effect on the aerodynamic characteristics; in general the difference between the data extracted from three models is less than 6 percent. The layer thickness does have more effect on the aerodynamic characteristics when mach number is decreased and has the most effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of axial force and its derivative coefficients.

  2. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This is part 2 of a two part document. Part 1 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Boeing, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a full-span, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a joined wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to acquire a basic aerodynamic data set. In the second and third tests, the same wind tunnel model was mated to a new, two degree of freedom, beam mount. This mount allowed the full-span model to translate vertically and pitch. Trimmed flight at10 percent static margin and gust load alleviation were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees of freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free-flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort. The balance and free flying wind tunnel tests will be summarized. The design of the trim and gust load alleviation control laws along with the associated results will also be discussed.

  3. Sting Dynamics of Wind Tunnel Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    Titanium Alloys . *N1ckle-Base Superalloys *Steel Alloys * Cobalt -Base Superalloys *Molybdenum Alloys *Tungsten Sintered Tungsten-Titanium Carbide Alloys E... Carbide -Steel Sting... • 0 • • • • • • • • . . . 11 13 14 19 6. Sting Coordinate Systems a. Planar Deflection Geometry of the Sting-Model Concentrated...36 b. Cl’p::; 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 deg . . . . . . 37 10. Motion History for ATT Model and Carbide -Steel Sting, Condition No

  4. Qualitative comparison of calculated turbulence responses with wind-tunnel measurements for a DC-10 derivative wing with an active control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B., III

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented analytically predicted and experimental turbulence responses of a wind tunnel model of a DC-10 derivative wing equipped with an active control system. The active control system was designed for the purpose of flutter suppression, but it had additional benefit of alleviating gust loads (wing bending moment) by about 25%. Comparisions of various wing responses are presented for variations in active control system parameters and tunnel speed. The analytical turbulence responses were obtained using DYLOFLEX, a computer program for dynamic loads analyses of flexible airplanes with active controls. In general, the analytical predictions agreed reasonably well with the experimental data.

  5. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  6. Wind tunnel modeling of roadways: Comparison with mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidorn, K.; Davies, A.E.; Murphy, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The assessment of air quality impacts from roadways is a major concern to urban planners. In order to assess future road and building configurations, a number of techniques have been developed including mathematical models, which simulate traffic emissions and atmospheric dispersion through a series of mathematical relationships and physical models. The latter models simulate emissions and dispersion through scaling of these processes in a wind tunnel. Two roadway mathematical models, HIWAY-2 and CALINE-4, were applied to a proposed development in a large urban area. Physical modeling procedures developed by Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc. (RWDI) in the form of line source simulators were also applied, and the resulting carbon monoxide concentrations were compared. The results indicated a factor of two agreement between the mathematical and physical models. The physical model, however, reacted to change in building massing and configuration. The mathematical models did not, since no provision for such changes was included in the mathematical models. In general, the RWDI model resulted in higher concentrations than either HIWAY-2 or CALINE-4. Where there was underprediction, it was often due to shielding of the receptor by surrounding buildings. Comparison of these three models with the CALTRANS Tracer Dispersion Experiment showed good results although concentrations were consistently underpredicted

  7. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton IVANOVICI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  8. Morphing Wing-Tip Open Loop Controller and its Validation During Wind Tunnel Tests at the IAR-NRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sadok GUEZGUEZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this project, a wing tip of a real aircraft was designed and manufactured. This wing tip was composed of a wing and an aileron. The wing was equipped with a composite skin on its upper surface. This skin changed its shape (morphed by use of 4 electrical in-house developed actuators and 32 pressure sensors. These pressure sensors measure the pressures, and further the loads on the wing upper surface. Thus, the upper surface of the wing was morphed using these actuators with the aim to improve the aerodynamic performances of the wing-tip. Two types of ailerons were designed and manufactured: one aileron is rigid (non-morphed and one morphing aileron. This morphing aileron can change its shape also for the aerodynamic performances improvement. The morphing wing-tip internal structure is designed and manufactured, and is presented firstly in the paper. Then, the modern communication and control hardware are presented for the entire morphing wing tip equipped with actuators and sensors having the aim to morph the wing. The calibration procedure of the wing tip is further presented, followed by the open loop controller results obtained during wind tunnel tests. Various methodologies of open loop control are presented in this paper, and results obtained were obtained and validated experimentally through wind tunnel tests.

  9. Low speed wind tunnel investigation of a four-engine upper surface blown model having swept wing and rectangular and D-shaped exhaust nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, W. C., Jr.; Hohlweg, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the power-on static-turning and powered-lift aerodynamic performance of a four engine upper surface blown transport configuration. Initial tests with a D-shaped exhaust nozzle showed relatively poor flow-turning capability, and the D-nozzles were replaced by rectangular nozzles with a width-height ratio of 6.0. The high lift system consisted of a leading edge slat and two different trailing-edge-flap configurations. A double slotted flap with the gaps sealed was investigated and a simple radius flap was also tested. A maximum lift coefficient of approximately 9.3 was obtained for the model with the rectangular exhaust nozzles with both the double slotted flap deflected 50 deg and the radius flap deflected 90 deg.

  10. Free-to-Roll Testing of Airplane Models in Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Owens, D. Bruce; Hall, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    A free-to-roll (FTR) test technique and test rig make it possible to evaluate both the transonic performance and the wingdrop/ rock behavior of a high-strength airplane model in a single wind-tunnel entry. The free-to-roll test technique is a single degree-of-motion method in which the model is free to roll about the longitudinal axis. The rolling motion is observed, recorded, and analyzed to gain insight into wing-drop/rock behavior. Wing-drop/rock is one of several phenomena symptomatic of abrupt wing stall. FTR testing was developed as part of the NASA/Navy Abrupt Wing Stall Program, which was established for the purposes of understanding and preventing significant unexpected and uncommanded (thus, highly undesirable) lateral-directional motions associated with wing-drop/rock, which have been observed mostly in fighter airplanes under high-subsonic and transonic maneuvering conditions. Before FTR testing became available, wingrock/ drop behavior of high-performance airplanes undergoing development was not recognized until flight testing. FTR testing is a reliable means of detecting, and evaluating design modifications for reducing or preventing, very complex abrupt wing stall phenomena in a ground facility prior to flight testing. The FTR test rig was designed to replace an older sting attachment butt, such that a model with its force balance and support sting could freely rotate about the longitudinal axis. The rig (see figure) includes a rotary head supported in a stationary head with a forward spherical roller bearing and an aft needle bearing. Rotation is amplified by a set of gears and measured by a shaft-angle resolver; the roll angle can be resolved to within 0.067 degrees at a rotational speed up to 1,000 degrees/s. An assembly of electrically actuated brakes between the rotary and stationary heads can be used to hold the model against a rolling torque at a commanded roll angle. When static testing is required, a locking bar is used to fix the rotating

  11. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 2: Orbiter configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configurations as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle. Considerable wind tunnel data was acquired by the competing contractors and the NASA centers for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. All contractor and NASA wind tunnel test data acquiredin the Phase B development have been compiled into a database and are available for applying to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration type. Basic components include the booster, the orbiter, and the launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide, and twin body. Orbiter configuration types include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks, and double delta wings. Launch configration types include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandom combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files of data containing basic tunnel recorded data.

  12. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings for an energy efficient transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, D. K.; Dahlin, J. A.; Henne, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    These basic characteristics of critical wings included wing area, aspect ratio, average thickness, and sweep as well as practical constraints on the planform and thickness near the wing root to allow for the landing gear. Within these constraints, a large matrix of wing designs was studied with spanwise variations in the types of airfoils and distribution of lift as well as some small planform changes. The criteria by which the five candidate wings were chosen for testing were the cruise and buffet characteristics in the transonic regime and the compatibility of the design with low speed (high-lift) requirements. Five wing-wide-body configurations were tested in the NASA Ames 11-foot transonic wind tunnel. Nacelles and pylons, flap support fairings, tail surfaces, and an outboard aileron were also tested on selected configurations.

  13. Braze alloy process and strength characterization studies for 18 nickel grade 200 maraging steel with application to wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, James F.; Sandefur, Paul G., Jr.; Young, Clarence P., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive study of braze alloy selection process and strength characterization with application to wind tunnel models is presented. The applications for this study include the installation of stainless steel pressure tubing in model airfoil sections make of 18 Ni 200 grade maraging steel and the joining of wing structural components by brazing. Acceptable braze alloys for these applications are identified along with process, thermal braze cycle data, and thermal management procedures. Shear specimens are used to evaluate comparative shear strength properties for the various alloys at both room and cryogenic (-300 F) temperatures and include the effects of electroless nickel plating. Nickel plating was found to significantly enhance both the wetability and strength properties for the various braze alloys studied. The data are provided for use in selecting braze alloys for use with 18 Ni grade 200 steel in the design of wind tunnel models to be tested in an ambient or cryogenic environment.

  14. Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models Part 1: A Sidewall Supported Semispan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation and Flutter Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.; Vetter, Travis K.; Penning, Kevin B.; Coulson, David A.; Heeg, Jennifer.

    2013-01-01

    of a two part document. Part 2 is titled: "Aeroservoelastic Testing of Free Flying Wind Tunnel Models, Part 2: A Centerline Supported Fullspan Model Tested for Gust Load Alleviation." A team comprised of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and the NASA Langley Research Center conducted three aeroservoelastic wind tunnel tests in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to demonstrate active control technologies relevant to large, flexible vehicles. In the first of these three tests, a semispan, aeroelastically scaled, wind tunnel model of a flying wing SensorCraft vehicle was mounted to a force balance to demonstrate gust load alleviation. In the second and third tests, the same wing was mated to a new, multi-degree of freedom, sidewall mount. This mount allowed the half-span model to translate vertically and pitch at the wing root, allowing better simulation of the full span vehicle's rigid body modes. Gust load alleviation (GLA) and Body freedom flutter (BFF) suppression were successfully demonstrated. The rigid body degrees-of-freedom required that the model be flown in the wind tunnel using an active control system. This risky mode of testing necessitated that a model arrestment system be integrated into the new mount. The safe and successful completion of these free flying tests required the development and integration of custom hardware and software. This paper describes the many systems, software, and procedures that were developed as part of this effort.

  15. The design of models for cryogenic wind tunnels. [mechanical properties and loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, V. P.

    1977-01-01

    Factors to be considered in the design and fabrication of models for cryogenic wind tunnels include high model loads imposed by the high operating pressures, the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of materials in low temperature environments, and the combination of aerodynamic loads with the thermal environment. Candidate materials are being investigated to establish criteria for cryogenic wind tunnel models and their installation. Data acquired from these tests will be provided to users of the National Transonic Facility.

  16. Numerical simulation of flows around deformed aircraft model in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenkov, A. V.; Bosnyakov, S. M.; Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Kuzmina, S. I.; Kursakov, I. A.; Matyash, S. V.; Ishmuratov, F. Z.

    2016-10-01

    To obtain accurate data of calculation method error requires detailed simulation of the experiment in wind tunnel with keeping all features of the model, installation and gas flow. Two examples of such detailed data comparison are described in this paper. The experimental characteristics of NASA CRM model obtained in the ETW wind tunnel (Cologne, Germany), and CFD characteristics of this model obtained with the use of EWT-TsAGI application package are compared. Following comparison is carried out for an airplane model in the T-128 wind tunnel (TsAGI, Russia). It is seen that deformation influence on integral characteristics grows with increasing Re number and, accordingly, the dynamic pressure. CFD methods application for problems of experimental research in the wind tunnel allows to separate viscosity and elasticity effects.

  17. Tests of Round and Flat Spoilers on a Tapered Wing in the NACA 19-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Bowen, John D

    1941-01-01

    Several arrangements of round and flat spanwise spoilers attached to the upper surface of a tapered wing were tested in the NACA 19-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the most effective type, location, and size of spoiler necessary to reduce greatly the lift on the wings of large flying boats when moored. The effect of the various spoilers on the lift, the drag, and the pitching-moment characteristics of the tapered wing was measured over a range of angles of attack from zero to maximum lift. The most effective type of spoiler was found to be the flat type with no space between it and the wing surface. The chordwise location of such a spoiler was not critical within the range investigated, from 5 to 20 percent of the wing chord from the leading edge.

  18. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  19. Further investigations of the aeroelastic behavior of the AFW wind-tunnel model using transonic small disturbance theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; Bennett, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    The Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance (CAP-TSD) code, developed at LaRC, is applied to the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model for prediction of transonic aeroelastic behavior. A semi-span computational model is used for evaluation of symmetric motions, and a full-span model is used for evaluation of antisymmetric motions, and a full-span model is used for evaluation of antisymmetric motions. Static aeroelastic solutions using CAP-TSD are computed. Dynamic deformations are presented as flutter boundaries in terms of Mach number and dynamic pressure. Flutter boundaries that take into account modal refinements, vorticity and entropy corrections, antisymmetric motion, and sensitivity to the modeling of the wing tip ballast stores are also presented with experimental flutter results.

  20. Space shuttle phase B wind tunnel model and test information. Volume 3: Launch configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, J. L.; Poucher, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Archived wind tunnel test data are available for flyback booster or other alternate recoverable configuration as well as reusable orbiters studied during initial development (Phase B) of the Space Shuttle, including contractor data for an extensive variety of configurations with an array of wing and body planforms. The test data have been compiled into a database and are available for application to current winged flyback or recoverable booster aerodynamic studies. The Space Shuttle Phase B Wind Tunnel Database is structured by vehicle component and configuration. Basic components include booster, orbiter, and launch vehicle. Booster configuration types include straight and delta wings, canard, cylindrical, retroglide and twin body. Orbiter configurations include straight and delta wings, lifting body, drop tanks and double delta wings. Launch configurations include booster and orbiter components in various stacked and tandem combinations. The digital database consists of 220 files containing basic tunnel data. Database structure is documented in a series of reports which include configuration sketches for the various planforms tested. This is Volume 3 -- launch configurations.

  1. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  2. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Bridge Model with Active Vibration Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H. I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Mendes, P. A.

    The application of active control systems to reduce wind vibrations in bridges is a new area of research. This paper presents the results that were obtained on a set of wind tunnel tests of a bridge model equipped with active movable flaps. Based on the monitored position and motion of the deck...

  3. FEATURES OF THE SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL EXPERIMENT WITH ROTATING MODELS OF AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper contains description of the construction of aircraft model for aerodynamic experiment in subsonic wind-tunnel, during it rotation. The technique of the experiment, and features associated with rotation were mentioned. Provided the results of measuring Magnus force and it comparing with analytical methodology.

  4. Static Aeroelastic Deformation Effects in Preliminary Wind-tunnel Tests of Silent Supersonic Technology Demonstrator

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Yoshikazu; Ohira, Keisuke; Makimoto, Takuya; Mitomo, Toshiteru; 牧野, 好和; 大平, 啓介; 牧本, 卓也; 三友, 俊輝

    2011-01-01

    Effects of static aeroelastic deformation of a wind-tunnel test model on the aerodynamic characteristics are discussed in wind-tunnel tests in the preliminary design phase of the silent supersonic technology demonstrator (S3TD). The static aeroelastic deformation of the main wing is estimated for JAXA 2m x 2m transonic wind-tunnel and 1m x 1m supersonic wind-tunnel by a finite element method (FEM) structural analysis in which its structural model is tuned with the model deformation calibratio...

  5. System Dynamic Analysis of a Wind Tunnel Model with Applications to Improve Aerodynamic Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrle, Ralph David

    1997-01-01

    The research investigates the effect of wind tunnel model system dynamics on measured aerodynamic data. During wind tunnel tests designed to obtain lift and drag data, the required aerodynamic measurements are the steady-state balance forces and moments, pressures, and model attitude. However, the wind tunnel model system can be subjected to unsteady aerodynamic and inertial loads which result in oscillatory translations and angular rotations. The steady-state force balance and inertial model attitude measurements are obtained by filtering and averaging data taken during conditions of high model vibrations. The main goals of this research are to characterize the effects of model system dynamics on the measured steady-state aerodynamic data and develop a correction technique to compensate for dynamically induced errors. Equations of motion are formulated for the dynamic response of the model system subjected to arbitrary aerodynamic and inertial inputs. The resulting modal model is examined to study the effects of the model system dynamic response on the aerodynamic data. In particular, the equations of motion are used to describe the effect of dynamics on the inertial model attitude, or angle of attack, measurement system that is used routinely at the NASA Langley Research Center and other wind tunnel facilities throughout the world. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration while testing in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The inertial attitude sensor cannot distinguish between the gravitational acceleration and centrifugal accelerations associated with wind tunnel model system vibration, which results in a model attitude measurement bias error. Bias errors over an order of magnitude greater than the required device accuracy were found in the inertial model attitude measurements during dynamic testing of two model systems. Based on a theoretical modal

  6. Effects of wing/elevon gap sealing flapper doors on orbiter elevon effectiveness of model 16-0 in the NAAL 7.75 by 11 foot continuous flow wind tunnel (OA119A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, R.

    1974-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter elevon effectiveness was measured with the 6 inch elevon/elevon and elevon/fuselage gaps and various configurations of wing/elevon upper hingeline gap sealing flapper doors. The elevon configuration parametric variations consisted of sealing the lower hingeline to prevent flow-through and testing a long chord flapper door, a short chord flapper door, no flapper door (elevon/wing gap upper hingeline completely open), and a completely sealed elevon at elevon deflections from +20 deg to -40 deg. Preliminary data analysis indicates loss of elevon effectiveness at deflections more negative than -20 deg, and little or no effect of flapper door configuration on elevon effectiveness. Flow visualization photographs taken at alpha = 15 deg for two flapper door configurations substantiated the force data results. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis by a 2.5 inch task type internal strain gage balance. The model was sting supported through the base region with a nominal angle of attack range of -10 deg less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 24 deg at a model angle of sideslip of Beta equal to 0 deg.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 6%-Scale Large Civil Tilt Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs... rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe...airframe models were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This test entry represents the first

  8. A New Global Regression Analysis Method for the Prediction of Wind Tunnel Model Weight Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Norbert Manfred; Bridge, Thomas M.; Amaya, Max A.

    2014-01-01

    A new global regression analysis method is discussed that predicts wind tunnel model weight corrections for strain-gage balance loads during a wind tunnel test. The method determines corrections by combining "wind-on" model attitude measurements with least squares estimates of the model weight and center of gravity coordinates that are obtained from "wind-off" data points. The method treats the least squares fit of the model weight separate from the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Therefore, it performs two fits of "wind- off" data points and uses the least squares estimator of the model weight as an input for the fit of the center of gravity coordinates. Explicit equations for the least squares estimators of the weight and center of gravity coordinates are derived that simplify the implementation of the method in the data system software of a wind tunnel. In addition, recommendations for sets of "wind-off" data points are made that take typical model support system constraints into account. Explicit equations of the confidence intervals on the model weight and center of gravity coordinates and two different error analyses of the model weight prediction are also discussed in the appendices of the paper.

  9. Aerodynamic testing model guided missiles with jets simulations in the T-35 wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing of the Anti-Tank Missile with jets simulations in the T-35 wind tunnel is part of the development program of short range anti-tank system. The main task of this experiment was to provide an experimental data base for estimation of real jets influence. Analysis was presented for Mach number 0.2, model configurations with and without jets, and three jet tabs positions: tabs out of the jets, upper or lower tabs in the jets. Missile model designed that instead of the products of combustion through nozzles allow high pressure air corresponding mass flow. In additional to the wind tunnel test results the paper, also presents the results of CFD simulations. The results are presented by normal force and pitching moment coefficients.

  10. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Measurements on the NASA Common Research Model in the NASA 11-ft Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The luminescence lifetime technique was used to make pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurements on a 2.7% Common Research Model in the NASA Ames 11ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. PSP data were obtained on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing and horizontal tail, as well as one side of the fuselage. Data were taken for several model attitudes of interest at Mach numbers between 0.70 and 0.87. Image data were mapped onto a three-dimensional surface grid suitable both for comparison with CFD and for integration of pressures to determine loads. Luminescence lifetime measurements were made using strobed LED (light-emitting diode) lamps to illuminate the PSP and fast-framing interline transfer cameras to acquire the PSP emission.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom (DOF) Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    ARL-CR-0807● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind...ARL-CR-0807 ● NOV 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind...Development and Evaluation of a Dynamic, 3-Degree-of-Freedom ( DOF ) Wind Tunnel Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911-QX-14-C-0016 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  12. An analysis on 45° sweep tail angle for blended wing body aircraft to the aerodynamics coefficients by wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M. Z. A. Abd; Ahmad, M. A.; Nasir, R. E. Mohd; Wisnoe, W.; Saad, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a model from UiTM Blended Wing Body (BWB) UAV, Baseline V that has been tested at UPNM high speed wind tunnel. Baseline V has a unique design due to different NACA sections used for its fuselage, body, wing root, midwing, wingtip, tail root, tail tip and the tail is swept 45° backward. The purpose of this experiment is to study the aerodynamic characteristics when the tail sweeps 45° backward. The experiments are conducted several times using 71.5% scaled down model at about 49.58 m/s airspeed or 25 Hz. The tail angle deflection is fixed and set at zero angle. All the data obtained is analyzed and presented in terms of coefficient of lift, coefficient of drag and also lift-to-drag ratio, and is plotted against various angles of attack. The angles of attack used for this experiments are between ‑10° to +30°. The blockage correction such as solid blockage, wake blockage and streamline curvature blockage are calculated in order to obtain true performance of the aircraft. From the observation, Baseline V shows that the aircraft tends to stall at around +15°. The maximum L/D ratio achieved for Baseline V is 20.8, however it decreases slightly to 20.7 after blockage corrections.

  13. Wind-tunnel investigation of a Fowler flap and spoiler for an advanced general aviation wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The wing was tested without fuselage or empennage and was fitted with approximately three-quarter span Fowler flaps and half span spoilers. The spoilers were hinged at the 70 percent chord point and vented when the flaps were deflected. Static longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic data were obtained over an angle of attack range of -8 deg to 22 deg for various flap deflections and positions, spoiler geometries, and vent lip geometries. Lateral characteristics indicate that the spoilers are generally adequate for lateral control. In general, the spoiler effectiveness increases with increasing angle of attack, increases with increasing flap deflections, and is influenced by vent lip geometry. In addition, the data show that some two-dimensional effects on spoiler effectiveness are reduced in the three-dimensional case. Results also indicate significant increase in lift coefficient as the Fowler flaps are deflected; when the flap was fully deflected, the maximum wing lift coefficient was increased about 96 percent.

  14. Wing-Body Interaction: Numerical simulation, Wind-tunnel and In-flight Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelka, Lukáš; Zelený, L.; Šimurda, David; Matějka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2010), s. 29-36 ISSN 0744-8996. [OSTIV CONGRESS /29./. Lüsse, 06.08.2008-13.08.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA2076403; GA ČR GA101/08/1155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : wing-fuselage interaction * turbulent separation * vortex generators Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  15. Nonlinear Unsteady Aerodynamic Modeling Using Wind Tunnel and Computational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav; Frink, Neal T.

    2016-01-01

    Extensions to conventional aircraft aerodynamic models are required to adequately predict responses when nonlinear unsteady flight regimes are encountered, especially at high incidence angles and under maneuvering conditions. For a number of reasons, such as loss of control, both military and civilian aircraft may extend beyond normal and benign aerodynamic flight conditions. In addition, military applications may require controlled flight beyond the normal envelope, and civilian flight may require adequate recovery or prevention methods from these adverse conditions. These requirements have led to the development of more general aerodynamic modeling methods and provided impetus for researchers to improve both techniques and the degree of collaboration between analytical and experimental research efforts. In addition to more general mathematical model structures, dynamic test methods have been designed to provide sufficient information to allow model identification. This paper summarizes research to develop a modeling methodology appropriate for modeling aircraft aerodynamics that include nonlinear unsteady behaviors using both experimental and computational test methods. This work was done at Langley Research Center, primarily under the NASA Aviation Safety Program, to address aircraft loss of control, prevention, and recovery aerodynamics.

  16. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a semispan STOL jet transport wing body with an upper surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Letko, W.; Henderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan STOL jet transport wing-body with an upper-surface blown jet flap for lift augmentation was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel having a 12-ft octagonal test section. The semispan swept wing had an aspect ratio of 3.92 (7.84 for the full span) and had two simulated turbofan engines mounted ahead of and above the wing in a siamese pod equipped with an exhaust deflector. The purpose of the deflector was to spread the engine exhaust into a jet sheet attached to the upper surface of the wing so that it would turn downward over the flap and provide lift augmentation. The wing also had optional boundary-layer control provided by air blowing through a thin slot over a full-span plain trailing-edge flap.

  17. A vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel tests and its application in pollutant dispersion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromke, Christof

    2011-01-01

    A new vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel investigations was developed. The modeling concept is based on fluid dynamical similarity aspects and allows the small-scale modeling of various kinds of vegetation, e.g. field crops, shrubs, hedges, single trees and forest stands. The applicability of the modeling concept was validated in wind tunnel pollutant dispersion studies. Avenue trees in urban street canyons were modeled and their implications on traffic pollutant dispersion were investigated. The dispersion experiments proved the modeling concept to be practicable for wind tunnel studies and suggested to provide reliable concentration results. Unfavorable effects of trees on pollutant dispersion and natural ventilation in street canyons were revealed. Increased traffic pollutant concentrations were found in comparison to the tree-free reference case. - Highlights: → A concept for aerodynamic modelling of vegetation in small scale wind tunnel studies is presented. → The concept was applied to study pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons with avenue tress. → The wind tunnel studies show that modelling the aerodynamic effects of vegetation is important. → Avenue trees give rise to increased pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons. - Avenue trees in urban street canyons affect the pollutant dispersion and result in increased traffic exhaust concentrations.

  18. Deformation measurement in the wind tunnel for an UAV leading edge with a morphing mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radestock, M.; Riemenschneider, J.; Monner, H.P.; Huxdorf, O.; Werter, N.P.M.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    In a wind tunnel experiment a morphing wing with span extension and camber morphing was investigated. The considered aircraft is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a span of 4 m. During the investigations a half wing model was analysed with pressure and structural measurement. The half wing model

  19. A vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel tests and its application in pollutant dispersion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof

    2011-01-01

    A new vegetation modeling concept for Building and Environmental Aerodynamics wind tunnel investigations was developed. The modeling concept is based on fluid dynamical similarity aspects and allows the small-scale modeling of various kinds of vegetation, e.g. field crops, shrubs, hedges, single trees and forest stands. The applicability of the modeling concept was validated in wind tunnel pollutant dispersion studies. Avenue trees in urban street canyons were modeled and their implications on traffic pollutant dispersion were investigated. The dispersion experiments proved the modeling concept to be practicable for wind tunnel studies and suggested to provide reliable concentration results. Unfavorable effects of trees on pollutant dispersion and natural ventilation in street canyons were revealed. Increased traffic pollutant concentrations were found in comparison to the tree-free reference case. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wind tunnel noise reduction at Mach 5 with a rod-wall sound shield. [for prevention of premature boundary layer transition on wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, T. R.; Beckwith, I. E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of shielding a wind-tunnel model from noise radiated by the tunnel-wall boundary layer has been developed and tested at the Langley Research Center. The shield consists of a rectangular array of longitudinal rods with boundary-layer suction through gaps between the rods. Tests were conducted at Mach 5 over a unit Reynolds number range of 1.0-3.5 x 10 to the 7th/m. Hot-wire measurements indicated the freestream noise, expressed in terms of the rms pressure fluctuations normalized by the mean pressure, was reduced from about 1.4 percent just upstream of the shielded region of a minimum level of about 0.4 percent in the forward portion of the shielded flow.

  1. Results from a test of a 2/3-scale V-22 rotor and wing in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Fort F.

    1991-01-01

    A test of a 0.658-scale V-22 rotor and wing was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. The principal objectives of the test were to measure the wing download in hover for a variety of test configurations, and rotor performance in forward flight. Also, a limited amount of data on rotor performance in vertical climb were acquired. This paper presents the results from the test with predictions from appropriate analytical methods. A new method for presenting and interpreting wing surface pressure data in hover is described, and this method shows that the wing flap can produce substantial lift loads in hover. The rotor performance in vertical climb was underpredicted by CAMRAD/JA and by the free wake analysis EHPIC. A simple momentum theory is presented which provides good predictions of rotor performance in forward flight.

  2. Unstructed Navier-Stokes Analysis of Wind-Tunnel Aeroelastic Effects on TCA Model 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Neal T.; Allison, Dennis O.; Parikh, Paresh C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate a simple technique which accounts for aeroelastic deformations experienced by HSR wind-tunnel models within CFD computations. With improved correlations, CFD can become a more effective tool for augmenting the post-test understanding of experimental data. The present technique involves the loose coupling of a low-level structural representation within the ELAPS code, to an unstructured Navier-Stokes flow solver, USM3Dns. The ELAPS model is initially calibrated against bending characteristics of the wind-tunnel model. The strength of this method is that, with a single point calibration of a simple structural representation, the static aeroelastic effects can be accounted for in CFD calculations across a range of test conditions. No prior knowledge of the model deformation during the wind-on test is required. This approach has been successfully applied to the high aspect-ratio planforms of subsonic transports. The current challenge is to adapt the procedure to low aspect-ratio planforms typical of HSR configurations.

  3. Enhancements to AERMOD's building downwash algorithms based on wind-tunnel and Embedded-LES modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monbureau, E. M.; Heist, D. K.; Perry, S. G.; Brouwer, L. H.; Foroutan, H.; Tang, W.

    2018-04-01

    Knowing the fate of effluent from an industrial stack is important for assessing its impact on human health. AERMOD is one of several Gaussian plume models containing algorithms to evaluate the effect of buildings on the movement of the effluent from a stack. The goal of this study is to improve AERMOD's ability to accurately model important and complex building downwash scenarios by incorporating knowledge gained from a recently completed series of wind tunnel studies and complementary large eddy simulations of flow and dispersion around simple structures for a variety of building dimensions, stack locations, stack heights, and wind angles. This study presents three modifications to the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD that improve the physical basis and internal consistency of the model, and one modification to AERMOD's building pre-processor to better represent elongated buildings in oblique winds. These modifications are demonstrated to improve the ability of AERMOD to model observed ground-level concentrations in the vicinity of a building for the variety of conditions examined in the wind tunnel and numerical studies.

  4. Study on the snow drifting modelling criteria in boundary layer wind tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta BĂETU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on modelling the wind drifting of the snow deposited on the flat roofs of buildings in wind tunnel. The physical model of snow drifting in wind tunnel simulating the urban exposure to wind action is not frequently reported in literature, but is justified by the serious damages under accidental important snow falls combined with strong wind actions on the roofs of various buildings. A uniform layer of snow deposited on the flat roof was exposed to wind action in order to obtain the drifting. The parameters involved in the modelling at reduced scale, with particles of glass beads, of the phenomenon of transportation of the snow from the roof were analysed, particularly the roughness length and the friction wind speed. A numerical simulation in ANSYS CFX program was developed in parallel, by which a more accurate visualization of the particularities of the wind flow over the roof was possible, in the specific areas where the phenomenon of snow transportation was more susceptible to occur. Modified roughness length and friction wind speed were determined through methods used in the literature, an attempt being made in this work to analyse the factors that influence their values.

  5. Computational Support of 9x7 Wind Tunnel Test of Sonic Boom Models with Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, James C.; Denison, Marie; Durston, Don; Cliff, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    NASA and its industry partners are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The interaction of the nozzle jet flow with the aircrafts' aft components is typically where the greatest uncertainly in the pressure signature is observed with high-fidelity numerical simulations. An extensive wind tunnel test was conducted in February 2016 in the NASA Ames 9- by 7- Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. Five test models with a variety of shock generators of differing waveforms and strengths were tested with a convergent-divergent nozzle for a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The LAVA unstructured flow solver was used to generate first CFD comparisons with the new experimental database using best practice meshing and analysis techniques for sonic boom vehicle design for all five different configurations. LAVA was also used to redesign the internal flow path of the nozzle and to better understand the flow field in the test section, both of which significantly improved the quality of the test data.

  6. Model Deformation and Optical Angle of Attack Measurement System in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Laura K.; Drain, Bethany A.; Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.; Bell, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Both AoA and MDM measurements can be made using an optical system that relies on photogrammetry. Optical measurements are being requested by customers in wind tunnels with increasing frequency due to their non-intrusive nature and recent hardware and software advances that allow measurements to become near real time. The NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel is currently developing a system based on photogrammetry to measure model deformation and model angle of attack. This paper describes the new system, its development, its use on recent tests and plans to further develop the system.

  7. Wind Tunnel Testing of the NASA-DFRC Flutterometer using a Two DOF Wing Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strganac, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    Flutter of an aeroelastic structure is potentially destructive aeroelastic instability. This phenomenon has motivated research within the aeroelastic community to develop methods that can accurately predict aeroelastic instabilities. The Flutterometer method used herein, and as developed by NASA DFRC, is based upon the mu method which has been coupled with wavelet filtering processes in estimating aeroelastic models from flight data. The approach leads to a methodology to predict the occurrence of flutter boundaries, and may prove to reliably predict flutter boundaries during flight tests. An analytical model is used as the first estimate of the aeroelastic structural dynamics, and uncertainty operators are introduced into the system to model variations between the theoretical system and the physical system. The modelling uncertainties are then updated from experimental data. Although the model used did not work well with this particular experiment, a sensitivity analysis was additionally performed and improvements suggested.

  8. Development of Aeroservoelastic Analytical Models and Gust Load Alleviation Control Laws of a SensorCraft Wind-Tunnel Model Using Measured Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; Vartio, Eric; Shimko, Anthony; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Eure, Kenneth W.; Scott,Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Aeroservoelastic (ASE) analytical models of a SensorCraft wind-tunnel model are generated using measured data. The data was acquired during the ASE wind-tunnel test of the HiLDA (High Lift-to-Drag Active) Wing model, tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in late 2004. Two time-domain system identification techniques are applied to the development of the ASE analytical models: impulse response (IR) method and the Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) method. Using measured control surface inputs (frequency sweeps) and associated sensor responses, the IR method is used to extract corresponding input/output impulse response pairs. These impulse responses are then transformed into state-space models for use in ASE analyses. Similarly, the GPC method transforms measured random control surface inputs and associated sensor responses into an AutoRegressive with eXogenous input (ARX) model. The ARX model is then used to develop the gust load alleviation (GLA) control law. For the IR method, comparison of measured with simulated responses are presented to investigate the accuracy of the ASE analytical models developed. For the GPC method, comparison of simulated open-loop and closed-loop (GLA) time histories are presented.

  9. The Role of Hierarchy in Response Surface Modeling of Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial introduction to certain aspects of response surface modeling, for the experimentalist who has started to explore these methods as a means of improving productivity and quality in wind tunnel testing and other aerospace applications. A brief review of the productivity advantages of response surface modeling in aerospace research is followed by a description of the advantages of a common coding scheme that scales and centers independent variables. The benefits of model term reduction are reviewed. A constraint on model term reduction with coded factors is described in some detail, which requires such models to be well-formulated, or hierarchical. Examples illustrate the consequences of ignoring this constraint. The implication for automated regression model reduction procedures is discussed, and some opinions formed from the author s experience are offered on coding, model reduction, and hierarchy.

  10. Thermal effects influencing measurements in a supersonic blowdown wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Đorđe S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a supersonic run of a blowdown wind tunnel, temperature of air in the test section drops which can affect planned measurements. Adverse thermal effects include variations of the Mach and Reynolds numbers, variation of airspeed, condensation of moisture on the model, change of characteristics of the instrumentation in the model, et cetera. Available data on thermal effects on instrumentation are pertaining primarily to long-run-duration wind tunnel facilities. In order to characterize such influences on instrumentation in the models, in short-run-duration blowdown wind tunnels, temperature measurements were made in the wing-panel-balance and main-balance spaces of two wind tunnel models tested in the T-38 wind tunnel. The measurements showed that model-interior temperature in a run increased at the beginning of the run, followed by a slower drop and, at the end of the run, by a large temperature drop. Panel-force balance was affected much more than the main balance. Ways of reducing the unwelcome thermal effects by instrumentation design and test planning are discussed.

  11. Analysis of the wind tunnel test of a tilt rotor power force model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, R. L.; Ford, D. G.; Ferguson, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two series of wind tunnel tests were made to determine performance, stability and control, and rotor wake interaction on the airframe, using a one-tenth scale powered force model of a tilt rotor aircraft. Testing covered hover (IGE/OCE), helicopter, conversion, and airplane flight configurations. Forces and moments were recorded for the model from predetermined trim attitudes. Control positions were adjusted to trim flight (one-g lift, pitching moment and drag zero) within the uncorrected test data balance accuracy. Pitch and yaw sweeps were made about the trim attitudes with the control held at the trimmed settings to determine the static stability characteristics. Tail on, tail off, rotors on, and rotors off configurations were testes to determine the rotor wake effects on the empennage. Results are presented and discussed.

  12. Active Control of Wind-Tunnel Model Aeroelastic Response Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 Under a joint research and development effort conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and The Boeing Company (formerly McDonnell Douglas) three neural-network based control systems were developed and tested. The control systems were experimentally evaluated using a transonic wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. One system used a neural network to schedule flutter suppression control laws, another employed a neural network in a predictive control scheme, and the third employed a neural network in an inverse model control scheme. All three of these control schemes successfully suppressed flutter to or near the limits of the testing apparatus, and represent the first experimental applications of neural networks to flutter suppression. This paper will summarize the findings of this project.

  13. Comparing different CFD wind turbine modelling approaches with wind tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvig, Siri; Manger, Eirik; Hjertager, Bjørn

    2014-12-01

    The performance of a model wind turbine is simulated with three different CFD methods: actuator disk, actuator line and a fully resolved rotor. The simulations are compared with each other and with measurements from a wind tunnel experiment. The actuator disk is the least accurate and most cost-efficient, and the fully resolved rotor is the most accurate and least cost-efficient. The actuator line method is believed to lie in between the two ends of the scale. The fully resolved rotor produces superior wake velocity results compared to the actuator models. On average it also produces better results for the force predictions, although the actuator line method had a slightly better match for the design tip speed. The open source CFD tool box, OpenFOAM, was used for the actuator disk and actuator line calculations, whereas the market leading commercial CFD code, ANSYS/FLUENT, was used for the fully resolved rotor approach.

  14. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  15. Wind-tunnel evaluation of NASA developed control laws for flutter suppression on a DC-10 derivative wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Two flutter suppression control laws were synthesized, implemented, and tested on a low speed aeroelastic wing model of a DC-10 derivative. The methodology used to design the control laws is described. Both control laws demonstrated increases in flutter speed in excess of 25 percent above the passive wing flutter speed. The effect of variations in gain and phase on the closed loop performance was measured and compared with analytical predictions. The analytical results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Transonic wind tunnel tests of a .015 scale space shuttle orbiter model, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzynski, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic wind tunnel tests were run on a 0.015 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle in an eight-foot tunnel during August 1975. The purpose of the program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds numbers. The second part of a discussion of test procedures and results in both tabular and graphical form were presented. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers from 3.5 million to 8.2 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from -2 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Various aileron and ailevon settings were tested for various angles of attack.

  17. Transonic wind tunnel tests of A.015 scale space shuttle orbiter model, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzynski, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    Transonic wind tunnel tests were run on a 0.015 scale model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle in an eight-foot tunnel during August 1975. The purpose of the program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds numbers. The first part of a discussion of test procedures and results in both tabular and graphical form were presented. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers for 3.5 million to 8.2 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from -1 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Various aileron and ailevon settings were tested for various angles of attack.

  18. Model Deformation Measurements of Sonic Boom Models in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Garbeff, Theodore J.; Heineck, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The deformations of two sonic-boom models were measured by stereo photogrammetry during tests in the 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The models were geometrically similar but one was 2.75 times as large as the other. Deformation measurements were made by simultaneously imaging the upper surfaces of the models from two directions by calibrated cameras that were mounted behind windows of the test section. Bending and twist were measured at discrete points using conventional circular targets that had been marked along the leading and trailing edges of the wings and tails. In addition, continuous distributions of bending and twist were measured from ink speckles that had been applied to the upper surfaces of the model. Measurements were made at wind-on (M = 1.6) and wind-off conditions over a range of angles of attack between 2.5 deg. and 5.0 deg. At each condition, model deformation was determined by comparing the wind-off and wind-on coordinates of each measurement point after transforming the coordinates to reference coordinates tied to the model. The necessary transformations were determined by measuring the positions of a set of targets on the rigid center-body of the models whose model-axes coordinates were known. Smoothly varying bending and twist measurements were obtained at all conditions. Bending displacements increased in proportion to the square of the distance to the centerline. Maximum deflection of the wingtip of the larger model was about 5 mm (2% of the semispan) and that of the smaller model was 0.9 mm (1% of the semispan). The change in wing twist due to bending increased in direct proportion to distance from the centerline and reached a (absolute) maximum of about -1? at the highest angle of attack for both models. The measurements easily resolved bending displacements as small as 0.05 mm and bending-induced changes in twist as small as 0.05 deg.

  19. Base Pressure Computations of the DERA Generic Missile Wind Tunnel Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James

    2005-01-01

    .... The investigation was an extension to a previous investigation in which the computed forebody axial force did not compare well with experimental wind tunnel data, while all other forces and moments...

  20. Thermal and Pressure Characterization of a Wind Tunnel Force Balance Using the Single Vector System. Experimental Design and Analysis Approach to Model Pressure and Temperature Effects in Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A,

    2011-01-01

    Wind tunnel research at NASA Langley Research Center s 31-inch Mach 10 hypersonic facility utilized a 5-component force balance, which provided a pressurized flow-thru capability to the test article. The goal of the research was to determine the interaction effects between the free-stream flow and the exit flow from the reaction control system on the Mars Science Laboratory aeroshell during planetary entry. In the wind tunnel, the balance was exposed to aerodynamic forces and moments, steady-state and transient thermal gradients, and various internal balance cavity pressures. Historically, these effects on force measurement accuracy have not been fully characterized due to limitations in the calibration apparatus. A statistically designed experiment was developed to adequately characterize the behavior of the balance over the expected wind tunnel operating ranges (forces/moments, temperatures, and pressures). The experimental design was based on a Taylor-series expansion in the seven factors for the mathematical models. Model inversion was required to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments as a function of the strain-gage readings. Details regarding transducer on-board compensation techniques, experimental design development, mathematical modeling, and wind tunnel data reduction are included in this paper.

  1. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Passive Vortex Control and Vortex-Tail Interactions on a Slender Wing at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of passive porosity on vortex flow interactions about a slender wing configuration at subsonic and transonic speeds. Flow-through porosity was applied in several arrangements to a leading-edge extension, or LEX, mounted to a 65-degree cropped delta wing as a longitudinal instability mitigation technique. Test data were obtained with LEX on and off in the presence of a centerline vertical tail and twin, wing-mounted vertical fins to quantify the sensitivity of the aerodynamics to tail placement and orientation. A close-coupled canard was tested as an alternative to the LEX as a passive flow control device. Wing upper surface static pressure distributions and six-component forces and moments were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.85, and 1.20, unit Reynolds number of 2.5 million, angles of attack up to approximately 30 degrees, and angles of sideslip to +/-8 degrees. The off-surface flow field was visualized in cross planes on selected configurations using a laser vapor screen flow visualization technique. Tunnel-to-tunnel data comparisons and a Reynolds number sensitivity assessment were also performed. 15.

  2. Design of the Wind Tunnel Model Communication Controller Board. Degree awarded by Christopher Newport Univ. on Dec. 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center's Wind Tunnel Reinvestment project plans to shrink the existing data acquisition electronics to fit inside a wind tunnel model. Space limitations within a model necessitate a distributed system of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) rather than a centralized system based on PC boards. This thesis will focus on the design of the prototype of the communication Controller board. A portion of the communication Controller board is to be used as the basis of an ASIC design. The communication Controller board will communicate between the internal model modules and the external data acquisition computer. This board is based around an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to allow for reconfigurability. In addition to the FPGA, this board contains buffer Random Access Memory (RAM), configuration memory (EEPROM), drivers for the communications ports, and passive components.

  3. Validation Study for an Atmospheric Dispersion Model, Using Effective Source Heights Determined from Wind Tunnel Experiments in Nuclear Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Oura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than fifty years, atmospheric dispersion predictions based on the joint use of a Gaussian plume model and wind tunnel experiments have been applied in both Japan and the U.K. for the evaluation of public radiation exposure in nuclear safety analysis. The effective source height used in the Gaussian model is determined from ground-level concentration data obtained by a wind tunnel experiment using a scaled terrain and site model. In the present paper, the concentrations calculated by this method are compared with data observed over complex terrain in the field, under a number of meteorological conditions. Good agreement was confirmed in near-neutral and unstable stabilities. However, it was found to be necessary to reduce the effective source height by 50% in order to achieve a conservative estimation of the field observations in a stable atmosphere.

  4. Investigations of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS Integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle Jet-Plume Model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 by11-Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (IA80). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.

  5. Fastener load tests and retention systems tests for cryogenic wind-tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A-286 stainless steel screws were tested to determine the tensile load capability and failure mode of various screw sizes and types at both cryogenic and room temperature. Additionally, five fastener retention systems were tested by using A-286 screws with specimens made from the primary metallic alloys that are currently used for cryogenic models. The locking system effectiveness was examined by simple no-load cycling to cryogenic temperatures (-275 F) as well as by dynamic and static loading at cryogenic temperatures. In general, most systems were found to be effective retention devices. There are some differences between the various devices with respect to ease of application, cleanup, and reuse. Results of tests at -275 F imply that the cold temperatures act to improve screw retention. The improved retention is probably the result of differential thermal contraction and/or increased friction (thread-binding effects). The data provided are useful in selecting screw sizes, types, and locking devices for model systems to be tested in cryogenic wind tunnels.

  6. Aeroelastic Uncertainty Quantification Studies Using the S4T Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbay, Melike; Heeg, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This paper originates from the joint efforts of an aeroelastic study team in the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel from NATO Science and Technology Organization, with the Task Group number AVT-191, titled "Application of Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification to Military Vehicle Design." We present aeroelastic uncertainty quantification studies using the SemiSpan Supersonic Transport wind tunnel model at the NASA Langley Research Center. The aeroelastic study team decided treat both structural and aerodynamic input parameters as uncertain and represent them as samples drawn from statistical distributions, propagating them through aeroelastic analysis frameworks. Uncertainty quantification processes require many function evaluations to asses the impact of variations in numerous parameters on the vehicle characteristics, rapidly increasing the computational time requirement relative to that required to assess a system deterministically. The increased computational time is particularly prohibitive if high-fidelity analyses are employed. As a remedy, the Istanbul Technical University team employed an Euler solver in an aeroelastic analysis framework, and implemented reduced order modeling with Polynomial Chaos Expansion and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition to perform the uncertainty propagation. The NASA team chose to reduce the prohibitive computational time by employing linear solution processes. The NASA team also focused on determining input sample distributions.

  7. High Fidelity Computational and Wind Tunnel Models in Support of Certification Airworthiness of Control Surfaces with Freeplay and Other Nonlinear Features, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work will establish high fidelity computational methods and wind tunnel test model in support of new freeplay criteria for the design, construction and...

  8. Testing of the Trim Tab Parametric Model in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    In support of NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing technology development efforts, testing of Langley's Trim Tab Parametric Models was conducted in Test Section 2 of NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate quantitative aerodynamic data and qualitative surface pressure data for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. Six component force-and-moment data were measured on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg, and angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg. Configuration parameters investigated in this study were forebody shape, tab area, tab cant angle, and tab aspect ratio. Pressure Sensitive Paint was used to provide qualitative surface pressure mapping for a subset of these flow and configuration variables. Over the range of parameters tested, the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than varying tab aspect ratio relative to key aerodynamic performance requirements. Qualitative surface pressure data supported the integrated aerodynamic data and provided information to aid in future analyses of localized phenomena for trim tab configurations.

  9. A Hydrogen Peroxide Hot-Jet Simulator for Wind-Tunnel Tests of Turbojet-Exit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runckel, Jack F.; Swihart, John M.

    1959-01-01

    A turbojet-engine-exhaust simulator which utilizes a hydrogen peroxide gas generator has been developed for powered-model testing in wind tunnels with air exchange. Catalytic decomposition of concentrated hydrogen peroxide provides a convenient and easily controlled method of providing a hot jet with characteristics that correspond closely to the jet of a gas turbine engine. The problems associated with simulation of jet exhausts in a transonic wind tunnel which led to the selection of a liquid monopropellant are discussed. The operation of the jet simulator consisting of a thrust balance, gas generator, exit nozzle, and auxiliary control system is described. Static-test data obtained with convergent nozzles are presented and shown to be in good agreement with ideal calculated values.

  10. A common geometric data-base approach for computer-aided manufacturing of wind-tunnel models and theoretical aerodynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, M. J.; Cozzolongo, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    A more automated process to produce wind tunnel models using existing facilities is discussed. A process was sought to more rapidly determine the aerodynamic characteristics of advanced aircraft configurations. Such aerodynamic characteristics are determined from theoretical analyses and wind tunnel tests of the configurations. Computers are used to perform the theoretical analyses, and a computer aided manufacturing system is used to fabricate the wind tunnel models. In the past a separate set of input data describing the aircraft geometry had to be generated for each process. This process establishes a common data base by enabling the computer aided manufacturing system to use, via a software interface, the geometric input data generated for the theoretical analysis. Thus, only one set of geometric data needs to be generated. Tests reveal that the process can reduce by several weeks the time needed to produce a wind tunnel model component. In addition, this process increases the similarity of the wind tunnel model to the mathematical model used by the theoretical aerodynamic analysis programs. Specifically, the wind tunnel model can be machined to within 0.008 in. of the original mathematical model. However, the software interface is highly complex and cumbersome to operate, making it unsuitable for routine use. The procurement of an independent computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing system with the capability to support both the theoretical analysis and the manufacturing tasks was recommended.

  11. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  12. Precision Position Control of the DelFly II Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle in a Wind-tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunis, T.; Karasek, M.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Flapping-wing MAVs represent an attractive alternative to conventional designs with rotary wings, since they promise a much higher efficiency in forward flight. However, further insight into the flapping-wing aerodynamics is still needed to get closer to the flight performance observed in natural

  13. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wind tunnel is an aerodynamic test facility. It is mostly used to study flow patterns around bodies and measure aerodynamic forces on them. The bodies (called models) are usually scaled down but geometrically similar versions of bodies of interest like an airplane or an automobile. The results from wind tunnel tests can be ...

  14. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  15. Acoustic Data Processing and Transient Signal Analysis for the Hybrid Wing Body 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Spalt, Taylor B.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    An advanced vehicle concept, the HWB N2A-EXTE aircraft design, was tested in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel to study its acoustic characteristics for var- ious propulsion system installation and airframe con gurations. A signi cant upgrade to existing data processing systems was implemented, with a focus on portability and a re- duction in turnaround time. These requirements were met by updating codes originally written for a cluster environment and transferring them to a local workstation while en- abling GPU computing. Post-test, additional processing of the time series was required to remove transient hydrodynamic gusts from some of the microphone time series. A novel automated procedure was developed to analyze and reject contaminated blocks of data, under the assumption that the desired acoustic signal of interest was a band-limited sta- tionary random process, and of lower variance than the hydrodynamic contamination. The procedure is shown to successfully identify and remove contaminated blocks of data and retain the desired acoustic signal. Additional corrections to the data, mainly background subtraction, shear layer refraction calculations, atmospheric attenuation and microphone directivity corrections, were all necessary for initial analysis and noise assessments. These were implemented for the post-processing of spectral data, and are shown to behave as expected.

  16. Evaluation of a new method for puff arrival time as assessed through wind tunnel modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaloupecká, Hana; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Mikšovský, J.; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, October (2017), s. 194-210 ISSN 0957-5820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : wind tunnel * short-term gas leakage * puff Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957582017302203

  17. Air Flow Modeling in the Wind Tunnel of the FHWA Aerodynamics Laboratory at Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, M. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division; Lottes, S. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division; Bojanowski, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) Energy Systems Division

    2017-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is widely used in industry for design and in the research community to support, compliment, and extend the scope of experimental studies. Analysis of transportation infrastructure using high performance cluster computing with CFD and structural mechanics software is done at the Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center (TRACC) at Argonne National Laboratory. These resources, available at TRACC, were used to perform advanced three-dimensional computational simulations of the wind tunnel laboratory at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC). The goals were to verify the CFD model of the laboratory wind tunnel and then to use versions of the model to provide the capability to (1) perform larger parametric series of tests than can be easily done in the laboratory with available budget and time, (2) to extend testing to wind speeds that cannot be achieved in the laboratory, and (3) to run types of tests that are very difficult or impossible to run in the laboratory. Modern CFD software has many physics models and domain meshing options. Models, including the choice of turbulence and other physics models and settings, the computational mesh, and the solver settings, need to be validated against measurements to verify that the results are sufficiently accurate for use in engineering applications. The wind tunnel model was built and tested, by comparing to experimental measurements, to provide a valuable tool to perform these types of studies in the future as a complement and extension to TFHRC’s experimental capabilities. Wind tunnel testing at TFHRC is conducted in a subsonic open-jet wind tunnel with a 1.83 m (6 foot) by 1.83 m (6 foot) cross section. A three component dual force-balance system is used to measure forces acting on tested models, and a three degree of freedom suspension system is used for dynamic response tests. Pictures of the room are shown in Figure 1-1 to Figure 1-4. A detailed CAD

  18. Optimization and design of an aircraft's morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speeds, Part II - Experimental validation using Infra-Red transition measurement from Wind Tunnel tests

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Koreanschi; Oliviu Sugar Gabor; Joran Acotto; Guillaume Brianchon; Gregoire Portier; Ruxandra Mihaela Botez; Mahmoud Mamou; Youssef Mebarki

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was numerically and experimentally validated. The genetic algorithm was applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The optimization was performed for 16 flight cases expressed in terms of various combinations of speeds, angles of attack and aileron deflections. The displacements resulted from the optimization were used during the wind tunnel tests of...

  19. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic efficiency of three planar elliptical wings with curvature of quarter-chord line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.

  20. Model support system using an industrial robot in low-speed wind tunnel; Sangyoyo robot wo mochiita fudo mokei shiji system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T.; Iwasaki, A.; Fujieda, H.; Shigemi, M. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Nakayasu, H.; Sagisaka, M. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-06-01

    A model support system that can set the attitude with an attack angle, sideslip angle, and rotation angle as required by using the mechanism and function of an industrial robot and that can be rapidly moved to the specified position was developed. This system consists of a host computer, robot controller, and robot. A sting for wind tunnel model support and a six-component balance are installed at the tip of a robot arm. The robot has fix freedom levels and can control the attitude of the wind tunnel model. A model with weight capacity of 1470N and precision of {plus_minus}0.5 mm was selected. An A/D input block and external communication function were installed in the robot controller, in consideration of the dynamic floating effect that the machine continuously approaches a ground plate in the wind tunnel test of an experimental machine. The function test of a robot installed in the wind tunnel, the wind tunnel test using a robot, the comparison of aerodynamic data based on the difference of a model support system were investigated. The result showed that this system is very effective.

  1. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  2. Stereo Photogrammetry Measurements of the Position and Attitude of a Nozzle-Plume/Shock-Wave Interaction Model in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward T.; Kushner, Laura K.; Drain, Bethany A.; Heineck, James T.; Durston, Donald A.

    2017-01-01

    Stereo photogrammetry was used to measure the position and attitude of a slender body of revolution during nozzle-plume/shock-wave interaction tests in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The model support system was designed to allow the model to be placed at many locations in the test section relative to a pressure rail on one sidewall. It included a streamwise traverse as well as a thin blade that offset the model axis from the sting axis. With these features the support system was more flexible than usual resulting in higher-than-usual uncertainty in the position and attitude of the model. Also contributing to this uncertainty were the absence of a balance, so corrections for sting deflections could not be applied, and the wings-vertical orientation of the model, which precluded using a gravity-based accelerometer to measure pitch angle. Therefore, stereo photogrammetry was chosen to provide independent measures of the model position and orientation. This paper describes the photogrammetry system and presents selected results from the test.

  3. Automated Boundary Conditions for Wind Tunnel Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2018-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of models tested in wind tunnels require a high level of fidelity and accuracy particularly for the purposes of CFD validation efforts. Considerable effort is required to ensure the proper characterization of both the physical geometry of the wind tunnel and recreating the correct flow conditions inside the wind tunnel. The typical trial-and-error effort used for determining the boundary condition values for a particular tunnel configuration are time and computer resource intensive. This paper describes a method for calculating and updating the back pressure boundary condition in wind tunnel simulations by using a proportional-integral-derivative controller. The controller methodology and equations are discussed, and simulations using the controller to set a tunnel Mach number in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are demonstrated.

  4. STOL Characteristics of a Propeller-Driven, Aspect-Ratio-10, Straight-Wing Airplane with Boundary-Layer Control Flaps, as Estimated from Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiberg, James A; Holzhauser, Curt A.

    1961-01-01

    A study is presented of the improvements in take-off and landing distances possible with a conventional propeller-driven transport-type airplane when the available lift is increased by propeller slipstream effects and by very effective trailing-edge flaps and ailerons. This study is based on wind-tunnel tests of a 45-foot span, powered model, with BLC on the trailing-edge flaps and controls. The data were applied to an assumed airplane with four propellers and a wing loading of 50 pounds per square foot. Also included is an examination of the stability and control problems that may result in the landing and take-off speed range of such a vehicle. The results indicated that the landing and take-off distances could be more than halved by the use of highly effective flaps in combination with large amounts of engine power to augment lift (STOL). At the lowest speeds considered (about 50 knots), adequate longitudinal stability was obtained but the lateral and directional stability were unsatisfactory. At these low speeds, the conventional aerodynamic control surfaces may not be able to cope with the forces and moments produced by symmetric, as well as asymmetric, engine operation. This problem was alleviated by BLC applied to the control surfaces.

  5. Optimization and design of an aircraft's morphing wing-tip demonstrator for drag reduction at low speeds, Part II - Experimental validation using Infra-Red transition measurement from Wind Tunnel tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Koreanschi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was numerically and experimentally validated. The genetic algorithm was applied to an optimization problem for improving the aerodynamic performances of an aircraft wing tip through upper surface morphing. The optimization was performed for 16 flight cases expressed in terms of various combinations of speeds, angles of attack and aileron deflections. The displacements resulted from the optimization were used during the wind tunnel tests of the wing tip demonstrator for the actuators control to change the upper surface shape of the wing. The results of the optimization of the flow behavior for the airfoil morphing upper-surface problem were validated with wind tunnel experimental transition results obtained with infra-red Thermography on the wing-tip demonstrator. The validation proved that the 2D numerical optimization using the ‘in-house’ genetic algorithm was an appropriate tool in improving various aspects of a wing’s aerodynamic performances.

  6. Application of system identification to analytic rotor modeling from simulated and wind tunnel dynamic test data, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenemser, K. H.; Banerjee, D.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to aircraft state and parameter identification methods is presented. A simplified form of the maximum likelihood method is selected to extract analytical aeroelastic rotor models from simulated and dynamic wind tunnel test results for accelerated cyclic pitch stirring excitation. The dynamic inflow characteristics for forward flight conditions from the blade flapping responses without direct inflow measurements were examined. The rotor blades are essentially rigid for inplane bending and for torsion within the frequency range of study, but flexible in out-of-plane bending. Reverse flow effects are considered for high rotor advance ratios. Two inflow models are studied; the first is based on an equivalent blade Lock number, the second is based on a time delayed momentum inflow. In addition to the inflow parameters, basic rotor parameters like the blade natural frequency and the actual blade Lock number are identified together with measurement bias values. The effect of the theoretical dynamic inflow on the rotor eigenvalues is evaluated.

  7. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  8. Comparison of Speed-Up Over Hills Derived from Wind-Tunnel Experiments, Wind-Loading Standards, and Numerical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei Pirooz, Amir A.; Flay, Richard G. J.

    2018-03-01

    We evaluate the accuracy of the speed-up provided in several wind-loading standards by comparison with wind-tunnel measurements and numerical predictions, which are carried out at a nominal scale of 1:500 and full-scale, respectively. Airflow over two- and three-dimensional bell-shaped hills is numerically modelled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method with a pressure-driven atmospheric boundary layer and three different turbulence models. Investigated in detail are the effects of grid size on the speed-up and flow separation, as well as the resulting uncertainties in the numerical simulations. Good agreement is obtained between the numerical prediction of speed-up, as well as the wake region size and location, with that according to large-eddy simulations and the wind-tunnel results. The numerical results demonstrate the ability to predict the airflow over a hill with good accuracy with considerably less computational time than for large-eddy simulation. Numerical simulations for a three-dimensional hill show that the speed-up and the wake region decrease significantly when compared with the flow over two-dimensional hills due to the secondary flow around three-dimensional hills. Different hill slopes and shapes are simulated numerically to investigate the effect of hill profile on the speed-up. In comparison with more peaked hill crests, flat-topped hills have a lower speed-up at the crest up to heights of about half the hill height, for which none of the standards gives entirely satisfactory values of speed-up. Overall, the latest versions of the National Building Code of Canada and the Australian and New Zealand Standard give the best predictions of wind speed over isolated hills.

  9. RITD – Wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Schmidt, Walter; Heilimo, Jyri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Arruego, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    An atmospheric re-entry and descent and landing system (EDLS) concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques is highly promising for the Earth re-entry missions. We developed such EDLS for the Earth re-entry utilizing a concept that was originally developed for Mars. This EU-funded project is called RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development - and it was to assess the bene¬fits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develope a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. The RITD entry and descent system utilizes an inflatable hypersonic decelerator. Development of such system requires a combination of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations. This included wind tunnel tests both in transsonic and subsonic regimes. The principal aim of the wind tunnel tests was the determination of the RITD damping factors in the Earth atmosphere and recalculation of the results for the case of the vehicle descent in the Mars atmosphere. The RITD mock-up model used in the tests was in scale of 1:15 of the real-size vehicle as the dimensions were (midsection) diameter of 74.2 mm and length of 42 mm. For wind tunnel testing purposes the frontal part of the mock-up model body was manufactured by using a PolyJet 3D printing technology based on the light curing of liquid resin. The tail part of the mock-up model body was manufactured of M1 grade copper. The structure of the mock-up model placed th center of gravity in the same position as that of the real-size RITD. The wind tunnel test program included the defining of the damping factor at seven values of Mach numbers 0.85; 0.95; 1.10; 1.20; 1.25; 1.30 and 1.55 with the angle of attack ranging from 0 degree to 40 degrees with the step of 5 degrees. The damping characteristics of

  10. Power Effects on High Lift, Stability and Control Characteristics of the TCA Model Tested in the LaRC 14 x 22 Ft Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    The TCA-2 wind-tunnel test was the second in a series of planned tests utilizing the 5% Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) model. Each of the tests was planned to utilize the unique capabilities of the NASA Langley 14'x22' and the NASA Ames 12' test facilities, in order to assess specific aspects of the high lift and stability and control characteristics of the TCA configuration. However, shortly after the completion of the TCA-1 test, an early projection of the Technology Configuration (TC) identified the need for several significant changes to the baseline TCA configuration. These changes were necessary in order to meet more stringent noise certification levels, as well as, to provide a means to control dynamic structural modes. The projected changes included a change to the outboard wing (increased aspect ratio and lower sweep) and a reconfiguration of the longitudinal control surfaces to include a medium size canard and a reduced horizontal tail. The impact of these proposed changes did not affect the TCA-2 test, because it was specifically planned to address power effects on the empennage and a smaller horizontal tail was in the plan to be tested. However, the focus of future tests was reevaluated and the emphasis was shifted away from assessment of TCA specific configurations to a more general assessment of configurations that encompass the projected design space for the TC.

  11. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  12. Parameter Estimation of Actuators for Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) Wind Tunnel Model with Analysis of Wear and Aerodynamic Loading Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Fung, Jimmy

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of transfer function models for the trailing-edge and upper and lower spoiler actuators of the Benchmark Active Control Technology (BACT) wind tunnel model for application to control system analysis and design. A simple nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation approach is applied to determine transfer function parameters from frequency response data. Unconstrained quasi-Newton minimization of weighted frequency response error was employed to estimate the transfer function parameters. An analysis of the behavior of the actuators over time to assess the effects of wear and aerodynamic load by using the transfer function models is also presented. The frequency responses indicate consistent actuator behavior throughout the wind tunnel test and only slight degradation in effectiveness due to aerodynamic hinge loading. The resulting actuator models have been used in design, analysis, and simulation of controllers for the BACT to successfully suppress flutter over a wide range of conditions.

  13. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above wing for upper-surface blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, J. P.; Mclemore, H. C.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in a full scale tunnel to determine the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale advanced arrow wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing. Tests were made over an angle of attack range of -10 deg to 32 deg, sideslip angles of + or - 5 deg, and a Reynolds number range of 3,530,000 to 7,330,000. Configuration variables included trailing edge flap deflection, engine jet nozzle angle, engine thrust coefficient, engine out operation, and asymmetrical trailing edge boundary layer control for providing roll trim. Downwash measurements at the tail were obtained for different thrust coefficients, tail heights, and at two fuselage stations.

  14. A study of the drooped leading edge airfoil. [on wind tunnel models to reduce spin entry after stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D., Jr.; Barlow, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to examine various aspects of the drooped-leading edge airfoil which reduces the tendency for an airplane to enter a spin after stall occurs. Three baseline models were used for tests of two dimensional models: NACA 0015, 0014.6, and 0014.2. The 14.6% and 14.2% models were derived from NACA 0015 sections by increasing the chord and matching the profiles aft section. Force, balance data (lift, drag, pitching moment) were obtained for each model at a free-steam Reynold's number of 2.66 x 10 to the 6th power/m. In addition, oil flow visualization tests were performed at various angles of attack. An existing NACA 64 sub 1 A211 airfoil was used in a second series of tests. The leading edge flap was segmented in three parts which allowed various baseline/drooped leading edge configurations to be tested. Force balance and flow visualization tests were completer at chord Renolds numbers of 0.44 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.4 x 10 to the 6th power, and 2.11 x 10 to the 6th power. Test results are included.

  15. On the aero-elastic design of the DTU 10MW wind turbine blade for the LIFES50+ wind tunnel scale model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayati, I.; Belloli, M.; Bernini, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the aero-elastic optimal design, the realization and the verification of the wind tunnel scale model blades for the DTU 10 MW wind turbine model, within LIFES50+ project. The aerodynamic design was focused on the minimization of the difference, in terms of thrust coefficient...... and for different angles of attack. The aero-elastic design algorithm was set to define the optimal spanwise thickness over chord ratio (t/c), the chord length and the twist to match the first flapwise scaled natural frequency. An aluminium mould for the carbon fibre was CNC manufactured based on B-Splines CAD...... definition of the external geometry. Then the wind tunnel tests at Politecnico di Milano confirmed successful design and manufacturing approaches....

  16. Evaporation suppression from reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale wind-tunnel observations and mechanistic model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Dani; Lehmann, Peter; Aminzadeh, Milad; Sommer, Martina; Wey, Hannah; Krentscher, Christiane; Wunderli, Hans; Breitenstein, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation, thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design and implementation remain largely empirical. We report a systematic experimental evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind plus radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  17. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  18. Wind tunnel tests of an 0.019-scale space shuttle integrated vehicle -2A configuration (model 14-OTS) in the NASA Ames 8 X 7 foot unitary wind tunnel, volume 2. [cold jet gas plumes and pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine the effects of cold jet gas plumes on (1) the integrated vehicle longitudinal and lateral-directional force data, (2) exposed wing hinge moment, (3) wing pressure distributions, (4) orbiter MPS external pressure distributions, and (5) model base pressures. An investigation was undertaken to determine the similarity between solid and gaseous plumes; fluorescent oil flow visualization studies were also conducted. Plotted wing pressure data is tabulated.

  19. Development of procedures for the acquisition of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) parts for use in the CSIR's wind tunnel models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnston, C

    2015-11-04

    Full Text Available The first Additive Manufacturing (AM) non-load-bearing, client furnished part was used in the CSIR’s wind tunnels in 2007. The advent of metal-grown materials, and the acquisition of machines to grow them in South Africa, has made it feasible...

  20. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Test of an Unpowered High-Speed Stoppable Rotor Concept in Fixed-Wing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Michael B.; Sung, Daniel Y.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the M85, a High Speed Rotor Concept, was conducted at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel, assisted by NASA-Ames. An unpowered 1/5 scale model of the XH-59A helicopter fuselage with a large circular hub fairing, two rotor blades, and a shaft fairing was used as a baseline configuration. The M85 is a rotor wing hybrid aircraft design, and the model was tested with the rotor blade in the fixed wing mode. Assessments were made of the aerodynamic characteristics of various model rotor configurations. Variation in configurations were produced by changing the rotor blade sweep angle and the blade chord length. The most favorable M85 configuration tested included wide chord blades at 0 deg sweep, and it attained a system lift to drag ratio of 8.4.

  1. Evaluation of an Experimental Model for Flat-Fan Nozzles Drift in Wind Tunnel by Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H Fattahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of liters of toxic liquid, are used to combat with pests and plant diseases in farms. The wide spread use of chemical pesticides causes great environmental hazards. Particles drift is one of the main problems in spraying which results in the contamination of farm lands, humans and animals. Management of particle size is regarded as the main factor in drift control. In this study, the effect of some parameters on the size of deposited particles on non-target areas was studied using statistical method. The effects of nozzle type (orifice size, spraying pressure, spraying boom height and wind speed as effective factors on drift were examined. A horizontal wind tunnel with working section of 0.47 m wide, 0.75 m height and 5.5 m long was used for testing. Experiment was performed in the form of factorial split-plot based on randomized complete block design with two replications. Droplets were measured in the treatment combinations of the type of flat-fan nozzle with three orifice area (11003- 0.87 mm2, 11004-1.18 mm2 and 11006- 1.8 mm2, spraying pressure (150, 275 and 400 kpa, wind speed (1, 2 and 3 m s-1 and the boom height of (0.35, 0.55 and 0.75 m. Water-sensitive papers were used at intervals of 0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 m from the tip of nozzles for detecting droplets size. The factors of pressure, speed and height had positive effects on the droplet size at the desired distance, but the effect of nozzle size on droplet size was negative. In the regression model the coefficients of speed was higher than the others.

  2. Wind tunnel investigation of active controls technology applied to a DC-10 derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, B. A.; Shirley, W. A.; Heimbaugh, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and structural weight. As part of the NASA Energy Efficient Transport program, the impact upon flutter and gust load characteristics has been investigated by means of analysis and low-speed wind tunnel tests of a semispan model. The model represents a DC-10 derivative with increased wing span and an active aileron surface, responding to vertical acceleration at the wing tip. A control law satisfying both flutter and gust load constraints is presented and evaluated. In general, the beneficial effects predicted by analysis are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. Results of investigations of an 0.010-scale 140A/B configuration (model 72-OTS) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the NASA/Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozzi, M. T.; Milam, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/Langley unitary plan wind tunnel on a sting mounted 0.010-scale outer mold line model of the 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle. The primary test objectives were to obtain: (1) six component force and moment data for the mated vehicle at subsonic and transonic conditions, (2) effects of configuration build-up, (3) effects of protuberances, ET/orbiter fairings and attach structures, and (4) elevon deflection effects on wing bending moment. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data and base and balance cavity pressures were recorded over Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 2.86, 3.9, and 4.63 at a nominal Reynolds number of 20 to the 6th power per foot. Selected configurations were tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg. For all configurations involving the orbiter, wing bending, and torsion coefficients were measured on the right wing.

  4. Improved design and data accuracy through modeling and simulation of wind tunnel facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. (AS&M) is proposing to develop and validate the procedures and modeling necessary to simulate, using computational...

  5. Wind-Tunnel Survey of an Oscillating Flow Field for Application to Model Helicopter Rotor Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirick, Paul H.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the flow field produced by the Airstream Oscillator System (AOS) in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The magnitude of a simulated gust field was measured at 15 locations in the plane of a typical model helicopter rotor when tested in the TDT using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) model. These measurements were made over a range of tunnel dynamic pressures typical of those used for an ARES test. The data indicate that the gust field produced by the AOS is non-uniform across the tunnel test section, but should be sufficient to excite a model rotor.

  6. Wind tunnel test IA300 analysis and results, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, P. B.; Beaufait, W. B.; Kitchens, L. L.; Pace, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of wind tunnel pressure data from the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test IA300 are presented. The primary objective of the test was to determine the effects of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) plumes on the integrated vehicle forebody pressure distributions, the elevon hinge moments, and wing loads. The results of this test will be combined with flight test results to form a new data base to be employed in the IVBC-3 airloads analysis. A secondary objective was to obtain solid plume data for correlation with the results of gaseous plume tests. Data from the power level portion was used in conjunction with flight base pressures to evaluate nominal power levels to be used during the investigation of changes in model attitude, eleveon deflection, and nozzle gimbal angle. The plume induced aerodynamic loads were developed for the Space Shuttle bases and forebody areas. A computer code was developed to integrate the pressure data. Using simplified geometrical models of the Space Shuttle elements and components, the pressure data were integrated to develop plume induced force and moments coefficients that can be combined with a power-off data base to develop a power-on data base.

  7. Wind tunnel tests of an 0.019-scale space shuttle integrated vehicle -2A configuration (model 14-OTS) in the NASA Ames 8 X 7 foot unitary wind tunnel, volume 3. [cold jet gas plumes and pressure distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effects of cold jet gas plumes on (1) the integrated vehicle longitudinal and lateral-directional force data, (2) exposed wing hinge moment, (3) wing pressure distributions, (4) orbiter MPS external pressure distributions, and (5) model base pressures. An investigation was undertaken to determine the similarity between solid and gaseous plumes; fluorescent oil flow visualization studies were also conducted. Tabulated data listings are included.

  8. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large wind tunnels simulating the actual flight conditions as nearly as possible. Often, several wind tunnels ... wind tunnel tests can be 'scaled' to the actual velocity and actual body size using suitable scaling laws. A typical wind tunnel consists ofa test section ... tion and control positions. Some of this instrumentation like six.

  9. Nonlinearity of mechanical damping and stiffness of a spring-suspended sectional model system for wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guangzhong; Zhu, Ledong

    2015-10-01

    The wind tunnel test of spring-suspended sectional models (SSSM) is an important means in the research of wind engineering, which is very frequently employed to check the performances of flutter and vortex-induced resonance of bridges as well as to identify the various aerodynamic and aeroelastic parameters of bridge components, such as aerodynamic derivatives of self-excited forces. However, in practice, the mechanical damping ratios and natural frequencies of SSSM system are prevailingly supposed to be constant in the whole procedure of a test. This assumption often leads to notable errors of the test results or dispersion of the identified aerodynamic parameters because the mechanical damping ratios and natural frequencies of SSSM system are proved to vary in fact to some extent with the change of oscillating amplitude. On that account, the mechanical nonlinearity of SSSM system is investigated and discussed in this paper by taking a flat-closed box section as a research background. The conventional linear model is firstly proved to fail to predict precisely the long-duration free decay responses of the SSSM system. The formulae of equivalent linearization approximation (ELA) are then derived by using a multiple-scale method to model the mechanical nonlinearities in the first-order approximate sense, and a time-domain system identification method is proposed on this basis to identify equivalent amplitude-dependent (EAD) damping ratio and frequency. The proposed ELA and nonlinear system identification methods are then found to be precise enough to model the mechanical nonlinearities of SSSM system. The characteristics of EAD damping ratio and frequency of both the bending and torsional modes are then discussed in detail. It is then found that the major energy dissipation of SSSM vibrations at both the bending and torsional modes generally comes from the combined effect of viscous damping and quadratic damping. However, for the vibration at the bending mode with

  10. Test of an 0.8-Scale Model of the AH-64 Apache in the NASA Langley Full- Scale Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    available test rigs - the NASA Generalized Rotor Model System (GRMS) and the Navy Hub and Pylon Evaluation Rig (HPER). Computer programs studying the...I, USAAVSCOM TM-87-D-5 V US ARMY AVIATION SYSTEMS COMMAND TEST OF AN 0.8-SCALE MODEL OF THE AH-64 APACHE IN THE NASA LANGLEY FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL...I% DTIC TAB [ Unan~nounced %] J st f iaton By- PDistributIon / . . AvnI1qbIlitV C -Idns... Dist l SP cI~o: *5* % , -- 5 ~V . - ~5 \\ .\\% TABLE OF

  11. Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

  12. Loads and Performance Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Generic Model Helicopter Rotor Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to acquire data for use in assessing the ability of current and future comprehensive analyses to predict helicopter rotating-system and fixed-system vibratory loads. The investigation was conducted with a generic model helicopter rotor system using blades with rectangular planform, no built-in twist, uniform radial distribution of mass and stiffnesses, and a NACA 0012 airfoil section. Rotor performance data, as well as mean and vibratory components of blade bending and torsion moments, fixed-system forces and moments, and pitch link loads were obtained at advance ratios up to 0.35 for various combinations of rotor shaft angle-of-attack and collective pitch. The data are presented without analysis.

  13. Second-Generation Large Civil Tiltrotor 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Russell, Carl R.; Willink, Gina C.; Pete, Ashley E.; Adibi, Sierra A.; Ewert, Adam; Theuns, Lieselotte; Beierle, Connor

    2016-01-01

    An approximately 6-percent scale model of the NASA Second-Generation Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR2) Aircraft was tested in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center January 4 to April 19, 2012, and September 18 to November 1, 2013. The full model was tested, along with modified versions in order to determine the effects of the wing tip extensions and nacelles; the wing was also tested separately in the various configurations. In both cases, the wing and nacelles used were adopted from the U.S. Army High Efficiency Tilt Rotor (HETR) aircraft, in order to limit the cost of the experiment. The full airframe was tested in high-speed cruise and low-speed hover flight conditions, while the wing was tested only in cruise conditions, with Reynolds numbers ranging from 0 to 1.4 million. In all cases, the external scale system of the wind tunnel was used to collect data. Both models were mounted to the scale using two support struts attached underneath the wing; the full airframe model also used a third strut attached at the tail. The collected data provides insight into the performance of the preliminary design of the LCTR2 and will be used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation and the development of flight dynamics simulation models.

  14. Wind tunnel CESAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian DOBRE

    2009-01-01

    This document comprises the geometrical definition of a Fowler flap for the LC2B laminar airfoilprovided by DLR. For the purpose of small aircraft, the single slotted Fowler flap for the LC2Blaminar airfoil was designed as a high lift device. This solution ensures a high performance and asimplicity of the design suitable for the intended category of aircraft

  15. Wind tunnel CESAR model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian DOBRE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This document comprises the geometrical definition of a Fowler flap for the LC2B laminar airfoilprovided by DLR. For the purpose of small aircraft, the single slotted Fowler flap for the LC2Blaminar airfoil was designed as a high lift device. This solution ensures a high performance and asimplicity of the design suitable for the intended category of aircraft

  16. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rectangular Air-Duct Entrances in the Leading Edge of an NACA 23018 Wing, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, David; McLellan, Charles H.

    1940-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of a number of duct entrances of rectangular shape installed in the leading edge of a wing was conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the external drag, the available pressure, the critical Mach numbers, and the effect on the maximum lift. The results showed that the most satisfactory entrances, which had practically no effect on the wing characteristics, had their lips approximately in the vertical plane of the leading edge of the wing. This requirement necessitated extending the lips outside the wing contour for all except the small entrances. Full dynamic pressure was found to be available over a fairly wide range of angle of attack. The critical Mach number for a small entrance was calculated to be as high as that for the plain wing but was slightly lower for the larger entrances tested.

  17. Photogrammetry Applied to Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Cattafesta, L. N., III; Radeztsky, R. H.; Burner, A. W.

    2000-01-01

    In image-based measurements, quantitative image data must be mapped to three-dimensional object space. Analytical photogrammetric methods, which may be used to accomplish this task, are discussed from the viewpoint of experimental fluid dynamicists. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) for camera calibration, used in pressure sensitive paint, is summarized. An optimization method for camera calibration is developed that can be used to determine the camera calibration parameters, including those describing lens distortion, from a single image. Combined with the DLT method, this method allows a rapid and comprehensive in-situ camera calibration and therefore is particularly useful for quantitative flow visualization and other measurements such as model attitude and deformation in production wind tunnels. The paper also includes a brief description of typical photogrammetric applications to temperature- and pressure-sensitive paint measurements and model deformation measurements in wind tunnels.

  18. Computational design and analysis of flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  19. Smart dynamic rotor control using active flaps on a small-scale wind turbine: aeroelastic modeling and comparison with wind tunnel measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Thanasis K.; van Wingerden, W.; Hulskamp, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the proof of concept of a smart rotor is illustrated by aeroelastic simulations on a small-scale rotor and comparison with wind tunnel experiments. The application of advanced feedback controllers using actively deformed flaps in the wind tunnel measurements is shown to alleviate d...

  20. Data-Acquisition Software for PSP/TSP Wind-Tunnel Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Goad, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Wing-Viewer is a computer program for acquisition and reduction of image data acquired by any of five different scientificgrade commercial electronic cameras used at Langley Research center to observe wind-tunnel models coated with pressure or temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP). Wing-Viewer provides full automation of camera operation and acquisition of image data, and has limited data-preprocessing capability for quick viewing of the results of PSP/TSP test images. Wing- Viewer satisfies a requirement for a standard interface between all the cameras and a single personal computer: Written by use of Microsoft Visual C++ and the Microsoft Foundation Class Library as a framework, Wing-Viewer has the ability to communicate with the C/C++ software libraries that run on the controller circuit cards of all five cameras.

  1. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  2. Initial Investigation of the Acoustics of a Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model with Historical Baseline Blades in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A counter-rotating open rotor scale model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). This model used a historical baseline blade set with which modern blade designs will be compared against on an acoustic and aerodynamic performance basis. Different blade pitch angles simulating approach and takeoff conditions were tested, along with angle-of-attack configurations. A configuration was also tested in order to determine the acoustic effects of a pylon. The shaft speed was varied for each configuration in order to get data over a range of operability. The freestream Mach number was also varied for some configurations. Sideline acoustic data were taken for each of these test configurations.

  3. Boundary Layer Transition, Separation and Flow Control on Airfoils, Wings and Bodies in CFD, Wind-Tunnel and In-Flight Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelka, Lukáš; Matějka, M.; Šimurda, David; Součková, Natálie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2011), s. 97-104 ISSN 0744-8996 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA2076403; GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : airfoil * wing-fuselage interaction * flow control Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  4. Multi-Objective Optimal Design of a Building Envelope and Structural System Using Cyber-Physical Modeling in a Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Whiteman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of a cyber-physical systems (CPS “loop-in-the-model” approach to optimally design the envelope and structural system of low-rise buildings subject to wind loads. Both the components and cladding (C&C and the main wind force resisting system (MWFRS are considered through multi-objective optimization. The CPS approach combines the physical accuracy of wind tunnel testing and efficiency of numerical optimization algorithms to obtain an optimal design. The approach is autonomous: experiments are executed in a boundary layer wind tunnel (BLWT, sensor feedback is monitored and analyzed by a computer, and optimization algorithms dictate physical changes to the structural model in the BLWT through actuators. To explore a CPS approach to multi-objective optimization, a low-rise building with a parapet wall of variable height is considered. In the BLWT, servo-motors are used to adjust the parapet to a particular height. Parapet walls alter the location of the roof corner vortices, reducing suction loads on the windward facing roof corners and edges, a C&C design load. At the same time, parapet walls increase the surface area of the building, leading to an increase in demand on the MWFRS. A combination of non-stochastic and stochastic optimization algorithms were implemented to minimize the magnitude of suction and positive pressures on the roof of a low-rise building model, followed by stochastic multi-objective optimization to simultaneously minimize the magnitude of suction pressures and base shear. Experiments were conducted at the University of Florida Experimental Facility (UFEF of the National Science Foundation’s (NSF Natural Hazard Engineering Research Infrastructure (NHERI program.

  5. Comparison of Angle of Attack Measurements for Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas, W.; Hoppe, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Two optical systems capable of measuring model attitude and deformation were compared to inertial devices employed to acquire wind tunnel model angle of attack measurements during the sting mounted full span 30% geometric scale flexible configuration of the Northrop Grumman Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) installed in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The overall purpose of the test at TDT was to evaluate smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. The optical techniques that were compared to inertial devices employed to measure angle of attack for this test were: (1) an Optotrak (registered) system, an optical system consisting of two sensors, each containing a pair of orthogonally oriented linear arrays to compute spatial positions of a set of active markers; and (2) Video Model Deformation (VMD) system, providing a single view of passive targets using a constrained photogrammetric solution whose primary function was to measure wing and control surface deformations. The Optotrak system was installed for this test for the first time at TDT in order to assess the usefulness of the system for future static and dynamic deformation measurements.

  6. Analytical aeroelastic stability considerations and conversion loads for an XV-15 tilt-rotor in a wind tunnel simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Meza, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A rotorcraft analysis is conducted to assess tilt-rotor stability and conversion loads for the XV-15 rotor with metal blades within its specified test envelope. A 38-DOF flutter analysis based on the code by Johnson (1988) is developed to simulate a wind-tunnel test in which the rotor torque is constant and thereby study stability. The same analytical model provides the simulated loads including hub loads, blade loads, and oscillatory pitch-link loads with attention given to the nonuniform inflow through the proprotor in the presence of the wing. Tilt-rotor stability during the cruise mode is found to be sensitive to coupling effects in the control system stiffness, and a stability problem is identified in the XV-15 Advanced Technology Blades. The present analysis demonstrates that the tilt-rotor is stable within the specified test envelope of the NASA 40 x 80-ft wind tunnel.

  7. Reducing Wind Tunnel Data Requirements Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Jorgenson, Charles C.; Norgaard, Magnus

    1997-01-01

    The use of neural networks to minimize the amount of data required to completely define the aerodynamic performance of a wind tunnel model is examined. The accuracy requirements for commercial wind tunnel test data are very severe and are difficult to reproduce using neural networks. For the current work, multiple input, single output networks were trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients. When applied to the aerodynamics of a 55% scale model of a U.S. Air Force/ NASA generic fighter configuration, this scheme provided accurate models of the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients. Using only 50% of the data acquired during, the wind tunnel test, the trained neural network had a predictive accuracy equal to or better than the accuracy of the experimental measurements.

  8. Effect of wing planform and canard location and geometry on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a close-coupled canard wing model at subsonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model with canard and wing planforms typical of highly maneuverable aircraft was tested in the Langley 7- by 10-foot high-speed tunnel at a Mach number of 0.30 to determine the effect of canard location, canard size, wing sweep, and canard strake on canard-wing interference to high angles of attack. The major results of this investigation may be summarized as follows: the high-canard configuration (excluding the canard strake and canard flap), for both the 60 deg and 44 deg swept leading-edge wings, produced the highest maximum lift coefficient and the most linear pitching-moment curves; substantially larger gains in the canard lift and total lift were obtained by adding a strake to the canard located below the wing chord plane rather than by adding a strake to the canard located above the wing chord plane.

  9. Application of Neural Networks to Wind tunnel Data Response Surface Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Zhao, J. L.; DeLoach, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The integration of nonlinear neural network methods with conventional linear regression techniques is demonstrated for representative wind tunnel force balance data modeling. This work was motivated by a desire to formulate precision intervals for response surfaces produced by neural networks. Applications are demonstrated for representative wind tunnel data acquired at NASA Langley Research Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, TN.

  10. Joint release rate estimation and measurement-by-measurement model correction for atmospheric radionuclide emission in nuclear accidents: An application to wind tunnel experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpeng; Li, Hong; Liu, Yun; Xiong, Wei; Fang, Sheng

    2018-03-05

    The release rate of atmospheric radionuclide emissions is a critical factor in the emergency response to nuclear accidents. However, there are unavoidable biases in radionuclide transport models, leading to inaccurate estimates. In this study, a method that simultaneously corrects these biases and estimates the release rate is developed. Our approach provides a more complete measurement-by-measurement correction of the biases with a coefficient matrix that considers both deterministic and stochastic deviations. This matrix and the release rate are jointly solved by the alternating minimization algorithm. The proposed method is generic because it does not rely on specific features of transport models or scenarios. It is validated against wind tunnel experiments that simulate accidental releases in a heterogonous and densely built nuclear power plant site. The sensitivities to the position, number, and quality of measurements and extendibility of the method are also investigated. The results demonstrate that this method effectively corrects the model biases, and therefore outperforms Tikhonov's method in both release rate estimation and model prediction. The proposed approach is robust to uncertainties and extendible with various center estimators, thus providing a flexible framework for robust source inversion in real accidents, even if large uncertainties exist in multiple factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  12. Results of investigations on the 0.004-scale model 74-0 of the configuration 4 (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA/MSFC 14-by-14-inch trisonic wind tunnel (oa131)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an oil flow boundary-layer visualization wind tunnel test of an 0.004-scale model of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Orbiter in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14-by-14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel are presented. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 through 2.75, at angles-of-attack from 0 through 25 degrees, and at unit Reynolds numbers from 5.0 to 7.0 million per foot. The test program involved still and motion picture photography of oil-paint flow patterns on the orbiter, during and immediately after tunnel flow, to determine areas of boundary layer separation and regions of potential auxiliary power unit exhaust recirculation during transonic and low supersonic re-entry flight.

  13. Experimental evaluation of two turning vane designs for fan drive corner of 0.1-scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed altitude wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldman, Donald R.; Moore, Royce D.; Shyne, Rickey J.

    1987-01-01

    Two turning vane designs were experimentally evaluated for corner 2 of a 0.1 scale model of the NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). Corner 2 contained a simulated shaft fairing for a fan drive system to be located downstream of the corner. The corner was tested with a bellmouth inlet followed by a 0.1 scale model of the crossleg diffuser designed to connect corners 1 and 2 of the AWT. Vane A was a controlled-diffusion airfoil shape; vane B was a circular-arc airfoil shape. The A vanes were tested in several arrangements which included the resetting of the vane angle by -5 degrees or the removal of the outer vane. The lowest total pressure loss for vane A configuration was obtained at the negative reset angle. The loss coefficient increased slightly with the Mach number, ranging from 0.165 to 0.175 with a loss coefficient of 0.170 at the inlet design Mach number of 0.24. Removal of the outer vane did not alter the loss. Vane B loss coefficients were essentially the same as those for the reset vane A configurations. The crossleg diffuser loss coefficient was 0.018 at the inlet design Mach number of 0.33.

  14. Experimental Study on the Wake Meandering Within a Scale Model Wind Farm Subject to a Wind-Tunnel Flow Simulating an Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudou, Nicolas; Buckingham, Sophia; Bricteux, Laurent; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2018-04-01

    The phenomenon of meandering of the wind-turbine wake comprises the motion of the wake as a whole in both horizontal and vertical directions as it is advected downstream. The oscillatory motion of the wake is a crucial factor in wind farms, because it increases the fatigue loads, and, in particular, the yaw loads on downstream turbines. To address this phenomenon, experimental investigations are carried out in a wind-tunnel flow simulating an atmospheric boundary layer with the Coriolis effect neglected. A 3 × 3 scaled wind farm composed of three-bladed rotating wind-turbine models is subject to a neutral boundary layer over a slightly-rough surface, i.e. corresponding to offshore conditions. Particle-image-velocimetry measurements are performed in a horizontal plane at hub height in the wakes of the three wind turbines occupying the wind-farm centreline. These measurements allow determination of the wake centrelines, with spectral analysis indicating the characteristic wavelength of the wake-meandering phenomenon. In addition, measurements with hot-wire anemometry are performed along a vertical line in the wakes of the same wind turbines, with both techniques revealing the presence of wake meandering behind all three turbines. The spectral analysis performed with the spatial and temporal signals obtained from these two measurement techniques indicates a Strouhal number of ≈ 0.20 - 0.22 based on the characteristic wake-meandering frequency, the rotor diameter and the flow speed at hub height.

  15. Wind-tunnel investigation of an armed mini remotely piloted vehicle. [conducted in Langley V/STOL tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of a full scale remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) armed with rocket launchers was conducted. The model had unacceptable longitudinal stability characteristics at negative angles of attack in the original design configuration. The addition of a pair of fins mounted in a V arrangement on the propeller shroud resulted in a configuration with acceptable longitudinal stability characteristics. The addition of wing mounted external stores to the modified configuration resulted in a slight reduction in the longitudinal stability. The lateral directional characteristics of the model were generally good, but the model had low directional stability at low angles of attack. Aerodynamic control power was very strong around all three axes.

  16. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have...

  17. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have...

  18. Wind Tunnel Testing of Active Control System for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henriette I.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    This paper describes preparation of wind tunnel testing of the principle of using flaps to control the motion of suspension bridges. The experiment will take place at the Instituto Superior Technico Lisbon, Portugal. The bridge section model is constructed of foam with an aluminium frame. The flaps...

  19. Novel Design for a Wind Tunnel Vertical Gust Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary; Jones, Anya; Hrynuk, John

    2017-11-01

    Gust response of MAVs is a fundamental problem for flight stability and control of such aircraft. Current knowledge about the gust response of these vehicles is limited and gust interaction often results in damage to vehicles. Studying isolated gust effects on simple airfoil models in a controlled environment is a necessity for the further development of MAV control laws. Gusts have typically been generated by oscillating an airfoil causing the shedding of vortices to propagate through the system. While effective, this method provides only a transient up and downdraft behavior with small changes in angle of attack, not suitable for studying MAV scale gust interactions. To study these interactions, a gust that creates a change in flow angle larger than the static stall angle of typical airfoils was developed. This work was done in a low speed, low turbulence wind tunnel at base operating speed of 1.5 m/s, generating a Reynolds number of 12,000 on a NACA 0012 wing. It describes the fundamental mechanisms of how this gust was generated and the results obtained from the gust generator. The gust, which can alter the flow field in less than 1 second, was characterized using PIV and the interactions with a stationary airfoil at several angles of attack are evaluated.

  20. The Kevlar-walled anechoic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenport, William J.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Borgoltz, Aurelien; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Barone, Matthew F.; Brown, Kenneth A.; Morton, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of an anechoic wind tunnel test section with walls made from thin Kevlar cloth have been measured and analyzed. The Kevlar test section offers some advantages over a conventional free-jet arrangement. The cloth contains the bulk of the flow but permits the transmission of sound with little loss. The containment results in smaller far-field aerodynamic corrections meaning that larger models can be tested at higher Reynolds numbers. The containment also eliminates the need for a jet catcher and allows for a much longer test section. Model-generated noise is thus more easily separated from facility background using beamforming. Measurements and analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic corrections for a Kevlar-walled test section are presented and discussed, along with benchmark trailing edge noise measurements.

  1. Rudolf Hermann, wind tunnels and aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.; Coleman, Anne M.

    2008-04-01

    Rudolf Hermann was born on December 15, 1904 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied at the University of Leipzig and at the Aachen Institute of Technology. His involvement with wind tunnels began in 1934 when Professor Carl Wieselsberger engaged him to work at Aachen on the development of a supersonic wind tunnel. On January 6, 1936, Dr. Wernher von Braun visited Dr. Hermann to arrange for use of the Aachen supersonic wind tunnel for Army problems. On April 1, 1937, Dr. Hermann became Director of the Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the Army installation at Peenemunde. Results from the Aachen and Peenemunde wind tunnels were crucial in achieving aerodynamic stability for the A-4 rocket, later designated as the V-2. Plans to build a Mach 10 'hypersonic' wind tunnel facility at Kochel were accelerated after the Allied air raid on Peenemunde on August 17, 1943. Dr. Hermann was director of the new facility. Ignoring destruction orders from Hitler as WWII approached an end in Europe, Dr. Hermann and his associates hid documents and preserved wind tunnel components that were acquired by the advancing American forces. Dr. Hermann became a consultant to the Air Force at its Wright Field in November 1945. In 1951, he was named professor of Aeronautical Engineering at the University of Minnesota. In 1962, Dr. Hermann became the first Director of the Research Institute at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), a position he held until he retired in 1970.

  2. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  3. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  4. PIV-based study of the gliding osprey aerodynamics in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Kopp, Gregory; Kirchhefer, Adam; Weihs, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    The hunting flight of an osprey consists of periods where the bird glides while foraging for prey. High quality measurements of aerodynamics in this flight mode are needed in order to estimate the daily energy expenditure of the bird accurately. An experimental study of an osprey model in a wind tunnel (BLWTL, UWO) was performed in order to characterize the aerodynamic forces using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The model was a stuffed osprey with mechanical joints allowing control of the the wing (angle of attack, tilt) and tail orientation. Two-dimensional velocity realizations in the streamwise-normal plane were obtained simultaneously in the two fields of view: above the wing and in the wake of the wing. Mean and turbulent flow characteristics are presented as function of angle of attack based on measurements taken at 4 different angles of attack at three different locations over the wingspan. The main outcome is the accurate estimate of the drag from the measurements of momentum thickness in the turbulent boundary layer of the osprey wing. Moreover, the gradient of the momentum thickness method was applied to identify the separation point in the boundary layer. This estimate has been compared to the total drag calculated from measurements in the wake of the wing and with a theoretical prediction.

  5. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale advanced arrow wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above the wing for upper-surface blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, J. P.; Mclemore, H. C.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Langley full scale tunnel was used to investigate the low speed stability and control of an advanced arrow wing supersonic transport with engines mounted above the wing for upper-surface blowing. Tests were made over an angle of attack range of -10 to 32 deg, slideslip angles of + or -5 deg and a Reynolds number ranging from 3.53 million to 7.33 million (referenced to mean aerodynamic chord of the wing). Configuration variables included trailing-edge flap deflection, engine jet nozzle angle, engine thrust coefficient, engine out operation, and asymmetrical trailing-edge BLC for providing roll trim. Downwash measurements at the tail were obtained for different thrust coefficients, tail heights, and at two fuselage stations.

  6. Comparison of the 10x10 and the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnels at the NASA Glenn Research Center for Low-Speed (Subsonic) Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thomas R.; Johns, Albert L.; Bury, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and Lockheed Martin tested an aircraft model in two wind tunnels to compare low-speed (subsonic) flow characteristics. Test objectives were to determine and document similarities and uniqueness of the tunnels and to verify that the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is a viable low-speed test facility when compared to the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). Conclusions are that the data from the two facilities compares very favorably and that the 10-by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center is a viable low-speed wind tunnel.

  7. A comparison of RANS computations and wind tunnel tests for RMS pressures on a high-rise building model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, I.M.; Bronkhorst, A.J.; Bentum, C.A. van; Franke, J.

    2012-01-01

    Five root-mean-square (RMS) pressure models are used in combination with different turbulence models to determine whether it is possible to obtain a conservative estimate of RMS pressures on a high-rise building model from a RANS calculation. When a precursor domain is used for the generation of

  8. Results of an investigation elevon hinge moments and dual panel elevon effectiveness using an .0405-scale model (16-0) of the configuration 140C space shuttle orbiter in the Rockwell International NAAL low speed wind tunnel (OA119B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted .0405-scale representation of the 140C outer mold line space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 x 11.00 foot low speed wind tunnel during the time period from August 22, 1974 to September 6, 1974. The primary test objectives were to define dual panel elevon/aileron effectiveness and to investigate elevon hinge-moments for the 140C orbiter configuration with wing/elevon upper hingeline sealing flapper doors. The elevon parametric variations, consisting of the basic elevons with 6 inch gaps and flapper doors, elevons with no flapper doors and completely open upper hingeline gap, and an entirely sealed solid elevon, were tested with elevon deflections from +20 to -35 deg at various aileron deflections. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by a 2.5 inch task type internal strain gage balance.

  9. A century of wind tunnels since Eiffel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanetz, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Fly higher, faster, preserve the life of test pilots and passengers, many challenges faced by man since the dawn of the twentieth century, with aviation pioneers. Contemporary of the first aerial exploits, wind tunnels, artificially recreating conditions encountered during the flight, have powerfully contributed to the progress of aeronautics. But the use of wind tunnels is not limited to aviation. The research for better performance, coupled with concern for energy saving, encourages manufacturers of ground vehicles to perform aerodynamic tests. Buildings and bridge structures are also concerned. This article deals principally with the wind tunnels built at ONERA during the last century. Somme wind tunnels outside ONERA, even outside France, are also evocated when their characteristics do not exist at ONERA.

  10. 7 x 10 Foot Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This wind tunnel is used for basic and applied research in aeromechanics on advanced and unique technology rotorcraft. It supports research on advanced concepts and...

  11. Low Speed Wind Tunnel Facility (LSWTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility consists of a large-scale, low-speed open-loop induction wind tunnel which has been modified to house a linear turbine cascade. A 125-hp...

  12. Aerodynamic Performance Degradation Induced by Ice Accretion. PIV Technique Assessment in Icing Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Fabrizio De

    The aim of the present chapter is to consider the use of PIV technique in an industrial icing wind tunnel (IWT) and the potentiality/advantages of applying the PIV technique to this specific field. The purpose of icing wind tunnels is to simulate the aircraft flight condition through cloud formations. In this operational condition ice accretions appear on the aircraft exposed surfaces due to the impact of the water droplets present in the clouds and the subsequent solidification. The investigation of aircraft aerodynamic performances and flight safety in icing condition is a fundamental aspect in the phase of design, development and certification of new aircrafts. The description of this unusual ground testing facility is reported. The assessment of PIV in CIRA-IWT has been investigated. Several technological problems have been afforded and solved by developing the components of the measurement system, such as the laser system and the recording apparatus, both fully remotely controlled, equipped with several traversing mechanism and protected by the adverse environment conditions (temperature and pressure). The adopted solutions are described. Furthermore, a complete test campaign on a full-scale aircraft wing tip, equipped with moving slat and deicing system has been carried out by PIV. Two regions have been investigated. The wing leading-edge (LE) area has been studied with and without ice accretion and for different cloud characteristics. The second activitiy was aimed at the investigation of the wing-wake behavior. The measurements were aimed to characterize the wake for the model in cruise condition without ice formation and during the ice formation.

  13. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  14. Materials and construction techniques for cryogenic wind tunnel facilities for instruction/research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, S. F.; Roper, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the cryogenic wind tunnel program conducted at NASA Langley Research Center are presented to provide a starting point for the design of an instructional/research wind tunnel facility. The advantages of the cryogenic concept are discussed, and operating envelopes for a representative facility are presented to indicate the range and mode of operation. Special attention is given to the design, construction and materials problems peculiar to cryogenic wind tunnels. The control system for operation of a cryogenic tunnel is considered, and a portion of a linearized mathematical model is developed for determining the tunnel dynamic characteristics.

  15. EVALUATION OF A FAST-RESPONSE URBAN WIND MODEL - COMPARISON TO SINGLE-BUILDING WIND TUNNEL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.R. PARDYJAK; M.J. BROWN

    2001-01-01

    Prediction of the 3-dimensional flow field around buildings and other obstacles is important for a number of applications, including urban air quality studies, the tracking of plumes from accidental releases of toxic air contaminants, indoor/outdoor air pollution problems, and thermal comfort assessments. Various types of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been used for determining the flow fields around buildings (e.g., Reisner et al., 1998; Eichhorn et al., 1988). Comparisons to measurements show that these models work reasonably well for the most part (e.g., Ehrhard et al., 2 ; Johnson and Hunter, 1998; Murakami, 1997). However, CFD models are computationally intensive and for some applications turn-around time is of the essence. For example, planning and assessment studies in which hundreds of cases must be analyzed or emergency response scenarios in which plume transport must be computed quickly. Several fast-response dispersion models of varying levels of fidelity have been developed to explicitly account for the effects of a single building or groups of buildings (e.g., UDM - Hall et al. (2000), NRC-Ramsdell and Fosmire (1995), CBP-3 - Yamartino and Wiegand (1986), APRAC - Daerdt et al. (1973)). Although a few of these models include the Hotchkiss and Harlow (1973) analytical solution for potential flow in a notch to describe the velocity field within an urban canyon, in general, these models do not explicitly compute the velocity field around groups of buildings. The EPA PRIME model (Schulman et al., 2000) has been empirically derived to provide streamlines around a single isolated building

  16. Enhancements to AERMOD’s Building Downwash Algorithms based on Wind Tunnel and Embedded-LES Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation presents three modifications to the building downwash algorithm in AERMOD that improve the physical basis and internal consistency of the model, and one modification to AERMOD’s building pre-processor to better represent elongated buildings in oblique wind...

  17. Superconducting electromagnets for large wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boom, R. W.; Eyssa, Y. M.; Mcintosh, G. E.; Abdelsalam, M. K.; Scurlock, R. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Goodyer, M. J.; Balcerek, K.; Eskins, J.; Britcher, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting electromagnetic suspension and balance system for an 8 x 8-ft, Mach 0.9 wind tunnel is presented. The system uses a superconducting solenoid as a model core 70 cm long and with a 11.5 cm OD, and a combination of permanent magnet material in the model wings to produce the required roll torque. The design, which uses an integral cold structure rather than separate cryostats for mounting all control magnets, has 14 external magnets, including 4 racetrack-shaped roll coils. Helium capacity of the system is 3.0 to 3.5 l with idling boiloff rate predicted at 0.147 to 0.2 l/h. The improvements yielded a 50-percent reduction in the system size, weight, and cost.

  18. Pneumatic artificial muscle and its application on driving variable trailing-edge camber wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-04-01

    As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle was designed and the relationship between the static output force and the air pressure was investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. A variable camber wing based on the pneumatic artificial muscle was developed and the variable camber wing model was manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure.

  19. 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David; Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of VSTOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel has been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsions systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  20. Comparisons between LES and Wind Tunnel Hot-Wire Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2012-01-01

    is constructed in a wind tunnel similar to the LM wind tunnel where the experiment for an NACA 0015 airfoil was carried out. The goal of this study is to validate the mixed scale SGS turbulence model against detailed measurements. Simulations are performed with the in-house EllipSys3D code on high performance...... computers. The stability and accuracy of the LES simulations are studied on various mesh configurations. The spanwise grid spacing is found important to produce correct flow disturbances along the airfoil span, which can affect the turbulent energy distribution.......Large-eddy simulations (LES) are carried out for flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil at AoA = 8o and a chord based Reynolds number of 1.71 × 106. To accurately simulate the complex flow on the suction side of the airfoil, a reasonably large number of grid points is required. The computational mesh...

  1. Noise measurement in wind tunnels, workshop summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickley, D. H.; Williams, J.

    1982-09-01

    In reviewing the progress made in acoustic measurements in wind tunnels over the 5-yr span of the workshops, it is evident that a great deal of progress has occurred. Specialized facilities are now on line, special measurement techniques were developed, and corrections were devised and proven. This capability is in the process of creating a new and more correct data bank on acoustic phenomena, and represents a major step forward in acoustics technology. Additional work is still required, but now, rather than concentrating on facilities and techniques, researchers may more profitably concentrate on noise-source modeling, with the simulation of propulsor noise source (in flight) and of propulsor/airframe airflow characteristics. Promising developments in directional acoustic receivers and other discrimination/correlation techniques should now be regularly exploited, in part for model noise-source diagnosis, but also to expedite extraction of the lone source signal from any residual background noise and reverberation in the working chamber and from parasitic noise due to essential rigs or instrumentation inside the airstream.

  2. Background Pressure Profiles for Sonic Boom Vehicle Testing in the NASA Glenn 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Shaw, Stephen; Adamson, Eric; Simerly, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to identify test facilities that offer sonic boom measurement capabilities, an exploratory test program was initiated using wind tunnels at NASA research centers. The subject of this report is the sonic boom pressure rail data collected in the Glenn Research Center 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The purpose is to summarize the lessons learned based on the test activity, specifically relating to collecting sonic boom data which has a large amount of spatial pressure variation. The wind tunnel background pressure profiles are presented as well as data which demonstrated how both wind tunnel Mach number and model support-strut position affected the wind tunnel background pressure profile. Techniques were developed to mitigate these effects and are presented.

  3. Toward an Integrated Optical Data System for Wind Tunnel Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruyten, Wim

    1999-01-01

    ...) of the test article in a wind tunnel test. The theory for such P&A determinations is developed and applied to data from a recent pressure sensitive paint test in AEDC's 16 ft transonic wind tunnel...

  4. Wind Tunnel Model and Test to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Passive Gust Alleviation Device for a Flying Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    further non -directly measured parameters. y = 0.1374x - 1.2713 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 st ra in ( μ ε) deflection (mm) front...transfer. AoA = tan−1( 0⁄ ) (4-2) A low pass digital filter with upper frequency at 2.5Hz was applied in post data processing to...composite flat plate made of woven fiberglass/epoxy", Aerospace Science and Technology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 393-401. [23] Guo, S., Banerjee, J. R

  5. Results of an investigation to determine local flow characteristics at the air data probe locations using an 0.030-scale model (45-0) of the space shuttle vehicle orbiter configuration 140A/B (modified) in the NASA Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (OA161, A, B, C), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of wind tunnel test 0A161 of a 0.030-scale model 45-0 of the configuration 140A/B (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel facilities. The purpose of this test was to determine local total and static pressure environments for the air data probe locations and relative effectiveness of alternate flight-test probe configurations. Testing was done in the Mach number range from 0.30 to 3.5. Angle of attack was varied from -8 to 25 degrees while sideslip varied between -8 and 8 degrees.

  6. Wind Tunnel Measurements at Virginia Tech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas; Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    In this section, the wind tunnel configuration used for aerodynamic and aeroacoustic measurement is described. Then, the validation of the method for evaluating far-field noise from surface microphones as described in Section 5 is presented. Finally, the design concept proposed in Section 6 is ve...

  7. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 1. Role of Wind Tunnels in Aircraft Design. S P Govinda Raju. General Article Volume 8 Issue 1 January 2003 pp 72-76. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/01/0072-0076. Keywords.

  8. The use of wind tunnel facilities to estimate hydrodynamic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    In a series of measurements, wind tunnel testing has been used to investigate the static response characteristics of a circular and a rectangular section model. Motivated by the wish to estimate the vortex-induced in-line vibration characteristics of a neutrally buoyant submerged marine structure, additional measurements on extremely lightweight, helium-filled circular section models were conducted in a dynamic setup. During the experiment campaign, the mass of the model was varied in order to investigate how the mass ratio influences the vibration amplitude. The results show good agreement with both aerodynamic and hydrodynamic experimental results documented in the literature.

  9. Airloads Correlation of the UH-60A Rotor Inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Chung; Norman, Thomas R.; Romander, Ethan A.

    2013-01-01

    The presented research validates the capability of a loosely-coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CRA) code to calculate the flowfield around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. The CFD/CRA predictions for the full-scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center are compared with the latest measured airloads and performance data. The studied conditions include a speed sweep at constant lift up to an advance ratio of 0.4 and a thrust sweep at constant speed up to and including stall. For the speed sweep, wind tunnel modeling becomes important at advance ratios greater than 0.37 and test stand modeling becomes increasingly important as the advance ratio increases. For the thrust sweep, both the wind tunnel and test stand modeling become important as the rotor approaches stall. Despite the beneficial effects of modeling the wind tunnel and test stand, the new models do not completely resolve the current airload discrepancies between prediction and experiment.

  10. Airloads Correlation of the UH-60A Rotor inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chung Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented research validates the capability of a loosely coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD and comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CRA code to calculate the flowfield around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. The CFD/CRA predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center are compared with the latest measured airloads and performance data. The studied conditions include a speed sweep at constant lift up to an advance ratio of 0.4 and a thrust sweep at constant speed up to and including stall. For the speed sweep, wind tunnel modeling becomes important at advance ratios greater than 0.37 and test stand modeling becomes increasingly important as the advance ratio increases. For the thrust sweep, both the wind tunnel and test stand modeling become important as the rotor approaches stall. Despite the beneficial effects of modeling the wind tunnel and test stand, the new models do not completely resolve the current airload discrepancies between prediction and experiment.

  11. Experimental Evaluation of Turning Vane Designs for High-speed and Coupled Fan-drive Corners of 0.1-scale Model of NASA Lewis Research Center's Proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelder, Thomas F.; Moore, Royce D.; Shyne, Rickey J.; Boldman, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Two turning vane designs were experimentally evaluated for the fan-drive corner (corner 2) coupled to an upstream diffuser and the high-speed corner (corner 1) of the 0.1 scale model of NASA Lewis Research Center's proposed Altitude Wind Tunnel. For corner 2 both a controlled-diffusion vane design (vane A4) and a circular-arc vane design (vane B) were studied. The corner 2 total pressure loss coefficient was about 0.12 with either vane design. This was about 25 percent less loss than when corner 2 was tested alone. Although the vane A4 design has the advantage of 20 percent fewer vanes than the vane B design, its vane shape is more complex. The effects of simulated inlet flow distortion on the overall losses for corner 1 or 2 were small.

  12. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  13. Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic Development Testing

    OpenAIRE

    E. T. L. Cöuras Ford; V. A. C. Vale; J. U. L. Mendes; F. A. Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The study of the aerodynamics related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. Therefore, this research aims to design and construction of a wind tunnel to perform aerodynamic analysis in bodi...

  14. Evaluation of hydrogen as a cryogenic wind tunnel test gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The nondimensional ratios used to describe various flow situations in hydrogen were determined and compared with the corresponding ideal diatomic gas ratios. The results were used to examine different inviscid flow configurations. The relatively high value of the characteristic rotational temperature causes the behavior of hydrogen, under cryogenic conditions, to deviate substantially from the behavior of an ideal diatomic gas in the compressible flow regime. Therefore, if an idea diatomic gas is to be modeled, cryogenic hydrogen is unacceptable as a wind tunnel test gas in a compressible flow situation.

  15. Wind tunnel tests of tent halls of different shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porowska Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic investigations of wind pressure distribution on the surfaces of models of tent halls were carried out in the boundary layer wind tunnel at the Cracow University of Technology. Four types of objects of different shapes and construction were tested. Although tent halls are significantly vulnerable with respect to the wind action, there is no information about pressure distribution on objects of such type in standards, codes and normalization documents. Obtained results indicate that it is necessary to take into account different configurations of wind action while designing of the analysed structures.

  16. Wind-Tunnel Investigations on a Changed Mustang Profile with Nose Flap Force and Pressure-Distribution Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W.

    1947-01-01

    Measurements are described which were taken in the large wind tunnel of the AVA on a rectangular wing "Mustang 2" with nose flap of a chord of 10 percent. Besides force measurements the results of pressure-distribution measurements are given and compared with those on the same profile "without" nose flap.

  17. Effectiveness of a Wedge Probe to Measure Sonic Boom Signatures in a Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effectiveness of a wedge probe to measure sonic boom pressure signatures compared to a slender conical probe. A generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and at a single model to probe separation distance was used to generate a sonic boom signature. Pressure signature data were acquired with both the wedge probe and a slender conical probe for comparison. The test was conducted at a Mach number of 2.0 and a free-stream unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The results showed that the wedge probe was not effective in measuring the sonic boom pressure signature of the aircraft model in the supersonic wind tunnel. Data plots and a discussion of the results are presented. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  18. Comparison of Resource Requirements for a Wind Tunnel Test Designed with Conventional vs. Modern Design of Experiments Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2011-01-01

    The factors that determine data volume requirements in a typical wind tunnel test are identified. It is suggested that productivity in wind tunnel testing can be enhanced by managing the inference error risk associated with evaluating residuals in a response surface modeling experiment. The relationship between minimum data volume requirements and the factors upon which they depend is described and certain simplifications to this relationship are realized when specific model adequacy criteria are adopted. The question of response model residual evaluation is treated and certain practical aspects of response surface modeling are considered, including inference subspace truncation. A wind tunnel test plan developed by using the Modern Design of Experiments illustrates the advantages of an early estimate of data volume requirements. Comparisons are made with a representative One Factor At a Time (OFAT) wind tunnel test matrix developed to evaluate a surface to air missile.

  19. Rotor Performance of a UH-60 Rotor System in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shinoda, Patrick M; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Norman, Thomas R

    2002-01-01

    .... To evaluate the NASA Ames 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel as a hover testing facility, rotor performance data were compared with predictions, UH-60 aircraft flight test data, and UH-60 model-scale data...

  20. On-Line Flutter Prediction Tool for Wind Tunnel Flutter Testing using Parameter Varying Estimation Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an on-line flutter prediction tool for wind tunnel model using the parameter varying estimation (PVE) technique to...

  1. On-Line Flutter Prediction Tool for Wind Tunnel Flutter Testing using Parameter Varying Estimation Methodology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes to develop an on-line flutter prediction tool for wind tunnel model using the parameter varying estimation (PVE) technique to...

  2. Wind Tunnel and Hover Performance Test Results for Multicopter UAS Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl R.; Jung, Jaewoo; Willink, Gina; Glasner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a lack of published data for the performance of multicopter unmanned aircraft system (UAS) vehicles, such as quadcopters and octocopters, often referred to collectively as drones. With the rapidly increasing popularity of multicopter UAS, there is interest in better characterizing the performance of this type of aircraft. By studying the performance of currently available vehicles, it will be possible to develop models for vehicles at this scale that can accurately predict performance and model trajectories. This paper describes a wind tunnel test that was recently performed in the U.S. Army's 7- by 10-ft Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. During this wind tunnel entry, five multicopter UAS vehicles were tested to determine forces and moments as well as electrical power as a function of wind speed, rotor speed, and vehicle attitude. The test is described here in detail, and a selection of the key results from the test is presented.

  3. Computational methods applied to wind tunnel optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David

    This report describes computational methods developed for optimizing the nozzle of a three-dimensional subsonic wind tunnel. This requires determination of a shape that delivers flow to the test section, typically with a speed increase of 7 or more and a velocity uniformity of .25% or better, in a compact length without introducing boundary layer separation. The need for high precision, smooth solutions, and three-dimensional modeling required the development of special computational techniques. These include: (1) alternative formulations to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, to deal with overspecified, ill-posed, or cyclic problems, and to reduce the discrepancy between numerical solutions and boundary conditions; (2) modification of the Finite Element Method to obtain solutions with numerically exact conservation properties; (3) a Matlab implementation of general degree Finite Element solvers for various element designs in two and three dimensions, exploiting vector indexing to obtain optimal efficiency; (4) derivation of optimal quadrature formulas for integration over simplexes in two and three dimensions, and development of a program for semi-automated generation of formulas for any degree and dimension; (5) a modification of a two-dimensional boundary layer formulation to provide accurate flow conservation in three dimensions, and modification of the algorithm to improve stability; (6) development of multi-dimensional spline functions to achieve smoother solutions in three dimensions by post-processing, new three-dimensional elements for C1 basis functions, and a program to assist in the design of elements with higher continuity; and (7) a development of ellipsoidal harmonics and Lame's equation, with generalization to any dimension and a demonstration that Cartesian, cylindrical, spherical, spheroidal, and sphero-conical harmonics are all limiting cases. The report includes a description of the Finite Difference, Finite Volume, and domain remapping

  4. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  5. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During initial design studies, parametric variation of vehicle geometry is routine. In addition, rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate...

  6. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During initial design studies, parametric variation of vehicle geometry is routine. In addition, rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate...

  7. New NASA-Ames wind-tunnel techniques for studying airplane spin and two-dimensional unsteady aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, G. N.; Davis, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    Two new wind tunnel test apparatuses were developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. The first is a rotary-balance apparatus to be used in the Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel for investigating the effects of Reynolds number, spin rate, and angle of attack on the aerodynamics of fighter and general aviation aircraft in a steady spin motion. The second apparatus provides capability for oscillating a large two dimensional wing (0.5 m chord, 1.35 m span) instrumented with steady and unsteady pressure transducers in the Ames 11 x 11 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel. A complete description of both apparatuses, their capabilities, and some typical wind tunnel results are presented.

  8. Reduction of the performance of a noise screen due to screen-induced wind-speed gradients: numerical computations and wind-tunnel experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Downwind sound propagation over a noise screen is investigated by numerical computations and scale model experiments in a wind tunnel. For the computations, the parabolic equation method is used, with a range-dependent sound-speed profile based on wind-speed profiles measured in the wind tunnel and

  9. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Flapping Wing Propulsion for Micro Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duggan, Sean

    2000-01-01

    ...). Experimental work is conducted in the NPS 1.5 m x 1.5 m in-draft wind tunnel. A previously constructed model is suspended by thin wires and is used to measure the thrust performance of the flapping-wing MAV...

  11. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Yount, Bryan; Kruger, Carl; Brivkalns, Chad; Makino, Alberto; Cassell, Alan; Zarchi, Kerry; McDaniel, Ryan; Ross, James; Wercinski, Paul; hide

    2016-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) was conducted in April 2015 at the US Army's 7 by10 Foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center. Key geometric features of the fabric test article were a 0.7 meter deployed base diameter, a 70 degree half-angle forebody cone angle, eight ribs, and a nose-to-base radius ratio of 0.7. The primary objective of this wind tunnel test was to obtain static deflected shape and pressure distributions while varying pretension at dynamic pressures and angles of attack relevant to entry conditions at Earth, Mars, and Venus. Other objectives included obtaining aerodynamic force and moment data and determining the presence and magnitude of any dynamic aeroelastic behavior (buzz/flutter) in the fabric trailing edge. All instrumentation systems worked as planned and a rich data set was obtained. This paper describes the test articles, instrumentation systems, data products, and test results. Four notable conclusions are drawn. First, test data support adopting a pre-tension lower bound of 10 foot pounds per inch for Nano-ADEPT mission applications in order to minimize the impact of static deflection. Second, test results indicate that the fabric conditioning process needs to be reevaluated. Third, no flutter/buzz of the fabric was observed for any test condition and should also not occur at hypersonic speeds. Fourth, translating one of the gores caused ADEPT to generate lift without the need for a center of gravity offset. At hypersonic speeds, the lift generated by actuating ADEPT gores could be used for vehicle control.

  12. Application Of Artificial Intelligence To Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching F.; Steinle, Frank W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses potential use of artificial-intelligence systems to manage wind-tunnel test facilities at Ames Research Center. One of goals of program to obtain experimental data of better quality and otherwise generally increase productivity of facilities. Another goal to increase efficiency and expertise of current personnel and to retain expertise of former personnel. Third goal to increase effectiveness of management through more efficient use of accumulated data. System used to improve schedules of operation and maintenance of tunnels and other equipment, assignment of personnel, distribution of electrical power, and analysis of costs and productivity. Several commercial artificial-intelligence computer programs discussed as possible candidates for use.

  13. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  14. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  15. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. I - Evolution, theory, and advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the time which has passed since the construction of the first wind tunnel in 1870, wind tunnels have been developed to a high degree of sophistication. However, their development has consistently failed to keep pace with the demands placed on them. One of the more serious problems to be found with existing transonic wind tunnels is their inability to test subscale aircraft models at Reynolds numbers sufficiently near full-scale values to ensure the validity of using the wind tunnel data to predict flight characteristics. The Reynolds number capability of a wind tunnel may be increased by a number of different approaches. However, the best solution in terms of model, balance, and model support loads, as well as in terms of capital and operating cost appears to be related to the reduction of the temperature of the test gas to cryogenic temperatures. The present paper has the objective to review the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and to describe its more important advantages.

  16. Overview of Low-Speed Aerodynamic Tests on a 5.75% Scale Blended-Wing-Body Twin Jet Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Dickey, Eric; Princen, Norman; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project sponsored a series of computational and experimental investigations of the propulsion and airframe integration issues associated with Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) or Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) configurations. NASA collaborated with Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to conduct this research on a new twin-engine Boeing BWB transport configuration. The experimental investigations involved a series of wind tunnel tests with a 5.75-percent scale model conducted in two low-speed wind tunnels. This testing focused on the basic aerodynamics of the configuration and selection of the leading edge Krueger slat position for takeoff and landing. This paper reviews the results and analysis of these low-speed wind tunnel tests.

  17. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  18. Coupled CFD/CSD Analysis of an Active-Twist Rotor in a Wind Tunnel with Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Steven J.; Kreshock, Andrew R.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2015-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes analysis loosely coupled with a comprehensive rotorcraft code is presented for a second-generation active-twist rotor. High fidelity Navier-Stokes results for three configurations: an isolated rotor, a rotor with fuselage, and a rotor with fuselage mounted in a wind tunnel, are compared to lifting-line theory based comprehensive rotorcraft code calculations and wind tunnel data. Results indicate that CFD/CSD predictions of flapwise bending moments are in good agreement with wind tunnel measurements for configurations with a fuselage, and that modeling the wind tunnel environment does not significantly enhance computed results. Actuated rotor results for the rotor with fuselage configuration are also validated for predictions of vibratory blade loads and fixed-system vibratory loads. Varying levels of agreement with wind tunnel measurements are observed for blade vibratory loads, depending on the load component (flap, lag, or torsion) and the harmonic being examined. Predicted trends in fixed-system vibratory loads are in good agreement with wind tunnel measurements.

  19. Build an Inexpensive Wind Tunnel to Test CO2 Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the technology education curriculum, the author's eighth-grade students design, build, test, and race CO2 vehicles. To help them in refining their designs, they use a wind tunnel to test for aerodynamic drag. In this article, the author describes how to build a wind tunnel using inexpensive, readily available materials. (Contains 1…

  20. Comparison Between Field Data and NASA Ames Wind Tunnel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this analysis is to compare the measured data from the NASA Ames wind tunnel experiment to those collected in the field at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) with the same turbine configuration. The results of this analysis provide insight into what measurements can be made in the field as opposed to wind tunnel testing.

  1. A tilting wind tunnel for fire behavior studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise

    1994-01-01

    The combined effects of wind velocity and slope on wildland fire behavior can be studied in the laboratory using a tilting wind tunnel. The tilting wind tunnel requires a commercially available fan to induce wind and can be positioned to simulate heading and backing fires spreading up and down slope. The tunnel is portable and can be disassembled for transport using a...

  2. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  3. A digital strategy for manometer dynamic enhancement. [for wind tunnel monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Application of digital signal processing techniques to improve the non-linear dynamic characteristics of a sonar-type mercury manometer is described. The dynamic enhancement strategy quasi-linearizes the manometer characteristics and improves the effective bandwidth in the context of a wind-tunnel pressure regulation system. Model identification data and real-time hybrid simulation data demonstrate feasibility of approach.

  4. Wind Tunnel Measurement of Turbulent and Advective Scalar Fluxes: A Case Study on Intersection Ventilation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 381357 (2012), s. 1-13 ISSN 1537-744X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : air pollution * atmospheric boundary layer * wind tunnel modelling * contaminant spreading * street canyon Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012 http://www.tswj.com/2012/381357/

  5. Computations on the volatilisation of the fungicide fenpropimorph from plants in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Wolters, A.

    2004-01-01

    Volatilisation of pesticides from plants is one of the main pathways for their emission to the environment. A simplified computation model was set up to simulate this volatilisation, including penetration into plants and photochemical transformation as competing processes. Previous wind tunnel

  6. Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of baseline-II E-2 blended wing-body aircraft with canard via computational simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Rizal E. M.; Ali, Zurriati; Kuntjoro, Wahyu; Wisnoe, Wirachman

    2012-06-01

    Previous wind tunnel test has proven the improved aerodynamic charasteristics of Baseline-II E-2 Blended Wing-Body (BWB) aircraft studied in Universiti Teknologi Mara. The E-2 is a version of Baseline-II BWB with modified outer wing and larger canard, solely-designed to gain favourable longitudinal static stability during flight. This paper highlights some results from current investigation on the said aircraft via computational fluid dynamics simulation as a mean to validate the wind tunnel test results. The simulation is conducted based on standard one-equation turbulence, Spalart-Allmaras model with polyhedral mesh. The ambience of the flight simulation is made based on similar ambience of wind tunnel test. The simulation shows lift, drag and moment results to be near the values found in wind tunnel test but only within angles of attack where the lift change is linear. Beyond the linear region, clear differences between computational simulation and wind tunnel test results are observed. It is recommended that different type of mathematical model be used to simulate flight conditions beyond linear lift region.

  7. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  8. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  9. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA190A/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA190A) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA190B). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline, (2) GO2 pressure line, (3) LO2 antigeyser line, (4) GH2 pressure line, (5) LH2 tank cable tray, (6) LO2 tank cable tray, (7) Bipod, (8) ET/SRB cable tray, and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: (1) Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above. (2) 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements. (3) Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures. (4) Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  10. Results of Experimental Investigations to Determine External Tank Protuberance Loads Using a 0.03-Scale Model of the Space Shuttle Launch Configuration (Model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA19OA/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA19OA) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA19OB). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline; (2) GO2 pressure line; (3) LO2 antigeyser line; (4) GH2 pressure line; (5) LH2 tank cable tray; (6) LO2 tank cable tray; (7) Bipod; (8) ET/SRB cable tray; and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  11. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-02-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA190A/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA190A) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA190B). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline, (2) GO2 pressure line, (3) LO2 antigeyser line, (4) GH2 pressure line, (5) LH2 tank cable tray, (6) LO2 tank cable tray, (7) Bipod, (8) ET/SRB cable tray, and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: (1) Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above. (2) 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements. (3) Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures. (4) Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  12. Results of experimental investigations to determine external tank protuberance loads using a 0.03-scale model of the Space Shuttle launch configuration (Model 47-OTS) in the NASA/ARC unitary plan wind tunnel, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, S. R.

    1992-02-01

    Data were obtained on a 3-percent model of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11x11-foot and 9x7-foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels. This test series has been identified as IA19OA/B and was conducted from 7 Feb. 1980 to 19 Feb. 1980 (IA19OA) and from 17 March 1980 to 19 March 1980 and from 8 May 1980 to 30 May 1980 (IA19OB). The primary test objective was to obtain structural loads on the following external tank protuberances: (1) LO2 feedline; (2) GO2 pressure line; (3) LO2 antigeyser line; (4) GH2 pressure line; (5) LH2 tank cable tray; (6) LO2 tank cable tray; (7) Bipod; (8) ET/SRB cable tray; and (9) Crossbeam/Orbiter cable tray. To fulfill these objectives the following steps were taken: Eight 3-component balances were used to measure forces on various sections of 1 thru 6 above; 315 pressure orifices were distributed over all 9 above items. The LO2 feedline was instrumented with 96 pressure taps and was rotated to four positions to yield 384 pressure measurements. The LO2 antigeyser line was instrumented with 64 pressure taps and was rotated to two positions to yield 128 pressure measurements; Three Chrysler miniature flow direction probes were mounted on a traversing mechanism on the tank upper surface centerline to obtain flow field data between the forward and aft attach structures; and Schlieren photographs and ultraviolet flow photographs were taken at all test conditions. Data from each of the four test phases are presented.

  13. An experimental system for release simulation of internal stores in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic parameters obtained from separation experiments of internal stores in a wind tunnel are significant in aircraft designs. Accurate wind tunnel tests can help to improve the release stability of the stores and in-flight safety of the aircrafts in supersonic environments. A simulative system for free drop experiments of internal stores based on a practical project is provided in this paper. The system contains a store release mechanism, a control system and an attitude measurement system. The release mechanism adopts a six-bar linkage driven by a cylinder, which ensures the release stability. The structure and initial aerodynamic parameters of the stores are also designed and adjusted. A high speed vision measurement system for high speed rolling targets is utilized to measure the pose parameters of the internal store models and an optimizing method for the coordinates of markers is presented based on a priori model. The experimental results show excellent repeatability of the system, and indicate that the position measurement precision is less than 0.13 mm, and the attitude measurement precision for pitch and yaw angles is less than 0.126°, satisfying the requirements of practical wind tunnel tests. A separation experiment for the internal stores is also conducted in the FL-3 wind tunnel of China Aerodynamics Research Institute.

  14. Data Corrections and Wind-Tunnel Data Comparisons of a 5% TCA Model in the NASA Ames 12-ft Pressure Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: 1) To determine the effect of geometric variations near the inboard leading-edge flap on high-lift and stability and control performance data; 2) To determine Re effects on TCA (Technology Concept Aircraft) high-lift configuration for optimum high-lift and stability and control performance at takeoff, climbout, approach and landing conditions; and 3) To obtain flow-visualization data on upper surface of wing for CFD validations. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  15. Highly cited articles in wind tunnel-related research: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Fu, Hui-Zhen; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2018-03-22

    Wind tunnels have been widely employed in aerodynamic research. To characterize the high impact research, a bibliometric analysis was conducted on highly cited articles related to wind tunnel based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) database from 1900 to 2014. Articles with at least 100 citations from the Web of Science Core Collection were selected and analyzed in terms of publication years, authors, institutions, countries/territories, journals, Web of Science categories, and citation life cycles. The results show that a total of 77 highly cited articles in 37 journals were published between 1959 and 2008. Journal of Fluid Mechanics published the most of highly cited articles. The USA was the most productive country and most frequent partner of internationally collaboration. The prolific institutions were mainly located in the USA and UK. The authors who were both first author and corresponding author published 88% of the articles. The Y index was also deployed to evaluate the publication characteristics of authors. Moreover, the articles with high citations in both history and the latest year with their citation life cycles were examined to provide insights for high impact research. The highly cited articles were almost earliest wind tunnel experimental data and reports on their own research specialty, and thus attracted high citations. It was revealed that classic works of wind tunnel research was frequently occurred in 1990s but much less in 2000s, probably due to the development of numerical models of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) in recent decades.

  16. A numerical optimization of high altitude testing facility for wind tunnel experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Ralphin Rose J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available High altitude test facilities are required to test the high area ratio nozzles operating at the upper stages of rocket in the nozzle full flow conditions. It is typically achieved by creating the ambient pressure equal or less than the nozzle exit pressure. On average, air/GN2 is used as active gas for ejector system that is stored in the high pressure cylinders. The wind tunnel facilities are used for conducting aerodynamic simulation experiments at/under various flow velocities and operating conditions. However, constructing both of these facilities require more laboratory space and expensive instruments. Because of this demerit, a novel scheme is implemented for conducting wind tunnel experiments by using the existing infrastructure available in the high altitude testing (HAT facility. This article presents the details about the methods implemented for suitably modifying the sub-scale HAT facility to conduct wind tunnel experiments. Hence, the design of nozzle for required area ratio A/A∗, realization of test section and the optimized configuration are focused in the present analysis. Specific insights into various rocket models including high thrust cryogenic engines and their holding mechanisms to conduct wind tunnel experiments in the HAT facility are analyzed. A detailed CFD analysis is done to propose this conversion without affecting the existing functional requirements of the HAT facility.

  17. Potential risks at an industrial site: A wind tunnel study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaňour, Zbyněk; Jurčáková, Klára; Brych, Karel; Dittrt, František; Dittrich, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2010), s. 185-190 ISSN 0957-5820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : atmospheric turbulence * flow visualization * wind tunnel modeling Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.453, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B8JGG-4Y7P8YF-1&_user=640952&_coverDate=05%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1433050901&_rerunOrigin= google &_acct=C000034318&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=640952&md5=b036d2c5d747eadc03ff5697ea45e6a2

  18. Comparison of Ares I-X Wind-Tunnel Derived Buffet Environment with Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV), launched in October 2009, carried with it over 243 buffet verification pressure sensors and was one of the most heavily instrumented launch vehicle flight tests. This flight test represented a unique opportunity for NASA and its partners to compare the wind-tunnel derived buffet environment with that measured during the flight of Ares I-X. It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. Ares I-X buffet forcing functions were obtained via wind-tunnel testing of a rigid buffet model (RBM) instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. This paper discusses the comparison of RBM and FTV buffet environments, including fluctuating pressure coefficient and normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-square magnitudes, frequency content of power-spectral density functions, and force magnitudes of an alternating flow phenomena. Comparison of wind-tunnel model and flight test vehicle buffet environments show very good agreement with root-mean-square magnitudes of buffet forcing functions at the majority of vehicle stations. Spectra proved a challenge to compare because of different wind-tunnel and flight test conditions and data acquisition rates. However, meaningful and promising comparisons of buffet spectra are presented. Lastly, the buffet loads resulting from the transition of subsonic separated flow to supersonic attached flow were significantly over-predicted by wind-tunnel results.

  19. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise. [NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P. R.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80 foot tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise was refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy. This theory was then verified by carrying out extensive data/theory comparisons. The resulting model computer program was then employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line on rotor/turbulence noise for outdoor test stand. NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  20. Code Calibration Applied to the TCA High-Lift Model in the 14 x 22 Wind Tunnel (Simulation With and Without Model Post-Mount)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Wendy B.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calibrate a Navier-Stokes code for the TCA (30/10) baseline configuration (partial span leading edge flaps were deflected at 30 degs. and all the trailing edge flaps were deflected at 10 degs). The computational results for several angles of attack are compared with experimental force, moments, and surface pressures. The code used in this study is CFL3D; mesh sequencing and multi-grid were used to full advantage to accelerate convergence. A multi-grid approach was used similar to that used for the Reference H configuration allowing point-to-point matching across all the trailingedge block interfaces. From past experiences with the Reference H (ie, good force, moment, and pressure comparisons were obtained), it was assumed that the mounting system would produce small effects; hence, it was not initially modeled. However, comparisons of lower surface pressures indicated the post mount significantly influenced the lower surface pressures, so the post geometry was inserted into the existing grid using Chimera (overset grids).

  1. Experimental Investigation of Aeroelastic Deformation of Slender Wings at Supersonic Speeds Using a Video Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A video-based photogrammetric model deformation system was established as a dedicated optical measurement technique at supersonic speeds in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This system was used to measure the wing twist due to aerodynamic loads of two supersonic commercial transport airplane models with identical outer mold lines but different aeroelastic properties. One model featured wings with deflectable leading- and trailing-edge flaps and internal channels to accommodate static pressure tube instrumentation. The wings of the second model were of single-piece construction without flaps or internal channels. The testing was performed at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 2.7, unit Reynolds numbers of 1.0 million to 5.0 million, and angles of attack from -4 degrees to +10 degrees. The video model deformation system quantified the wing aeroelastic response to changes in the Mach number, Reynolds number concurrent with dynamic pressure, and angle of attack and effectively captured the differences in the wing twist characteristics between the two test articles.

  2. Morphing Wing: Experimental Boundary Layer Transition Determination and Wing Vibrations Measurements and Analysis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondji Chendjou, Yvan Wilfried

    This Master's thesis is written within the framework of the multidisciplinary international research project CRIAQ MDO-505. This global project consists of the design, manufacture and testing of a morphing wing box capable of changing the shape of the flexible upper skin of a wing using an actuator system installed inside the wing. This changing of the shape generates a delay in the occurrence of the laminar to turbulent transition area, which results in an improvement of the aerodynamic performances of the morphed wing. This thesis is focused on the technologies used to gather the pressure data during the wind tunnel tests, as well as on the post processing methodologies used to characterize the wing airflow. The vibration measurements of the wing and their real-time graphical representation are also presented. The vibration data acquisition system is detailed, and the vibration data analysis confirms the predictions of the flutter analysis performed on the wing prior to wind tunnel testing at the IAR-NRC. The pressure data was collected using 32 highly-sensitive piezoelectric sensors for sensing the pressure fluctuations up to 10 KHz. These sensors were installed along two wing chords, and were further connected to a National Instrument PXI real-time acquisition system. The acquired pressure data was high-pass filtered, analyzed and visualized using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Standard Deviation (SD) approaches to quantify the pressure fluctuations in the wing airflow, as these allow the detection of the laminar to turbulent transition area. Around 30% of the cases tested in the IAR-NRC wind tunnel were optimized for drag reduction by the morphing wing procedure. The obtained pressure measurements results were compared with results obtained by infrared thermography visualization, and were used to validate the numerical simulations. Two analog accelerometers able to sense dynamic accelerations up to +/-16g were installed in both the wing and the aileron boxes

  3. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  4. Measurement and Assessment of Flow Quality in Wind Tunnels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New wind tunnel flow quality test and analysis procedures have been developed and will be used to establish standardized turbulent flow quality measurement...

  5. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to develop a ground flutter testing system without wind tunnel, called the...

  6. 1 Ft. x 1 Ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel, Bldg. 37

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 1- by 1-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (1x), located in the Engine Research Building, is one of the most active test facilities at the Glenn Research Center. Used...

  7. Correaltion of full-scale drag predictions with flight measurements on the C-141A aircraft. Phase 2: Wind tunnel test, analysis, and prediction techniques. Volume 1: Drag predictions, wind tunnel data analysis and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwilkinson, D. G.; Blackerby, W. T.; Paterson, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    The degree of cruise drag correlation on the C-141A aircraft is determined between predictions based on wind tunnel test data, and flight test results. An analysis of wind tunnel tests on a 0.0275 scale model at Reynolds number up to 3.05 x 1 million/MAC is reported. Model support interference corrections are evaluated through a series of tests, and fully corrected model data are analyzed to provide details on model component interference factors. It is shown that predicted minimum profile drag for the complete configuration agrees within 0.75% of flight test data, using a wind tunnel extrapolation method based on flat plate skin friction and component shape factors. An alternative method of extrapolation, based on computed profile drag from a subsonic viscous theory, results in a prediction four percent lower than flight test data.

  8. Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Witold J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade-element model (BEM) with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt, and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation, and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall, interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A "quasi linear trim" was used to trim the thrust

  9. Nonlinear Large Deflection Theory with Modified Aeroelastic Lifting Line Aerodynamics for a High Aspect Ratio Flexible Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of nonlinear large deflection bending on the aerodynamic performance of a high aspect ratio flexible wing. A set of nonlinear static aeroelastic equations are derived for the large bending deflection of a high aspect ratio wing structure. An analysis is conducted to compare the nonlinear bending theory with the linear bending theory. The results show that the nonlinear bending theory is length-preserving whereas the linear bending theory causes a non-physical effect of lengthening the wing structure under the no axial load condition. A modified lifting line theory is developed to compute the lift and drag coefficients of a wing structure undergoing a large bending deflection. The lift and drag coefficients are more accurately estimated by the nonlinear bending theory due to its length-preserving property. The nonlinear bending theory yields lower lift and span efficiency than the linear bending theory. A coupled aerodynamic-nonlinear finite element model is developed to implement the nonlinear bending theory for a Common Research Model (CRM) flexible wing wind tunnel model to be tested in the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory (UWAL). The structural stiffness of the model is designed to give about 10% wing tip deflection which is large enough that could cause the nonlinear deflection effect to become significant. The computational results show that the nonlinear bending theory yields slightly less lift than the linear bending theory for this wind tunnel model. As a result, the linear bending theory is deemed adequate for the CRM wind tunnel model.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF WIND LOAD APPLIED TO THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES BY VIRTUE OF ITS SIMULATION IN THE WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Sergey Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss wind loads applied to a set of two buildings. The wind load is simulated with the help of the wind tunnel. In the Russian Federation, special attention is driven to the aerodynamics of high-rise buildings and structures. According to the Russian norms, identification of aerodynamic coefficients for high-rise buildings, as well as the influence of adjacent buildings and structures, is performed on the basis of models of structures exposed to wind impacts simulated in the wind tunnel. This article deals with the results of the wind tunnel test of buildings. The simulation was carried out with the involvement of a model of two twenty-three storied buildings. The experiment was held in a wind tunnel of the closed type at in the Institute of Mechanics of Moscow State University. Data were compared at the zero speed before and after the experiment. LabView software was used to process the output data. Graphs and tables were developed in the Microsoft Excel package. GoogleSketchUp software was used as a visualization tool. The three-dimensional flow formed in the wind tunnel can't be adequately described by solving the two-dimensional problem. The aerodynamic experiment technique is used to analyze the results for eighteen angles of the wind attack.

  11. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/6-Scale Model of Republic XF-12 Vertical Tail Incorporating a De-Icing Air Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Robert; Miller, Sadie M.

    1945-01-01

    A 1/6-scale model of the Republic XF-12 vertical tail with stub fuselage, stub horizontal tail, and a de-icing air duct was tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The investigation consisted of a study of the effects of the duct, with and without air flow, on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The model tested was a revision of a model previously tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The revised model differed from the original model in that it incorporated a de-icing air duct, included a dorsal fin, and had a larger stub fuselage. A comparison of data obtained form tests of the original and revised models was made. The results of the investigation indicated that the air duct had very little effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. A small change occurred in the variation of rudder hinge-moment coefficient with angle of attack but it is believed that this change can be corrected by a properly applied spring tab.

  12. A Wind-Tunnel Parametric Investigation of Tiltrotor Whirl-Flutter Stability Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, David J.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Nixon, Mark W.; Langston, Chester W.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Bennett, Richard L.; Brown, Ross K.

    2001-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of tiltrotor whirl-flutter stability boundaries has been conducted on a 1/5-size semispan tiltrotor model known as the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel as part of a joint NASA/Army/Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. (BHTI) research program. The model was first developed by BHTI as part of the JVX (V-22) research and development program in the 1980's and was recently modified to incorporate a hydraulically-actuated swashplate control system for use in active controls research. The modifications have changed the model's pylon mass properties sufficiently to warrant testing to re-establish its baseline stability boundaries. A parametric investigation of the effect of rotor design variables on stability was also conducted. The model was tested in both the on-downstop and off-downstop configurations, at cruise flight and hover rotor rotational speeds, and in both air and heavy gas (R-134a) test mediums. Heavy gas testing was conducted to quantify Mach number compressibility effects on tiltrotor stability. Experimental baseline stability boundaries in air are presented with comparisons to results from parametric variations of rotor pitch-flap coupling and control system stiffness. Increasing the rotor pitch-flap coupling (delta(sub 3) more negative) was found to have a destabilizing effect on stability, while a reduction in control system stiffness was found to have little effect on whirl-flutter stability. Results indicate that testing in R-134a, and thus matching full-scale tip Mach number, has a destabilizing effect, which demonstrates that whirl-flutter stability boundaries in air are unconservative.

  13. U.S. aerospace industry opinion of the effect of computer-aided prediction-design technology on future wind-tunnel test requirements for aircraft development programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treon, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of the U.S. aerospace industry in late 1977 suggests that there will be an increasing use of computer-aided prediction-design technology (CPD Tech) in the aircraft development process but that, overall, only a modest reduction in wind-tunnel test requirements from the current level is expected in the period through 1995. Opinions were received from key spokesmen in 23 of the 26 solicited major companies or corporate divisions involved in the design and manufacture of nonrotary wing aircraft. Development programs for nine types of aircraft related to test phases and wind-tunnel size and speed range were considered.

  14. Demonstration and uncertainty analysis of synchronised scanning lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Dooren, Marijn F.; Campagnolo, Filippo; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Kühn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper combines the research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with short-range WindScanner lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual-lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling timescal...

  15. Wind tunneling testing and analysis relating to the spinning of light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, B. W.; Zilliac, G. G.; Ballin, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    Included is a summary of two studies related to the spinning of light aircraft. The first study was conducted to demonstrate that the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a tail of a spinning aircraft can be obtained from static wind-tunnel tests. The second study analytically investigated spinning using a high angle-of-attack aerodynamic model derived from a static wind-tunnel data base. The validity of the aerodynamic model is shown by comparisons with rotary-balance data and forced-oscillation tests. The results of a six-degree-of-freedom analysis show that the dynamics and aerodynamics of the steep- and flat-spin modes of a modified Yankee have been properly modeled.

  16. Generation of Fullspan Leading-Edge 3D Ice Shapes for Swept-Wing Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camello, Stephanie C.; Lee, Sam; Lum, Christopher; Bragg, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effect of ice accretion on aircraft is often assessed through dry-air flight and wind tunnel testing with artificial ice shapes. This paper describes a method to create fullspan swept-wing artificial ice shapes from partial span ice segments acquired in the NASA Glenn Icing Reserch Tunnel for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Full-scale ice accretion segments were laser scanned from the Inboard, Midspan, and Outboard wing station models of the 65% scale Common Research Model (CRM65) aircraft configuration. These were interpolated and extrapolated using a weighted averaging method to generate fullspan ice shapes from the root to the tip of the CRM65 wing. The results showed that this interpolation method was able to preserve many of the highly three dimensional features typically found on swept-wing ice accretions. The interpolated fullspan ice shapes were then scaled to fit the leading edge of a 8.9% scale version of the CRM65 wing for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Reduced fidelity versions of the fullspan ice shapes were also created where most of the local three-dimensional features were removed. The fullspan artificial ice shapes and the reduced fidelity versions were manufactured using stereolithography.

  17. Pre-deformation Analysis on Construction of Special-shaped Thin-walled Concrete Acoustic Wind Tunnel Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Boping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural deformation of special-shaped thin-walled concrete acoustic wind tunnel under self-weight effect can not cater for requirements of high flatness and smoothness of moulding surface. Therefore pre-deformation analysis is carried out on construction of wind tunnel structure. Threshold is utilized to choose equivalent cross-section for the plane needing pre-deformation construction to do analysis. Analysis results show that design specifications of reinforced concrete is feasible for pre-deformation analysis on equivalent plane model under self-weight effect. Present construction on pre-camber wind tunnel according to deflection under self-weight effect also achieves the desired design requirements. Construction technology of arc-shaped erection template which controls mid-span pre-camber value keeps features of simple construction and high accuracy

  18. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  19. Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation

    KAUST Repository

    Mudford, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.

  20. FUN3D Airload Predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor in a Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids, FUN3D, is used to compute the rotor performance and airloads of the UH-60A Airloads Rotor in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel. The flow solver is loosely coupled to a rotorcraft comprehensive code, CAMRAD-II, to account for trim and aeroelastic deflections. Computations are made for the 1-g level flight speed-sweep test conditions with the airloads rotor installed on the NFAC Large Rotor Test Apparatus (LRTA) and in the 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel to determine the influence of the test stand and wind-tunnel walls on the rotor performance and airloads. Detailed comparisons are made between the results of the CFD/CSD simulations and the wind tunnel measurements. The computed trends in solidity-weighted propulsive force and power coefficient match the experimental trends over the range of advance ratios and are comparable to previously published results. Rotor performance and sectional airloads show little sensitivity to the modeling of the wind-tunnel walls, which indicates that the rotor shaft-angle correction adequately compensates for the wall influence up to an advance ratio of 0.37. Sensitivity of the rotor performance and sectional airloads to the modeling of the rotor with the LRTA body/hub increases with advance ratio. The inclusion of the LRTA in the simulation slightly improves the comparison of rotor propulsive force between the computation and wind tunnel data but does not resolve the difference in the rotor power predictions at mu = 0.37. Despite a more precise knowledge of the rotor trim loads and flight condition, the level of comparison between the computed and measured sectional airloads/pressures at an advance ratio of 0.37 is comparable to the results previously published for the high-speed flight test condition.

  1. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel. Part 5: Infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    A survey of infrared thermography for aerodynamics was made. Particular attention was paid to boundary layer transition detection. IR thermography flow visualization of 2-D and 3-D separation was surveyed. Heat transfer measurements and surface temperature measurements were also covered. Comparisons of several commercial IR cameras were made. The use of a recently purchased IR camera in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels was studied. Optical access for these facilities and the methods to scan typical models was investigated.

  2. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Oscillatory Data of the X-31A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Wind tunnel oscillatory tests in pitch, roll, and yaw were performed on a 19%-scale model of the X-31A aircraft. These tests were used to study the aerodynamic characteristics of the X-31A in response to harmonic oscillations at six frequencies. In-phase and out-of-phase components of the aerodynamic coefficients were obtained over a range of angles of attack from 0 to 90 deg. To account for the effect of frequency on the data, mathematical models with unsteady terms were formulated by use of two different indicial functions. Data from a reduced set of frequencies were used to estimate model parameters, including steady-state static and dynamic stability derivatives. Both models showed good prediction capability and the ability to accurately fit the measured data. Estimated static stability derivatives compared well with those obtained from static wind tunnel tests. The roll and yaw rate derivative estimates were compared with rotary-balanced wind tunnel data and theoretical predictions. The estimates and theoretical predictions were in agreement at small angles of attack. The rotary-balance data showed, in general, acceptable agreement with the steady-state derivative estimates.

  3. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F E

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  4. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela de Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. CONCLUSIONS: Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed. We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  5. Miniaturized compact water-cooled pitot-pressure probe for flow-field surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the design of pitot probes for flowfield surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels is reported. The results show that a pitot-pressure probe can be miniaturized for minimum interference effects by locating the transducer in the probe support body and water-cooling it so that the pressure-settling time and transducer temperature are compatible with hypersonic tunnel operation and flow conditions. Flowfield surveys around a two-to-one elliptical cone model in a 20-inch Mach 6 wind tunnel using such a probe show that probe interference effects are essentially eliminated.

  6. Numerical investigation of air flow in a supersonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, S. M.; Rtishcheva, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of TsAGI’s supersonic wind tunnel modernization program aimed at improving flow quality and extending the range of test regimes it was required to design and numerically validate a new test section and a set of shaped nozzles: two flat nozzles with flow Mach number at nozzle exit M=4 and M=5 and two axisymmetric nozzles with M=5 and M=6. Geometric configuration of the nozzles, the test section (an Eiffel chamber) and the diffuser was chosen according to the results of preliminary calculations of two-dimensional air flow in the wind tunnel circuit. The most important part of the work are three-dimensional flow simulation results obtained using ANSYS Fluent software. The following flow properties were investigated: Mach number, total and static pressure, total and static temperature and turbulent viscosity ratio distribution, heat flux density at wind tunnel walls (for high-temperature flow regimes). It is demonstrated that flow perturbations emerging from the junction of the nozzle with the test section and spreading down the test section behind the boundaries of characteristic rhomb’s reverse wedge are nearly impossible to eliminate. Therefore, in order to perform tests under most uniform flow conditions, the model’s center of rotation and optical window axis should be placed as close to the center of the characteristic rhomb as possible. The obtained results became part of scientific and technical basis of supersonic wind tunnel design process and were applied to a generalized class of similar wind tunnels.

  7. 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements Expanded Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of V/STOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsion systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  8. Wind tunnel study of helical and straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Maryam; Araya, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    It is hypothesized that blade curvature can serve as a passive means to control fluid entrainment and wake recovery in vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) arrays. We test this experimentally in a wind tunnel using two different VAWT configurations, one with straight blades and another with helical blades, keeping all other experimental parameters fixed. A small-scale, commercially available VAWT (15W max power) is used as the baseline wind tunnel model in each case. The commercial VAWT blades are replaced with either straight or helical blades that are 3D-printed extrusions of the same airfoil cross-section. Results from smoke flow visualization, three-component wake velocity measurements, and turbine power data are presented. These results give insight into the potential use of VAWTs with curved blades in utility-scale wind farms.

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale model with a swept wing and a jet flap having an expandable duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, T. N.; Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    The data from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of the expandable duct-jet flap concept are presented. The investigation was made using a large-scale model in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel. The expandable duct-jet flap concept uses a lower surface, split flap and an upper surface, Fowler flap to form an internal, variable area cavity for the blowing air. Small amounts of blowing are used on the knee of the upper surface flap and the knee of a short-chord, trailing edge control flap. The bulk of the blowing is at the trailing edge. The flap could extend the full span of the model wing or over the inboard part only, with blown ailerons outboard. Primary configurations tested were two flap angles, typical of takeoff and landing; symmetric control flap deflections, primarily for improved landing performance; and asymmetric aileron and control flap deflections, for lateral control.

  10. Nacelle Chine Installation Based on Wind-Tunnel Test Using Efficient Global Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazaki, Masahiro; Yokokawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Takeshi; Jeong, Shinkyu; Yamamoto, Kazuomi

    Design exploration of a nacelle chine installation was carried out. The nacelle chine improves stall performance when deploying multi-element high-lift devices. This study proposes an efficient design process using a Kriging surrogate model to determine the nacelle chine installation point in wind-tunnel tests. The design exploration was conducted in a wind-tunnel using the JAXA high-lift aircraft model at the JAXA Large-scale Low-speed Wind Tunnel. The objective was to maximize the maximum lift. The chine installation points were designed on the engine nacelle in the axial and chord-wise direction, while the geometry of the chine was fixed. In the design process, efficient global optimization (EGO) which includes Kriging model and genetic algorithm (GA) was employed. This method makes it possible both to improve the accuracy of the response surface and to explore the global optimum efficiently. Detailed observations of flowfields using the Particle Image Velocimetry method confirmed the chine effect and design results.

  11. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

  12. Soil erosion rates from mixed soil and gravel surfaces in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Klopfer, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Protective barriers have been identified as integral components of plans to isolate defense waste on the Hanford Site. The use of natural materials to construct protective barriers over waste site is being considered. Design requirements for protective barriers include preventing exposure of buried waste, and restricting penetration or percolation of surface waters through the waste zone. Studies were initiated to evaluate the effects of wind erosion on candidate protective barrier surfaces. A wind tunnel was used to provide controlled erosive stresses and to investigate the erosive effects of wind forces on proposed surface layers for protective barriers. Mixed soil and gravel surfaces were prepared and tested for resistance to wind erosion at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Aerosol Wind Tunnel Research Facility. These tests were performed to investigate surface deflation caused by suspension of soil from various surface layer configurations and to provide a comparison of the relative resistance of the different surfaces to wind erosion. Planning, testing, and analyzing phases of this wind erosion project were coordinated with other tasks supporting the development of protective barriers. These tasks include climate-change predictions, field studies and modeling efforts. This report provides results of measurements of deflation caused by wind forces over level surfaces. Section 2.0 reviews surface layer characteristics and previous relevant studies on wind erosion, describes effects of erosion, and discusses wind tunnel modeling. Materials and methods of the wind tunnel tests are discussed in Section 3.0. Results and discussion are presented in Section 4.0, and conclusions and recommendations Section 5.0. 53 refs., 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  14. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions

  15. Soil erosion rates caused by wind and saltating sand stresses in a wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1993-02-01

    Wind erosion tests were performed in a wind tunnel in support of the development of long-term protective barriers to cap stabilized waste sites at the Hanford Site. Controlled wind and saltating sand erosive stresses were applied to physical models of barrier surface layers to simulate worst-case eolian erosive stresses. The goal of these tests was to provide information useful to the design and evaluation of the surface layer composition of an arid-region waste site barrier concept that incorporates a deep fine-soil reservoir. A surface layer composition is needed that will form an armor resistant to eolian erosion during periods of extreme dry climatic conditions, especially when such conditions result in the elimination or reduction of vegetation by water deprivation or wildfire. Because of the life span required of Hanford waste barriers, it is important that additional work follow these wind tunnel studies. A modeling effort is planned to aid the interpretation of test results with respect to the suitability of pea gravel to protect the finite-soil reservoir during long periods of climatic stress. It is additionally recommended that wind tunnel tests be continued and field data be obtained at prototype or actual barrier sites. Results wig contribute to barrier design efforts and provide confidence in the design of long-term waste site caps for and regions.

  16. Full scale subsonic wind tunnel requirements and design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M. W.; Mort, K. W.; Hickey, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The justification and requirements are summarized for a large subsonic wind tunnel capable of testing full-scale aircraft, rotor systems, and advanced V/STOL aircraft propulsion systems. The design considerations and constraints for such a facility are reviewed, and the trades between facility test capability and costs are discussed. The design studies showed that the structural cost of this facility is the most important cost factor. For this reason (and other considerations such as requirements for engine exhaust gas purging) an open-return wind tunnel having two test sections was selected. The major technical problem in the design of an open-return wind tunnel is maintaining good test section flow quality in the presence of external winds. This problem has been studied extensively, and inlet and exhaust systems which provide satisfactory attenuation of the effects of external winds on test section flow quality were developed.

  17. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.

    1991-01-01

    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  18. SMART Rotor Development and Wind-Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Benton H.; Straub, Friedrich; Anand, V. R.; Birchette, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of California at Los Angeles, and University of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center, figure 1. The SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing-edge flap on each blade. The development effort included design, fabrication, and component testing of the rotor blades, the trailing-edge flaps, the piezoelectric actuators, the switching power amplifiers, the actuator control system, and the data/power system. Development of the smart rotor culminated in a whirl-tower hover test which demonstrated the functionality, robustness, and required authority of the active flap system. The eleven-week wind tunnel test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor noise analysis, and quantified the effects of open- and closed-loop active-flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness and the reliability of the flap actuation system were successfully demonstrated in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing. The data acquired and lessons learned will be instrumental in maturing this technology and transitioning it into production. The development effort, test hardware, wind-tunnel test program, and test results will be presented in the full paper.

  19. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  20. Design and development of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ponte, JD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for wind tunnel balances, as expressed by the wind tunnel testing community, balance design philosophy needs to be further expanded to include alternative sensor, material, design...

  1. Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads from Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Investigation of UH-60A Rotor Structural Loads From Flight and Wind Tunnel Tests Hyeonsoo Yeo Mark Potsdam US Army Aviation Development Directorate...NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (Ref. 14) provides an- other set of airloads and structural loads measurements. Fig- ure 2 shows the UH-60A rotor ...blades installed on the NFAC Large Rotor Test Apparatus (LRTA) in the wind tunnel test section. One of the objectives of the wind tunnel test was to

  2. Blade-Element/Momentum Technique for Rotors operating in Wind Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    2003-01-01

    small, since important properties of the blade boundary layer otherwise cannot be captured correctly. On the other hand, severe problems with wind tunnel blockage may be the result if the ratio between the areas of the rotor and the wind tunnel cross section is too big. In all cases, wind tunnel...

  3. Floating frame grounding system. [for wind tunnel static force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a floating frame grounding system (FFGS) for the 40- by 80-foot low speed wind tunnel facility at the NASA Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex is addresssed. When electrical faults are detected, the FFGS ensures a ground path for the fault current. In addition, the FFGS alerts the tunnel operator when a mechanical foul occurs.

  4. Characterization of a Robotic Manipulator for Dynamic Wind Tunnel Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    maps of aerodynamic loads data. The var - ious configurations of the Flexible Weapon greatly increase the workload and cost of performing wind tunnel...E. A Introduction to Random Vibrations, Spectral and Wavelet Analysis. Peason Education, 1993. 24. Ogata, Katsuhiko. Mondern Control Engineering

  5. Aircraft wind tunnel characterisation using modern design of experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dias, JF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 2013-1502, 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials Conference, Boston, Massachusetts, 8-11 April 2013 Aircraft wind tunnel characterisation using modern design of experiments J. F. Dias1 IDMEC - Instituto...

  6. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Van Wingerden, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the

  7. Ares I Aerodynamic Testing at the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinier, Jeremy T.; Niskey, Charles J.; Hanke, Jeremy L.; Tomek, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout three full design analysis cycles, the Ares I project within the Constellation program has consistently relied on the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel (PSWT) for aerodynamic testing of the subsonic, transonic and supersonic portions of the atmospheric flight envelope (Mach=0.5 to 4.5). Each design cycle required the development of aerodynamic databases for the 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) forces and moments, as well as distributed line-loads databases covering the full range of Mach number, total angle-of-attack, and aerodynamic roll angle. The high fidelity data collected in this facility has been consistent with the data collected in NASA Langley s Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the overlapping condition ofMach=1.6. Much insight into the aerodynamic behavior of the launch vehicle during all phases of flight was gained through wind tunnel testing. Important knowledge pertaining to slender launch vehicle aerodynamics in particular was accumulated. In conducting these wind tunnel tests and developing experimental aerodynamic databases, some challenges were encountered and are reported as lessons learned in this paper for the benefit of future crew launch vehicle aerodynamic developments.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Pitch Control Enhancement to the Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kian, Chin C

    2006-01-01

    .... The MAV without the main fixed-wing is placed in a laminar flow field within a low speed wind tunnel with the wake after the flapping wings characterized with a constant temperature anemometer...

  9. Microspheres for laser velocimetry in high temperature wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorieshi, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    The introduction of non-intrusive measurement techniques in wind tunnel experimentation has been a turning point in error free data acquisition. Laser velocimetry has been progressively implemented and utilized in various wind tunnels; e.g. subsonic, transonic, and supersonic. The success of the laser velocimeter technique is based on an accurate measurement of scattered light by seeding particles introduced into the flow stream in the wind tunnel. Therefore, application of appropriate seeding particles will affect, to a large extent the acquired data. The seeding material used depends on the type of experiment being run. Among the seeding material for subsonic tunnel are kerosene, Kaolin, and polystyrene. Polystyrene is known to be the best because of being solid particles, having high index of refraction, capable of being made both spherical and monodisperse. However for high temperature wind tunnel testing seeding material must have an additional characteristic that is high melting point. Typically metal oxide powders such as Al2O3 with melting point 3660 F are used. The metal oxides are, however polydispersed, have a high density, and a tendency to form large agglomerate that does not closely follow the flow velocity. The addition of flame phase silica to metal oxide helps to break up the agglomerates, yet still results in a narrow band of polydispersed seeding. The less desirable utility of metal oxide in high temperature wind tunnels necessitates the search for a better alternative particle seeding which this paper addresses. The Laser Velocimetry (LV) characteristic of polystyrene makes it a prime candidate as a base material in achieving the high temperature particle seeding inexpensively. While polystyrene monodisperse seeding particle reported has been successful in a subsonic wind tunnel, it lacks the high melting point and thus is not practically usable in a high temperature wind tunnel. It is well known that rise in melting point of polystyrene can be

  10. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  11. Drag of a Supercritical Body of Revolution in Free Flight at Transonic Speeds and Comparison with Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Wallace, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The forebody drag of a supercritical body of revolution was measured in free flight over a Mach number range of 0.85 to 1.05 and a Reynolds number range of 11.5 x 10 to the 6th power to 19.4 x 10 to the 6th power and was compared with wind-tunnel data. The forebody drag coefficient for a Mach number less than 0.96 was 0.111 compared with the wind-tunnel value of 0.103. A gradual increase in the drag occurred in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at a lower Mach number than in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel or in the free-flight test. The sharp drag rise occurred near Mach 0.98 in free flight whereas the rise occurred near Mach 0.99 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The sharp rise was not as pronounced in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and was probably affected by tunnel-wall-interference effects. The increase occurred more slowly and at a higher Mach number. These results indicate that the drag measurements made in the wind tunnels near Mach 1 were significantly affected by the relative size of the model and the wind tunnel.

  12. Nonlinear dynamics approach of modeling the bifurcation for aircraft wing flutter in transonic speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Miyata, T.; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of obtaining the two-degrees-of-freedom, finite dimensional. nonlinear mathematical model. which models the nonlinear features of aircraft flutter in transonic speed is reported. The model enables to explain every feature of the transonic flutter data of the wind tunnel tests...

  13. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.

  14. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobassher Tofa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  15. Experimental investigation of a wing-in-ground effect craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofa, M Mobassher; Maimun, Adi; Ahmed, Yasser M; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  16. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofa, M. Mobassher; Ahmed, Yasser M.; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. PMID:24701170

  17. Aircraft dynamics, wind tunnel testing, and CFD flow visualization of two linked UAVs flying at close proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuji, Edgar A.; Lukaczyk, Trent W.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of close proximity aerodynamics and aircraft dynamics of two Linked UAVs. As the UAVs approach each other for wingtip docking there will be strong aerodynamic coupling between their wings tips. Lifting line and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation as well as wind tunnel testing of close proximity effects on lift, drag, roll, pitch and yaw moments for two UAV wings has been performed. The proximity aerodynamics effects between the UAVs wings were analyzed as a function of its relative position in all three directions. A look-up library of aerodynamic forces and moments for relative positions and angles of attack between the two UAVs has been developed. In this study we examined how the close proximity aerodynamics affects the dynamics and stability of the UAVs. The aircraft dynamics analysis is done in Simulink, which will include the close proximity aerodynamic look-up library. An aerodynamic disturbance intensity field will be generated, utilizing both simulation and wind tunnel data, to determine a trajectory for the two UAVs to approach each other for docking.

  18. Flight and wind-tunnel calibrations of a flush airdata sensor at high angles of attack and sideslip and at supersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moes, Timothy R.; Whitmore, Stephen A.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A nonintrusive airdata-sensing system was calibrated in flight and wind-tunnel experiments to an angle of attack of 70 deg and to angles of sideslip of +/- 15 deg. Flight-calibration data have also been obtained to Mach 1.2. The sensor, known as the flush airdata sensor, was installed on the nosecap of an F-18 aircraft for flight tests and on a full-scale F-18 forebody for wind-tunnel tests. Flight tests occurred at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, using the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the 30- by 60-ft wind tunnel at the NASA LaRC, Hampton, Virginia. The sensor consisted of 23 flush-mounted pressure ports arranged in concentric circles and located within 1.75 in. of the tip of the nosecap. An overdetermined mathematical model was used to relate the pressure measurements to the local airdata quantities. The mathematical model was based on potential flow over a sphere and was empirically adjusted based on flight and wind-tunnel data. For quasi-steady maneuvering, the mathematical model worked well throughout the subsonic, transonic, and low supersonic flight regimes. The model also worked well throughout the angle-of-attack and sideslip regions studied.

  19. Experimental result analysis for scaled model of UiTM tailless blended wing-body (BWB) Baseline 7 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, R. E. M.; Ahmad, A. M.; Latif, Z. A. A.; Saad, R. M.; Kuntjoro, W.

    2017-12-01

    Blended wing-body (BWB) aircraft having planform configuration similar to those previously researched and published by other researchers does not guarantee that an efficient aerodynamics in term of lift-to-drag ratio can be achieved. In this wind tunnel experimental study, BWB half model is used. The model is also being scaled down to 71.5% from the actual size. Based on the results, the maximum lift coefficient is found to be 0.763 when the angle is at 27.5° after which the model starts to stall. The minimum drag coefficient is 0.014, measured at zero angle of attack. The corrected lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) is 15.9 at angle 7.8°. The scaled model has a big flat surface that surely gives an inaccurate data but the data obtained shall give some insights for future perspective towards the BWB model being tested.

  20. Wind shear estimation and wake detection by rotor loads — First wind tunnel verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J.; Cacciola, S.; Campagnolo, F.; Petrović, V.; Mourembles, D.; Bottasso, C. L.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes a simple method for detecting presence and location of a wake affecting a downstream wind turbine operating in a wind power plant. First, the local wind speed and shear experienced by the wind turbine are estimated by the use of rotor loads and other standard wind turbine response data. Then, a simple wake deficit model is used to determine the lateral position of the wake with respect to the affected rotor. The method is verified in a boundary layer wind tunnel using two instrumented scaled wind turbine models, demonstrating its effectiveness.

  1. CFD simulation of dimpled sphere and its wind tunnel verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spálenský Vojtěch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with problems of CFD simulating airflow over a dimpled spherical surface and its verification by the wind tunnel measurement. The low-cost simulation approach was applied to be run on a common PC using the commercial software ANSYS CFX. The wind tunnel testing has been performed in the laboratory of aerodynamics at the Department of Air Force and Aircraft Technology of the University of Defence. Measured results of the drag coefficient versus the Reynolds number for smooth and dimpled spheres were compared and discussed. Presented simulation corresponds adequately to the experimental results. It can be stated that the CFD simulation is suitable for simulating the flow over the dimpled surfaces similar to sphere.

  2. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    During February and April 2012 a series of wind tunnel tests were performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF) with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible ...... in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.......During February and April 2012 a series of wind tunnel tests were performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility (OJF) with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible...

  3. Calculations of air cooler for new subsonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rtishcheva, A. S.

    2017-10-01

    As part of the component development of TsAGI’s new subsonic wind tunnel where the air flow velocity in the closed test section is up to 160 m/sec hydraulic and thermal characteristics of air cooler are calculated. The air cooler is one of the most important components due to its highest hydraulic resistance in the whole wind tunnel design. It is important to minimize its hydraulic resistance to ensure the energy efficiency of wind tunnel fans and the cost-cutting of tests. On the other hand the air cooler is to assure the efficient cooling of air flow in such a manner as to maintain the temperature below 40 °C for seamless operation of measuring equipment. Therefore the relevance of this project is driven by the need to develop the air cooler that would demonstrate low hydraulic resistance of air and high thermal effectiveness of heat exchanging surfaces; insofar as the cooling section must be given up per unit time with the amount of heat Q=30 MW according to preliminary evaluations. On basis of calculation research some variants of air cooler designs are proposed including elliptical tubes, round tubes, and lateral plate-like fins. These designs differ by the number of tubes and plates, geometrical characteristics and the material of finned surfaces (aluminium or cooper). Due to the choice of component configurations a high thermal effectiveness is achieved for finned surfaces. The obtained results form the basis of R&D support in designing the new subsonic wind tunnel.

  4. Velocity Measurement Systems for a Low-speed Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Funds were provided by the ARO for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment and a Dantec particle- image...Velocity Measurement Systems for a Low-speed Wind Tunnel Report Title Funds were provided by the ARO for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment...Funds were provided by the Army Research Office for the purchase of TSI hot-wire anemometer equipment and a Dantec particle-image velocimetry system

  5. Wind Tunnel Test of the SMART Active Flap Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Anand, Vaidyanthan R.; Birchette, Terrence S.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Boeing and a team from Air Force, NASA, Army, DARPA, MIT, UCLA, and U. of Maryland have successfully completed a wind-tunnel test of the smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor in the 40- by 80-foot wind-tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. The Boeing SMART rotor is a full-scale, five-bladed bearingless MD 900 helicopter rotor modified with a piezoelectric-actuated trailing edge flap on each blade. The eleven-week test program evaluated the forward flight characteristics of the active-flap rotor at speeds up to 155 knots, gathered data to validate state-of-the-art codes for rotor aero-acoustic analysis, and quantified the effects of open and closed loop active flap control on rotor loads, noise, and performance. The test demonstrated on-blade smart material control of flaps on a full-scale rotor for the first time in a wind tunnel. The effectiveness of the active flap control on noise and vibration was conclusively demonstrated. Results showed significant reductions up to 6dB in blade-vortex-interaction and in-plane noise, as well as reductions in vibratory hub loads up to 80%. Trailing-edge flap deflections were controlled within 0.1 degrees of the commanded value. The impact of the active flap on control power, rotor smoothing, and performance was also demonstrated. Finally, the reliability of the flap actuation system was successfully proven in more than 60 hours of wind-tunnel testing.

  6. Fundamental Understanding of Rotor Aeromechanics at High Advance Ratio Through Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Benjamin

    The purpose of this research is to further the understanding of rotor aeromechanics at advance ratios (mu) beyond the maximum of 0.5 (ratio of forward airspeed to rotor tip speed) for conventional helicopters. High advance ratio rotors have applications in high speed compound helicopters. In addition to one or more conventional main rotors, these aircraft employ either thrust compounding (propellers), lift compounding (fixed-wings), or both. An articulated 4-bladed model rotor was constructed, instrumented, and tested up to a maximum advance ratio of mu=1.6 in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel at the University of Maryland. The data set includes steady and unsteady rotor hub forces and moments, blade structural loads, blade flapping angles, swashplate control angles, and unsteady blade pressures. A collective-thrust control reversal--where increasing collective pitch results in lower rotor thrust--was observed and is a unique phenomenon to the high advance ratio flight regime. The thrust reversal is explained in a physical manner as well as through an analytical formulation. The requirements for the occurrence of the thrust reversal are enumerated. The effects of rotor geometry design on the thrust reversal onset are explored through the formulation and compared to the measured data. Reverse-flow dynamic stall was observed to extend the the lifting capability of the edgewise rotor well beyond the expected static stall behavior of the airfoil sections. Through embedded unsteady blade surface pressure transducers, the normal force, pitching moment, and shed dynamic stall vortex time histories at a blade section in strong reverse flow were analyzed. Favorable comparisons with published 2-D pitching airfoil reverse flow dynamic stall data indicate that the 3-D stall environment can likely be predicted using models developed from such 2-D experiments. Vibratory hub loads were observed to increase with advance ratio. Maximum amplitude was observed near mu=1, with a

  7. Design and Characterization of the UTIAS Anechoic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Derrick H. F.

    The anechoic open-jet wind tunnel facility at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies was updated and characterized to meet the needs of current and future aeroacoustic experiments. The wind tunnel inlet was resurfaced and flow-conditioning screens were redesigned to improve the freestream turbulence intensity to below 0.4% in the test section. The circular nozzle was replaced with a square secondary contraction that increased the maximum test section velocity to 75 m/s and improved flow uniformity to over 99% across a usable cross-sectional area of 500 mm x 500 mm. Acoustic baffles were installed in front of the wind tunnel inlet and foam wedges were installed in the anechoic chamber. The overall background sound pressure levels in the chamber were improved by 8-18 db over the range of operational freestream velocities. The anechoic chamber cut-off frequency is 170 Hz and the reverberation time for a 60 dB sound power decay is 0.032 s.

  8. Ski jumping takeoff in a wind tunnel with skis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmavirta, Mikko; Kivekäs, Juha; Komi, Paavo

    2011-11-01

    The effect of skis on the force-time characteristics of the simulated ski jumping takeoff was examined in a wind tunnel. Takeoff forces were recorded with a force plate installed under the tunnel floor. Signals from the front and rear parts of the force plate were collected separately to examine the anteroposterior balance of the jumpers during the takeoff. Two ski jumpers performed simulated takeoffs, first without skis in nonwind conditions and in various wind conditions. Thereafter, the same experiments were repeated with skis. The jumpers were able to perform very natural takeoff actions (similar to the actual takeoff) with skis in wind tunnel. According to the subjective feeling of the jumpers, the simulated ski jumping takeoff with skis was even easier to perform than the earlier trials without skis. Skis did not much influence the force levels produced during the takeoff but they still changed the force distribution under the feet. Contribution of the forces produced under the rear part of the feet was emphasized probably because the strong dorsiflexion is needed for lifting the skis to the proper flight position. The results presented in this experiment emphasize that research on ski jumping takeoff can be advanced by using wind tunnels.

  9. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  10. Effects of transition on wind tunnel simulation of vehicel dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.

    Among the many problems the test engineer faces when trying to simulate full-scale vehicle dynamics in a wind tunnel test is the fact that the test usually will be performed at Reynolds numbers far below those existing on the full-scale vehicle. It is found that a severe scaling problem may exist even in the case of attached flow. The strong coupling existing between boundary layer transition and vehicle motion can cause the wind tunnel results to be very misleading, in some cases dangerously so. For example, the subscale test could fail to show a dynamic stability problem existing in full-scale flight, or, conversely, show one that does not exist. When flow separation occurs together with boundary layer transition, the scaling problem becomes more complicated, and the potential for dangerously misleading subscale test results increases. The existing literature is reviewed to provide examples of the different types of dynamic simulation problems that the test engineer is likely to face. It should be emphasized that the difficulties presented by transition effects in the case of wind tunnel simulation of vehicle dynamics apply to the same extent to numeric simulation methods.

  11. Correlations of Platooning Track Test and Wind Tunnel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, Michael P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering

    2018-02-02

    In this report, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed results from multiple, independent truck platooning projects to compare and contrast track test results with wind tunnel test results conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Some highlights from the report include compiled data, and results from four independent SAE J1321 full-size track test campaigns that were compared to LLNL wind tunnel testing results. All platooning scenarios tested demonstrated significant fuel savings with good correlation relative to following distances, but there are still unanswered questions and clear opportunities for system optimization. NOx emissions showed improvements from NREL tests in 2014 to Auburn tests in 2015 with respect to J1321 platooning track testing of Peloton system. NREL evaluated data from Volpe's Naturalistic Study of Truck Following Behavior, which showed minimal impact of naturalistic background platooning. We found significant correlation between multiple track studies, wind tunnel tests, and computational fluid dynamics, but also showed that there is more to learn regarding close formation and longer-distance effects. We also identified potential areas for further research and development, including development of advanced aerodynamic designs optimized for platooning, measurement of platoon system performance in traffic conditions, impact of vehicle lateral offsets on platooning performance, and characterization of the national potential for platooning based on fleet operational characteristics.

  12. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-winglet model designed at M = 0.8, C sub L = 0.4 using linear aerodynamic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results have been presented herein for a subsonic transport type wing fitted with winglets. Wind planform was chosen to be representative of wings used on current jet transport aircraft, while wing and winglet camber surfaces were designed using two different linear aerodynamic design methods. The purpose of the wind tunnel investigation was to determine the effectiveness of these linear aerodynamic design computer codes in designing a non-planar transport configuration which would cruise efficiently. The design lift coefficient was chosen to be 0.4, at a design Mach number of 0.8. Force and limited pressure data were obtained for the basic wing, and for the wing fitted with the two different winglet designs, at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.70, 0.75 and 0.80 over an angle of attack range of -2 to +6 degrees, at zero sideslip. The data have been presented without analysis to expedite publication.

  13. Pollutant Plume Dispersion over Hypothetical Urban Areas based on Wind Tunnel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ziwei; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2017-04-01

    Gaussian plume model is commonly adopted for pollutant concentration prediction in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). However, it has a number of limitations being applied to pollutant dispersion over complex land-surface morphology. In this study, the friction factor (f), as a measure of aerodynamic resistance induced by rough surfaces in the engineering community, was proposed to parameterize the vertical dispersion coefficient (σz) in the Gaussian model. A series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to verify the mathematical hypothesis and to characterize plume dispersion as a function of surface roughness as well. Hypothetical urban areas, which were assembled in the form of idealized street canyons of different aspect (building-height-to-street-width) ratios (AR = 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/12), were fabricated by aligning identical square aluminum bars at different separation apart in cross flows. Pollutant emitted from a ground-level line source into the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) was simulated using water vapour generated by ultrasonic atomizer. The humidity and the velocity (mean and fluctuating components) were measured, respectively, by humidity sensors and hot-wire anemometry (HWA) with X-wire probes in streamwise and vertical directions. Wind tunnel results showed that the pollutant concentration exhibits the conventional Gaussian distribution, suggesting the feasibility of using water vapour as a passive scalar in wind tunnel experiments. The friction factor increased with decreasing aspect ratios (widening the building separation). It was peaked at AR = 1/8 and decreased thereafter. Besides, a positive correlation between σz/xn (x is the distance from the pollutant source) and f1/4 (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.61) was observed, formulating the basic parameterization of plume dispersion over urban areas.

  14. Turbulence Intensity at Inlet of 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel Caused by Upwind Blockage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Denise; Yuricich, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In order to estimate the magnitude of turbulence in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel (80 x 120) caused by buildings located upwind from the 80 x 120 inlet, a 150th-scale study was performed that utilized a nominal two-dimensional blockage placed ahead of the inlet. The distance of the blockage ahead of the inlet was varied. This report describes velocity measurements made in the plane of the 80 x 120 model inlet for the case of zero ambient (atmospheric) wind.

  15. Simulated rotor test apparatus dynamic characteristics in the 80- by 120-foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M. S.; Peterson, R. L.; Graham, T. A.

    1990-01-01

    A shake test was conducted in the 80 by 120 foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, using a load frame and dummy weights to simulate the weight of the NASA Rotor Test Apparatus. The simulated hub was excited with broadband random excitation, and accelerometer responses were measured at various locations. The transfer functions (acceleration per unit excitation force as a function of frequency) for each of the accelerometer responses were computed, and the data were analyzed using modal analysis to estimate the model parameters.

  16. The Impact of Truth Surrogate Variance on Quality Assessment/Assurance in Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Minimum data volume requirements for wind tunnel testing are reviewed and shown to depend on error tolerance, response model complexity, random error variance in the measurement environment, and maximum acceptable levels of inference error risk. Distinctions are made between such related concepts as quality assurance and quality assessment in response surface modeling, as well as between precision and accuracy. Earlier research on the scaling of wind tunnel tests is extended to account for variance in the truth surrogates used at confirmation sites in the design space to validate proposed response models. A model adequacy metric is presented that represents the fraction of the design space within which model predictions can be expected to satisfy prescribed quality specifications. The impact of inference error on the assessment of response model residuals is reviewed. The number of sites where reasonably well-fitted response models actually predict inadequately is shown to be considerably less than the number of sites where residuals are out of tolerance. The significance of such inference error effects on common response model assessment strategies is examined.

  17. Adjoint Method and Predictive Control for 1-D Flow in NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ardema, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a modeling method and a new optimal control approach to investigate a Mach number control problem for the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. The flow in the wind tunnel is modeled by the 1-D unsteady Euler equations whose boundary conditions prescribe a controlling action by a compressor. The boundary control inputs to the compressor are in turn controlled by a drive motor system and an inlet guide vane system whose dynamics are modeled by ordinary differential equations. The resulting Euler equations are thus coupled to the ordinary differential equations via the boundary conditions. Optimality conditions are established by an adjoint method and are used to develop a model predictive linear-quadratic optimal control for regulating the Mach number due to a test model disturbance during a continuous pitch

  18. Analysis of heat-transfer measurements from 2 AEDC wind tunnels on the Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    Previous aerodynamic heating tests have been conducted in the AEDC/VKF Supersonic Wind Tunnel (A) to aid in defining the design thermal environment for the space shuttle external tank. The quality of these data has been under discussion because of the effects of low tunnel enthalpy and slow model injection rates. Recently the AEDC/VKF Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (C) has been modified to provide a Mach 4 capability that has significantly higher tunnel enthalpy with more rapid model injection rates. Tests were conducted in Tunnel C at Mach 4 to obtain data on the external tank for comparison with Tunnel A results. Data were obtained on a 0.0175 scale model of the Space Shuttle Integrated Vehicle at Re/ft = 4 x 10 to the 6th power with the tunnel stagnation temperature varying from 740 to 1440 R. Model attitude varied from an angle of attack of -5 to 5 deg and an angle of sideslip of -3 to 3 deg. One set of data was obtained in Tunnel C at Re/ft = 6.9 x 10 to the 6th for comparison with flight data. Data comparisons between the two tunnels for numerous regions on the external tank are given.

  19. A method for data base management and analysis for wind tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biser, Aileen O.

    1987-01-01

    To respond to the need for improved data base management and analysis capabilities for wind-tunnel data at the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, research was conducted into current methods of managing wind-tunnel data and a method was developed as a solution to this need. This paper describes the development of the data base management and analysis method for wind-tunnel data. The design and implementation of the software system are discussed and examples of its use are shown.

  20. MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Webster, Matthew; Lempert, Walter R; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R; Ivey, Christopher B; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time-correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

  1. Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Blunt-Body Drag Reduction Using Forebody Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Sprague, Stephanie; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Curry, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results of wind-tunnel tests that demonstrate a novel drag reduction technique for blunt-based vehicles. For these tests, the forebody roughness of a blunt-based model was modified using micomachined surface overlays. As forebody roughness increases, boundary layer at the model aft thickens and reduces the shearing effect of external flow on the separated flow behind the base region, resulting in reduced base drag. For vehicle configurations with large base drag, existing data predict that a small increment in forebody friction drag will result in a relatively large decrease in base drag. If the added increment in forebody skin drag is optimized with respect to base drag, reducing the total drag of the configuration is possible. The wind-tunnel tests results conclusively demonstrate the existence of a forebody dragbase drag optimal point. The data demonstrate that the base drag coefficient corresponding to the drag minimum lies between 0.225 and 0.275, referenced to the base area. Most importantly, the data show a drag reduction of approximately 15% when the drag optimum is reached. When this drag reduction is scaled to the X-33 base area, drag savings approaching 45,000 N (10,000 lbf) can be realized.

  2. Direct numerical simulations of an arc-powered heater for used in a hypersonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilbum; Panesi, Marco; Freund, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    We study a model arc-heater using direct numerical simulations, in a configuration motivated by its used to generated inflow of a high-speed wind tunnel for hypersonics research. The flow is assumed to be in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and is modeled with with 11 species (N2, O2, NO, N, O, N2+,O2+,NO+, N+, O+, e-). The flow equations are solved in conjunction with an electrostatic field solver and the gas electric conductivity in LTE. The flow rate and the mean arc power are set to be 50.42 g/s and 84.7 kW with 214.0 V of the mean arc voltage , respectively. We study the flow details, the heading and thrust mechanisms, and make general comparisons with a corresponding, though geometrically more complex, experimental configuration. We particularly interested in the radical species it produces and will potentially be present in the wind-tunnel test section. This material is based in part upon work supported by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, under Award Number DE-NA0002374.

  3. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  4. Determination of aerodynamic damping and force coefficients of filleted twin cables in dry conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattiello, E.; Eriksen, M. B.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Moderate amplitude vibrations continue to be reported on the Øresund Bridge cables, although fitted with fillets and dampers. To further investigate the aerodynamics of the bridge’s twin-cable arrangement, 1:2.3 scale passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests of the cables were performed at the DTU....../FORCE Technology Climatic Wind Tunnel facility. The measured aerodynamic damping of the twin-cable arrangement in dry conditions was compared to the values obtained from full-scale monitoring and from an analytical model using static force coefficients. The comparison revealed broad agreement in the investigated...

  5. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    . The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy......This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off...

  6. Preliminary Design of a LSA Aircraft Using Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert ANGI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results concerning the design and aerodynamic calculations of a light sport aircraft (LSA. These were performed for a new lightweight, low cost, low fuel consumption and long-range aircraft. The design process was based on specific software tools as Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA, XFlr 5 aerodynamic and dynamic stability analysis, and Catia design, according to CS-LSA requirements. The calculations were accomplished by a series of tests performed in the wind tunnel in order to assess experimentally the aerodynamic characteristics of the airplane.

  7. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  8. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  9. WIND TUNNEL EVALUATION FOR CONTROL TRANSITION FROM ELEVATOR TO STABILATOR OF SMALL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULHILMY SAHWEE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Faulty control surface actuator in a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAV could be overcome with a few techniques. Redundant actuators, analytical redundancy or combination of both are normally used as fault accommodation techniques. In this paper, the accommodation technique of faulty elevator actuator is presented. This technique uses a standby control surface as temporary control reallocation. Wind tunnel measurement facility is set up for the experimental validation and it is compared with FoilSim software. Flat plate airfoil which was used as horizontal stabilizer, is simulated using numerical model and it is validated using the wind tunnel test. Then, a flat airfoil is designed to be used as stabilator for the recovery of faulty elevator actuator. Results show the different deflection angle is needed when transferring from one control surface to another. From the analysis, the proposed method could be implemented without affecting the pitch stability during control surface transition. The alternate control surface accommodation technique proves to be promising for higher reliability sUAV in the case of a faulty on-board actuator.

  10. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  11. A wind tunnel study on the effect of trees on PM2.5 distribution around buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenjing; Zhao, Bin

    2018-03-15

    Vegetation, especially trees, is effective in reducing the concentration of particulate matter. Trees can efficiently capture particles, improve urban air quality, and may further decrease the introduction of outdoor particles to indoor air. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of trees on particle distribution and removal around buildings using wind tunnel experiments. The wind tunnel is 18m long, 12m wide, and 3.5m high. Trees were modeled using real cypress branches to mimic trees planted around buildings. At the inlet of the wind tunnel, a "line source" of particles was released, simulating air laden with particulate matter. Experiments with the cypress tree and tree-free models were conducted to compare particle concentrations around the buildings. The results indicate that cypress trees clearly reduce PM 2.5 concentrations compared with the tree-free model. The cypress trees enhanced the PM 2.5 removal rate by about 20%. The effects of trees on PM 2.5 removal and distribution vary at different heights. At the base of the trees, their effect on reducing PM 2.5 concentrations is the most significant. At a great height above the treetops, the effect is almost negligible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  13. Comparison of CFD simulations to non-rotating MEXICO blades experiment in the LTT wind tunnel of TUDelft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; van Zuijlen, Alexander; van Bussel, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, three dimensional flow over non-rotating MEXICO blades is simulated by CFD methods. The numerical results are compared with the latest MEXICO wind turbine blades measurements obtained in the low speed low turbulence (LTT) wind tunnel of Delft University of Technology. This study aims to validate CFD codes by using these experimental data measured in well controlled conditions. In order to avoid use of wind tunnel corrections, both the blades and the wind tunnel test section are modelled in the simulations. The ability of Menter's k - ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model is investigated at both attached flow and massively separated flow cases. Steady state Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations are solved in these computations. The pressure distribution at three measured sections are compared under the conditions of different inflow velocities and a range of angles of attack. The comparison shows that at attached flow condition, good agreement can be obtained for all three airfoil sections. Even with massively separated flow, still fairly good pressure distribution comparison can be found for the DU and NACA airfoil sections, although the RISØ section shows poor comparison. At the near stall case, considerable deviations exists on the forward half part of the upper surface for all three sections.

  14. A two-dimensional iterative panel method and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Dhruv, Akash; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has created a continuous demand for improved flight capabilities and range of use. During the last decade, engineers have turned to bio-inspiration for new and innovative flow control methods for gust alleviation, maneuverability, and stability improvement using morphing aircraft wings. The bio-inspired wing design considered in this study mimics the flow manipulation techniques performed by birds to extend the operating envelope of UAVs through the installation of an array of feather-like panels across the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces while replacing the trailing edge flap. Each flap has the ability to deflect into both the airfoil and the inbound airflow using hinge points with a single degree-of-freedom, situated at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the chord. The installation of the surface flaps offers configurations that enable advantageous maneuvers while alleviating gust disturbances. Due to the number of possible permutations available for the flap configurations, an iterative constant-strength doublet/source panel method has been developed with an integrated boundary layer model to calculate the pressure distribution and viscous drag over the wing's surface. As a result, the lift, drag and moment coefficients for each airfoil configuration can be calculated. The flight coefficients of this numerical method are validated using experimental data from a low speed suction wind tunnel operating at a Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables the aerodynamic assessment of a morphing wing profile to be performed accurately and efficiently in comparison to Computational Fluid Dynamics methods and experiments as discussed herein.

  15. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Ground Wind Loads for Ares Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Donald F.; Ivanco, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    A three year program was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Aeroelasticity Branch (AB) and Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) with the primary objective to acquire scaled steady and dynamic ground-wind loads (GWL) wind-tunnel data for rollout, on-pad stay, and on-pad launch configurations for the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV). The experimental effort was conducted to obtain an understanding of the coupling of aerodynamic and structural characteristics that can result in large sustained wind-induced oscillations (WIO) on such a tall and slender launch vehicle and to generate a unique database for development and evaluation of analytical methods for predicting steady and dynamic GWL, especially those caused by vortex shedding, and resulting in significant WIO. This paper summarizes the wind-tunnel test program that employed two dynamically-aeroelastically scaled GWL models based on the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle. The first model tested, the GWL Checkout Model (CM), was a relatively simple model with a secondary objective of restoration and development of processes and methods for design, fabrication, testing, and data analysis of a representative ground wind loads model. In addition, parametric variations in surface roughness, Reynolds number, and protuberances (on/off) were investigated to determine effects on GWL characteristics. The second windtunnel model, the Ares I-X GWL Model, was significantly more complex and representative of the Ares I-X FTV and included the addition of simplified rigid geometrically-scaled models of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) and Launch Complex 39B primary structures. Steady and dynamic base bending moment as well as model response and steady and unsteady pressure data was acquired during the testing of both models. During wind-tunnel testing of each model, flow conditions (speed and azimuth) where significant WIO occurred, were identified and thoroughly investigated. Scaled data from

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation (CFD and Experimental Study on Wing-external Store Aerodynamic Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholudin Mat Lazim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of an external store to a subsonic fighter aircraft. Generally most modern fighter aircraft is designed with an external store installation. In this project a subsonic fighter aircraft model has been manufactured using a computer numerical control machine for the purpose of studying the effect of the external store aerodynamic interference on the flow around the aircraft wing. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD and wind tunnel testing experiments have been carried out to ensure the aerodynamic characteristic of the model then certified the aircraft will not facing any difficulties in stability and controllability. In the CFD experiment, commercial CFD code is used to simulate the interference and aerodynamic characteristics of the model. Subsequently, the model together with an external store was tested in a low speed wind tunnel with test section sized 0.45 m×0.45 m. Result in the two-dimensional pressure distribution obtained by both experiments are comparable. There is only 12% deviation in pressure distribution found in wind tunnel testing compared to the result predicted by the CFD. The result shows that the effect of the external storage is only significant at the lower surface of the wing and almost negligible at the upper surface of the wing. Aerodynamic interference is due to the external storage were mostly evidence on a lower surface of the wing and almost negligible on the upper surface at low angle of attack. In addition, the area of influence on the wing surface by store interference increased as the airspeed increase. 

  17. Analysis of a Split-Plot Experimental Design Applied to a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to analyze a split-plot experimental design featuring two input factors, two levels of randomization, and two error structures in a low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a small-scale model of a fighter airplane configuration is described in this report. Standard commercially-available statistical software was used to analyze the test results obtained in a randomization-restricted environment often encountered in wind tunnel testing. The input factors were differential horizontal stabilizer incidence and the angle of attack. The response variables were the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment. Using split-plot terminology, the whole plot, or difficult-to-change, factor was the differential horizontal stabilizer incidence, and the subplot, or easy-to-change, factor was the angle of attack. The whole plot and subplot factors were both tested at three levels. Degrees of freedom for the whole plot error were provided by replication in the form of three blocks, or replicates, which were intended to simulate three consecutive days of wind tunnel facility operation. The analysis was conducted in three stages, which yielded the estimated mean squares, multiple regression function coefficients, and corresponding tests of significance for all individual terms at the whole plot and subplot levels for the three aerodynamic response variables. The estimated regression functions included main effects and two-factor interaction for the lift coefficient, main effects, two-factor interaction, and quadratic effects for the drag coefficient, and only main effects for the pitching moment coefficient.

  18. Development of a process control computer device for the adaptation of flexible wind tunnel walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, J.

    1982-01-01

    In wind tunnel tests, the problems arise of determining the wall pressure distribution, calculating the wall contour, and controlling adjustment of the walls. This report shows how these problems have been solved for the high speed wind tunnel of the Technical University of Berlin.

  19. Design and Numerical Calculation of Variable Test Section for Small Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav DVOŘÁK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with numerical modelling of transition in a separated boundary layer. The model of laminar/turbulent transition is based on the combination of empirical terms determining position of the transition and averaged Navier – Stokes equations closed by the k – ω SST turbulence model. The model of transition is applied in computation of 2D flow past NACA63A421 airfoil. Computation is performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent 6.3.26, in which the transition method is implemented as a User-Defined-Function. Computed distributions of Cp along the airfoil are verified by comparison with experimental data, which were obtained by measurements in a closed circuit wind tunnel at the constant Reynolds number and several angles of attack. Comparisons prove applicability of the implemented transitional model.

  20. WTSETUP: Software for Creating and Editing Configuration Files in the Low Speed Wind Tunnel Data Acquisition System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Craig

    1999-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System in the Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the Aeronautical and Maritime Research Laboratory is responsible for the measurement, recording, processing and displaying of wind tunnel test data...

  1. Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.

  2. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  3. Full-scale Wind-tunnel and Flight Tests of a Fairchild 22 Airplane Equipped with a Fowler Flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, C H; Soule, H A

    1936-01-01

    Full-scale wind-tunnel and flight tests were made of a Fairchild 22 airplane equipped with a Fowler flap to determine the effect of the flap on the performance and control characteristics of the airplane. In the wind-tunnel tests of the airplane with the horizontal tail surfaces removed, the flap was found to increase the maximum lift coefficient from 1.27 to 2.41. In the flight test, the flap was found to decrease the minimum speed from 58.8 to 44.4 miles per hour. The required take-off run to attain an altitude of 50 feet was reduced from 935 feet to 700 feet by the use of the flap, the minimum distance being obtained with five-sixths full deflection. The landing run from a height of 50 feet was reduced one-third. The longitudinal and directional control was adversely affected by the flap, indicating that the design of the tail surfaces is more critical with a flapped than a plain wing.

  4. Shock layer vacuum UV spectroscopy in an arc-jet wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, G.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program is being developed to obtain measurements of the incident surface radiation in the 1000 A to 2000 A range from the shock stagnation region of a blunt model in the Ames 20 MW Arc-Jet Wind Tunnel. The setup consists of a water-cooled blunt model, with a magnesium fluoride forward-viewing window. Radiation incident on the window is optically imaged via an evacuated system and reflective optical elements onto the entrance slit of a spectrograph. The model will be exposed to the supersonic plasma stream from the exit nozzle of the arc-jet tunnel. The resulting bow shock radiation will be measured. It is expected that this experiment will help evaluate the importance of atomic N and O lines to the radiative heating of future Aeroassist Space Transfer Vehicles (ASTVs).

  5. Experimental study of acoustic loads on an upper-surface-blown STOL airplane configuration. [Langley full-scale wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C. M.; Schoenster, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure levels were measured on the flap and fuselage of an upper-surface-blown jet-flap airplane configuration in a wind tunnel. The model tested had turbofan engines with a bypass ratio of 3 and a thrust rating of 10 kN. Rectangular nozzles were mounted flush with the upper surface at 35 percent of the wing chord. Test parameters were flap deflection angle, jet impingement angle, angle of attack, free-stream velocity, spanwise location of the engine, and jet dynamic pressure. Load levels were high throughout the jet impingement region, with the highest levels (about 159 dB) occurring on the fuselage and near the knee of the flap. The magnitude of the forward-velocity effect appeared to depend upon the ratio of free-stream and jet velocities. Good agreement was obtained between fluctuating pressure spectra measured at jet dynamic pressures of 7 and 22 kPa when the spectra were scaled by nondimensional functions of dynamic pressure, velocity, and the empirical relationship between dynamic pressure and overall fluctuating pressure level.

  6. Parametrizing Evaporative Resistance for Heterogeneous Sparse Canopies through Novel Wind Tunnel Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, B.; Ebtehaj, A. M.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of heat and water vapor transfer from the land surface to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for predicting the hydrologic water balance and climate forecasts used in water resources decision-making. However, the complex distribution of vegetation, soil and atmospheric conditions makes large-scale prognosis of evaporative fluxes difficult. Current ET models, such as Penman-Monteith and flux-gradient methods, are challenging to apply at the microscale due to ambiguity in determining resistance factors to momentum, heat and vapor transport for realistic landscapes. Recent research has made progress in modifying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for dense plant canopies as well as providing clearer description of diffusive controls on evaporation at a smooth soil surface, which both aid in calculating more accurate resistance parameters. However, in nature, surfaces typically tend to be aerodynamically rough and vegetation is a mixture of sparse and dense canopies in non-uniform configurations. The goal of our work is to parameterize the resistances to evaporation based on spatial distributions of sparse plant canopies using novel wind tunnel experimentation at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The state-of-the-art SAFL wind tunnel was updated with a retractable soil box test section (shown in Figure 1), complete with a high-resolution scale and soil moisture/temperature sensors for recording evaporative fluxes and drying fronts. The existing capabilities of the tunnel were used to create incoming non-neutral stability conditions and measure 2-D velocity fields as well as momentum and heat flux profiles through PIV and hotwire anemometry, respectively. Model trees (h = 5 cm) were placed in structured and random configurations based on a probabilistic spacing that was derived from aerial imagery. The novel wind tunnel dataset provides the surface energy budget, turbulence statistics and spatial soil moisture data under varying

  7. High-speed PIV applied to the wake of the NASA CRM model in ETW at high Re-number stall conditions for sub- and transonic speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Konrath, Robert; Geisler, Reinhard; Otter, Dirk; Philipp, Florian; Ehlers, Hauke; Agocs, Janos; Quest, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the EU project ESWIRP the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) using high-speed camera and laser has been used to measure the turbulent flow in the wake of a stalled aircraft wing. The measurements took place on the Common Research Model (CRM) provided by NASA in the pressurized cryogenic European Transonic Wind tunnel (ETW). A specific cryo-PIV system has been used and adapted for using high-speed PIV components under the cryogenic conditions of the wind tunnel faci...

  8. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verelst, D. R. S.; Larsen, T. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process. The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy's aeroelastic simulation program HAWC2.

  9. Shape optimization of supersonic ejector for supersonic wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the shape optimization of a supersonic ejector for propulsion of an experimental supersonic wind tunnel. This ejector contains several primary nozzles arranged around the mixing chamber wall. CFD software Fluent was used to compute the flow in the ejector. A dynamic mesh method was applied to find an optimal shape of the three-dimensional geometry. During the work it was found out that the previously developed optimization method for subsonic ejectors must be modified. The improved method is more stable and the solution requires fewer optimization steps. The shapes of the mixing chamber, the diffuser, inlet parts and the optimal declination of the primary nozzles are obtained as the optimization results.

  10. Federated Database Services for Wind Tunnel Experiment Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paventhan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Enabling the full life cycle of scientific and engineering workflows requires robust middleware and services that support effective data management, near-realtime data movement and custom data processing. Many existing solutions exploit the database as a passive metadata catalog. In this paper, we present an approach that makes use of federation of databases to host data-centric wind tunnel application workflows. The user is able to compose customized application workflows based on database services. We provide a reference implementation that leverages typical business tools and technologies: Microsoft SQL Server for database services and Windows Workflow Foundation for workflow services. The application data and user's code are both hosted in federated databases. With the growing interest in XML Web Services in scientific Grids, and with databases beginning to support native XML types and XML Web services, we can expect the role of databases in scientific computation to grow in importance.

  11. Building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Power System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Larry X. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the characterization and analysis of a high current power supply for the building 865 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The system described in this report became operational in 2013, replacing the original 1968 system which employed an induction voltage regulator. This analysis and testing was completed to help the parent organization understand why an updated and redesigned power system was not delivering adequate power to resistive heater elements in the HWT. This analysis led to an improved understanding of the design and operation of the revised 2013 power supply system and identifies several reasons the revised system failed to achieve the performance of the original power supply installation. Design modifications to improve the performance of this system are discussed.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Validation of the Optimization Methodologies for a Wing-Tip Structure Equipped with Conventional and Morphing Ailerons =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreanschi, Andreea

    In order to answer the problem of 'how to reduce the aerospace industry's environment footprint?' new morphing technologies were developed. These technologies were aimed at reducing the aircraft's fuel consumption through reduction of the wing drag. The morphing concept used in the present research consists of replacing the conventional aluminium upper surface of the wing with a flexible composite skin for morphing abilities. For the ATR-42 'Morphing wing' project, the wing models were manufactured entirely from composite materials and the morphing region was optimized for flexibility. In this project two rigid wing models and an active morphing wing model were designed, manufactured and wind tunnel tested. For the CRIAQ MDO 505 project, a full scale wing-tip equipped with two types of ailerons, conventional and morphing, was designed, optimized, manufactured, bench and wind tunnel tested. The morphing concept was applied on a real wing internal structure and incorporated aerodynamic, structural and control constraints specific to a multidisciplinary approach. Numerical optimization, aerodynamic analysis and experimental validation were performed for both the CRIAQ MDO 505 full scale wing-tip demonstrator and the ATR-42 reduced scale wing models. In order to improve the aerodynamic performances of the ATR-42 and CRIAQ MDO 505 wing airfoils, three global optimization algorithms were developed, tested and compared. The three algorithms were: the genetic algorithm, the artificial bee colony and the gradient descent. The algorithms were coupled with the two-dimensional aerodynamic solver XFoil. XFoil is known for its rapid convergence, robustness and use of the semi-empirical e n method for determining the position of the flow transition from laminar to turbulent. Based on the performance comparison between the algorithms, the genetic algorithm was chosen for the optimization of the ATR-42 and CRIAQ MDO 505 wing airfoils. The optimization algorithm was improved during

  13. The capture of submicron particles by collector plates - Wind-tunnel investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    The deposition of submicron particles on collector plates parallel to the flow was studied experimentally in a wind-tunnel. The validity of a theoretical model based on brownian diffusion was investigated and its Inadequacies tested. The aerosol sample consisted of uranine particles (mean geometrical radius: about 0. 1 μm). The average flow speeds varied from 1 to 10 m/s and the length of the collector plates between 1 and 10 cm. Results showed that capture was mainly due to diffusion and was in good agreement with the theoretical model; however a noticeable deposit of particles on the front part of the collector edge was observed. Sedimentation was insignificant in almost all the cases. (author) [fr

  14. Wind Tunnel Aero-Heating and Material Destruction Tests for Improved Debris Re-Entry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenwallner, G.; Lips, T.; Alwes, D.

    2009-03-01

    During the S/C re-entry destruction fragments of irregular geometry are released. One finds spheres, boxes and cylinders, which may be hollow and which are flying in tumbling motion. The experimental database on such bodies is limited. Therefore heat transfer test have been conducted in the hypersonic vacuum wind tunnel V2G of DLR Göttingen. With a special model support also rotating models could be tested.Another study objective was the thermal destruction of selected materials and CFRP components under simulated re-entry heat loads. In use are solid CFRP structures, honeycombs with CFRP facesheets, or thin walled titanium tanks with external CFRP reinforcements. The destruction of multilayer structures may be completely different to solid thick CFRP. Therefore samples of 12 CFRP and CFRP honeycombs have been tested in the LBK 2 arc jet facility of DLR.

  15. Preliminary studies on the Marcoule site, using a wind-tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassany, J.Ph.; Salaun-Penquer, G.

    1961-01-01

    The tests were carried out in the 3.30 x 2.20 subsonic elliptical wind-tunnel of the Marseille Institute of fluid mechanics, on a 1/1000 scale model measuring 3 m x 3 m. The aerodynamic field developing above the site, made visible by ammonium, hydro-chlorate fumes, and the residues were observed and filmed by means of a synchronised cine-camera with stroboscopic lighting for 4 wind directions. The fall-out from the various waste products was obtained from a spraying of lead acetate solution on the model and hydrogen sulphide emissions. The zones of maximum pollution can be determined from a study of the film taken during the blackening of the spots. (author) [fr

  16. Drag coefficients of lattice masts from full-scale wind-tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Støttrup-Andersen, Ulrik; Johnsen, Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the drag coefficients obtained from a series of full-scale section model wind-tunnel tests of several lattice mast configurations are presented and compared to those provided in Eurocode 3 and ESDU. The drag coefficients provided in Eurocode are conservative interpretations of 1......:5 scale section model tests performed at the National Physics Laboratory and the National Maritime Institute in the UK in the 1970´s. ESDU provides velocity-dependent drag coefficients equivalent to those obtained from the same series of tests. In all cases, the mast legs and diagonals are comprised...... primarily of circular hollow sections, putting into question the validity of the scaled tests from the 70’s. The results of the full-scale tests show that the drag coefficients of the masts have lower values than those obtained from the scaled tests for turbulent wind and higher for winds with low...

  17. The effect of canard leading edge sweep and dihedral angle on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristic of a close-coupled canard-wing configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model, with canard and wing planforms typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at a Mach number of 0.30. The test was conducted in order to determine the effects of canard sweep and canard dihedral on canard-wing interference at high angles of attack. In general, the effect of canard sweep on lift is small up to an angle of attack of 16 deg. However, for angles of attack greater than 16 deg, an increase in the canard sweep results in an increase in lift developed by the canard when the canard is above or in the wing chord plane. This increased lift results in a lift increase for the total configuration for the canard above the wing chord plane. For the canard in the wing chord plane, the increased canard lift is partially lost by increased interference on the wing.

  18. An evaluation of iced bridge hanger vibrations through wind tunnel testing and quasi-steady theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstrup, Henrik; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, A.

    2012-01-01

    roughness is also examined. The static force coefficients are used to predict parameter regions where aerodynamic instability of the iced bridge hanger might be expected to occur, through use of an adapted theoretical 3- DOF quasi-steady galloping instability model, which accounts for sectional axial......Bridge hanger vibrations have been reported under icy conditions. In this paper, the results from a series of static and dynamic wind tunnel tests on a circular cylinder representing a bridge hanger with simulated thin ice accretions are presented. The experiments focus on ice accretions produced...... for wind perpendicular to the cylinder at velocities below 30 m/s and for temperatures between -5C and -1C. Aerodynamic drag, lift and moment coefficients are obtained from the static tests, whilst mean and fluctuating responses are obtained from the dynamic tests. The influence of varying surface...

  19. Further tests validating the adaptation process of the adaptive walls wind tunnel in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppardi, G.

    The present work reports some experimental results from the adaptive walls wind tunnel in Naples and must be considered a logical step forward in validating the wall adaptation process of this tunnel. Two sets of new tests were made for evaluating the effects of wall adaptation: one on the location of laminar-turbulent transition and turbulent separation points, the other one on the measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments, taken by a strain gage balance. Up to now, aerodynamic forces and moments were evaluated by the integration of pressure distributions on the model surface. All results agree with the theory, and measurement of aerodynamic forces has also been partially validated. Using a balance proved to be a technical shortcoming in the testing device.

  20. Design and Execution of the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Large-Article Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    The testing of 3- and 6-meter diameter Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) test articles was completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40 ft x 80 ft Wind Tunnel test section. Both models were stacked tori, constructed as 60 degree half-angle sphere cones. The 3-meter HIAD was tested in two configurations. The first 3-meter configuration utilized an instrumented flexible aerodynamic skin covering the inflatable aeroshell surface, while the second configuration employed a flight-like flexible thermal protection system. The 6-meter HIAD was tested in two structural configurations (with and without an aft-mounted stiffening torus near the shoulder), both utilizing an instrumented aerodynamic skin.

  1. Development of an Active Twist Rotor for Wind: Tunnel Testing (NLPN97-310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon; Hagood, Nesbitt W., IV

    1998-01-01

    The development of the Active Twist Rotor prototype blade for hub vibration and noise reduction studies is presented in this report. Details of the modeling, design, and manufacturing are explored. The rotor blade is integrally twisted by direct strain actuation. This is accomplished by distributing embedded piezoelectric fiber composites along the span of the blade. The development of the analysis framework for this type of active blade is presented. The requirements for the prototype blade, along with the final design results are also presented. A detail discussion on the manufacturing aspects of the prototype blade is described. Experimental structural characteristics of the prototype blade compare well with design goals, and preliminary bench actuation tests show lower performance than originally predicted. Electrical difficulties with the actuators are also discussed. The presented prototype blade is leading to a complete fully articulated four-blade active twist rotor system for future wind tunnel tests.

  2. Offshore and onshore wind turbine wake meandering studied in an ABL wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Emre; Buckingham, Sophia; Glabeke, Gertjan

    2015-01-01

    Scaled wind turbine models have been installed in the VKI L1-B atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at offshore and onshore conditions. Time-resolved measurements were carried out with three component hot wire anemometry and stereo-PIV in the middle vertical plane of the wake up to eleven turbine...... spectrum, present in the entire wake mainly for offshore inflow condition. It was found that the Strouhal number, based on the rotor diameter and the wind velocity at hub height, was in the order of 0.25. Below the meandering frequency, turbulence power spectrum decreased, whereas above it increased. Wake...... diameter downstream. The results show an earlier wake recovery for the onshore case. The effect of inflow conditions and the wind turbine’s working conditions on wake meandering was investigated. Wake meandering was detected by hot wire anemometry through a low frequency peak in the turbulent power...

  3. Comparisons between LES and wind tunnel hot-wire measurements of a NACA 0015 airfoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    is constructed in a wind tunnel similar as the condition where the experiments were carried out. The goal of this study is to validate the LES model against detailed measurements. The simulations are performed with in-house EllipSys3D code on high performance computers. Numerical study are focused...... on the stability and accuracy of the LES simulations on various mesh configurations. The spanwise grid spacing was found important to produce correct flow disturbance along the airfoil span, which further affects the turbulent energy distribution.......Large-eddy simulations (LES) are carried out for flow over a NACA 0015 airfoil at AoA = 8o and chord based Reynolds number of 1.71106. To accurately simulate the complex flow at the suction side of the airfoil, a reasonably large number of grid points are required. The computational mesh...

  4. A computer-controlled, on-board data acquisition system for wind-tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, H. J.; Cambra, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    A computer-controlled data acquisition system has been developed for the 40x80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. The system, consisting of several small onboard units installed in the model and a data-managing, data-displaying ground station, is capable of sampling up to 256 channels of raw data at a total sample rate of 128,000 samples/sec. Complete signal conditioning is contained within the on-board units. The sampling sequence and channel gain selection is completely random and under total control of the ground station. Outputs include a bar-graph display, digital-to-analog converters, and digital interface to the tunnel's central computer, an SEL 840MP. The system can be run stand-alone or under the control of the SEL 840MP.

  5. Capacities and Limitations of Wind Tunnel Physical Experiments on Motion and Dispersion of Different Density Gas Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavila, Ondřej; Blejchař, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    The article focuses on the analysis of the possibilities to model motion and dispersion of plumes of different density gas pollutants in lowspeed wind tunnels based on the application of physical similarity criteria, in this case the Froude number. The analysis of the physical nature of the modeled process by the Froude number is focused on the influence of air flow velocity, gas pollutant density and model scale. This gives an idea of limitations for this type of physical experiments in relation to the modeled real phenomena. The resulting statements and logical links are exemplified by a CFD numerical simulation of a given task calculated in ANSYS Fluent software.

  6. Simulation of flow over double-element airfoil and wind tunnel test for use in vertical axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Prasad; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, small vertical axis wind turbines are receiving more attention due to their suitability in micro-electricity generation. There are few vertical axis wind turbine designs with good power curve. However, the efficiency of power extraction has not been improved. Therefore, an attempt has...... been made to utilize high lift technology for vertical axis wind turbines in order to improve power efficiency. High lift is obtained by double-element airfoil mainly used in aeroplane wing design. In this current work a low Reynolds number airfoil is selected to design a double-element airfoil blade...... for use in vertical axis wind turbine to improve the power efficiency. Double-element airfoil blade design consists of a main airfoil and a slat airfoil. Orientation of slat airfoil is a parameter of investigation in this paper and air flow simulation over double-element airfoil. With primary wind tunnel...

  7. Calculated Low-Speed Steady and Time-Dependent Aerodynamic Derivatives for Several Different Wings Using a Discrete Vortex Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calculated numerical values for some aerodynamic terms and stability Derivatives for several different wings in unseparated inviscid incompressible flow were made using a discrete vortex method involving a limited number of horseshoe vortices. Both longitudinal and lateral-directional derivatives were calculated for steady conditions as well as for sinusoidal oscillatory motions. Variables included the number of vortices used and the rotation axis/moment center chordwise location. Frequencies considered were limited to the range of interest to vehicle dynamic stability (kb <.24 ). Comparisons of some calculated numerical results with experimental wind-tunnel measurements were in reasonable agreement in the low angle-of-attack range considering the differences existing between the mathematical representation and experimental wind-tunnel models tested. Of particular interest was the presence of induced drag for the oscillatory condition.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation (CFD and Experimental Study on Wing-external Store Aerodynamic Interference of a Subsonic Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tholudin Mat Lazim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of an external store on a subsonic fighter aircraft. Generally most modern fighter aircrafts are designed with an external store installation. In this study, a subsonic fighter aircraft model has been manufactured using a computer numerical control machine for the purpose of studying the effect of the aerodynamic interference of the external store on the flow around the aircraft wing. A computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation was also carried out on the same configuration. Both the CFD and the wind tunnel testing were carried out at a Reynolds number 1.86×105 to ensure that the aerodynamic characteristic can certify that the aircraft will not be face any difficulties in its stability and controllability. Both the experiments and the simulation were carried out at the same Reynolds number in order to verify each other. In the CFD simulation, a commercial CFD code was used to simulate the interference and aerodynamic characteristics of the model. Subsequently, the model together with an external store was tested in a low speed wind tunnel with a test section sized 0.45 m×0.45 m. Measured and computed results for the two-dimensional pressure distribution were satisfactorily comparable. There is only a 19% deviation between pressure distribution measured in wind tunnel testing and the result predicted by the CFD. The result shows that the effect of the external storage is only significant on the lower surface of the wing and almost negligible on the upper surface of the wing. Aerodynamic interference due to the external store was most evident on the lower surface of the wing and almost negligible on the upper surface at a low angle of attack. In addition, the area of influence on the wing surface by the store interference increased as the airspeed increased.

  9. Analysis of NASA Common Research Model Dynamic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishna, S.; Acheson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent NASA Common Research Model (CRM) tests at the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) and Ames 11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot TWT) have generated an experimental database for CFD code validation. The database consists of force and moment, surface pressures and wideband wing-root dynamic strain/wing Kulite data from continuous sweep pitch polars. The dynamic data sets, acquired at 12,800 Hz sampling rate, are analyzed in this study to evaluate CRM wing buffet onset and potential CRM wing flow separation.

  10. Wind tunnel productivity status and improvement activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Lawrence E.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last three years, a major effort has been underway to re-engineering the way wind tunnel testing is accomplished at the NASA Langley Research Center. This effort began with the reorganization of the LaRC and the consolidation of the management of the wind tunnels in the Aerodynamics Division under one operations branch. This paper provides an overview of the re-engineering activities and gives the status of the improvements in the wind tunnel productivity and customer satisfaction that have resulted from the new ways of working.

  11. Check-Standard Testing Across Multiple Transonic Wind Tunnels with the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an analysis of wind tunnel data acquired in support of the Facility Analysis Verification & Operational Reliability (FAVOR) project. The analysis uses methods referred to collectively at Langley Research Center as the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE). These methods quantify the total variance in a sample of wind tunnel data and partition it into explained and unexplained components. The unexplained component is further partitioned in random and systematic components. This analysis was performed on data acquired in similar wind tunnel tests executed in four different U.S. transonic facilities. The measurement environment of each facility was quantified and compared.

  12. Understanding and Exploiting Wind Tunnels with Porous Flexible Walls for Aerodynamic Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic behavior of wind tunnels with porous, flexible walls formed from tensioned Kevlar has been characterized and new measurement techniques in such wind tunnels explored. The objective is to bring the aerodynamic capabilities of so-called Kevlar-wall test sections in-line with those of traditional solid-wall test sections. The primary facility used for this purpose is the 1.85-m by 1.85-m Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech, and supporting data is provided by the 2-m by 2-m L...

  13. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kaiser Calautit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014 [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  14. Exploratory study of the effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the stall/spin behavior of a light general aviation airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Configurations with full-span and segmented leading-edge flaps and full-span and segmented leading-edge droop were tested. Studies were conducted with wind-tunnel models, with an outdoor radio-controlled model, and with a full-scale airplane. Results show that wing-leading-edge modifications can produce large effects on stall/spin characteristics, particularly on spin resistance. One outboard wing-leading-edge modification tested significantly improved lateral stability at stall, spin resistance, and developed spin characteristics.

  15. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 1: Background and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the space shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of space shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the space shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers evolution of space shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  16. Influence of increased static pressure in MHD-channel of hypervelocity wind tunnel on its characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfyorov, V.I.; Rudakova, A.P.; Rukavets, V.P.; Shcherbakov, G.I. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    One of the main weaknesses of available MHD gas acceleration wind tunnels which restricts their application for simulating vehicle re-entry flights and reproducing scramjet combustion chamber conditions is a relatively low static pressure in the channel (P{approximately}0.1 to 0.2 Atm). The possibility of increasing this pressure and the influence of the increased pressure on the MHD-accelerator characteristics are the subject of the present paper. It is shown that the main challenge is the necessity of increasing the total Lorentz force proportionally to the channel gas density at electrode current density not resulting in heat and electrical breakdown and the development of the side walls and interelectrode insulators designed for higher heat fluxes, q {approximately} 5 to 10 kw/cm{sup 2}. Some possible wall design versions are suggested. The influence of increased pressure is investigated using the Faraday - type MED channel at static pressures in the MHD channel from 0.2 to 1.0 Atm and total accelerating current I = 300 to 1,100 Amps when B=2.5T. Forty five electrodes are used in the MHD channel at maximum current density of 50 A/cm{sup 2}. The channel flow is calculated by applying the model of a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the increased pressure on electrodynamic (accelerator electrode voltages and currents, Hall voltage and current) and gasdynamic (distributions of static pressure, temperature, velocity, Mach numbers, etc., along the channel length) characteristics is evaluated. Some recommendations on the development of MHD channels for hypersonic wind tunnels designed for high pressure are suggested.

  17. Análisis in vitro de la influencia sobre el campo de flujo de dos modelos de válvulas cardiacas mecánicas bivalvas mediante un túnel de viento Analysis in vitro of the influence of two mechanical bivalve models of heart valves by a wind tunnel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bustamante O

    2011-04-01

    área y aumento de velocidad. CONCLUSIONES: el método implementado aprovecha las características fluidodinámicas del aire en un banco de pruebas: túnel de viento, para hacer la evaluación in vitro de la influencia sobre el campo de flujo y fuerzas cortantes de diferentes modelos de válvulas cardiacas mecánicas, obteniendo mayor sensibilidad que otras alternativas disponibles. El sistema se usó para evaluar dos tipos de prótesis, mostrando que las valvas curvas tienden a presentar una menor disrupción del flujo que las valvas planas. La implementación del sistema presentado como un nuevo banco de pruebas, permite extraer conclusiones que sirven como base en el diseño de las prótesis, buscando ofrecer menor trastorno hemodinámico.INTRODUCTION: prosthetic heart valves are evaluated using different techniques that involve in vitro studies and computational methods in addition to conventional clinical studies. Functional data to evaluate reflect the need for highly sensitive methods to determine its operating conditions that may emulate specific hemodynamic situations. With this objective, we designed an alternative method for better understanding the functionality of these models, analyzing in vitro fluid dynamic behavior of two models of mechanical heart valves using a wind tunnel. METHODS: we designed and developed a wind tunnel providing instrumental conditions that permit the evaluation of mechanical valves in different fluid dynamic conditions: subsonic tunnel of circular section (standard ANSI/AMCA_210-99 and ANSI/ASHRAE_51-99. Using the method of dynamic similarity, the experiment was characterized using typical values of flow rates and blood properties in a healthy adult. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: we evaluated two SJM® valve models, one with flat leaflet, and a variant of convex valves with air flows equivalent to blood flow rates of 1.5, 6.0 and 9.3 L/min. The convex valve prosthesis has a flow divided in three equivalent fields, in contrast to the

  18. Blended-Wing-Body Transonic Aerodynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Patel, Dharmendra

    2009-01-01

    The Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) concept has shown substantial performance benefits over conventional aircraft configuration with part of the benefit being derived from the absence of a conventional empennage arrangement. The configuration instead relies upon a bank of trailing edge devices to provide control authority and augment stability. To determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft, several wind tunnel tests were conducted with a 2% model of Boeing's BWB-450-1L configuration. The tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility and the Arnold Engineering Development Center s 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Characteristics of the configuration and the effectiveness of the elevons, drag rudders and winglet rudders were measured at various angles of attack, yaw angles, and Mach numbers (subsonic to transonic speeds). The data from these tests will be used to develop a high fidelity simulation model for flight dynamics analysis and also serve as a reference for CFD comparisons. This paper provides an overview of the wind tunnel tests and examines the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, pitch-pause versus continuous sweep data acquisition and compares the data from the two wind tunnels.

  19. Demonstration of an in situ morphing hyperelliptical cambered span wing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-01-01

    Research on efficient shore bird morphology inspired the hyperelliptical cambered span (HECS) wing, a crescent-shaped, aft-swept wing with vertically oriented wingtips. The wing reduces vorticity-induced circulation loss and outperforms an elliptical baseline when planar. Designed initially as a rigid wing, the HECS wing makes use of morphing to transition from a planar to a furled configuration, similar to that of a continuously curved winglet, in flight. A morphing wing concept mechanism is presented, employing shape memory alloy actuators to create a discretized curvature approximation. The aerodynamics for continuous wing shapes is validated quasi-statically through wind tunnel testing, showing enhanced planar HECS wing lift-to-drag performance over an elliptical wing, with the furled HECS wing showing minimal enhancements beyond this point. Wind tunnel tests of the active morphing wing prove the mechanism capable of overcoming realistic loading, while further testing may be required to establish aerodynamic merits of the HECS wing morphing maneuver

  20. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of an NACA 23012 Airfoil with Various Arrangements of Slotted Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris , Thomas A

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and in the variable-density wind tunnel of the NACA 23012 airfoil with various slotted-flap arrangements. The purpose of the investigation in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel was to determine the airfoil section aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap shape, slot shape, and flap location. The flap position for maximum lift; polars for arrangements favorable for take-off and climb; and complete lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics for selected optimum arrangements were determined. The best arrangements were tested in the variable-density tunnel at an effective Reynolds number of 8,000,000. In addition, data from both wind tunnels are included for plain, split, external-airfoil, and Fowler flaps for purposes of comparison.

  1. Transonic Wind Tunnel Tests on Tonic Mk 5-2: Exercise Yakkata Operational Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Link, Yoel

    2000-01-01

    ... 0.53 m Transonic Wind Tunnel. This detailed investigation showed that the modifications made in converting Tonic Mk 5-1 to Tonic Mk 5-2 did not have any significant adverse effect on the aerodynamic characteristics...

  2. Role of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Wind Tunnels in Aeronautics R and D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Murjeeb R.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the status and future projections for the question of supplantation of wind tunnels by computation in design and to intuit the potential impact of computation approaches on wind-tunnel utilization all with an eye toward reducing the infrastructure cost at aeronautics R&D centers. Wind tunnels have been closing for myriad reasons, and such closings have reduced infrastructure costs. Further cost reductions are desired, and the work herein attempts to project which wind-tunnel capabilities can be replaced in the future and, if possible, the timing of such. If the possibility exists to project when a facility could be closed, then maintenance and other associated costs could be rescheduled accordingly (i.e., before the fact) to obtain an even greater infrastructure cost reduction.

  3. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  4. Analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliebe, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study of the effects of wind tunnel turbulence on turbofan rotor noise was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the NASA Ames 40 by 80-foot wind tunnel in simulating flight levels of fan noise. A previously developed theory for predicting rotor/turbulence interaction noise, refined and extended to include first-order effects of inlet turbulence anisotropy, was employed to carry out a parametric study of the effects of fan size, blade number, and operating line for outdoor test stand, NASA Ames wind tunnel, and flight inlet turbulence conditions. A major result of this study is that although wind tunnel rotor/turbulence noise levels are not as low as flight levels, they are substantially lower than the outdoor test stand levels and do not mask other sources of fan noise.

  5. Phased array technique for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed wind tunnel beamforming for aeroacoustics has become more and more prevalent in recent years. Still, there are major drawbacks as current microphone arrays...

  6. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  7. Phased array technique for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed wind tunnel beamforming for aeroacoustics has become more and more prevalent in recent years. Still, there are major drawbacks as current microphone arrays...

  8. A Novel Surface Thermometry Approach for use in Aerothermodynamic Wind Tunnel Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project is aimed at developing a novel thermometry technology with upconverting phosphors for temperature measurement in NASA's high-enthalpy wind tunnels....

  9. Wind Tunnel Simulations of the Mock Urban Setting Test - Experimental Procedures and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gailis, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    ... of the data analysis techniques is given. Emphasis is placed on the scaling arguments used to compare data between a wind tunnel and full-scale study, and on methods of uncertainty analysis to provide a rigorous underpinning to the dataset. The report serves as a complete documentation for users of the MUST wind tunnel simulation dataset, which can be obtained by contacting the author.

  10. Airloads Correlation of the UH-60A Rotor inside the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    I-Chung Chang; Thomas R. Norman; Ethan A. Romander

    2014-01-01

    The presented research validates the capability of a loosely coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and comprehensive rotorcraft analysis (CRA) code to calculate the flowfield around a rotor and test stand mounted inside a wind tunnel. The CFD/CRA predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor inside the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center are compared with the latest measured airloads and performance data. The stud...

  11. Design and preliminary test results at Mach 5 of an axisymmetric slotted sound shield. [for supersonic wind tunnels (noise reduction in wind tunnel nozzles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Spokowski, A. J.; Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The basic theory and sound attenuation mechanisms, the design procedures, and preliminary experimental results are presented for a small axisymmetric sound shield for supersonic wind tunnels. The shield consists of an array of small diameter rods aligned nearly parallel to the entrance flow with small gaps between the rods for boundary layer suction. Results show that at the lowest test Reynolds number (based on rod diameter) of 52,000 the noise shield reduced the test section noise by about 60 percent ( or 8 db attenuation) but no attenuation was measured for the higher range of test reynolds numbers from 73,000 to 190,000. These results are below expectations based on data reported elsewhere on a flat sound shield model. The smaller attenuation from the present tests is attributed to insufficient suction at the gaps to prevent feedback of vacuum manifold noise into the shielded test flow and to insufficient suction to prevent transition of the rod boundary layers to turbulent flow at the higher Reynolds numbers. Schlieren photographs of the flow are shown.

  12. Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.

  13. Low-Speed Dynamic Wind Tunnel Test Analysis of a Generic 53 Degree Swept UCAV Configuration With Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Huber, Kerstin C.; Rohlf, Detlef; Loser, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several static and dynamic forced-motion wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a generic unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) configuration with a 53deg swept leading edge. These tests are part of an international research effort to assess and advance the state-of-art of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to predict the static and dynamic stability and control characteristics for this type of configuration. This paper describes the dynamic forced motion data collected from two different models of this UCAV configuration as well as analysis of the control surface deflections on the dynamic forces and moments.

  14. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A

    2011-12-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s⁻¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10⁵ or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  15. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A; Tanaka, Y

    2011-01-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s −1 , operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10 5 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  16. A Neural Network Controller New Methodology for the ATR-42 Morphing Wing Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ben MOSBAH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphing wing model is used to improve aircraft performance. To obtain the desired airfoils, electrical actuators are used, which are installed inside of the wing to morph its upper surface in order to obtain its desired shape. In order to achieve this objective, a robust position controller is needed. In this research, a design and test validation of a controller based on neural networks is presented. This controller was composed by a position controller and a current controller to manage the current consumed by the electrical actuators to obtain its desired displacement. The model was tested and validated using simulation and experimental tests. The results obtained with the proposed controller were compared to the results given by the PID controller. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Price-Païdoussis Wind Tunnel at the LARCASE laboratory in order to calculate the pressure coefficient distribution on an ATR-42 morphing wing model for different flow conditions. The pressure coefficients obtained experimentally were compared with their numerical values given by XFoil software.

  17. Reflection-plane tests of spoilers on an advanced technology wing with a large Fowler flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Volk, C. G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of spoilers applied to a finite-span wing which utilizes the GA(W)-1 airfoil section and a 30% chord full-span Fowler flap. A series of spoiler cross sectioned shapes were tested utilizing a reflection-plane model. Five-component force characteristics and hinge moment measurements were obtained. Results confirm earlier two-dimensional tests which showed that spoilers could provide large lift increments at any flap setting, and that spoiler control reversal tendencies could be eliminated by providing a vent path from lower surface to upper surface. Performance penalties due to spoiler leakage airflow were measured.

  18. Propulsion and airframe aerodynamic interactions of supersonic V/STOL configurations. Volume 2: Wind tunnel test force and moment data report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilz, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel model of a supersonic V/STOL fighter configuration has been tested to measure the aerodynamic interaction effects which can result from geometrically close-coupled propulsion system/airframe components. The approach was to configure the model to represent two different test techniques. One was a conventional test technique composed of two test modes. In the Flow-Through mode, absolute configuration aerodynamics are measured, including inlet/airframe interactions. In the Jet-Effects mode, incremental nozzle/airframe interactions are measured. The other test technique is a propulsion simulator approach, where a sub-scale, externally powered engine is mounted in the model. This allows proper measurement of inlet/airframe and nozzle/airframe interactions simultaneously. This is Volume 2 of 2: Wind Tunnel Test Force and Moment Data Report.

  19. Dynamic response of NASA Rotor Test Apparatus and Sikorsky S-76 hub mounted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Hoque, Muhammed S.

    1994-01-01

    A shake test was conducted in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center, using the NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) and the Sikorsky S-76 rotor hub. The primary objective of this shake test was to determine the modal properties of the RTA, the S-76 rotor hub, and the model support system installed in the wind tunnel. Random excitation was applied at the rotor hub, and vibration responses were measured using accelerometers mounted at various critical locations on the model and the model support system. Transfer functions were computed using the load cell data and the accelerometer responses. The transfer function data were used to compute the system modal parameters with the aid of modal analysis software.

  20. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise (XMIN) on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Andrew J.; Reed, Darren K.; Nance, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of flight vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is often studied via large scale wind tunnel testing. Boundary layer noise is measured by miniature pressure transducers installed in a model. Noise levels (2-5 dB ref. 20 µPa) can be induced when transducer is mounted out of flush with model outer surface. This effect must be minimized to accurately determine aerodynamically induced acoustic environments.

  1. Paleozoic Nymphal Wing Pads Support Dual Model of Insect Wing Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Nel, André; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Krzemińska, Ewa; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Engel, Michael S

    2017-01-23

    The appearance of wings in insects, early in their evolution [1], has been one of the more critical innovations contributing to their extraordinary diversity. Despite the conspicuousness and importance of wings, the origin of these structures has been difficult to resolve and represented one of the "abominable mysteries" in evolutionary biology [2]. More than a century of debate has boiled the matter down to two competing alternatives-one of wings representing an extension of the thoracic notum, the other stating that they are appendicular derivations from the lateral body wall. Recently, a dual model has been supported by genomic and developmental data [3-6], representing an amalgamation of elements from both the notal and pleural hypotheses. Here, we reveal crucial information from the wing pad joints of Carboniferous palaeodictyopteran insect nymphs using classical and high-tech techniques. These nymphs had three pairs of wing pads that were medially articulated to the thorax but also broadly contiguous with the notum anteriorly and posteriorly (details unobservable in modern insects), supporting their overall origin from the thoracic notum as well as the expected medial, pleural series of axillary sclerites. Our study provides support for the formation of the insect wing from the thoracic notum as well as the already known pleural elements of the arthropodan leg. These results support the unique, dual model for insect wing origins and the convergent reduction of notal fusion in more derived clades, presumably due to wing rotation during development, and they help to bring resolution to this long-standing debate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wind-tunnel simulation of lower atmosphere layers. Application to prediction of the environmental impact of an industrial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, Eric.

    1980-01-01

    Physical simulation of lower atmosphere layers in a wind tunnel is a particularly useful method for understanding the basic effects involved and for studying individual sites in areas with complex relief features. The study described in this report includes four main parts, in which conditions for application of physical model simulation data to atmospheric flows are determined from an analysis of scaling requirements and results of an experimental study of turbulent boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers, followed by an investigation of gas effluent dispersion on a model of a nuclear power plant site. General features of the wind tunnel, methods of measurement and the test data processing programs used are described. By provision of suitable boundary roughness and injection of air at the test section inlet, thick boundary layers with similar internal characteristics to those of the ground-level atmospheric layer are obtained. In particular, air injection has the effect of increasing thickness of the constant-shear zone. A 1/700 scale model of the Paluel site was installed in this turbulent boundary layer to investigate the effect of local cliffs on dispersion of radioactive effluent from chimneys of varying height. The test data represent the mean and turbulent air flow patterns on the site and effluent concentration distribution in the area surrounding the power plant [fr

  3. What scaling means in wind engineering: Complementary role of the reduced scale approach in a BLWT and the full scale testing in a large climatic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Wind engineering problems are commonly studied by wind tunnel experiments at a reduced scale. This introduces several limitations and calls for a careful planning of the tests and the interpretation of the experimental results. The talk first revisits the similitude laws and discusses how they are actually applied in wind engineering. It will also remind readers why different scaling laws govern in different wind engineering problems. Secondly, the paper focuses on the ways to simplify a detailed structure (bridge, building, platform) when fabricating the downscaled models for the tests. This will be illustrated by several examples from recent engineering projects. Finally, under the most severe weather conditions, manmade structures and equipment should remain operational. What “recreating the climate” means and aims to achieve will be illustrated through common practice in climatic wind tunnel modelling.

  4. Laser transit anemometer measurements on a slender cone in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Covell, Peter F.; Nichols, Cecil E., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A laser transit anemometer (LTA) system was used to probe the boundary layer on a slender (5 degree half angle) cone model in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The anemometer system utilized a pair of laser beams with a diameter of 40 micrometers spaced 1230 micrometers apart to measure the transit times of ensembles of seeding particles using a cross-correlation technique. From these measurements, boundary layer profiles around the model were constructed and compared with CFD calculations. The measured boundary layer profiles representing the boundary layer velocity normalized to the edge velocity as a function of height above the model surface were collected with the model at zero angle of attack for four different flow conditions, and were collected in a vertical plane that bisected the model's longitudinal center line at a location 635 mm from the tip of the forebody cone. The results indicate an excellent ability of the LTA system to make velocity measurements deep into the boundary layer. However, because of disturbances in the flow field caused by onboard seeding, premature transition occurred implying that upstream seeding is mandatory if model flow field integrity is to be maintained. A description and results of the flow field surveys are presented.

  5. Pioneering Russian wind tunnels and first experimental investigations, 1871-1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushin, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    A review of foreign and Russian sources is given mentioning the pioneering wind tunnels built in Russia at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The first wind tunnel in Russia was constructed by V.A. Pashkevich at the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg in 1871. In total from 1871 through 1915, 18 wind tunnels were constructed in Russia: 11 in Moscow, 5 in St. Petersburg and 2 in Kaluga. An overview of the pioneering Russian wind tunnels built by V.A. Pashkevich, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, prof. N.E. Zhukovsky, D.P. Ryabushinsky and prof. K.P. Boklevsky is given. Schemes, photographs, formulas, description of the research and test results taken from the original papers published by the wind tunnel designers are given. Photographs from the N.E. Zhukovsky Scientific and Memorial Museum and the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used in the article. Methods of flow visualization and results of their application are presented. The Russian scientists and researchers' contribution to the development of techniques and methods of aerodynamic experiment is shown, including one of the most important aspects - the wall interference problem.

  6. Determination of aerodynamic damping and force coefficients of filleted twin cables in dry conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattiello, E.; Eriksen, M. B.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Technology Climatic Wind Tunnel facility. The measured aerodynamic damping of the twin-cable arrangement in dry conditions was compared to the values obtained from full-scale monitoring and from an analytical model using static force coefficients. The comparison revealed broad agreement in the investigated...... Re range, as did the force coefficients obtained from dynamic and static tests.......Moderate amplitude vibrations continue to be reported on the Øresund Bridge cables, although fitted with fillets and dampers. To further investigate the aerodynamics of the bridge’s twin-cable arrangement, 1:2.3 scale passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests of the cables were performed at the DTU/FORCE...

  7. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Longitudinal Static and Oscillatory Data of the F-16XL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.; Curry, Timothy J.; Brandon, Jay M.

    1997-01-01

    Static and oscillatory wind tunnel data are presented for a 10-percent-scale model of an F-16XL aircraft. Static data include the effect of angle of attack, sideslip angle, and control surface deflections on aerodynamic coefficients. Dynamic data from small-amplitude oscillatory tests are presented at nominal values of angle of attack between 20 and 60 degrees. Model oscillations were performed at five frequencies from 0.6 to 2.9 Hz and one amplitude of 5 degrees. A simple harmonic analysis of the oscillatory data provided Fourier coefficients associated with the in-phase and out-of-phase components of the aerodynamic coefficients. A strong dependence of the oscillatory data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady terms in the form of indicial functions. Two models expressing the variation of the in-phase and out-of-phase components with angle of attack and frequency were proposed and their parameters estimated from measured data.

  8. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation of a 2D Circulation Control Wind Tunnel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jones, Greg; Lin, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations are performed using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver for a circulation control airfoil. 2D and 3D simulation results are compared to a circulation control wind tunnel test conducted at the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART). The RANS simulations are compared to a low blowing case with a jet momentum coefficient, C(sub u), of 0:047 and a higher blowing case of 0.115. Three dimensional simulations of the model and tunnel walls show wall effects on the lift and airfoil surface pressures. These wall effects include a 4% decrease of the midspan sectional lift for the C(sub u) 0.115 blowing condition. Simulations comparing the performance of the Spalart Allmaras (SA) and Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence models are also made, showing the SST model compares best to the experimental data. A Rotational/Curvature Correction (RCC) to the turbulence model is also evaluated demonstrating an improvement in the CFD predictions.

  9. Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom in the 1-foot by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan; Winski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The desire to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed by the aircraft. A study has been performed focused on reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Testing was completed in the 1-foot by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study the effects of an exhaust nozzle plume and shock wave interaction. The plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation of a nozzle plume passing through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedgeshaped shock generator. This test entry was the first of two phases to collect schlieren images and off-body static pressure profiles. Three wedge configurations were tested consisting of strut-mounted wedges of 2.5- degrees and 5-degrees. Three propulsion configurations were tested simulating the propulsion pod and aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept, which also provided a trailing edge shock and plume interaction. Findings include how the interaction of the jet plume caused a thickening of the shock generated by the wedge (or aft deck) and demonstrate how the shock location moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio.

  10. An ensemble Kalman filter for atmospheric data assimilation: Application to wind tunnel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. Q.; Leung, J. K. C.; Lee, B. Y.

    2010-05-01

    In the previous work ( Zheng et al., 2007, 2009), a data assimilation method, based on ensemble Kalman filter, has been applied to a Monte Carlo Dispersion Model (MCDM). The results were encouraging when the method was tested by the twin experiment and a short-range field experiment. In this technical note, the measured data collected in a wind tunnel experiment have been assimilated into the Monte Carlo dispersion model. The uncertain parameters in the dispersion model, including source term, release height, turbulence intensity and wind direction have been considered. The 3D parameters, i.e. the turbulence intensity and wind direction, have been perturbed by 3D random fields. In order to find the factors which may influence the assimilation results, eight tests with different specifications were carried out. Two strategies of constructing the 3D perturbation field of wind direction were proposed, and the result shows that the two level strategy performs better than the one level strategy. It is also found that proper standard deviation and the correlation radius of the perturbation field play an important role for the data assimilation results.

  11. Demonstration and uncertainty analysis of synchronised scanning lidar measurements of 2-D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. van Dooren

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines the research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with short-range WindScanner lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual-lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling timescales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot-wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u and v components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2-D measurement capability of the lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of lidar scanning to the measurement of small-scale wind flow effects. An extensive uncertainty analysis was executed to assess the accuracy of the method. The downsides of lidar with respect to the hot-wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume, which compromises the ability to measure turbulence, and the possible loss of a small part of the measurements due to hard target beam reflection. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow during measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range synchronised scanning lidars to measure the flow around wind turbines in a wind tunnel and increased the knowledge about the corresponding uncertainties.

  12. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Static Stability and Control Characteristics of a Model of the Bell MX-776 (RASCAL) in Combined Angle of Attack and Sideslip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letko, William

    1949-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of a model of the Bell MX-776. The results show the model to be longitudinally unstable in the angle-of-attack range around zero angle of attack and to become stable at moderate angles of attack. The results of the present investigation agree reasonably well with results obtained in other facilities at low speed. The present pitching-moment results at low Mach numbers also agree reasonably well with unpublished results of tests of the model at supersonic Mach numbers (up to Mach number 1.86). Unpublished results at moderate and high subsonic speeds, however, indicate considerably greater instability at low angles of attack than is indicated by low-speed results. The results of the present tests also showed that the pitching-moment coefficients for angles of attack up to 12deg remained fairly constant with sideslip angle up to 12deg. The elevators tested produced relatively large pitching moments at zero angle of attack but, as the angle of attack was increased, the elevator effectiveness decreased. The rate of decrease of elevator effectiveness with angle of attack was less for 8deg than for 20deg elevator deflection. Therefore although 8deg deflection caused an appreciable change in longitudinal trim angle and trim lift coefficient a deflection of 20deg caused only a small additional increase in trim angle and trim lift coefficient.

  13. Analysis of Wind Tunnel Polar Replicates Using the Modern Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, Richard; Micol, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The role of variance in a Modern Design of Experiments analysis of wind tunnel data is reviewed, with distinctions made between explained and unexplained variance. The partitioning of unexplained variance into systematic and random components is illustrated, with examples of the elusive systematic component provided for various types of real-world tests. The importance of detecting and defending against systematic unexplained variance in wind tunnel testing is discussed, and the random and systematic components of unexplained variance are examined for a representative wind tunnel data set acquired in a test in which a missile is used as a test article. The adverse impact of correlated (non-independent) experimental errors is described, and recommendations are offered for replication strategies that facilitate the quantification of random and systematic unexplained variance.

  14. A multiple-fan active control wind tunnel for outdoor wind speed and direction simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ying; Meng, Qing-Hao; Luo, Bing; Zeng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a new type of active controlled multiple-fan wind tunnel. The wind tunnel consists of swivel plates and arrays of direct current fans, and the rotation speed of each fan and the shaft angle of each swivel plate can be controlled independently for simulating different kinds of outdoor wind fields. To measure the similarity between the simulated wind field and the outdoor wind field, wind speed and direction time series of two kinds of wind fields are recorded by nine two-dimensional ultrasonic anemometers, and then statistical properties of the wind signals in different time scales are analyzed based on the empirical mode decomposition. In addition, the complexity of wind speed and direction time series is also investigated using multiscale entropy and multivariate multiscale entropy. Results suggest that the simulated wind field in the multiple-fan wind tunnel has a high degree of similarity with the outdoor wind field.

  15. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels.......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...

  16. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high...... future for short range lidars as a complement to LDA and other standard equipment in wind tunnels.......-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good correlation was again found. These measurements all demonstrate the high accuracy of the lidar and indicate a possible...

  17. Wind Tunnel Tests for Wind Pressure Distribution on Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Gable roof buildings are widely used in industrial buildings. Based on wind tunnel tests with rigid models, wind pressure distributions on gable roof buildings with different aspect ratios were measured simultaneously. Some characteristics of the measured wind pressure field on the surfaces of the models were analyzed, including mean wind pressure, fluctuating wind pressure, peak negative wind pressure, and characteristics of proper orthogonal decomposition results of the measured wind pressure field. The results show that extremely high local suctions often occur in the leading edges of longitudinal wall and windward roof, roof corner, and roof ridge which are the severe damaged locations under strong wind. The aspect ratio of building has a certain effect on the mean wind pressure coefficients, and the effect relates to wind attack angle. Compared with experimental results, the region division of roof corner and roof ridge from AIJ2004 is more reasonable than those from CECS102:2002 and MBMA2006.The contributions of the first several eigenvectors to the overall wind pressure distributions become much bigger. The investigation can offer some basic understanding for estimating wind load distribution on gable roof buildings and facilitate wind-resistant design of cladding components and their connections considering wind load path. PMID:24082851

  18. Analysis of Mexico wind tunnel measurements. Final report of IEA Task 29, Mexnext (Phase 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, J.G.; Boorsma, K. [Energy research Center of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Cho, T. [Korea Aerospace Research Institute KARI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Gomez-Iradi, S. [National Renewable Energy Center of Spain CENER, Sarriguren (Spain); Schaffarczyk, P. [A. Jeromin University of Applied Sciences, CEWind EG, Kiel (Germany); Shen, W.Z. [The Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Lutz, T. [K. Meister University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Stoevesandt, B. [ForWind, Zentrum fuer Windenergieforschung, Oldenburg (Germany); Schreck, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL, Golden, CO (United States); Micallef, D.; Pereira, R.; Sant, T. [Delft University of Technology TUD, Delft (Netherlands); Madsen, H.A.; Soerensen, N. [Risoe-DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    This report describes the work performed within the first phase of IEA Task 29 Mexnext. In this IEA Task 29 a total of 20 organisations from 11 different countries collaborated in analysing the measurements which have been performed in the EU project 'Mexico'. Within this Mexico project 9 European institutes carried out a wind tunnel experiment in the Large Low Speed Facility (LLF) of the German Dutch Wind Facilities DNW on a rotor with a diameter of 4.5 m. Pressure distributions were measured at five locations along the blade along with detailed flow field measurements around the rotor plane using stereo PIV. As a result of the international collaboration within this task a very thorough analysis of the data could be carried out and a large number of codes were validated not only in terms of loads but also in terms of underlying flow field. The detailed pressure measurements along the blade in combination with the detailed flow field measurements gave a unique opportunity to better understand the response of a wind turbine to the incoming flow field. Deficiencies in modelling have been established and directions for model improvement can be given.

  19. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat

    2018-02-01

    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  20. A wind tunnel for measuring volatilization and biomineralization of environmental chemicals from the soil/plant system under field-like conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stork, A.; Fuehr, F.

    1994-01-01

    Lysimeters can provide detailed information about the long-term behaviour of pesticides under field-like conditions, exploiting the advantages of radioactive labelled substances. A significant drawback of lysimetry has been the inability to provide complete material balance due to volatile losses of chemicals and their degradates. A wind tunnel, including new analytic methods and application sprayer, has been designed and developed to measure the volatile losses of 14 C-labelled chemicals after application by methods comparable to agricultural practice. The wind-tunnel combines the advantages of laboratory facilities (use of radioisotopes) and field studies (field-like climate) and thus is a link between model chamber experiments in the laboratory and genuine field tests, and permits transfer of data to the field situation. Two wind-tunnel experiments were carried out with the herbicide diflufenican (DFF) and the insecticide parathion methyl (PM). In both experiments, insignificant amounts of 14 CO 2 were released. By the end of the experiment, nearly all of the DFF (96.7%) was in the 0-5 cm soil layer, whereas the majority of PM had volatilized (73.3%). Significant quantities of radioactivity (21.9%) also become fixed in nonextractable plant material following PM application. Results demonstrate that the new system can contribute significantly to detailed understanding of the volatilization and degradation behaviour of environmental chemicals

  1. Low-Reynolds Number Aerodynamics of an 8.9 Percent Scale Semispan Swept Wing for Assessment of Icing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Woodard, Brian S.; Diebold, Jeffrey M.; Moens, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on the iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing and computational flow simulations were carried out for an 8.9 percent-scale semispan wing based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. The wind-tunnel testing was conducted at the Wichita State University 7 by 10 ft Beech wind tunnel from Reynolds numbers of 0.8×10(exp 6) to 2.4×10(exp 6) and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.09 to 0.27. This paper presents the results of initial studies investigating the model mounting configuration, clean-wing aerodynamics and effects of artificial ice roughness. Four different model mounting configurations were considered and a circular splitter plate combined with a streamlined shroud was selected as the baseline geometry for the remainder of the experiments and computational simulations. A detailed study of the clean-wing aerodynamics and stall characteristics was made. In all cases, the flow over the outboard sections of the wing separated as the wing stalled with the inboard sections near the root maintaining attached flow. Computational flow simulations were carried out with the ONERA elsA software that solves the compressible, threedimensional RANS equations. The computations were carried out in either fully turbulent mode or with natural transition. Better agreement between the experimental and computational results was obtained when considering computations with free transition compared to turbulent solutions. These results indicate that experimental evolution of the clean wing performance coefficients were due to the effect of three-dimensional transition location and that this must be taken into account for future

  2. Study and evaluation of ferro-cement for use in wind tunnel construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, H. J., Jr. (Compiler)

    1972-01-01

    The structural suitability and cost effectiveness of ferro-cement for large subsonic wind tunnel structures is investigated. This investigation was carried out in the following four main categories: (1) a state-of-the-art survey into the uses, properties, and costs of ferro-cement; (2) an evaluation of those ferro-cement properties critical to construction of large, subsonic wind tunnels, which have not been adequately established to date; (3) a laboratory testing program to determine preliminary values for those properties; and (4) a study to establish cost factors for ferro-cement as related to a preliminary construction scheme for a nacelle and shroud unit.

  3. Demonstration of short-range wind lidar in a high-performance wind tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Montes, Belen Fernández; Pedersen, Jens Engholm; Harris, Michael; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A short-range continuous-wave coherent laser radar (lidar) has been tested in a high-performance wind tunnel for possible use as a standard component in wind tunnels. The lidar was tested in a low as well as a high speed regime ranging from 5-35 m/s and 40-75 m/s, respectively. In both low and high-speed regimes very good correlation with reference measurements was found. Furthermore different staring directions were tested and taking a simple geometrical correction into account very good cor...

  4. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  5. IIE`s wind tunnel calibration; Calibracion del tunel de viento del IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Garcia, Raymundo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The calibration of a wind tunnel is performed in such a way as to warrant a very low turbulence grade. When there is recently built tunnel, as is the case of the IIE`s tunnel, the turbulence in its testing chambers is large; for this reason it is necessary to integrate in it aerodynamic devices and elements capable of reducing it. At the end of the calibration studies can be performed in models with controlled scale. From these and from the results obtained it will be decided if the designed prototypes are built or modified. [Espanol] La calibracion de un tunel de viento se realiza de tal forma que garantiza un grado de turbulencia muy bajo. Cuando se tiene un tunel recien construido, como es el caso del tunel de viento del IIE, la turbulencia en sus camaras de prueba es grande; por lo que es necesario integrarle dispositivos y elementos aerodinamicos que sean capaces de reducirla. Al terminar la calibracion pueden realizarse estudios en modelos con escala controlada. De estos y de los resultados que se obtengan se decidira si se construyen o se modifican los prototipos disenados.

  6. Computer analysis of flow perturbations generated by placement of choke bumps in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An inviscid analytical study was conducted to determine the upstream flow perturbations caused by placing choke bumps in a wind tunnel. A computer program based on the stream-tube curvature method was used to calculate the resulting flow fields for a nominal free-stream Mach number range of 0.6 to 0.9. The choke bump geometry was also varied to investigate the effect of bump shape on the disturbance produced. Results from the study indicate that a region of significant variation from the free-stream conditions exists upstream of the throat of the tunnel. The extent of the disturbance region was, as a rule, dependent on Mach number and the geometry of the choke bump. In general, the upstream disturbance distance decreased for increasing nominal free-stream Mach number and for decreasing length-to-height ratio of the bump. A polynomial-curve choke bump usually produced less of a disturbance than did a circular-arc bump and going to an axisymmetric configuration (modeling choke bumps on all the tunnel walls) generally resulted in a lower disturbance than with the corresponding two dimensional case.

  7. Turbulence, selective decay, and merging in the SSX plasma wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tim; Brown, Michael; Flanagan, Ken; Werth, Alexandra; Lukin, V.

    2012-10-01

    A helical, relaxed plasma state has been observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder has dimensions L = 1 m and R = 0.08 m. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v >=50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. Typical plasma parameters are Ti= 25 eV, ne>=10^15 cm-3, and B = 0.25 T. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1--2 axial Alfv'en times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data is favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibits broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement to the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇xB = λB. While the global structure roughly corresponds to the minimum energy eigenstate for the wind tunnel geometry, the plasma is high beta (β= 0.5) and does not have a flat λ profile. Merging of two plasmoids in this configuration results in noticeably more dynamic activity compared to a single plasmoid. These episodes of activity exhibit s

  8. Aerodynamic shape optimization of guided missile based on wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved missile front parts were designed based on theoretical and computational fluid dynamics simulations. All aerodynamic configurations were tested in the T-35 wind tunnel at the Military Technical Institute in order to determine the final geometry of the new front parts. The 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the aerodynamic loads of the missile based on the finite volume method. Experimental results of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients are presented. The computational results of the aerodynamic loads of a guided missile model are also given, and agreed well with.

  9. Modeling the Motion of a Flapping Wing Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorochaeva L.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the vertical flight of a flapping wing aerial vehicle, which is also called an ornithopter. The robot is a chain of five links connected in series by active cylindrical hinges with the central link being the body and the remainder forming folding wings in pairs. The distinctive feature of this device is that the flaps of its wings imitate those of a seagull i.e. the device has a biological prototype. We construct a mathematical model of this device; much attention is given to the model of the interaction of the wings with the air environment and we determine the positions and velocities of points of application of the reduced aerodynamic forces to each of the links. Based on the results of numerical modelling of the vertical flight of the robot three modes of flight were established: ascent, hovering at a certain height and descent. The device can operate in these modes based on the oscillation parameters of the wings in particular flapping frequency and amplitude, the ratio of the amplitudes of two links and one wing and the shift of the equilibrium oscillation position of the wings relative to zero.

  10. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  11. Wind Tunnel Corrections for High Angle of Attack Models,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    presentees en 1972 par VAYSSAIRE C9"l ’. Un bon accord ötait obtmu entre les r£sultats corrigäs d’une maquette d1avion de transport ä fleche de...et pour deux incidences de 1.0 et 32 degr£s, la derniere en presence d’un dfccollement prononcd, les courbes presentees sort is si es des signatures...a check on the validity of the commonly used linearized corrections due to Glauert. This was motivated also by the results of earlier calculations

  12. Aerodynamic consequences of wing morphing during emulated take-off and gliding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett; Mistick, Emily A; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-10-01

    Birds morph their wings during a single wingbeat, across flight speeds and among flight modes. Such morphing may allow them to maximize aerodynamic performance, but this assumption remains largely untested. We tested the aerodynamic performance of swept and extended wing postures of 13 raptor species in three families (Accipitridae, Falconidae and Strigidae) using a propeller model to emulate mid-downstroke of flapping during take-off and a wind tunnel to emulate gliding. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that (1) during flapping, wing posture would not affect maximum ratios of vertical and horizontal force coefficients (C V :C H ), and that (2) extended wings would have higher maximum C V :C H when gliding. Contrary to each hypothesis, during flapping, extended wings had, on average, 31% higher maximum C V :C H ratios and 23% higher C V than swept wings across all biologically relevant attack angles (α), and, during gliding, maximum C V :C H ratios were similar for the two postures. Swept wings had 11% higher C V than extended wings in gliding flight, suggesting flow conditions around these flexed raptor wings may be different from those in previous studies of swifts (Apodidae). Phylogenetic affiliation was a poor predictor of wing performance, due in part to high intrafamilial variation. Mass was only significantly correlated with extended wing performance during gliding. We conclude that wing shape has a greater effect on force per unit wing area during flapping at low advance ratio, such as take-off, than during gliding. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Wind-tunnel investigations of pressure distribution over high-rise buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cwik, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available pressure distribution over the façade of 208 m high Warsaw Trade Tower building. Wind tunnel tests were a part of a wider research project which also includes full-scale measurements and numerical simulations (CFD, FEM), in order to examine the possibility...

  14. Nonlinear flutter wind tunnel test and numerical analysis of folding fins with freeplay nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ning

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The flutter characteristics of folding control fins with freeplay are investigated by numerical simulation and flutter wind tunnel tests. Based on the characteristics of the structures, fins with different freeplay angles are designed. For a 0° angle of attack, wind tunnel tests of these fins are conducted, and vibration is observed by accelerometers and a high-speed camera. By the expansion of the connected relationships, the governing equations of fit for the nonlinear aeroelastic analysis are established by the free-interface component mode synthesis method. Based on the results of the wind tunnel tests, the flutter characteristics of fins with different freeplay angles are analyzed. The results show that the vibration divergent speed is increased, and the divergent speed is higher than the flutter speed of the nominal linear system. The vibration divergent speed is increased along with an increase in the freeplay angle. The developed free-interface component mode synthesis method could be used to establish governing equations and to analyze the characteristics of nonlinear aeroelastic systems. The results of the numerical simulations and the wind tunnel tests indicate the same trends and critical velocities.

  15. Wind tunnel testing of the DeepWind demonstrator in design and tilted operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistia, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    was installed on a high precision test bench, whose axis was suitable to be inclined up to 15° with respect to the design (i.e. upright) operating condition. The experiments were performed at the large scale, high speed wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), using a “free jet” (open channel...

  16. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M.; Simms, D. A.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.; Cotrell, J. R.; Schreck, S.; Larwood, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    The primary objective of the insteady aerodynamics experiment was to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale, three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal-axis wind turbines. This report is intended to familiarize the user with the entire scope of the wind tunnel test and to support the use of the resulting data.

  17. Testing compost as an anti wind erosion agent in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of compost as an anti wind erosion agent was studied in a wind tunnel on a sandy soil susceptible to wind erosion. Soil treated with a compost-water mixture, which forms a crust on the soil surface after drying, was exposed to a series of increasing wind speeds. Two composts were

  18. Field-testing a portable wind tunnel for fine dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A protable wind tunnel has been developed to allow erodibility and dust emissions testing of soil surfaces with the premise that dust concentration and properties are highly correlated with surface soil properties, as modified by crop management system. In this study we report on the field-testing ...

  19. A field wind tunnel study of fine dust emissions in sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A portable field wind tunnel has been developed to allow measurements of dust emissions from soil surfaces to test the premise that dust concentration and properties are highly correlated with surface soil properties, as modified by crop management system. In this study, we report on the effect of ...

  20. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  1. Calibration of an experimental six component wind tunnel block balance using optical fibre sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Ponte, JD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Symposium on Strain-Gauge Balances, Mianyang, Sichuan China, 16-19 May 2016 Calibration of an Experimental Six Component Wind Tunnel Block Balance Using Optical Fibre Sensors J.D. de Ponte1, F.F. Pieterse2 1, 2University of Johannesburg, Auckland...

  2. Wind-tunnel tests of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiberg, J. A.; Maisel, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    The XV-15 aircraft was tested in the Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel for preliminary evaluation of aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics prior to flight. The tests were undertaken to investigate the aircraft performance, stability, control and structural loads for flight modes from helicopter through transition and airplane mode up to the tunnel capability of 170 knots. Results from these tests are presented.

  3. Characterization of a new open jet wind tunnel to optimize and test vertical axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tourn, Silvana; Pallarès, Jordi; Cuesta, Ildefonso

    2017-01-01

    Based on the increasing interest in urban environmental technologies, the study of small scale vertical axis wind turbines shows motivating challenges. In this paper, we present the characteristics and potentials of a new open jet wind tunnel. It has a nozzle exit area of 1.5 × 1.5 m2, and it can...

  4. Wind Tunnel Simulation of Air Pollution Dispersion in a Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Střižík, M.; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Holpuch, Jan; Zelinger, Zdeněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2002), s. 243-248 ISSN 1060-3271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3040101; GA MŠk OC 715.50 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : air pollution * photoacoustic spectrometry * wind tunnel Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.907, year: 2002

  5. Variation in energy intake and basal metabolic rate of a bird migrating in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindström, Å.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    1. We studied the changes in body mass, metabolizable energy intake rate (ME) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of a Thrush Nightingale, Luscinia luscinia, following repeated 12-h migratory flights in a wind tunnel. In total the bird flew for 176 h corresponding to 6300 km. This is the first study

  6. Flight costs and fuel composition of a bird migrating in a wind-tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Kvist, A.; Lindström, A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the energy and protein balance of a Thrush Nightingale Luscinia luscinia, a small long-distance migrant, during repeated 12-hr long Eights in a wind tunnel and during subsequent two-day fueling periods. From the energy budgets we estimated the power requirements for migratory flight in

  7. Hot Wire Anemometer Turbulence Measurements in the wind Tunnel of LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Andreas

    Flow measurements were carried out in the wind tunnel of LM Wind Power A/S with a Dantec Streamline CTA system to characterize the flow turbulence. Besides the free tunnel flow with empty test section we also investigated the tunnel flow when two grids with different mesh size were introduced dow...

  8. Reducing the Effect of Transducer Mount Induced Noise on Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel Testing Data with a New Transducer Mount Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, A. J.; Reed, D. K.; Nance, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of launch vehicle unsteady aerodynamics is a field best studied through experimentation, which is often carried out in the form of large scale wind tunnel testing. Measurement of the fluctuating pressures induced by the boundary layer noise is customarily made with miniature pressure transducers installed into a model of the vehicle of interest. Literature shows that noise level increases between two to five decibels (dB referenced to 20 micropascal) can be induced when the transducer surface is not mounted perfectly flush with the model outer surface. To reduce this artificially induced noise, special transducer holders have been used for aeroacoustic wind tunnel testing by NASA. This holder is a sleeve into which the transducer fits, with a cap that allows it to be mounted in a recessed hole in the model. A single hole in the holder allows the transport of the tunnel medium so the transducer can discriminate the fluctuating pressure due to the turbulent boundary layer noise. The holder is first dry fitted into the model and any difference in height between the holder and the model surface can be sanded flush. The holder is then removed from the model, the transducer glued inside the holder, and the holder replaced in the model, secured also with glue, thus eliminating the problem of noise level increases due to lack of flushness. In order to work with this holder design, special transducers have been ordered with their standard screen removed and the diaphragm moved as close to the top of the casing as possible to minimize any cavity volume. Although this greatly reduces induced noise due to the transducers being out of flush, the holders can also induce a cavity resonance that is usually at a very high frequency. This noise is termed transducer mount induced noise (XMIN). The peak of the mode can vary with the cavity depth, boundary layer noise that can excite the mode, tunnel flow medium, and the build of the transducers. Because the boundary

  9. Preliminary Computational Study for Future Tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot' x 7 foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Jason M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.; WInski, Courtney S.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Commercial Supersonics Technology Project seeks to advance tools and techniques to make over-land supersonic flight feasible. In this study, preliminary computational results are presented for future tests in the NASA Ames 9 foot x 7 foot supersonic wind tunnel to be conducted in early 2016. Shock-plume interactions and their effect on pressure signature are examined for six model geometries. Near- field pressure signatures are assessed using the CFD code USM3D to model the proposed test geometries in free-air. Additionally, results obtained using the commercial grid generation software Pointwise Reigistered Trademark are compared to results using VGRID, the NASA Langley Research Center in-house mesh generation program.

  10. The design and commissioning of an acoustic liner for propeller noise testing in the ARA transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. E.; Newman, D. A.

    An acoustic liner has been designed and manufactured for use in the ARA transonic wind tunnel to provide an acoustically acceptable environment for propeller noise testing up to high subsonic Mach number. Details of the aerodynamic design and development are presented and calibration of the liner with propeller model support systems is included. It is shown how the design of the acoustic treatment was aided by the use of a theoretical model for the tunnel reverberant field. An acoustic development program was undertaken involving horn tests to improve the quality of the liner. The success of this is demonstrated by propeller noise results. These results also provided the basis for definition of the practical acoustic test regime of the ARA lined tunnel suitable for the accurate measurement of propeller noise.

  11. Analysis of the small flying wings performances in the morphing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisacariu Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using of the flying wing (the UAVs category in various fields (civilian and military determine interests sustained of the aerodynamic and trajectory optimizations. The article presents analysis of wing flying performance (in morphing concept by studying optimizing the maneuvers control and wind tunnel tests.

  12. New aeroelastic studies for a morphing wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mihaela BOTEZ*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the upper surface of a rectangular finite aspect ratio wing, with a laminar airfoil cross-section, was made of a carbon-Kevlar composite material flexible skin. This flexible skin was morphed by use of Shape Memory Alloy actuators for 35 test cases characterized by combinations of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The Mach numbers varied from 0.2 to 0.3 and the angles of attack ranged between -1° and 2°. The optimized airfoils were determined by use of the CFD XFoil code. The purpose of this aeroelastic study was to determine the flutter conditions to be avoided during wind tunnel tests. These studies show that aeroelastic instabilities for the morphing configurations considered appeared at Mach number 0.55, which was higher than the wind tunnel Mach number limit speed of 0.3. The wind tunnel tests could thus be performed safely in the 6’×9’ wind tunnel at the Institute for Aerospace Research at the National Research Council Canada (IAR/NRC, where the new aeroelastic studies, applied on morphing wings, were validated.

  13. Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2010-06-01

    The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

  14. Model design and instrumentation experiences with continuous-flow cryogenic tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of wind tunnels that can be operated at cryogenic temperatures has placed several new demands on the ability to build and instrument wind tunnel models. The experiences at the NASA Langley Research Center relative to the design and instrumentation of models for continuous flow cryogenic wind tunnels are reviewed.

  15. Effect of canard location and size on canard-wing interference and aerodynamic center shift related to maneuvering aircraft at transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloss, B. B.

    1974-01-01

    A generalized wind-tunnel model, typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 1.20 to determine the effects of canard location and size on canard-wing interference effects and aerodynamic center shift at transonic speeds. The canards had exposed areas of 16.0 and 28.0 percent of the wing reference area and were located in the chord plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above or below the wing chord plane. Two different wing planforms were tested, one with leading-edge sweep of 60 deg and the other 44 deg; both wings had the same reference area and span. The results indicated that the largest benefits in lift and drag were obtained with the canard above the wing chord plane for both wings tested. The low canard configuration for the 60 deg swept wing proved to be more stable and produced a more linear pitching-moment curve than the high and coplanar canard configurations for the subsonic test Mach numbers.

  16. Eksperimentalno ispitivanje rolerona u aerotunelu T-38 / Experimental testing of the roll aileron in the T-38 wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Damljanović

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani rezultati eksperimentalnih ispitivanja rolerona postojećeg projektila u aerotunelu T-38 Vojnotehničkog instituta. Za smanjenje ugaone brzine valjanja koriste se roleroni kao najjednostavniji uređaji. Oni predstavljaju žiroskop sa dva stepena slobode. Postavljaju se na krajeve krila i sastoje se od elerona koji je istovremeno i nosač ozubljenog rotora velike mase. Za rotaciju rotor koristi energiju vazduha. U radu je prikazan jedan roleron definisane geometrije sa odgovarajućim rotorom. Cilj ispitivanja bio je da se izmeri broj obrtaja rotora i šarnirni moment u funkciji ugla otklona rolerona i Mahovog broja. / The results of an experimental testing of the roll aileron of an existing projectile, carried out in the T-38 wind tunnel of the Military Technical Institute, are given in the paper. Representing a 2 doff gyroscope, roll ailerons are used as the simplest devices for decreasing angular velocity. Fixed on wing tips, they consist of ailerons which support massive cogged rotors. Air energy is used for rotor rotation. A roll aileron of a defined geometry, with an appropriate rotor, is described in the paper. The testing objective was to measure the rotor rotation rate and hinge moment as a function of the roll aileron deflection angle and the Mach number.

  17. Plans for Testing the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment 10m Diameter HAWT in the NASA Ames Wind Tunnel: Minutes, Conclusions, and Revised Text Matrix from the 1st Science Panel Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, D.; Schreck, S.; Hand, M.; Fingersh, L.; Cotrell, J.; Pierce, K.; Robinson, M.

    2000-08-28

    Currently, the NREL Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) research turbine is scheduled to enter the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel in early 2000. To prepare for this 3-week test, a Science Panel meeting was convened at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 1998. During this meeting, the Science Panel and representatives from the wind energy community provided numerous detailed recommendations regarding test activities and priorities. The Unsteady Aerodynamics team of the NWTC condensed this guidance and drafted a detailed test plan. This test plan represents an attempt to balance diverse recommendations received from the Science Panel meeting, while taking into account multiple constraints imposed by the UAE research turbine, the NASA Ames 80-ft x 120-ft wind tunnel, and other sources. The NREL-NASA Ames wind tunnel tests will primarily be focused on obtaining rotating blade pressure data. NREL has been making these types of measurements since 1987 and has considerable experience in doing so. The purpose of this wind tunnel test is to acquire accurate quantitative aerodynamic and structural measurements, on a wind turbine that is geometrically and dynamically representative of full-scale machines, in an environment free from pronounced inflow anomalies. These data will be exploited to develop and validate enhanced engineering models for designing and analyzing advanced wind energy machines.

  18. Effect of leading- and trailing-edge flaps on clipped delta wings with and without wing camber at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Gloria; Wood, Richard M.; Covell, Peter F.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of thin, moderately swept fighter wings has been conducted to evaluate the effect of camber and twist on the effectiveness of leading- and trailing-edge flaps at supersonic speeds in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The study geometry consisted of a generic fuselage with camber typical of advanced fighter designs without inlets, canopy, or vertical tail. The model was tested with two wing configurations an uncambered (flat) wing and a cambered and twisted wing. Each wing had an identical clipped delta planform with an inboard leading edge swept back 65 deg and an outboard leading edge swept back 50 deg. The trailing edge was swept forward 25 deg. The leading-edge flaps were deflected 4 deg to 15 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps were deflected from -30 deg to 10 deg. Longitudinal force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16 for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.16 x 10(exp 6) per foot and for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Vapor screen, tuft, and oil flow visualization data are also included.

  19. Turbulent Flow Inside and Above a Wind Farm: A Wind-Tunnel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo P. Chamorro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were carried out to better understand boundary layer effects on the flow pattern inside and above a model wind farm under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to characterize the turbulent flow structure at different locations around a 10 by 3 array of model wind turbines aligned with the mean flow and arranged in two different layouts (inter-turbine separation of 5 and 7 rotor diameters in the direction of the mean flow by 4 rotor diameters in its span. Results suggest that the turbulent flow can be characterized in two broad regions. The first, located below the turbine top tip height, has a direct effect on the performance of the turbines. In that region, the turbulent flow statistics appear to reach equilibrium as close as the third to fourth row of wind turbines for both layouts. In the second region, located right above the first one, the flow adjusts slowly. There, two layers can be identified: an internal boundary layer where the flow is affected by both the incoming wind and the wind turbines, and an equilibrium layer, where the flow is fully adjusted to the wind farm. An adjusted logarithmic velocity distribution is observed in the equilibrium layer starting from the sixth row of wind turbines. The effective surface roughness length induced by the wind farm is found to be higher than that predicted by some existing models. Momentum recovery and turbulence intensity are shown to be affected by the wind farm layout. Power spectra show that the signature of the tip vortices, in both streamwise and vertical velocity components, is highly affected by both the relative location in the wind farm and the wind farm layout.

  20. Wind-Tunnel Evaluation of the Effect of Blade Nonstructural Mass Distribution on Helicopter Fixed-System Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, Jr, William T.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Mirick, Paul H.; Wilkie, W K.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides data obtained during a wind-tunnel test conducted to investigate parametrically the effect of blade nonstructural mass on helicopter fixed-system vibratory loads. The data were obtained with aeroelastically scaled model rotor blades that allowed for the addition of concentrated nonstructural masses at multiple locations along the blade radius. Testing was conducted for advance ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.35 for 10 blade-mass configurations. Three thrust levels were obtained at representative full-scale shaft angles for each blade-mass configuration. This report provides the fixed-system forces and moments measured during testing. The comprehensive database obtained is well-suited for use in correlation and development of advanced rotorcraft analyses.

  1. Large eddy simulation of vortex breakdown behind a delta wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, I.

    2003-01-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) of a turbulent flow past a 70 deg. sweep angle delta wing is performed and compared with wind tunnel experiments. The angle of attack and the Reynolds number based on the root chord are equal to 27 deg. and 1.6x10 6 , respectively. Due to the high value of the Reynolds number and the three-dimensional geometry, the mesh resolution usually required by LES cannot be reached. Therefore a local mesh refinement technique based on semi-structured grids is proposed, whereas different wall functions are assessed in this paper. The goal is to evaluate if these techniques are sufficient to provide an accurate solution of such flow on available supercomputers. An implicit Miles model is retained for the subgrid scale (SGS) modelling because the resolution is too coarse to take advantage of more sophisticated SGS models. The solution sensitivity to grid refinement in the streamwise and wall normal direction is investigated

  2. Experimental study of flow field distribution over a generic cranked double delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow fields over a generic cranked double delta wing were investigated. Pressure and velocity distributions were obtained using a Pitot tube and a hot wire anemometer. Two different leading edge shapes, namely “sharp” and “round”, were applied to the wing. The wing had two sweep angles of 55° and 30°. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit wind tunnel at velocity 20 m/s and angles of attack of 5°–20° with the step of 5°. The Reynolds number of the model was about 2 × 105 according to the root chord. A dual vortex structure was formed above the wing surface. A pressure drop occurred at the vortex core and the root mean square of the measured velocity increased at the core of the vortices, reflecting the instability of the flow in that region. The magnitude of power spectral density increased strongly in spanwise direction and had the maximum value at the vortex core. By increasing the angle of attack, the pressure drop increased and the vortices became wider; the vortices moved inboard along the wing, and away from the surface; the flow separation was initiated from the outer portion of the wing and developed to its inner part. The vortices of the wing of the sharp leading edge were stronger than those of the round one.

  3. Study of dust re-suspension at low pressure in a dedicated wind-tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Anthony; Sabroux, Jean-Christophe; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The atmosphere of several telluric planets or satellites are dusty. Such is the case of Earth, Venus, Mars and Titan, each bearing different aeolian processes linked principally to the kinematic viscosity of the near-surface atmosphere. Studies of the Martian atmosphere are particularly relevant for the understanding of the dust re-suspension phenomena at low pressure (7 mbar). It turns out that operation of fusion reactors of the tokamak design produces significant amount of dust through the erosion of plasma-facing components. Such dust is a key issue, both regarding the performance and the safety of a fusion reactor such as ITER, under construction in Cadarache, France. Indeed, to evaluate the explosion risk in the ITER fusion reactor, it is essential to quantify the re-suspended dust fraction as a function of the dust inventory that can be potentially mobilized during a loss of vacuum accident (LOVA), with air or water vapour ingress. A complete accident sequence will encompass dust re-suspension from near-vacuum up to atmospheric pressure. Here, we present experimental results of particles re-suspension fractions measured at 1000, 600 and 300 mbar in the IRSN BISE (BlowIng facility for airborne releaSE) wind tunnel. Both dust monolayer deposits and multilayer deposits were investigated. In order to obtain experimental re-suspension data of dust monolayer deposits, we used an optical microscope allowing to measure the re-suspended particles fraction by size intervals of 1 µm. The deposits were made up of tungsten particles on a tungsten surface (an ubiquitous plasma facing component) and alumina particles on a glass plate, as a surrogate. A comparison of the results with the so-called Rock'nRoll dust re-suspension model (Reeks and Hall, 2001) is presented and discussed. The multilayer deposits were made in a vacuum sedimentation chamber allowing to obtain uniform deposits in terms of thickness. The re-suspension experimental data of such deposits were obtained

  4. Assessment of the Uniqueness of Wind Tunnel Strain-Gage Balance Load Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, N.

    2016-01-01

    A new test was developed to assess the uniqueness of wind tunnel strain-gage balance load predictions that are obtained from regression models of calibration data. The test helps balance users to gain confidence in load predictions of non-traditional balance designs. It also makes it possible to better evaluate load predictions of traditional balances that are not used as originally intended. The test works for both the Iterative and Non-Iterative Methods that are used in the aerospace testing community for the prediction of balance loads. It is based on the hypothesis that the total number of independently applied balance load components must always match the total number of independently measured bridge outputs or bridge output combinations. This hypothesis is supported by a control volume analysis of the inputs and outputs of a strain-gage balance. It is concluded from the control volume analysis that the loads and bridge outputs of a balance calibration data set must separately be tested for linear independence because it cannot always be guaranteed that a linearly independent load component set will result in linearly independent bridge output measurements. Simple linear math models for the loads and bridge outputs in combination with the variance inflation factor are used to test for linear independence. A highly unique and reversible mapping between the applied load component set and the measured bridge output set is guaranteed to exist if the maximum variance inflation factor of both sets is less than the literature recommended threshold of five. Data from the calibration of a six{component force balance is used to illustrate the application of the new test to real-world data.

  5. Turbulence scaling study in an MHD wind tunnel on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Wan, A.

    2013-12-01

    The turbulence of colliding plasmas is explored in an MHD wind tunnel on the SSX in an effort to understand solar wind physics in a laboratory setting. Fully ionized hydrogen plasma is produced by two plasma guns on opposite sides of a 1m by 15cm copper cylinder creating plasma with L/ρi ~ 75-150, β ~ 0.1-0.2 and Lundquist number ~ 1000. Modification of B-field, Ti and β are made through stuffing flux variation of the plasma guns. Presented here are turbulent f-/k-spectra and correlation times and lengths of B-field fluctuations as measured by a 16 channel B-dot radial probe array at the chamber midplane using both FFT and wavelet analysis techniques. Power-law behavior is observed spanning about two decades of frequencies [100kHz-10MHz] and about one decade of wavelength [10cm-1cm]. Power-law fits to spectra show scaling in these regions to be robust to changes in stuffing flux; fits are on the order of f-4 and k-2 for all flux variations. Low frequency fluctuations [law behavior is seen in f-spectra for frequencies around f=fci while changes in k-spectra slopes appear around 1/k ~ 5ρi. Dissipation range fits are made with an exponentially modified power-law model [Terry et al, PoP 2012]. Fluctuation measurements in axial velocity are made using a Mach probe with edge flows reaching M ~ 0.4. Both B-field and velocity fluctuations persist on the same timescale in these experiments, though Mach velocity f-spectra show power-laws slightly shallower than those for B-field. Comparison of spectra from MHD and Hall MHD simulations of SSX performed within the HiFi modeling framework are made to the experimental results.

  6. An experimental study of the effect of tail configuration on the spinning characteristics of general aviation aircraft. M.S. Thesis; [static wind tunnel force measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using static wind tunnel tests to obtain information about spin damping characteristics of an isolated general aviation aircraft tail was investigated. A representative tail section was oriented to the tunnel free streamline at angles simulating an equilibrium spin. A full range of normally encountered spin conditions was employed. Results of parametric studies performed to determine the effect of spin damping on several tail design parameters show satisfactory agreement with NASA rotary balance tests. Wing and body interference effects are present in the NASA studies at steep spin attitudes, but agreement improves with increasing pitch angle and spin rate, suggesting that rotational flow effects are minimal. Vertical position of the horizontal stabilizer is found to be a primary parameter affecting yaw damping, and horizontal tail chordwise position induces a substantial effect on pitching moment.

  7. Experimental determination of the free-stream disturbance field in a short-duration supersonic wind tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J. [Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70550, Stuttgart (Germany); ALSTOM (Switzerland) Ltd., Brown Bovery Strasse 7, 5401, Baden (Switzerland); Knauss, H.; Wagner, S. [Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70550, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    The free-stream disturbance field in a short-duration supersonic wind tunnel is investigated at a nominal Mach number of Ma=2.54. A specially designed constant-temperature anemometer is used to be able to draw a complete fluctuation diagram within one wind tunnel run (testing time: 120 ms). It is shown that the disturbance field is dominated by acoustic waves radiated from the turbulent boundary layer on the nozzle and the sidewalls, like in conventional supersonic wind tunnels. The acoustic field appears to be composed of highly localized shivering Mach waves superimposed on a background of eddy Mach waves. (orig.)

  8. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 2: User's Guide to the Archived Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the Space Shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers the evolution of Space Shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  9. Modeling Aircraft Wing Loads from Flight Data Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.

    2003-01-01

    Neural networks were used to model wing bending-moment loads, torsion loads, and control surface hinge-moments of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft. Accurate loads models are required for the development of control laws designed to increase roll performance through wing twist while not exceeding load limits. Inputs to the model include aircraft rates, accelerations, and control surface positions. Neural networks were chosen to model aircraft loads because they can account for uncharacterized nonlinear effects while retaining the capability to generalize. The accuracy of the neural network models was improved by first developing linear loads models to use as starting points for network training. Neural networks were then trained with flight data for rolls, loaded reversals, wind-up-turns, and individual control surface doublets for load excitation. Generalization was improved by using gain weighting and early stopping. Results are presented for neural network loads models of four wing loads and four control surface hinge moments at Mach 0.90 and an altitude of 15,000 ft. An average model prediction error reduction of 18.6 percent was calculated for the neural network models when compared to the linear models. This paper documents the input data conditioning, input parameter selection, structure, training, and validation of the neural network models.

  10. An influence coefficient method for the application of the modal technique to wing flutter suppression of the DAST ARW-1 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1981-01-01

    The methods used to compute the mass, structural stiffness, and aerodynamic forces in the form of influence coefficient matrices as applied to a flutter analysis of the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Aeroelastic Research Wing. The DAST wing was chosen because wind tunnel flutter test data and zero speed vibration data of the modes and frequencies exist and are available for comparison. A derivation of the equations of motion that can be used to apply the modal method for flutter suppression is included. A comparison of the open loop flutter predictions with both wind tunnel data and other analytical methods is presented.

  11. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  12. Advanced Model for Extreme Lift and Improved Aeroacoustics (AMELIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwardt, Jonathan; Paciano, Eric; Jameson, Tina; Fong, Robert; Marshall, David

    2012-01-01

    With the very recent advent of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (ERA), which is dedicated to designing aircraft that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment, there is a need for research and development of methodologies to minimize fuel burn, emissions, and reduce community noise produced by regional airliners. ERA tackles airframe technology, propulsion technology, and vehicle systems integration to meet performance objectives in the time frame for the aircraft to be at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 4-6 by the year of 2020 (deemed N+2). The proceeding project that investigated similar goals to ERA was NASA's Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW). SFW focused on conducting research to improve prediction methods and technologies that will produce lower noise, lower emissions, and higher performing subsonic aircraft for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The work provided in this investigation was a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) contract #NNL07AA55C funded by Subsonic Fixed Wing. The project started in 2007 with a specific goal of conducting a large-scale wind tunnel test along with the development of new and improved predictive codes for the advanced powered-lift concepts. Many of the predictive codes were incorporated to refine the wind tunnel model outer mold line design. The large scale wind tunnel test goal was to investigate powered lift technologies and provide an experimental database to validate current and future modeling techniques. Powered-lift concepts investigated were Circulation Control (CC) wing in conjunction with over-the-wing mounted engines to entrain the exhaust to further increase the lift generated by CC technologies alone. The NRA was a five-year effort; during the first year the objective was to select and refine CESTOL concepts and then to complete a preliminary design of a large-scale wind tunnel model for the large scale test. During the second, third, and fourth years the large-scale wind

  13. Performance study of winglets on tapered wing with curved trailing edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Ismat; Ali, Mohammad; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Haque, M. Nazmul

    2017-06-01

    Induced drag is the result of wingtip vortex produced from generating lift by finite wing. It is one of the main drags that an aircraft wing encounters during flight. It hampers aircraft performance by increasing fuel consumption and reducing endurance, range and speed. Winglets are used to reduce the induced drag. They weakens wingtip vortex and thus reduces induced drag. This paper represents the experimental investigation to reduce induced drag using winglet at the wingtip. A model of tapered wing with curved trailing edge (without winglet) as well as two similar wings with blended winglet and double blended winglet are prepared using NACA 4412 aerofoil in equal span and surface area. All the models are tested in a closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel at air speed of 108 km/h (0.09 Mach). Reynolds number of the flow is 2.28 × 105 on the basis of average chord length of the wings. The point surface static pressures at different angles of attack from -4° to 24° are measured for each of the wing and winglet combinations through different pressure tapings by using a multi-tube water manometer. From the static pressure distribution, lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift to drag ratio of all models are calculated. From the analysis of calculated values, it is found that both winglets are able to minimize induced drag; however, the tapered curved trailing edge span with blended winglet provides better aerodynamic performance.

  14. Integration effects of pylon geometry and rearward mounted nacelles for a high-wing transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John R.; Lamb, Milton

    1987-01-01

    Results of a wind-tunnel study of the effect of pylon cross-sectional shape and tow angle on airplane drag and an aft-mounted nacelle are presented. The 1/24-scale wide-body high-wing transport model was tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at free-stream Mach 0.7-0.8 and angles of attack from -3 to 4 degrees. A compression-type pylon is found to have the lowest drag at both Mach 0.7 and 0.8 and to be capable of suppressing the velocities in the inboard region of the pylon-wing junction, reducing the extent of supersonic flow and the probability of flow separation. It is also shown that the D-shaped aft-mounted nacelle has a low interference drag, as do previously tested circular nacelles in the same position.

  15. Full-Scale Wind Tunnel Test of an Individual Blade Control System for a UH-60 Helicopter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacklin, Stephen A; Haber, Axel; de Simone, Gary; Norman, Thomas R; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; Shinoda, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    .... The acquired wind tunnel data set includes measurements of rotor performance, steady and dynamic hub forces and moments, rotor loads, control system loads, and blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise...

  16. Measurement of Odor-Plume Structure in a Wind Tunnel Using a Photoionization Detector and a Tracer Gas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justus, Kristine

    2002-01-01

    The patterns of stimulus available to moths flying along pheromone plumes in a 3-m-long wind tunnel were characterized using a high frequency photoionization detector in conjunction with an inert tracer gas...

  17. An experimental study of high contraction ratio, subsonic wind tunnel inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, M. J.; Batill, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The inlet or contraction section has significant impact on the performance and operating characteristics of any subsonic wind tunnel. Previous experimental studies have been conducted to examine specific aspects of inlet performance and design. This work builds on this earlier experience by performing a comprehensive experimental analysis of a member of a family of high contraction ratio inlets used on indraft type wind tunnels. Quantitative flow field measurements were made using wall static ports, a five-hole pressure probe, and a hot wire anemometry system. Smoke flow visualization techniques were used to examine the inlet flow in a more qualitative manner and to correlate with quantitative measurements. This experimental investigation has provided insight into some of the many problems associated with inlet flows.

  18. Open access wind tunnel measurements of a downwind free yawing wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    A series of free yawing wind tunnel experiments was held in the Open Jet Facility (OJF) of the TU Delft. The ≈ 300 W turbine has three blades in a downwind configuration and is optionally free to yaw. Different 1.6m diameter rotor configurations are tested such as blade flexibility and sweep....... This paper gives a brief overview of the measurement setup and challenges, and continues with presenting some key results. This wind tunnel campaign has shown that a three bladed downwind wind turbine can operate in a stable fashion under a minimal yaw error. Finally, a description of how to obtain this open...... access dataset, including the post-processing scripts and procedures, is made available via a publicly accessible website....

  19. Inviscid Design of Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzles for a Real Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    A straightforward procedure has been developed to quickly determine an inviscid design of a hypersonic wind tunnel nozzle when the test crash is both calorically and thermally imperfect. This real gas procedure divides the nozzle into four distinct parts: subsonic, throat to conical, conical, and turning flow regions. The design process is greatly simplified by treating the imperfect gas effects only in the source flow region. This simplification can be justified for a large class of hypersonic wind tunnel nozzle design problems. The final nozzle design is obtained either by doing a classical boundary layer correction or by using this inviscid design as the starting point for a viscous design optimization based on computational fluid dynamics. An example of a real gas nozzle design is used to illustrate the method. The accuracy of the real gas design procedure is shown to compare favorably with an ideal gas design based on computed flow field solutions.

  20. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel: Digital image processing, part 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A survey of digital image processing techniques and processing systems for aerodynamic images has been conducted. These images covered many types of flows and were generated by many types of flow diagnostics. These include laser vapor screens, infrared cameras, laser holographic interferometry, Schlieren, and luminescent paints. Some general digital image processing systems, imaging networks, optical sensors, and image computing chips were briefly reviewed. Possible digital imaging network systems for the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel were explored.