Sample records for wing fanning courtship

  1. Study on wing fanning as a signal of sexual response and courtship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of experiments was carried out at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya to identify wing fanning as an attraction or signal of sexual response and courtship behavior of Bactrocera papayae. Sexual natures such as signal or attraction and courtship behavior were determined through males and ...

  2. Study on wing fanning as a signal of sexual response and courtship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 27, 2011 ... attractiveness in several small screen mini cages, made with white nylon (5 cm in diameter and 6 cm in height). ... cages and males were hung on plant and placed in a large screen cage. Hundred (100) female ..... be intervening rhythmically with the buzzing sound was generated by wing fanning and touch.

  3. Evolution of multiple additive loci caused divergence between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea in wing rowing during male courtship.

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    Jessica Cande

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, male flies perform innate, stereotyped courtship behavior. This innate behavior evolves rapidly between fly species, and is likely to have contributed to reproductive isolation and species divergence. We currently understand little about the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of courtship behavior. Here we describe a novel behavioral difference between the two closely related species D. yakuba and D. santomea: the frequency of wing rowing during courtship. During courtship, D. santomea males repeatedly rotate their wing blades to face forward and then back (rowing, while D. yakuba males rarely row their wings. We found little intraspecific variation in the frequency of wing rowing for both species. We exploited multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG to genotype two backcross populations with a single lane of Illumina sequencing. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using the ancestry information estimated by MSG and found that the species difference in wing rowing mapped to four or five genetically separable regions. We found no evidence that these loci display epistasis. The identified loci all act in the same direction and can account for most of the species difference.

  4. Is bigger better? Male body size affects wing-borne courtship signals and mating success in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Ragni, Giacomo; Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo


    Variations in male body size are known to affect inter- and intrasexual selection outcomes in a wide range of animals. In mating systems involving sexual signaling before mating, body size often acts as a key factor affecting signal strength and mate choice. We evaluated the effect of male size on courtship displays and mating success of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wing vibrations performed during successful and unsuccessful courtships by large and small males were recorded by high-speed videos and analyzed through frame-by-frame analysis. Mating success of large and small males was investigated. The effect of male-male competition on mating success was evaluated. Male body size affected both male courtship signals and mating outcomes. Successful males showed wing-borne signals with high frequencies and short interpulse intervals. Wing vibrations displayed by successful large males during copulation attempt had higher frequencies over smaller males and unsuccessful large males. In no-competition conditions, large males achieved higher mating success with respect to smaller ones. Allowing large and small males to compete for a female, large males achieve more mating success over smaller ones. Mate choice by females may be based on selection of the larger males, able to produce high-frequency wing vibrations. Such traits may be indicative of "good genes," which under sexual selection could means good social-interaction genes, or a good competitive manipulator of conspecifics. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila" (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro


    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  6. Characterization and generation of male courtship song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Justin P Bredlau

    Full Text Available Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated "buzz" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude "boings," each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.

  7. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers (United States)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  8. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE over-the-wing fan (United States)


    The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a fixed-pitch 1.36 pressure ratio fan for the over-the-wing (OTW) engine is presented. The fan has 28 blades. Aerodynamically, the fan blades were designed for a composite blade, but titanium blades were used in the experimental fan as a cost savings measure.

  9. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

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    Troy R. Shirangi


    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  10. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan (United States)


    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  11. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Courtship in Frogs Role of Acoustic Communication in Amphibian Courtship Behaviour. Debjani Roy. General Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 39-48 ...

  12. Pyrethroids and Nectar Toxins Have Subtle Effects on the Motor Function, Grooming and Wing Fanning Behaviour of Honeybees (Apis mellifera). (United States)

    Oliver, Caitlin J; Softley, Samantha; Williamson, Sally M; Stevenson, Philip C; Wright, Geraldine A


    Sodium channels, found ubiquitously in animal muscle cells and neurons, are one of the main target sites of many naturally-occurring, insecticidal plant compounds and agricultural pesticides. Pyrethroids, derived from compounds found only in the Asteraceae, are particularly toxic to insects and have been successfully used as pesticides including on flowering crops that are visited by pollinators. Pyrethrins, from which they were derived, occur naturally in the nectar of some flowering plant species. We know relatively little about how such compounds--i.e., compounds that target sodium channels--influence pollinators at low or sub-lethal doses. Here, we exposed individual adult forager honeybees to several compounds that bind to sodium channels to identify whether these compounds affect motor function. Using an assay previously developed to identify the effect of drugs and toxins on individual bees, we investigated how acute exposure to 10 ng doses (1 ppm) of the pyrethroid insecticides (cyfluthrin, tau-fluvalinate, allethrin and permethrin) and the nectar toxins (aconitine and grayanotoxin I) affected honeybee locomotion, grooming and wing fanning behaviour. Bees exposed to these compounds spent more time upside down and fanning their wings. They also had longer bouts of standing still. Bees exposed to the nectar toxin, aconitine, and the pyrethroid, allethrin, also spent less time grooming their antennae. We also found that the concentration of the nectar toxin, grayanotoxin I (GTX), fed to bees affected the time spent upside down (i.e., failure to perform the righting reflex). Our data show that low doses of pyrethroids and other nectar toxins that target sodium channels mainly influence motor function through their effect on the righting reflex of adult worker honeybees.

  13. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

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    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  14. Visual and acoustic components of courtship in the bird-of-paradise genus Astrapia (Aves: Paradisaeidae

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    Edwin Scholes


    Full Text Available The distinctive and divergent courtship phenotypes of the birds-of-paradise make them an important group for gaining insights into the evolution of sexually selected phenotypic evolution. The genus Astrapia includes five long-tailed species that inhabit New Guinea’s montane forests. The visual and acoustic components of courtship among Astrapia species are very poorly known. In this study, we use audiovisual data from a natural history collection of animal behavior to fill gaps in knowledge about the visual and acoustic components of Astrapia courtship. We report seven distinct male behaviors and two female specific behaviors along with distinct vocalizations and wing-produced sonations for all five species. These results provide the most complete assessment of courtship in the genus Astrapia to date and provide a valuable baseline for future research, including comparative and evolutionary studies among these and other bird-of-paradise species.

  15. An endocrine disrupting chemical changes courtship and parental care in the sand goby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaristo, Minna, E-mail: [Department of Bio- and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Craft, John A. [Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lehtonen, Kari K. [Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Lindstroem, Kai [Environmental and Marine Biology, Abo Akademi University, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a diverse group of compounds that can mimic, block or modulate the synthesis of natural hormones. They are known to cause impairment of reproduction of aquatic organisms at very low concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine how exposure from 10 to 31 days to 17{alpha}-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 41 ng L{sup -1}) affects the courtship and parental care behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus). The sand goby exhibits a polygynous mating system, where males compete for females and provide paternal care. First, male courtship performance towards a stimulus female was recorded with video camera. Secondly, after the male had received eggs his parental care behaviour was video recorded. In addition to behavioural endpoints, we measured the expression of hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) mRNA, as well as common somatic indices. Our study shows that exposure to EE2 affected male fanning behaviour during both courtship and parental care. Interestingly, small exposed males increased their courtship fanning to similar levels as larger control males. However, during parental care egg fanning was not related to male size, and all exposed males fanned more than control males. The EE2-exposure induced Vtg and Zrp mRNA expression in males and decreased hepatosomatic index (HSI), and increased gonadosomatic index (GSI). Females prefer males that fan more, which will favour the small EDC exposed males. This may lead to mating that favours males that are not strong enough to tend the eggs until they hatch, thus decreasing the reproductive success of individuals.

  16. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

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    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  17. Multi-modal analysis of courtship behaviour in the old world leishmaniasis vector Phlebotomus argentipes.

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    Daniel P Bray


    Full Text Available The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies.P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times.The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals

  18. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.


    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [es

  19. Courtship behaviour of Phlebotomus papatasi the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Chelbi Ifhem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an Old World vector of Leishmania major, the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study describes the courtship behaviour of P. papatasi and compares it with that of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the New World vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Understanding the details of courtship behaviour in P. papatasi may help us to understand the role of sex pheromones in this important vector. Results P. papatasi courtship was found to start with the female touching the male, leading him to begin abdomen bending and wing flapping. Following a period of leg rubbing and facing, the male flaps his wings while approaching the female. The female then briefly flaps her wings in response, to indicate that she is willing to mate, thereby signaling the male to begin copulation. Male P. papatasi did not engage in parading behaviour, which is performed by male L. longipalpis to mark out individual territories during lekking (the establishment and maintenance of mating aggregations, or wing-flap during copulation, believed to function in the production of audio signals important to mate recognition. In P. papatasi the only predictor of mating success for males was previous copulation attempts and for females stationary wing-flapping. By contrast, male L. longipalpis mating success is predicted by male approach-flapping and semi-circling behaviour and for females stationary wing-flapping. Conclusions The results show that there are important differences between the mating behaviours of P. papatasi and L. longipalpis. Abdomen bending, which does not occur in L. longipalpis, may act in the release of sex pheromone from an as yet unidentified site in the male abdomen. In male L. longipalpis wing-flapping is believed to be associated with distribution of male pheromone. These different behaviours are likely to signify significant differences in how pheromone is used, an observation that is consistent

  20. Reduction of fan noise: A concept (United States)

    Simonson, M. R.


    Acoustic materials strategically located within or near noise sources are effective for noise abatement on wing mounted lift fans, nozzles, engines and other noise sources. Panels are straightforward and easily adaptable to situations outside of aircraft technology.

  1. Through their eyes: selective attention in peahens during courtship. (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Babcock, Jason S; Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L


    Conspicuous, multicomponent ornamentation in male animals can be favored by female mate choice but we know little about the cognitive processes females use to evaluate these traits. Sexual selection may favor attention mechanisms allowing the choosing females to selectively and efficiently acquire relevant information from complex male display traits and, in turn, may favor male display traits that effectively capture and hold female attention. Using a miniaturized telemetric gaze-tracker, we show that peahens (Pavo cristatus) selectively attend to specific components of peacock courtship displays and virtually ignore other, highly conspicuous components. Females gazed at the lower train but largely ignored the head, crest and upper train. When the lower train was obscured, however, females spent more time gazing at the upper train and approached the upper train from a distance. Our results suggest that peahens mainly evaluate the lower train during close-up courtship but use the upper train as a long-distance attraction signal. Furthermore, we found that behavioral display components (train rattling and wing shaking) captured and maintained female attention, indicating that interactions between display components may promote the evolution of multicomponent displays. Taken together, these findings suggest that selective attention plays a crucial role in sexual selection and likely influences the evolution of male display traits.

  2. weiqiang fan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. WEIQIANG FAN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 867-872 RESEARCH ARTICLE. A genetic variant in COL11A1 is functionally associated with lumbar disc herniation in Chinese population · WENJUN LIU GUISEN SUN LONGSHENG GUO ...

  3. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation. (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.


    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  4. Courtship display dynamics, iridescent structural color and nanostructural pattern formation in ocellated pheasants (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Dakin, Roslyn; Fang, Rui; Lu, Yabin

    Peacocks court females by tilting a fan-like array of feathers decorated with multicolored eyespots (ocelli). Previous research has shown that half of the variation in peacock mating success can be attributed to eyespot iridescence. Several closely-related pheasant species perform similar, but less complex, courtship displays using ocellated feathers with less complex coloration, patterns and underlying nanostructures. This study explores the relationship between the dynamics of male courtship behavior and optical properties and nanostructure of each species' iridescent feather ornaments. In particular, we examined videos of courting males and of individual feathers to measure how the angles used during displays compared to those corresponding to optimal eyespot reflected intensity and iridescent contrast. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure how the spectrum of reflected light depends on the characteristic angles used during displays, and hence how displays stimulate the four classes of cones found in the color vision systems of these birds. This work reveals a close correlation between the complexity of the angular dependence of iridescent feather reflectance properties and that of the motions used by males of each species.

  5. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

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    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  6. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

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    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  7. Courtship initiation is stimulated by acoustic signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Aki Ejima


    Full Text Available Finding a mating partner is a critical task for many organisms. It is in the interest of males to employ multiple sensory modalities to search for females. In Drosophila melanogaster, vision is thought to be the most important courtship stimulating cue at long distance, while chemosensory cues are used at relatively short distance. In this report, we show that when visual cues are not available, sounds produced by the female allow the male to detect her presence in a large arena. When the target female was artificially immobilized, the male spent a prolonged time searching before starting courtship. This delay in courtship initiation was completely rescued by playing either white noise or recorded fly movement sounds to the male, indicating that the acoustic and/or seismic stimulus produced by movement stimulates courtship initiation, most likely by increasing the general arousal state of the male. Mutant males expressing tetanus toxin (TNT under the control of Gr68a-GAL4 had a defect in finding active females and a delay in courtship initiation in a large arena, but not in a small arena. Gr68a-GAL4 was found to be expressed pleiotropically not only in putative gustatory pheromone receptor neurons but also in mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that Gr68a-positive mechanosensory neurons, not gustatory neurons, provide motion detection necessary for courtship initiation. TNT/Gr68a males were capable of discriminating the copulation status and age of target females in courtship conditioning, indicating that female discrimination and formation of olfactory courtship memory are independent of the Gr68a-expressing neurons that subserve gustation and mechanosensation. This study suggests for the first time that mechanical signals generated by a female fly have a prominent effect on males' courtship in the dark and leads the way to studying how multimodal sensory information and arousal are integrated in behavioral decision making.

  8. Courtship herding in the fiddler crab Uca elegans. (United States)

    How, Martin J; Hemmi, Jan M


    Male and female animals are not always complicit during reproduction, giving rise to coercion. One example of a system that is assumed to involve sexual coercion is the mate herding behaviour of fiddler crabs: males push females towards the home burrow with the goal of forcing copulation at the burrow entrance. We recorded and analysed in detail the courtship behaviour of a North Australian species of fiddler crab Uca elegans. Courtship was composed of four main phases: broadcast waving, outward run, herding and at burrow display. During interactions males produced claw-waving displays which were directed posteriorly towards the female and which varied in timing and structure depending on the courtship phase. We suggest that courtship herding in U. elegans is driven primarily by mate choice for the following reasons, (1) females can evade herding, (2) no other reproductive strategies were observed, (3) males broadcast their presence and accompany courtship with conspicuous claw waves, and (4) the behaviour ends with the female leading the male into the home burrow. As an alternative function for herding in U. elegans we suggest that the behaviour represents a form of courtship guiding, in which males direct complicit females to the correct home burrow.

  9. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie


    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to bo...

  10. Chemical cues from females trigger male courtship behaviour in grasshoppers. (United States)

    Finck, Jonas; Kuntze, Janine; Ronacher, Bernhard


    Gomphocerine grasshoppers use species-specific calling songs for sex recognition and mate attraction. In two closely related species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, acoustic communication is the only experimentally characterized communication channel that elicits male courtship behaviour. However, courtship in these species involves extensive close-range interactions that are likely to be mediated by other signalling modalities, in particular chemical cues. We developed a bioassay to determine if female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) act as chemical cues that induce courtship behaviour, and if males assess variation in CHCs to determine whether or not to court a female. The results of this approach provide evidence that grasshopper males use species- and sex-specific information from CHC signals and respond with a courtship song to the CHC profile of conspecific females but not to the CHC profile of heterospecific females and conspecific males. We conclude that males of C. biguttulus and C. mollis use multimodal channels for mating decisions, based on both acoustic and olfactory cues. We discuss various factors that might favour the evolution of male choosiness in grasshoppers.

  11. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory. (United States)

    Koemans, Tom S; Oppitz, Cornelia; Donders, Rogier A T; van Bokhoven, Hans; Schenck, Annette; Keleman, Krystyna; Kramer, Jamie M


    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits resulting from mutations in genes associated with human cognitive disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This work describes a methodology for testing learning and memory using a classic paradigm in Drosophila known as courtship conditioning. Male flies court females using a distinct pattern of easily recognizable behaviors. Premated females are not receptive to mating and will reject the male's copulation attempts. In response to this rejection, male flies reduce their courtship behavior. This learned reduction in courtship behavior is measured over time, serving as an indicator of learning and memory. The basic numerical output of this assay is the courtship index (CI), which is defined as the percentage of time that a male spends courting during a 10 min interval. The learning index (LI) is the relative reduction of CI in flies that have been exposed to a premated female compared to naïve flies with no previous social encounters. For the statistical comparison of LIs between genotypes, a randomization test with bootstrapping is used. To illustrate how the assay can be used to address the role of a gene relating to learning and memory, the pan-neuronal knockdown of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (Dhap-at) was characterized here. The human ortholog of Dhap-at, glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPT), is involved in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2, an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by severe ID. Using the courtship conditioning assay, it was determined that Dhap-at is required for long-term memory, but not for short-term memory. This result serves as a basis for further investigation of the underlying molecular

  12. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D Briceño


    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  13. Learning of courtship components in Drosophila mercatorum (Paterson & Wheller (Diptera, Drosophilidae Aprendizado de corte sexual em Drosophila mercatorum (Paterson & Wheller (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Polejack


    Full Text Available In Drosophila, courtship is an elaborate sequence of behavioural patterns that enables the flies to identify conspecific mates from those of closely related species. This is important because drosophilids usually gather in feeding sites, where males of various species court females vigorously. We investigated the effects of previous experience on D. mercatorum courtship, by testing if virgin males learn to improve their courtship by observing other flies (social learning, or by adjusting their pre-existent behaviour based on previous experiences (facilitation. Behaviours recorded in a controlled environment were courtship latency, courtship (orientation, tapping and wing vibration, mating and other behaviours not related to sexual activities. This study demonstrated that males of D. mercatorum were capable of improving their mating ability based on prior experiences, but they had no social learning on the development of courtship.Em Drosophila, a corte sexual consiste em uma elaborada seqüência de padrões comportamentais que possibilita às moscas reconhecer parceiros conspecíficos dentre indivíduos de outras espécies. Essa discriminação é importante uma vez que drosofilídeos geralmente se agregam em sítios de alimentação, onde machos de diversas espécies cortejam as fêmeas vigorosamente. Neste estudo, testamos se machos virgens aprimoram seu comportamento de corte mediante a observação do cortejo de outras moscas da população (aprendizado social, ou mediante experiências próprias anteriores (facilitação. O comportamento de corte das moscas, observado em ambiente controlado, foi registrado com relação aos seguintes componentes: latência da corte, duração da corte (orientação, "tapping" e vibração das asas, cópula, e outros comportamentos não relacionados à corte sexual. Os resultados aqui obtidos sugerem que machos de D. mercatorum são capazes de aprimorar sua habilidade de cortejar fêmeas em função de


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. RUO-FAN QIU. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 89 Issue 6 December 2017 pp 81 Research Article. Three-dimensional coupled double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann models for compressible Navier–Stokes equations · RUO-FAN QIU ...

  15. yi fan zheng

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. YI FAN ZHENG. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1329-1333. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic activity of g-C 3 N 4 hybridized CdS nanoparticles · QING YING LIU YI LING QI YI FAN ZHENG XU CHUN SONG.

  16. Online Fan Practices and CALL (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon


    This article provides a narrative overview of research on online fan practices for language and literacy learning, use, and identity work. I begin with an introduction to online fan communities and common fan practices found in these online affinity spaces, the best known of which is fan fiction, fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the…

  17. Sexual coercion and courtship by male western gorillas. (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Andrew M; Robbins, Martha M


    Sexual coercion and courtship are possible explanations for why male primates may direct agonistic behavior towards females. If so, then in species where females exhibit mate choice by transferring between males: (a) females who are not lactating (potential migrants) should receive more agonistic behavior than other females, (b) males should exhibit more agonistic behavior towards females during intergroup encounters than when no rival males are nearby, and (c) males should show more herding behavior when their group contains potential migrant females. We tested those hypotheses in a population of approximately 150 western gorillas at Mbeli Bai, northern Congo. We also tested whether difference in male phenotypic traits influenced their rates of agonistic behavior towards females. Of the 332 observed cases of male agonistic behavior towards females, 29% represented feeding competition, 7 % involved interventions in conflicts between females, and the remaining 64 % were considered potential evidence of sexual coercion and/or courtship. After excluding the cases of feeding competition and intervention, a multivariate analysis indicated that potential migrant females received agonistic behavior at a statistically significantly higher rate than other adult females. Females also received agonistic behavior at a significantly higher rate during intergroup encounters than at other times. Herding occurred during 22% of the 292 dyadic interunit encounters, and was significantly more likely to occur when the group contained a potential migrant female, but was not influenced by the number of adult females or the type of group encountered. Males with shorter body lengths had significantly higher rates of aggression, but phenotypic traits were not significantly correlated with herding. Collectively, our results are consistent with sexual coercion and/or courtship as an explanation for male-to-female agonistic behavior, but we are unable to distinguish between those two male

  18. Football - Feminisation - Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  19. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine


    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de...... rigtige fans, og hvem der tilhører "pøbelen"....

  20. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.


    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  1. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, Søren


    The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional...... status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability...... parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis...

  2. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology (United States)

    Cook, Woodrow L.


    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  3. Smart Fan Modules And System (United States)

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.


    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  4. Wing shape allometry and aerodynamics in calopterygid damselflies: a comparative approach. (United States)

    Outomuro, David; Adams, Dean C; Johansson, Frank


    Wing size and shape have important aerodynamic implications on flight performance. We explored how wing size was related to wing shape in territorial males of 37 taxa of the damselfly family Calopterygidae. Wing coloration was also included in the analyses because it is sexually and naturally selected and has been shown to be related to wing shape. We studied wing shape using both the non-dimensional radius of the second moment of wing area (RSM) and geometric morphometrics. Lower values of the RSM result in less energetically demanding flight and wider ranges of flight speed. We also re-analyzed previously published data on other damselflies and dragonflies. The RSM showed a hump-shaped relationship with wing size. However, after correcting for phylogeny using independent contrast, this pattern changed to a negative linear relationship. The basal genus of the study family, Hetaerina, was mainly driving that change. The obtained patterns were specific for the study family and differed from other damselflies and dragonflies. The relationship between the RSM and wing shape measured by geometric morphometrics was linear, but relatively small changes along the RSM axis can result in large changes in wing shape. Our results also showed that wing coloration may have some effect on RSM. We found that RSM showed a complex relationship with size in calopterygid damselflies, probably as a result of other selection pressures besides wing size per se. Wing coloration and specific behavior (e.g. courtship) are potential candidates for explaining the complexity. Univariate measures of wing shape such as RSM are more intuitive but lack the high resolution of other multivariate techniques such as geometric morphometrics. We suggest that the relationship between wing shape and size are taxa-specific and differ among closely-related insect groups.

  5. 30 CFR 57.4504 - Fan installations. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fan installations. 57.4504 Section 57.4504... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4504 Fan installations. (a) Fan houses, fan bulkheads for main and booster fans, and air ducts connecting main fans to underground openings shall be...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of October 1, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  8. The Fabulous Fact Fan. (United States)

    Couch, Jene P.


    Discusses the use and construction of "fact fans," fun and easy-to-make manipulatives that provide elementary school students with the opportunity to explore mathematics operations being studied in the classroom and to practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts. (BB)

  9. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.


    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  10. The impact of men's magazines on adolescent boys' objectification and courtship beliefs. (United States)

    Ward, L Monique; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven


    Although much attention concerning the potential impact of sexualized media has focused on girls and women, less is known about how this content effects boys' perceptions of women and courtship. Accordingly, the current three-wave panel study investigated whether exposure to sexualizing magazines predicts adolescent boys' (N = 592) sexually objectifying notions of women and their beliefs about feminine courtship strategies. The results indicated that when boys consumed sexualizing magazines more often, they expressed more gender-stereotypical beliefs about feminine courtship strategies over time. This association was mediated by boys' objectification of women. The possibility of a reciprocal relation whereby beliefs about courtship strategies predict future consumption of sexualizing magazines was also explored but received no support. Discussion focuses on effects of sexualizing media on boys, and supports future research to build on multidisciplinary knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel Gene Controlling the Timing of Courtship Initiation in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Luu, Peter; Zaki, Sadaf A; Tran, David H; French, Rachael L


    Over the past 35 years, developmental geneticists have made impressive progress toward an understanding of how genes specify morphology and function, particularly as they relate to the specification of each physical component of an organism. In the last 20 years, male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a robust model system for the study of genetic specification of behavior. Courtship behavior is both complex and innate, and a single gene, fruitless (fru), is both necessary and sufficient for all aspects of the courtship ritual. Typically, loss of male-specific Fruitless protein function results in male flies that perform the courtship ritual incorrectly, slowly, or not at all. Here we describe a novel requirement for fru: we have identified a group of cells in which male Fru proteins are required to reduce the speed of courtship initiation. In addition, we have identified a gene, Trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1), which is required in these cells for normal courtship and mating behavior. Tre1 encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor required for establishment of cell polarity and cell migration and has previously not been shown to be involved in courtship behavior. We describe the results of feminization of the Tre1-expressing neurons, as well as the effects on courtship behavior of mutation of Tre1. In addition, we show that Tre1 is expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern in the central and peripheral nervous systems and investigate the role of the Tre1 cells in mate identification. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies (United States)

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.


    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  13. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay


    Nicolle Lamerichs


    Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play"), in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan commu...

  14. On Fan Raspaud Conjecture


    Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Vanherpe, Jean-Marie


    A conjecture of Fan and Raspaud [3] asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph con-tains three perfect matchings with empty intersection. Kaiser and Raspaud [6] sug-gested a possible approach to this problem based on the concept of a balanced join in an embedded graph. We give here some new results concerning this conjecture and prove that a minimum counterexample must have at least 32 vertices.

  15. Short and fast vs long and slow: age changes courtship in male orb-web spiders ( Argiope keyserlingi) (United States)

    O'Hanlon, James C.; Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.


    Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or `shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased. Males retained some ability to modulate courtship quality (shudder duration and number of rocks within each shudder) in response to female quality. A change in courtship performance over time, despite strong selection for repeatability, indicates that ageing in male A. keyserlingi may have direct impacts on reproductive performance.

  16. Courtship, sex and poverty: illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Wales. (United States)

    Muir, Angela Joy


    This article sheds new light on illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Britain through an analysis of evidence from 36 parishes across the former Welsh counties Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire. Quantitative analysis of illegitimacy ratios demonstrates that levels were significantly higher in certain, but not all, parts of Wales in the eighteenth century. This evidence is considered in relation to explanatory frameworks used in the analysis of English data, which attempt to account for rising levels through cultural changes that influenced premarital sexual behaviour, and economic opportunities created by industrialization. Welsh evidence appears to present a challenge to these understandings in two key ways: Wales was linguistically different and lacked certain cultural markers which some historians have associated with an eighteenth-century 'sexual revolution', and because the highest levels of illegitimacy were found in agricultural regions of Wales which experienced little or no industrial change. It is argued that Welsh illegitimacy was influenced by a combination of courtship-led marriage customs, a decline in traditional forms of social control and worsening economic circumstances which, on closer examination, appear remarkably similar to London. This analysis provides further evidence that illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Britain was a deeply complex phenomenon governed by diverse regionally specific social and economic influences.

  17. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena


    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  18. 75 FR 79952 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN... (United States)


    ... Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON.... (1) DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 airplanes, Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E... airplanes Inspection threshold (whichever occurs later) Inspection interval Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET...

  19. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Alvan-Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State ... Owerri, Imo State. Abstract. The study found out the dynamics of becoming football fans and supporting the chosen football teams by tertiary students in Lagos. Basically, the ... sense of social affiliation, identity and self-esteem are boosted and those of the fan of.

  20. Effects of age on the courtship, copulation, and fecundity of Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae). (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Qian; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Qinghong; Yun, Yueli; Peng, Yu


    According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F 1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P. pseudoannulata. However, age had a significant effect on courtship latency, courtship intensity, and mating duration of the spider. Courtship latency decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the male, and courtship intensity of the low-age male increased with increasing female age. Increasing age of male and female spiders was associated with significantly prolonged mating duration. The results indicated that low-age male spiders were more inclined to mate with high-age females, and age had no significant effect on sexual cannibalism rate or the fecundity of the female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction in courtship behavior induced by DDE in male ringed turtle doves (United States)

    Haegele, M.A.; Hudson, R.H.


    The effects of p,p?-DDE on the intensity of male Ringed Turtle Doves? courtship behavior were determined for dietary levels of 10 ppm and 50 ppm (dry weight). Pairs of doves were placed in cages for 12.5 min on 5 consecutive days for behavioral observation before dietary treatment and for periods 31-35 and 5963 days after initiation of the treated diet. Total amount of time spent displaying courtship behavior and bow-coo frequency were analyzed through video tape recording..... The 50.ppm diet caused a reduction in total courtship activity time and in bow-coo frequency for both posttreatment observation periods. The 10-ppm diet did not affect bow-coo frequency and total activity time at 31-35 days but did cause a significant reduction in courtship behavior during the observation period. The DDE residues found in the male Ringed Turtle Doves showing reduced courtship behavior were lower than residues found in many species of birds that have shown reproductive failures in the wild.

  2. Initial courtship behavior and stalking: how should we draw the line? (United States)

    Sinclair, H C; Frieze, I H


    As noted by Schaum and Parrish (1995), stalking blurs the boundaries between normal courtship and obsessive behavior. Consequently, stalking proves an elusive phenomenon to define and to study. Where does courtship end and stalking begin? To address this question, 197 women and 44 men from the University of Pittsburgh who had loved someone who did not love them in return were surveyed about their feelings and actions in response to this rejection. Factor analyses revealed six groupings of behaviors in response to unrequited courtship: approach, surveillance, intimidation, harming oneself, verbal abuse/mild physical harm, and extreme physical harm. Approach behavior was reported to be used more often by men, but there were no significant differences between men and women in the self-reported prevalence of other types of courtship behaviors. Correlations reveal that feelings of anger and depression were the most common predictors of violent behavior for both men and women. Pursuer-perceptions of what behaviors connoted "going too far" in pursuit of a relationship proved unreliable. However, when pursuers were asked whether their love interest was afraid of them, fear was a reaction perceived in response to intimidation. Although it is likely that pursuer perceptions of where to draw the line would differ from the view of the love object, these results suggest that engaging in intimidation would be an appropriate place to draw the line between courtship and stalking.

  3. Fan Cart: The Next Generation (United States)

    Lamore, Brian


    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  4. Genetically Regulated Temporal Variation of Novel Courtship Elements in the Hawaiian Cricket Genus Laupala (United States)

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Shaw, Kerry L.


    The Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae) has undergone rapid and extensive speciation, with divergence in male song and female acoustic preference playing a role in maintaining species boundaries. Recent study of interspecific differences in the diel rhythmicity of singing and mating, suggests that temporal variation in behavior may reduce gene flow between species. In addition, Laupala perform an elaborate and protracted courtship, providing potential for further temporal variation. However, whether these behavioral differences have a genetic basis or result from environmental variation is unknown. We observed courtship and mating in a common garden study of the sympatric species, Laupala cerasina and Laupala paranigra. We document interspecific differences in the onset and duration of courtship, spermatophore production rate, and diel mating rhythmicity. Our study demonstrates a genetic contribution to interspecific behavioral differences, and suggests an evolutionary pathway to the origins of novel timing phenotypes. PMID:20878226

  5. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) engine acoustic design (United States)

    Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.


    The acoustic considerations involved in the low source noise basic engine design and the design procedures followed in the development of the under-the-wing (UTW) engine boilerplate and composite nacelle acoustic treatment designs are presented. Laboratory experiments, component tests, and scale model and engine tests supporting the UTW engine acoustic design are referenced. Acoustic design features include a near-sonic inlet, low fan and core pressure ratios, low fan tip speed, high and low frequency stacked core treatment, multiple thickness treatment, and fan frame and stator vane treatment.

  6. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Over-The-Wing (OTW) engine acoustic design (United States)

    Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.


    The acoustic considerations involved in the low source noise basic engine design and the design procedures followed in the development of the over-the-wing (OTW) nacelle acoustic treatment design are presented. Laboratory experiments, component tests, and scale model and engine tests supporting the OTW engine acoustic design are referenced. Acoustic design features include a near-sonic inlet, low fan and core pressure ratios, low fan tip speed, high and low frequency stacked core treatment, multiple thickness treatment, and fan frame and stator vane treatment.

  7. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason


    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  8. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans installed...

  9. 75 FR 43878 - Airworthiness Directives; DASSAULT AVIATION Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN... (United States)


    ... Model Falcon 10 Airplanes; Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G Airplanes.... Since that NPRM was issued, we have determined that Model FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G..., Model FAN JET FALCON, FAN JET FALCON SERIES C, D, E, F, and G airplanes, and Model MYSTERE-FALCON 20-C5...

  10. Supersonic STOVL fighter concepts featuring the hybrid tandem-fan propulsion system (United States)

    Gelhausen, P. A.; Wilson, S. B., III


    Current research on vertical- or short-takeoff-and-landing (V/STOL) aircraft is concentrating on developing a multirole-capable fighter. Several V/STOL concepts being studied show a capability performing for short-takeoff and vertical-landing (STOVL) missions. This paper is concerned with a propulsion concept which promises added flexibility in mission performance: the hybrid-tandem fan. This propulsion concept is combined with four aircraft planforms and the performance of each is evaluated on a representative mission. The four aircraft planforms used in the study are a conventional wing-tail, a forward-swept wing and canard, a delta-wing and canard, and an oblique wing and tail. The mission was chosen so that the four aircraft all had approximately the same gross takeoff weight. The four designs are compared at various phases of the mission.

  11. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs


    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Ventilating Fans (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ventilating Fans that are effective as of...

  14. Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins inhibit interspecies courtship and promote aggression in Drosophila. (United States)

    Gupta, Tarun; Morgan, Hannah R; Andrews, Jonathan C; Brewer, Edmond R; Certel, Sarah J


    Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies. Drosophila melanogaster males with a reduction in dMBD-R2 specifically in octopamine (OA) neurons exhibit courtship toward divergent interspecies D. virilis and D. yakuba females and a decrease in conspecific mating success. Conspecific male-male courtship is increased between dMBD-R2-deficient males while aggression is reduced. These changes in adaptive behavior are separable as males with a hypermethylated OA neuronal genome exhibited a decrease in aggression without altering male-male courtship. These results suggest Drosophila MBD-containing proteins are required within the OA neural circuitry to inhibit interspecies and conspecific male-male courtship and indicate that the genetically hard-wired neural mechanisms enforcing behavioral reproductive isolation include the interpretation of the epigenome.

  15. Do male birds intercept and use rival courtship calls to adjust paternity protection behaviours?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; McGregor, Peter Kenneth; Peake, Thomas More


    Abstract: We tested whether male rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) change behaviours directed at their females when played back courtship display calls simulating a potential cuckolding event in the vicinity of their nests. We compared the behaviour of males before, during and after such playback...

  16. Experimental tests of light-pollution impacts on nocturnal insect courtship and dispersal. (United States)

    Firebaugh, Ariel; Haynes, Kyle J


    Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have a unique communication system whereby bioluminescent flashes are used in courtship displays to find and attract mates. We performed a series of manipulative field experiments in which we quantified the effects of adding artificial nighttime lighting on abundances and total flashing activity of fireflies, courtship behaviors and mating between tethered females and free-flying males, and dispersal distances of marked individuals. We show that light pollution reduces flashing activities in a dark-active firefly species (Photuris versicolor) by 69.69 % and courtship behavior and mating success in a twilight-active species (Photinus pyralis). Though courtship behavior and mating success of Photinus pyralis was reduced by light pollution, we found no effects of light pollution on male dispersal in this species. Our findings suggest that light pollution is likely to adversely impact firefly populations, and contribute to wider discussions about the ecological consequences of sensory pollution.

  17. Sexually dimorphic activation of dopaminergic areas depends on affiliation during courtship and pair formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai eIwasaki


    Full Text Available For many species, dyadic interaction during courtship and pair bonding engage intense emotional states that control approach or avoidance behavior. Previous studies have shown that one component of a common social brain network (SBN, dopaminergic areas, are highly engaged during male songbird courtship of females. We tested whether the level of activity in dopaminergic systems of both females and males during courtship is related to their level of affiliation. In order to objectively quantify affiliative behaviors, we developed a system for tracking the position of both birds during free interaction sessions. During a third successive daily interaction session, there was a range of levels of affiliation among bird pairs, as quantified by several position and movement parameters. Because both positive and negative social interactions were present, we chose to characterize affiliation strength by pair valence. As a potential neural system involved in regulating pair valence, the level of activity of the dopaminergic group A11 (within the central gray was selectively reduced in females of positive valence pairs. Further, activation of non-dopaminergic neurons in VTA was negatively related to valence, with this relationship strongest in ventral VTA of females. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of fear or avoidance networks may be associated with development of close affiliation, and highlight the importance of negative as well as positive emotional states in the process of courtship, and in development of long-lasting social bonds.

  18. The Bengal Submarine Fan, Northeastern Indian ocean (United States)

    Emmel, F. J.; Curray, J. R.


    Bengal Submarine Fan, with or without its eastern lobe, the Nicobar Fan, is the largest submarine fan known. Most of its sediment has been supplied by the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, probably since the Early Eocene. The “Swatch-of-No-Ground” submarine canyon connects to only one active fan valley system at a time, without apprent bifurcation over its 2500-km length. The upper fan is comprised of a complex of huge channel-levee wedges of abandoned and buried older systems. A reduction of channel size and morphology occurs at the top of the middle, fan, where meandering and sheet flow become more important.

  19. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan (United States)

    Converse, David


    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  20. Energy consumption characteristics of transports using the prop-fan concept (United States)


    The fuel saving and economic potentials of the prop-fan high-speed propeller concept were evaluated for twin-engine commercial transport airplanes designed for 3333.6 km range, 180 passengers, and Mach 0.8 cruise. A fuel saving of 9.7% at the design range was estimated for a prop-fan airplane having wing-mounted engines, while a 5.8% saving was estimated for a design having the engines mounted on the aft body. The fuel savings and cost were found to be sensitive to the propeller noise level and to aerodynamic drag effects due to wing-slipstream interaction. Uncertainties in these effects could change the fuel savings as much as + or - 50%. A modest improvement in direct operating cost (DOC) was estimated for the wing-mounted prop-fan at current fuel prices. This improvement could become substantial in the event of further relative increases in the price of oil. The improvement in DOC requires the achievement of the nominal fuel saving and reductions in propeller and gearbox maintenance costs relative to current experience.

  1. Design and construction of a remote piloted flying wing. B.S. Thesis (United States)

    Costa, Alfred J.; Koopman, Fritz; Soboleski, Craig; Trieu, Thai-Ba; Duquette, Jaime; Krause, Scott; Susko, David; Trieu, Thuyba


    Currently, there is a need for a high-speed, high-lift civilian transport. Although unconventional, a flying wing could fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and still retain the capacity of a 747. The design of the flying wing is inherently unstable since it lacks a fuselage and a horizontal tail. The project goal was to design, construct, fly, and test a remote-piloted scale model flying wing. The project was completed as part of the NASA/USRA Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. These unique restrictions required us to implement several fundamental design changes from last year's Elang configuration including wing sweepback and wingtip endplates. Unique features such as a single ducted fan engine, composite structural materials, and an electrostatic stability system were incorporated. The result is the Banshee '94. Our efforts will aid future projects in design and construction techniques so that a viable flying wing can become an integral part of the aviation industry.

  2. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... The researcher reviewed relevant primary and secondary literature relating to women’s football, female football consumption and identity dynamics in a European perspective. Between March and August 2013, 31 semi-structured interviews with Danish women aged between 24 and 60 years were conducted following...

  3. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianqiang Luo


    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  4. Male courtship behavior and weapon trait as indicators of indirect benefit in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yû Suzaki

    Full Text Available Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male-male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male-male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male-male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection.

  5. The Drosophila female aphrodisiac pheromone activates ppk23(+) sensory neurons to elicit male courtship behavior. (United States)

    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J


    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23(+) neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23(+) sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Toda


    Full Text Available Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD, is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23+ neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23+ sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  7. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study (United States)

    Lucero, John


    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  8. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.


    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Perception of violence in courtship between university students: control or love?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Leticia Flores Palacios


    Full Text Available Violence between courting couples is a central theme in many research works. In this particular study we analysed the perception of violence within courtship between university students. One of the most important findings was that psychological and emotional violence – consisting in controlling the other person and using nicknames to humiliate him/her – was the most common. Both sexes agree that both men and women may be the aggressors or the victims of this kind of violence.

  10. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    was determined for a ceiling fan, a desk fan, standing fan, and a tower fan in a real office at three room air temperatures and at different fan speed levels. The results reveal that the index is sensitive enough to identify differences in the performance of the cooling devices. A standard method for testing fan...

  11. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.


    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Ryzhov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of numerical studies of flow in a high axial fan of H-2, the geometric parameters are carefully designed by the author. The coefficients of performance, the total pressure, efficiency and capacity. Shows the benefits of fan of H-2 on several other fans, expressed in increased efficiency with equal dimensions and angles of blade setting.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics study of the variable-pitch split-blade fan concept (United States)

    Kepler, C. E.; Elmquist, A. R.; Davis, R. L.


    A computational fluid dynamics study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the variable-pitch split-blade supersonic fan concept. This fan configuration was conceived as a means to enable a supersonic fan to switch from the supersonic through-flow type of operation at high speeds to a conventional fan with subsonic inflow and outflow at low speeds. During this off-design, low-speed mode of operation, the fan would operate with a substantial static pressure rise across the blade row like a conventional transonic fan; the front (variable-pitch) blade would be aligned with the incoming flow, and the aft blade would remain fixed in the position set by the supersonic design conditions. Because of these geometrical features, this low speed configuration would inherently have a large amount of turning and, thereby, would have the potential for a large total pressure increase in a single stage. Such a high-turning blade configuration is prone to flow separation; it was hoped that the channeling of the flow between the blades would act like a slotted wing and help alleviate this problem. A total of 20 blade configurations representing various supersonic and transonic configurations were evaluated using a Navier Stokes CFD program called ADAPTNS because of its adaptive grid features. The flow fields generated by this computational procedure were processed by another data reduction program which calculated average flow properties and simulated fan performance. These results were employed to make quantitative comparisons and evaluations of blade performance. The supersonic split-blade configurations generated performance comparable to a single-blade supersonic, through-flow fan configuration. Simulated rotor total pressure ratios of the order of 2.5 or better were achieved for Mach 2.0 inflow conditions. The corresponding fan efficiencies were approximately 75 percent or better. The transonic split-blade configurations having large amounts of turning were able to

  14. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology (United States)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  15. Industrial fans used in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.A.


    Industrial fans are widely used in nuclear facilities, and their most common use is in building ventilation. To control the spread of contamination, airflows are maintained at high levels. Therefore, the selection of the fan and fan control are important to the safety of people, equipment and the environment. As a result, 80% of all energy used in nuclear facilities is fan energy. Safety evolves from the durability, control and redundancy in the system. In new or retrofit installations, testing and qualification of fans and systems are completed prior to start-up. Less important but necessary is the energy conservation aspect of fan selection and installations. Fan efficiency, type of control and system installation are evaluated for energy use


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu


    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  17. Flutter of swept fan blades (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.; Kaza, K. R. V.


    The effect of sweep on fan blade flutter is studied by applying the analytical methods developed for aeroelastic analysis of advance turboprops. Two methods are used. The first method utilizes an approximate structural model in which the blade is represented by a swept, nonuniform beam. The second method utilizes a finite element technique to conduct modal flutter analysis. For both methods the unsteady aerodynamic loads are calculated using two dimensional cascade theories which are modified to account for sweep. An advanced fan stage is analyzed with 0, 15 and 30 degrees of sweep. It is shown that sweep has a beneficial effect on predominantly torsional flutter and a detrimental effect on predominantly bending flutter. This detrimental effect is shown to be significantly destabilizing for 30 degrees of sweep.

  18. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  19. Wings as impellers: honey bees co-opt flight system to induce nest ventilation and disperse pheromones. (United States)

    Peters, Jacob M; Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey A


    Honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland. In order to understand how the physical demands of these impeller-like behaviors differ from those of flight, we quantified the flapping kinematics and compared the frequency, amplitude and stroke plane angle during these non-flight behaviors with values reported for hovering honey bees. We also used a particle-based flow visualization technique to determine the direction and speed of airflow generated by a bee performing Nasonov scenting behavior. We found that ventilatory fanning behavior is kinematically distinct from both flight and scenting behavior. Both impeller-like behaviors drive flow parallel to the surface to which the bees are clinging, at typical speeds of just under 1 m s -1 We observed that the wings of fanning and scenting bees frequently contact the ground during the ventral stroke reversal, which may lead to wing wear. Finally, we observed that bees performing Nasonov scenting behavior sometimes display 'clap-and-fling' motions, in which the wings contact each other during the dorsal stroke reversal and fling apart at the start of the downstroke. We conclude that the wings and flight motor of honey bees comprise a multifunctional system, which may be subject to competing selective pressures because of its frequent use as both a propeller and an impeller. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  1. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior


    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J.


    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court female...

  2. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan (United States)

    Envia, Ed


    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  3. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension. (United States)

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L


    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  4. Female rock sparrows (Petronia petronia), not males, respond differently to simulations of different courtship interaction outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.


    Animals communicate in networks which spread beyond the classic sender-receiver dyad. Researchers have often concentrated on networks of signalling males, but the network-level effects of male-female signalling interactions are largely unexplored, even though these can contain information when...... individuals of both sexes have access to a range of mating strategies. We tested whether rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) behave differently after hearing playbacks of vocal interactions simulating a successful courtship as opposed to playback of an unsuccessful courtship. We found no support for our...... which heard the unsuccessful courtship simulation. Therefore, females responded to the treatments as if these represented different degrees of competition for either mates or nest sites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, among the first experimental demonstrations that female birds intercept...

  5. 30 CFR 57.8518 - Main and booster fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main and booster fans. 57.8518 Section 57.8518... and Underground § 57.8518 Main and booster fans. (a) All mine main and booster fans installed and used...-cycle shutdowns or planned or scheduled fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is...

  6. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... a conversation about the best methods for teaching fan studies, and help to open up fan studies to be integrated into other courses and programs....

  7. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study


    Sheng Fu; Yinbo Gao


    This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under di...

  8. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines (United States)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.


    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  9. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.


    Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...... in a complete sample of low redshift clusters to be used as reference sample for evolutionary studies. The WINGS survey is still ongoing and the original dataset will be enlarged with new observations. This paper presents the entire collection of WINGS measurements obtained so far. Methods. We decided to make......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90...

  10. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing


    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  11. NASA Fixed Wing Project Propulsion Research and Technology Development Activities to Reduce Thrust Specific Energy Consumption (United States)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; DelRasario, Ruben; Madavan, Nateri K.


    This paper presents an overview of the propulsion research and technology portfolio of NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Fixed Wing Project. The research is aimed at significantly reducing the thrust specific fuel/energy consumption of notional advanced fixed wing aircraft (by 60 % relative to a baseline Boeing 737-800 aircraft with CFM56-7B engines) in the 2030-2035 time frame. The research investments described herein are aimed at improving propulsive efficiency through higher bypass ratio fans, improving thermal efficiency through compact high overall pressure ratio gas generators, and exploring the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion propulsion and hybrid gas-electric propulsion concepts.

  12. Fan Fuel Casting Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    LANL was approached to provide material and design guidance for a fan-shaped fuel element. A total of at least three castings were planned. The first casting is a simple billet mold to be made from high carbon DU-10Mo charge material. The second and third castings are for optimization of the actual fuel plate mold. The experimental scope for optimization is only broad enough for a second iteration of the mold design. It is important to note that partway through FY17, this project was cancelled by the sponsor. This report is being written in order to capture the knowledge gained should this project resume at a later date.

  13. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.


    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [es

  14. Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in butterflies. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi


    Male butterflies compete over mating opportunities. Two types of contest behavior are reported. Males of various butterfly species compete over a mating territory via aerial interactions until one of the two contestants retreats. Males of other butterfly species fly around larval food plants to find receptive females. Males of some species among the latter type can find a conspecific pupa, and they gather around it without expelling their rivals. Scramble competition over mating occurs when a female emerges from the pupa. Many studies have been performed on territorial species, and their contest resolution has often been understood from the point of view of contest models based on game theory. However, these models cannot explain why these butterflies perform contest displays despite the fact that they do not have the ability to attack their opponent. A recent study based on Lloyd Morgan's Canon showed that territorial contests of male butterflies are better understood as erroneous courtship between sexually active males. In this paper, I review research on contests over mating opportunity in butterflies, and show that the erroneous courtship framework can explain not only territorial contests of butterflies but also why males do not determine the owner of a conspecific pupa.

  15. Behavioral and neural lateralization of vision in courtship singing of the zebra finch. (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Hara, Erina; Hessler, Neal A


    Along with human speech and language processing, birdsong has been one of the best-characterized model systems for understanding the relationship of lateralization of brain function to behavior. Lateralization of song production has been extensively characterized, and lateralization of song perception has begun to be studied. Here we have begun to examine whether behavior and brain function are lateralized in relation to communicative aspects of singing, as well. In order to monitor central brain function, we assayed the levels of several activity dependent immediate early genes after directed courtship singing. Consistent with a lateralization of visual processing during communication, there were higher levels of expression of both egr-1 and c-fos in the left optic tectum after directed singing. Because input from the eyes to the brain is almost completely contralateral in birds, these results suggest that visual input from the right eye should be favored during normal singing to females. Consistent with this, we further found that males sang more when they could use only their right eye compared to when they could use only their left eye. Normal levels of singing, though, required free use of both eyes to view the female. These results suggest that there is a preference for visual processing by the right eye and left brain hemisphere during courtship singing. This may reflect a proposed specialization of the avian left hemisphere in sustaining attention on stimuli toward which a motor response is planned.

  16. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan (United States)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.


    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  17. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement


    Bethan Jones


    I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine t...

  18. The Right to Be a Fan (United States)

    Gutierrez, Peter


    Reading experts have consistently cited the importance of independent reading, reading for pleasure, and fostering "a love of reading." Unfortunately, fanning the fire of fan readership is not so easy in the service of our clear-cut and standards-aligned curricula, except perhaps in small, carefully channeled doses. Moreover, the impetus for such…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    antiretroviral roll-out in full swing, the. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS. The free time and expertise given by its deeply committed core of professional volunteers. (including pilots) is the lifeblood of the operation. Red Cross Air Mercy Service volunteer, German national Dr Florian Funk, at the AMS Durban base.

  20. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids - An Enigma for Entomologists. Alpana Mazumdar. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Unducted Fans (United States)

    Marscher, William


    With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.

  2. Advanced Noise Control Fan Aerodynamic Performance (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F., Jr.


    The Advanced Noise Control Fan at the NASA Glenn Research Center is used to experimentally analyze fan generated acoustics. In order to determine how a proposed noise reduction concept affects fan performance, flow measurements can be used to compute mass flow. Since tedious flow mapping is required to obtain an accurate mass flow, an equation was developed to correlate the mass flow to inlet lip wall static pressure measurements. Once this correlation is obtained, the mass flow for future configurations can be obtained from the nonintrusive wall static pressures. Once the mass flow is known, the thrust and fan performance can be evaluated. This correlation enables fan acoustics and performance to be obtained simultaneously without disturbing the flow.

  3. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.


    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non-homogeneous i...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included.......This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non...

  4. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads (United States)

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.


    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  5. What is the password? Female bark beetles (Scolytinae) grant males access to their galleries based on courtship song. (United States)

    Lindeman, Amanda A; Yack, Jayne E


    Acoustic signals are commonly used by insects in the context of mating, and signals can vary depending on the stage of interaction between a male and female. While calling songs have been studied extensively, particularly in the Orthoptera, much less is known about courtship songs. One outstanding question is how potential mates are differentiated by their courtship signal characteristics. We examined acoustic courtship signals in a new system, bark beetles (Scolytinae). In the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) males produce chirp trains upon approaching the entrance of a female's gallery. We tested the hypotheses that acoustic signals are honest indicators of male condition and that females choose males based on signal characteristics. Males generated two distinct chirp types (simple and interrupted), and variability in their prevalence correlated with an indicator of male quality, body size, with larger males producing significantly more interrupted chirps. Females showed a significant preference for males who produced interrupted chirps, suggesting that females distinguish between males on the basis of their chirp performances. We suggest that interrupted chirps during courtship advertise a male's size and/or motor skills, and function as the proverbial 'passwords' that allow him entry to a female's gallery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tango to traffic : a field study into consequences of noisy urban conditions for acoustic courtship interactions in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, Wouter


    The acoustic courtship display of a male and a female great tit show all the characteristics of a passionate dance. This thesis examines the impact of anthropogenic noise on the acoustic communication between males and females and the relationship with reproduction.

  7. Wing, tail, and vocal contributions to the complex acoustic signals of courting Calliope hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James CLARK


    Full Text Available Multi-component signals contain multiple signal parts expressed in the same physical modality. One way to identify individual components is if they are produced by different physical mechanisms. Here, I studied the mechanisms generating acoustic signals in the courtship displays of the Calliope hummingbird Stellula calliope. Display dives consisted of three synchronized sound elements, a high-frequency tone (hft, a low frequency tone (lft, and atonal sound pulses (asp, which were then followed by a frequency-modulated fall. Manipulating any of the rectrices (tail-feathers of wild males impaired production of the lft and asp but not the hft or fall, which are apparently vocal. I tested the sound production capabilities of the rectrices in a wind tunnel. Single rectrices could generate the lft but not the asp, whereas multiple rectrices tested together produced sounds similar to the asp when they fluttered and collided with their neighbors percussively, representing a previously unknown mechanism of sound production. During the shuttle display, a trill is generated by the wings during pulses in which the wingbeat frequency is elevated to 95 Hz, 40% higher than the typical hovering wingbeat frequency. The Calliope hummingbird courtship displays include sounds produced by three independent mechanisms, and thus include a minimum of three acoustic signal components. These acoustic mechanisms have different constraints and thus potentially contain different messages. Producing multiple acoustic signals via multiple mechanisms may be a way to escape the constraints present in any single mechanism [Current Zoology 57 (2: 187–196, 2011].

  8. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)


    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  9. Barriers to gene exchange in hybridizing field crickets: the role of male courtship effort and cuticular hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Maroja, Luana S; McKenzie, Zachary M; Hart, Elizabeth; Jing, Joy; Larson, Erica L; Richardson, David P


    Pre-zygotic barriers often involve some form of sexual selection, usually interpreted as female choice, as females are typically the choosier sex. However, males typically show some mate preferences, which are increasingly reported. Here we document previously uncharacterized male courtship behavior (effort and song) and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the hybridizing crickets Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus. These two species exhibit multiple barriers to gene exchange that act throughout their life history, including a behavioral barrier that results in increased time to mate in heterospecific pairs. We demonstrated that male mate choice (as courtship effort allocation) plays a more important role in the prezygotic behavioral barrier than previously recognized. In gryllids females ultimately decide whether or not to mate, yet we found males were selective by regulating courtship effort intensity toward the preferred (conspecific) females. Females were also selective by mating with more intensely courting males, which happened to be conspecifics. We report no differences in courtship song between the two species and suggest that the mechanism that allows males to act differentially towards conspecific and heterospecific females is the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition. CHC profiles differed between males and females of both species, and there were clear differences in CHC composition between female G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus but not between the males of each species. Although many barriers to gene exchange are known in this system, the mechanism behind the mate recognition leading to reduced heterospecific mating remains unknown. The CHC profiles might be the phenotypic cue that allow males to identify conspecifics and thus to adjust their courtship intensity accordingly, leading to differential mating between species.

  10. Characterization of courtship sounds of species of the subgroup fasciola (Diptera, Drosophilidae, Drosophila repleta group: interspecific and interpopulational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. A. COSTA

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the male courtship song pattern of various species of the fasciola subgroup and to determine the level of variation both within and among species. The parameters analyzed were intrapulse interval (PI, interpulse interval (IPI, and intrapulse frequency (IF. Six different species were analyzed: D. coroica (three populations, D. ellisoni, D. fascioloides, D. moju, D. onca, and D. rosinae (one population each. There were significant differences among the six species for these three courtship song parameters. The IPI was the most variable parameter among these species, suggesting that this parameter is important for female discrimination. Four different hypotheses could explain this variation: 1. different selection pressures with absence of flow gene; 2. intraspecific sexual selection; 3. sympatric effects on song evolution; and 4. genetic drift. The PI was the only parameter that was significantly different among the three population of D. coroica. Low variability among populations within the same species was already observed for other subgroups and could be explained by the following hypotheses: strong selection acting on the song parameters, gene flow, or recent colonization from a common source. Additional studies of the courtship song of other species of the fasciola subgroup, as well as for other subgroups of the repleta group, and studies, using molecular makers, that focus on the genetic basis of the differences among these species in courtship song would allow us to evaluate the association of courtship song and sexual isolation in these species, and would also help us to understand the evolution of these behavioural differences.

  11. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans (United States)


    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  12. School spirits: alcohol and collegiate sports fans. (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry


    While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans (United States)

    Moran, D. D.


    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  14. Sexual courtship of steriles males of Ceratitis Capitata (WIED) in SIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhel, Salma


    In the SIT programme, the success of sterile males to compete with the fertile males is an important parameter for assuring efficiency. In this study, two methods are tested to improve the sterile male quality: the first is the exposure of sterile males to different concentrations of Ginger Root Oil (GRO) (0, 20, 50 and 80 μl), the second is the exposure of males to different irradiation doses (80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 145 Gy). The comparison of these methods depends to study of quality parameters (emergence, flight ability, survival) and courtship behaviour of sterile males (sperm production, mating competitiveness, sperm transfer). The 80μl concentration of GRO improves the mating competitiveness of males to compare with the Control (respectively: 68% and 46%). The 80 Gy irradiation dose assure the same result then the Control. (Author)

  15. The dating mind: evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship. (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor


    In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.

  16. Persistent activity in a recurrent circuit underlies courtship memory in Drosophila (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lenek, Daniela; Dag, Ugur; Dickson, Barry J


    Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBγ), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory. These data support a model in which persistent aSP13 activity within a recurrent circuit lays the foundation for a short-term memory. PMID:29322941

  17. A critical period of sleep for development of courtship circuitry and behavior in Drosophila. (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita


    Most animals sleep more early in life than in adulthood, but the function of early sleep is not known. Using Drosophila, we found that increased sleep in young flies was associated with an elevated arousal threshold and resistance to sleep deprivation. Excess sleep results from decreased inhibition of a sleep-promoting region by a specific dopaminergic circuit. Experimental hyperactivation of this circuit in young flies results in sleep loss and lasting deficits in adult courtship behaviors. These deficits are accompanied by impaired development of a single olfactory glomerulus, VA1v, which normally displays extensive sleep-dependent growth after eclosion. Our results demonstrate that sleep promotes normal brain development that gives rise to an adult behavior critical for species propagation and suggest that rapidly growing regions of the brain are most susceptible to sleep perturbations early in life.

  18. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.


    possibilities. The Boeing N2 hybrid-wing-body (HWB) is used as a baseline aircraft for this study. The two pylon mounted conventional turbofans are replaced by two wing-tip mounted turboshaft engines, each driving a superconducting generator. Both generators feed a common electrical bus which distributes power to an array of superconducting motor-driven fans in a continuous nacelle centered along the trailing edge of the upper surface of the wing-body. A key finding was that traditional inlet performance methodology has to be modified when most of the air entering the inlet is boundary layer air. A very thorough and detailed propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) analysis is required at the very beginning of the design process since embedded engine inlet performance must be based on conditions at the inlet lip rather than freestream conditions. Examination of a range of fan pressure ratios yielded a minimum Thrust-specific-fuel-consumption (TSFC) at the aerodynamic design point of the vehicle (31,000 ft /Mach 0.8) between 1.3 and 1.35 FPR. We deduced that this was due to the higher pressure losses prior to the fan inlet as well as higher losses in the 2-D inlets and nozzles. This FPR is likely to be higher than the FPR that yields a minimum TSFC in a pylon mounted engine. 1

  19. Evolution of courtship display in Estrildid finches: Dance in relation to female song and plumage ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo eSoma


    Full Text Available Estrildid finches are known for great interspecific diversity in the degree of elaboration in courtship dance, song and plumage coloration and also for the considerable sex differences in these traits within species. To study the evolution of multimodal sexual signaling in these taxa, we collected data on 85 species and analyzed them in a phylogenetic comparative study. As dances are often displayed in parallel with songs and include behavioral elements to emphasize coloration, they are likely to evolve non-independently of songs and plumage characteristics. Hence, we hypothesized that the degree of elaboration in dance would be associated with song and plumage ornamentation due to correlated responses between traits. Alternatively, each sexual signal may evolve independently of the others under the influence of different aspects of reproductive ecology or life history. Finally, because trait expression occurs in both males and females and can be caused by pleiotropic effects, we predicted correlated exaggerations of the traits between sexes as well. We found that courtship dance, song and plumage coloration evolve independently, as these traits were not correlated among species in either sex (i.e. the presence of female song were not related to female dance repertoire. However, we found evidence for correlated responses between the sexes, as species that have males with complex dances or colorful plumage also have females with exaggerated traits. Yet, selection factors acting on these traits were only partially shared between sexes. While coloration can be predicted by intraspecific brood parasitism and dance by body size in females, we were unable to reveal similar relationships in males. Our results indicate that different secondary sexual characters in Estrildids finches evolved under the influence of complicated selection factors, in which both correlated responses between sexes as well as independent selective mechanisms play roles.

  20. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn D.W.H.


    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  1. Design optimization of deployable wings (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  2. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.


    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  3. FANS-3D Users Guide (ESTEP Project ER 201031) (United States)


    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3293 August 2016 FANS -3D User’s Guide (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn-Ching...1.1 THEORY AND NUMERICAL ALGORITHM OF FANS CODE ............................................. 1 2. FANS -3D SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION AND EXECUTION...5 3. FANS -3D CODE PARALLELIZATION

  4. 30 CFR 75.310 - Installation of main mine fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of main mine fans. 75.310 Section... mine fans. (a) Each main mine fan shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in an incombustible housing... that gives a signal at the mine when the fan either slows or stops. A responsible person designated by...

  5. 30 CFR 75.302 - Main mine fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fans. 75.302 Section 75.302 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.302 Main mine fans. Each coal mine shall be ventilated by one or more main mine fans. Booster fans shall not be installed underground to assist main mine...

  6. 30 CFR 75.331 - Auxiliary fans and tubing. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans and tubing. 75.331 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.331 Auxiliary fans and tubing. (a) When auxiliary fans and tubing are used for face ventilation, each auxiliary fan shall be— (1...

  7. Optimizing Circular Side-Resonators to Reduce Computer Fan Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Beltman, W.M.


    One of the main noise sources in computers are the cooling fans. Tonal noise at the rotational frequency of the fan, the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics are important in fan noise. So called 'side-resonators' integrated in the duct of an in-duct axial fan cause an impedance

  8. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans shall have controls placed at a suitable protected location remote from the fan and preferably on the surface...

  9. New Fan Engine Noise-Reduction Concept Using Trailing Edge Blowing of Fan Blades Demonstrated (United States)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.


    A major source of noise in commercial turbofan engines is the interaction of the fan blade wakes with the fan exit vanes (stators). These wakes can be greatly reduced by filling them with air blown out of the blade trailing edge. Extensive testing of this concept has demonstrated significant noise reductions. These tests were conducted on a low-speed, 4- ft-diameter fan using hollow blades at NASA Glenn Research Center's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski


    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  11. Being of service: "X-Files" fans and social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones


    Full Text Available I explore the ways in which celebrity charity and fan activism can lead to civic engagement and social change. Fan studies has moved away from the traditional view of fans as psychologically deficient and has begun to examine resistance within the cultural productions of fandom—fan fiction, for example, addressing gender imbalances in popular TV shows. However, scholarship on celebrity-focused fans still retains much of the stigmatizing language that mars early writing about fans. I examine the relationship between celebrity and fan; examine the role celebrity plays in framing fan charity; assess how fan investment affects celebrity charity work; and argue that fans are active participants in encouraging social awareness and charitable giving.

  12. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New fan (United States)

    Fasching, W. A.


    As part of the NASA sponsored engine component improvement program, and fan package was developed to reduce fuel consumption in current CF6 turbofan aircraft engine. The new fan package consist of an improved fan blade, reduced fan tip clearance due to a fan case stiffener, and a smooth fan casing tip shroud. CF6 engine performance and acoustic tests demonstrated the predicted 1.8% improvement in cruise sfc without an increase in engine noise. Power management thrust/fan speed characteristics were defined. Mechanical and structural integrity was demonstrated in model fan rotor photoelastic stress tests, full-size fan blade bench fatigue tests, and CF6 engine bird ingestion, crosswind, and cyclic endurance tests. The fan was certified in the CF6-500c2/E2 engines and is in commerical service on the Boeing 747-200, Douglas DC-10-30, and Atrbus industrie A300B aircraft.

  13. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos


    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  14. How to do things with fan subs: Media engagement as subcultural capital in anime fan subbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Schules


    Full Text Available Anime fandom has been a fairly constant subject in fan scholarship, although only recently have conversations about fan subbing begun to circulate. As useful as those conversations are, none have directly dealt either with the mechanisms of fan subbing, particularly the use of linear notes, as a practice or with how these subs intersect with the flows of subcultural capital. Fan subbing, both as a productive and a consumptive practice, plays a small but influential part in subcultural capital. Engagement with media is a compositional element of such capital in this community.

  15. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... and integrated propertiesshow that the computed results agree well with the measurements.Integrating a rotor-only version of the aerodynamic modelwith an algorithm for numerical designoptimization, enables the finding of an optimum fan rotor.The angular velocity of the rotor, the hub radius and the spanwise...... of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates,thus designinga fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions.The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence ofmaximum efficiency on1: the number of blades,2: the width of the design interval and3: the hub radius...

  16. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.


    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  17. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  18. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  19. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  20. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.


    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  1. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse


    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  2. Measuring Fan-Blade-Tip Displacements (United States)

    Berry, Robert F., Jr.


    Magnets and Hall-effect transducers used to monitor tip-to-shroud clearances. Mounting permanent magnet in end of fan blade and monitoring tip-to-shroud distance by use of output of Hall-effect transducers affixed to surface of shroud. Transducers provide real-time information. By placing magnets in each fan-blade tip, complete set monitored sequentially as each blade rotates past sensor. Application in many rotating machines, providing surrounding materials nonmagnetic and temperatures not severe.

  3. Fan-out in gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauro Herbert M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In synthetic biology, gene regulatory circuits are often constructed by combining smaller circuit components. Connections between components are achieved by transcription factors acting on promoters. If the individual components behave as true modules and certain module interface conditions are satisfied, the function of the composite circuits can in principle be predicted. Results In this paper, we investigate one of the interface conditions: fan-out. We quantify the fan-out, a concept widely used in electrical engineering, to indicate the maximum number of the downstream inputs that an upstream output transcription factor can regulate. The fan-out is shown to be closely related to retroactivity studied by Del Vecchio, et al. An efficient operational method for measuring the fan-out is proposed and shown to be applied to various types of module interfaces. The fan-out is also shown to be enhanced by self-inhibitory regulation on the output. The potential role of an inhibitory regulation is discussed. Conclusions The proposed estimation method for fan-out not only provides an experimentally efficient way for quantifying the level of modularity in gene regulatory circuits but also helps characterize and design module interfaces, enabling the modular construction of gene circuits.

  4. Head injury from fan blades among children. (United States)

    Alias, Azmi; Krishnapillai, Ravi; Teng, Hong Wah; Abd Latif, Ahmad Zubaidi; Adnan, Johari Siregar


    Head injury caused by fan blades is rare among children. We analysed 14 cases of such injury and discuss the causes, type of injury and preventive measures. A retrospective analysis of 14 cases of children who were admitted to the Pediatric Neurosurgical Unit of Hospital Kuala Lumpur after sustaining head injuries caused by fan blades between January 2000 and December 2002 was performed. The causes of fan-blade head injury included jumping on the upper bunk of a bunk-bed, climbing on a ladder, climbing up onto a table, and being lifted by an adult. Thirteen patients were injured by ceiling fans and one by falling onto an uncovered table fan. School-aged boys were the predominant victims. Mean patient age was 7.9 years (range, 1.0-12.2 years). There was a twin peak incidence of when the accidents occurred: just before lunch in the afternoon and bedtime at night. The types of injury were scalp lacerations, compound depressed fractures and multiple intracranial haemorrhages. Two patients had the complication of wound infection, and one of these patients developed cerebral spinal fluid leak. One patient died from severe head injuries. Safety awareness among parents and caretakers are important as fan-blade head injury among children is preventable.

  5. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans. (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig


    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  6. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)


    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  7. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi


    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  8. Dietary exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) alters courtship, incubation and parental behaviors in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J; Sullivan, Katrina M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J


    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant that has been detected in the environment and wildlife at increasing concentrations. This study was designed to determine potential effects of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on behavior during reproduction in captive American kestrels. Twenty kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.51 μg technical HBCD g(-1) kestrel d(-1) from 4 weeks prior to pairing until chicks hatched (~75 d). Ten pairs of controls received the safflower oil vehicle only and were used for comparison. During the courtship period the chitter-calls were reduced in both sexes (p=0.038) and females performed fewer bonding displays (p=0.053). Both sexes showed a propensity to be less active than controls during courtship. The reduction in male courtship behavior was correlated with reduced courtship behaviors of females (p=0.008) as well as reduced egg mass (p=0.019). During incubation, nest temperatures of treatment pairs were lower at mid-incubation (p=0.038). HBCD-exposed males performed fewer key parental behaviors when rearing nestlings, including entering the nest-box, pair-bonding displays and food-retrievals. HBCD-exposed females appeared to compensate for the reduced parental behavior of their mates by performing these same behaviors more frequently than controls (p=0.004, p=0.027, p=0.025, respectively). This study demonstrates that HBCD affects breeding behavior in American kestrels throughout the reproductive season and behavioral alterations were linked to reproductive changes (egg size). This is the first study to report HBCD effects on reproductive behavior in any animal model. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flightin maintains myofilament lattice organization required for optimal flight power and courtship song quality inDrosophila. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Samya; Tanner, Bertrand C W; Foelber, Veronica Lee; Vu, Hien; Rosenthal, Matthew; Ruiz, Teresa; Vigoreaux, Jim O


    The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain ( fln ΔN62 ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission. Moreover, we show that fln ΔN62 males produced an abnormal courtship song characterized by a higher sine song frequency and a pulse song with longer pulses and longer inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), the latter implicated in male reproductive success. When presented with a choice, wild-type females chose control males over mutant males in 92% of the competition events. These results demonstrate that flightin N-terminal domain is required for optimal myofilament lattice regularity and IFM activity, enabling powered flight and courtship song production. As the courtship song is subject to female choice, we propose that the low amino acid sequence conservation of the N-terminal domain reflects its role in fine-tuning species-specific courtship songs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Digest: Context matters: the effects of light environment and female presence on the structure of wolf spider courtship displays. (United States)

    Fialko, Kristina


    Does variation in the environment in which a signal is presented affect the components of a complex, ritualized animal display? Using a signal phenotype network, Rosenthal et al. (2018) find that light and female presence alter the structure of wolf spider courtship displays, providing evidence that complex signaling behaviors may be modified depending on the social and environmental context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Familiarity with a female does not affect a male's courtship intensity in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis


    Richard SHINE, Jonathan K.WEBB, Amanda LANE, Robert T.MASON


    In many animal species, males direct more intense courtship towards females they have not previously encountered, than towards females with which they have previously mated. To test the factors responsible for this "Coolidge Effect", we need studies on a wide range of taxa – including those with mating systems in which we would not expect (based on current theory) that such an effect would be evident. The Coolidge Effect has been documented in several lizard species, but has not been looked f...

  12. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth


    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club?s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  13. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru


    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliability...

  14. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  15. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant. (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa


    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer.

  16. Familiarity with a female does not affect a male's courtship intensity in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard SHINE, Jonathan K.WEBB, Amanda LANE, Robert T.MASON


    Full Text Available In many animal species, males direct more intense courtship towards females they have not previously encountered, than towards females with which they have previously mated. To test the factors responsible for this "Coolidge Effect", we need studies on a wide range of taxa – including those with mating systems in which we would not expect (based on current theory that such an effect would be evident. The Coolidge Effect has been documented in several lizard species, but has not been looked for (and would not be expected in snakes. We conducted experimental trials with red-sided garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis at a communal den in Manitoba, to see whether previous exposure to a female (either courting, or courting plus mating modified male mate choice or courtship intensity. In keeping with prediction from theory (but contrary to an early anecdotal report, male garter snakes did not modify their courtship behaviour based upon their familiarity (or lack thereof with a specific female. At least in large courting aggregations, male snakes may maximize their fitness by basing mate-choice upon immediate attributes of the female (body size, condition, mated status and the intensity of competition (numbers and sizes of rival males rather than information derived from previous sexual encounters [Current Zoology 58 (6: 805–811, 2012].


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  18. An analysis of the takeoff and landing performance of a jet-powered STOL augmentor wing design (United States)

    Post, S. E.; Gambucci, B. J.; Holzhauser, C. A.


    A preliminary study of the takeoff and landing performance characteristics of a swept wing airplane with augmented jet flap, designed for STOL operation and low noise is presented. The study is based on aerodynamic data from wind tunnel tests of a large-scale swept augmentor wing model, scaled up to a 48,000 pound airplane. Engine characteristics are based on a turbo fan with a fan pressure ratio of 2.5 delivering the major portion of the thrust to the augmentor flap. A description of the overall airplane configuration, the propulsion system, and the use of the aerodynamics is presented. To assess the STOL performance of the airplane, takeoff and landing distances and flight path capabilities were computed at various flap deflections and thrust levels. After evaluating these results in terms of desired STOL performance with required margins, basic takeoff and landing configurations were chosen.

  19. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.


    This test procedure specifies instructions for acceptance testing of software for exhaust fan control under Project ESPT (Energy Savings Performance Contract). The software controls the operation of two emergency exhaust fans when there is a power failure. This report details the results of acceptance testing for the MICON software upgrades. One of the modifications is that only one of the emergency fans will operate at all times. If the operating fan shuts off or fails, the other fan will start and the operating fan will be stopped

  20. Study on performance of centripetal fan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, Eiji; Shirakura, Masaaki; Tagori, Tetsuo; Enomoto, Hisao.


    Centripetal fans are radial flow type fans which gather air from outer side into inner side. The construction is simple, and when heat exchangers are arranged around them, cooled air can be discharged upward only by connecting simple ducts, accordingly, centripetal fans are suitable to the ventilating fans for superlarge cooling towers of nuclear power plants. The static pressure rise is obtained only by the diffuser action of impellers, therefore, they are not suitable to pumps and compressors, and their use is limited only to fans. Centrifugal force exerts negative effect on static pressure rise, accordingly, the ratio of internal diameter/external diameter of impellers cannot be made very small. In this study, a small model with impeller diameter of 0.6 m was used, and its overall performance, the performance of moving blades in the range of stable operation, the rotating stall characteristics in the region of low flow rate, and the effect of side wind on the overall performance in outdoor use were examined. By changing the angle of inclination of entrance guide vanes, the range of stable operation was expanded, and the pressure coefficient and efficiency were increased. (Kako, I.)

  1. Calciclastic submarine fans: An integrated overview (United States)

    Payros, Aitor; Pujalte, Victoriano


    Calciclastic submarine fans are rare in the stratigraphic record and no bona fide present-day analogue has been described to date. Possibly because of that, and although calciclastic submarine fans have long intrigued deep-water carbonate sedimentologists, they have largely been overlooked by the academic and industrial communities. To fill this gap we have compiled and critically reviewed the existing sedimentological literature on calciclastic submarine fans, thus offering an updated view of this type of carbonate slope sedimentary system. Calciclastic submarine fans range in length from just a few to more than 100 km. Three different types can be distinguished: (1) Coarse-grained, small-sized (reefs was hampered by cool waters, nutrient enrichment or oligophoty. Another circumstance that contributes to the transfer of shallow-water sediments to the distal ramp slope is a low sea level, forcing the carbonate factory closer to the slope break and destabilizing sediments by increased pore-water pressure. However, the most important factor controlling the development of calciclastic submarine fans was the existence of an efficient funnelling mechanism forcing sediment gravity flows to merge downslope and build up a point-sourced sedimentary accumulation. In most cases this occurred through a major slope depression associated with tectonic structures, an inherited topography, or large-scale mass failures.

  2. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids. (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E


    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  3. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why? (United States)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S


    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is evaluated on the basis of a survey of preen wax composition in 19 sandpiper species. All of these species showed the same shift observed in the high-Arctic breeding red knots. As the shift also occurred in temperate breeding species, it is not specific to tundra-breeding sandpipers. Both sexes produced the diester waxes during the incubation period until hatching, in addition to the short period of courtship, indicating that diesters' functions extend beyond that of a sexually selected 'make-up'. The few non-incubating birds examined (males of curlew sandpipers (C. ferruginea) and ruffs (Philomachus pugnax)) had the lowest likelihood of secreting diesters, indicating a functional role for diester preen waxes during incubation. We propose that diester preen waxes enhance olfactory crypticism at the nest.

  4. ppk23-Dependent chemosensory functions contribute to courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    Full Text Available Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Although degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC represent one of the largest families of ion channels in Drosophila melanogaster, the physiological functions of these proteins are still poorly understood. We found that the DEG/ENaC channel ppk23 is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory bristles that are distinct from those expressing feeding-related gustatory receptors. Disrupting ppk23 or inhibiting activity of ppk23-expressing neurons did not alter gustatory responses. Instead, blocking ppk23-positive neurons or mutating the ppk23 gene delayed the initiation and reduced the intensity of male courtship. Furthermore, mutations in ppk23 altered the behavioral response of males to the female-specific aphrodisiac pheromone 7(Z, 11(Z-Heptacosadiene. Together, these data indicate that ppk23 and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila.

  5. [Courtship behavior, communicative sound production and resistance to stress in Drosophila mutants with defective agnostic gene, coding for LIMK1]. (United States)

    Popov, A V; Kaminskaia, A N; Savvateeva-Popova, E V


    To elucidate the role of one of the main elements of signal cascade of actin remodeling--LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1)--in the control of animal behavior we studied the characteristics of courtship behavior, parameters of acoustic communicative signals and their resistance to heat shock (HS, 37 degrees C, 30 min) in Drosophila melanogaster males from the strain with mutation in locus agnostic (agn(ts3)) containing gene CG1848 for LIMK1. The data obtained was compared with the results of our previous similar investigation on wild type CS males (Popov et al., 2006). Flies were divided into 4 groups. The males of control groups were not subjected to heat shock. The rest of males were subjected to heat shock either at the beginning of larval development when predominantly mushroom body neuroblasts are dividing (groups HS1), or at the prepupal stage when the brain central complex is developing (groups HS2), or at the imago stage one hour before the test (groups HS3). All males were tested at the age of 5 days. Virgin and fertilized CS females were used as courtship objects. Comparison of control groups of the two strains--CS and agnostic--have shown that the mutation agn(ts3) has no influence on the main parameters of courtship behavior of intact (not subjected to HS) males (courtship latency, the rapidity of achieving copulation, courtship efficiency) but leads to lowering of their sexual activity, increase of duration of sound trains in the songs and to slight increase of rate and stability of working of singing pacemakers. Agnostic males in comparison to wild type males are more resistant to HS given 1 hour before the test. After HS their courtship intensity does not decrease and the main parameters of their courtship behavior and communicative sound signals in comparison tu wild type males either do not change, or appear to be even better stabilized. The frequency of distorted sound pulses (an indicator of frequency of impairments in the activity pattern of neuro

  6. Comparison of BacT/Alert FAN and FAN Plus Bottles with Conventional Medium for Culturing Cerebrospinal Fluid. (United States)

    Yoo, In Young; Chun, Sejong; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong


    We compared the BacT/Alert system FAN and FAN Plus media to conventional media for culturing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 2,545 samples. FAN/FAN Plus bottles showed better performance for isolating microorganisms in CSF than conventional media (positive rate, 7.2% [182/2,545] versus 3.1% [80/2,545]). The incremental recovery rate of Cryptococcus neoformans from FAN Plus bottles was higher than that from FAN bottles. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr I. Popovskyi


    Full Text Available Relevance of material presented in the article, due to extensive use of high-performance computers to create modern information systems, including the NAPS of Ukraine. Most computers in NAPS of Ukraine work on Intel Pentium processors at speeds from 600 MHz to 3 GHz and release a lot of heat, which requires the installation of the system unit 2-3 additional fans. The fan is always works on full power, that leads to rapid deterioration and high level (up to 50 dB noise. In order to meet ergonomic requirements it is proposed to іnstall a computer system unit and an additional control unit ventilators, allowing independent control of each fan. The solution is applied at creation of information systems planning research in the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine on Internet basis.

  8. Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan (United States)

    Mendoza, Jeff; Weir, Don


    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period September 2004 through November 2005 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3- 01136, Task Order 6, Noise Measurements of the VAIIPR Fan. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence, NASA Glenn Research Center, Mail Code 60-6, Cleveland, Ohio 44135. This report focuses on the evaluation of internal fan noise as generated from various inflow disturbances based on measurements made from a circumferential array of sensors located near the fan and sensors upstream of a serpentine inlet.

  9. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters. (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia


    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  10. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters (United States)

    Love, Bradley C.


    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team’s prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve). PMID:26352146

  11. Fan blade crack diagnosis method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Fu


    Full Text Available This article presents a discrete mathematical model for fan blades and theoretically analyses the mathematical relationship between the location and depth of crack and fan blade natural frequency. On the basis of the blade mathematical model, using the theoretical computed natural frequency as the fault feature, this article proposes a fast and efficient fan blade crack fault diagnosis method. Transfer matrix method is used to calculate the first three-order blade natural frequencies under different crack cases and then to build the database in MATLAB. Subsequently, the damaged blade can be detected using changes in natural frequencies by solving the reverse problem. The experimental result shows that this discrete mathematical model can get the exact solution of natural frequency, and the method has certain application value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal


    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  13. Reduction of power of clinker cooling fan. Kurinka reikyaku fan no doryoku teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshiyoshi, A. (Tohoku Development Co. Ltd., Miyagi (Japan))


    A power reduction was reported of the clinker cooling fan of a cement plant. An additional waste heat recovery duct of a cement firing equipment was installed and the wind velocity of the duct was reduced to decrease the draft ressistance. Resultant excess force of the fan eliminated the runner operation and the related power was reduced. The waste heat boiler adopted the system for recovering the waste heat from the refrigerator of clinker (AQC). In other words, the waste heat of the AQC was re-used for cooling the clinker to raise the gas temperature at the boiler inlet as much as possible. The waste heat was planned initially of one fan but the air volume increased after two fans were installed finally. As a result, the duct wind velocity was increased, requiring more fan power. A duct was then installed to reduce the wind velocity. Surplus fan force cut the fan runners by about 4%, and 6,300,000 yen per year energy saving was achieved. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.


    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  15. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol


    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  16. Distributed Turboelectric Propulsion for Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.


    Meeting future goals for aircraft and air traffic system performance will require new airframes with more highly integrated propulsion. Previous studies have evaluated hybrid wing body (HWB) configurations with various numbers of engines and with increasing degrees of propulsion-airframe integration. A recently published configuration with 12 small engines partially embedded in a HWB aircraft, reviewed herein, serves as the airframe baseline for the new concept aircraft that is the subject of this paper. To achieve high cruise efficiency, a high lift-to-drag ratio HWB was adopted as the baseline airframe along with boundary layer ingestion inlets and distributed thrust nozzles to fill in the wakes generated by the vehicle. The distributed powered-lift propulsion concept for the baseline vehicle used a simple, high-lift-capable internally blown flap or jet flap system with a number of small high bypass ratio turbofan engines in the airframe. In that concept, the engine flow path from the inlet to the nozzle is direct and does not involve complicated internal ducts through the airframe to redistribute the engine flow. In addition, partially embedded engines, distributed along the upper surface of the HWB airframe, provide noise reduction through airframe shielding and promote jet flow mixing with the ambient airflow. To improve performance and to reduce noise and environmental impact even further, a drastic change in the propulsion system is proposed in this paper. The new concept adopts the previous baseline cruise-efficient short take-off and landing (CESTOL) airframe but employs a number of superconducting motors to drive the distributed fans rather than using many small conventional engines. The power to drive these electric fans is generated by two remotely located gas-turbine-driven superconducting generators. This arrangement allows many small partially embedded fans while retaining the superior efficiency of large core engines, which are physically separated

  17. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. (United States)

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian


    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  18. Analysis of dynamic parameters of mine fans (United States)

    Russky, E. Yu


    The design of the rotor of an axial fan and its main units, namely double leaf blades impeller and the main shaft are discussed. The parameters of a disturbed mine air flow under sudden outbursts are determined and the influence of disturbances on frequencies of axial fan units is assessed. The scope of the assessment embraces the disturbance effect on the blades and on the torsional vibrations of the main shafts. The dependences of the stresses in the elements of the rotor versus the disturbed air flow parameters are derived.

  19. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis


    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  20. Mass balancing of hollow fan blades (United States)

    Kielb, R. E.


    A typical section model is used to analytically investigate the effect of mass balancing as applied to hollow, supersonic fan blades. A procedure to determine the best configuration of an internal balancing mass to provide flutter alleviation is developed. This procedure is applied to a typical supersonic shroudless fan blade which is unstable in both the solid configuration and when it is hollow with no balancing mass. The addition of an optimized balancing mass is shown to stabilize the blade at the design condition.

  1. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction


    April S. Callis


    I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in ...

  2. Fan-less long range alpha detector (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.


    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  3. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Wing Manufacture and Force Testing (United States)


    manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given...collected at 2kHz ( A 0.25V band-limited white noise input signal is input to a Bogen HTA -125 High Performance Amplifier, which...manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given

  4. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik


    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  5. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  6. Fan Duct Heat Exchanger for Turbine Cooling Air, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is for the design of a fan duct heat exchanger in order to improve aircraft fuel burn. The fan duct heat exchanger decreases the temperature of the 15%...

  7. Structural integrity of wind tunnel wooden fan blades (United States)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Wingate, Robert T.; Rooker, James R.; Mort, Kenneth W.; Zager, Harold E.


    Information is presented which was compiled by the NASA Inter-Center Committee on Structural Integrity of Wooden Fan Blades and is intended for use as a guide in design, fabrication, evaluation, and assurance of fan systems using wooden blades. A risk assessment approach for existing NASA wind tunnels with wooden fan blades is provided. Also, state of the art information is provided for wooden fan blade design, drive system considerations, inspection and monitoring methods, and fan blade repair. Proposed research and development activities are discussed, and recommendations are provided which are aimed at future wooden fan blade design activities and safely maintaining existing NASA wind tunnel fan blades. Information is presented that will be of value to wooden fan blade designers, fabricators, inspectors, and wind tunnel operations personnel.

  8. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke


    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  9. Patterns of alcohol and drugs consumption in young soccer fans


    Rodrigues, Anelise Lopes; Sarriera, Jorge Castellá


    Alcohol and drug consumption among young soccer fans have been associated with violence in soccer context. This study aims to determine patterns of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine consumption in a sample of 1,130 soccer fans residents in the Rio Grande do Sul State, as well as to verify if there are differences regarding gender, age and if the participant is member of organized fan soccer or not. From a questionnaire available through Internet, soccer fan answered the frequency they generally ...

  10. F232 Development of Jet Fan by CFD


    川久保, 知己; 小田, 憲司; 山方, 章弘; Tomoki, KAWAKUBO; Kenji, ODA; Akihiro, YAMAGATA; IHI; IHI; IHI; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center; Rotating Machinery Engineering Dept., Rotating Machinery Division, Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.; Turbo & Hydraulic Machinery Dept., Technical Development & Engineering Center


    Axial jet fans are used in many tunnels to extract automobile emissions and improve the visibility, as well as provide refuge passages in case of fire. The Japan Highway Public Corporation reviewed the specifications for such tunnel jet fans in 2002, and required higher grade specifications than for previous tunnel jet fans. To meet these requirements, IHI has developed a new series of high performance jet fans using CFD technology.

  11. Research of Morphing Wing Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarov, Valery


    This report results from a contract tasking Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU) as follows: The contractor will develop and investigate aerodynamic and structural weight theories associated with morphing wing technology...

  12. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... (United States)


    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  13. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  14. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille


    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  15. 30 CFR 57.8529 - Auxiliary fan systems (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fan systems 57.8529 Section 57.8529 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8529 Auxiliary fan systems When auxiliary fan systems are used, such systems shall...

  16. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan operation. 75.311 Section 75.311... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.311 Main mine fan operation. (a) Main mine fans shall be continuously operated, except as otherwise approved in the ventilation plan, or when...

  17. 30 CFR 57.8525 - Main fan maintenance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan maintenance. 57.8525 Section 57.8525 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.8525 Main fan maintenance. Main fans shall be maintained according to either the...

  18. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui


    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  19. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order (United States)


    ...] Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... (the FD&C Act) debarring Hung Ta Fan for a period of 5 years from importing articles of food or.... Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct relating to the importation into the...

  20. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.


    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  1. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song. (United States)

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L


    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimisation of efficiency of axial fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Pennings, P.C.; Faasen, R.


    A three-stage research project has been executed to develop ducted axial-fans with increased efficiency. In the first stage a design method has been developed in which various conflicting design criteria can be incorporated. Based on this design method, an optimised design has been determined

  3. Online Fan Fiction, Global Identities, and Imagination (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.


    Based on longitudinal data from a three year ethnographic study, this article uses discourse analytic methods to explore the literacy and social practices of three adolescent English language learners writing in an online fan fiction community. Theoretical constructs within globalization and literacy studies are used to describe the influences of…

  4. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans. (United States)

    Heine, Thomas


    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  5. Submersible fans and pumps for cryogenic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.


    Submersible electric motor driven fans of three sizes have been designed, built and operated at 21 0 K at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The largest is a 100-mm diameter, 2 stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity of 6 L/s at 2 m head. It is driven by a 4 pole, 3 phase induction motor that runs at 1750 rpm. The next smaller one is an 85-mm diameter centrifugal pump. It pumps 3 L/s at a head of 5 m. The third is a 75-mm single stage vaneaxial fan with a nominal capacity is 3 L/s at a head of 2 m. The 85-mm pump and the 75-mm fan are driven by 2 pole, 3 phase induction motors running at 3550 rpm. The motors were modified to operate submerged in the cryogenic fluid. The pumps have been operated in liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium, and pressurized helium gas at 21 0 K. They can also operate with denser fluids such as liquid nitrogen, but rotational speed, capacity, and head will be reduced. They have been operated while submerged in liquid helium

  6. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak


    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  7. The Ashgate Research Companion to Fan Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijn Reijnders; Linda Duits; dr. Koos Zwaan


    Fans constitute a very special kind of audience. They have been marginalized, ridiculed and stigmatized, yet at the same time they seem to represent the vanguard of new relationships with and within the media. ‘Participatory culture’ has become the new normative standard. Concepts derived from early

  8. Impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on optoelectronic digital circuits. (United States)

    Ji, L; Heuring, V P


    The impact of gate fan-in and fan-out limits on digital circuit delay is discussed with a set of benchmark circuits. This research presents the advantages of exploiting the ability of optoelectronic gates to perform both logic operations and optical interconnections with systematic optimization. It is possible for gate-level optical interconnected optoelectronic circuits to compete with their pure silicon counterparts in terms of the combinational circuit delay and system clock rate.

  9. Hybrid Axial and Cross-Flow Fan Propulsion for Transonic Blended Wing Body Aircraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of the next century of aviation will require innovative and revolutionary concepts to meet air transportation demands. One NASA vision for future...

  10. Hybrid Axial and Cross-Flow Fan Propulsion for Transonic Blended Wing Body Aircraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The challenges of the next century of aviation will require innovative and revolutionary concepts to meet air transportation demands. One NASA vision for future...

  11. Bydrage ta de kennis fan it libben, de persoan en it wurk fan Dr. Eeltsje Halbersma 1797-1858

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    It doel fan dizze dissertaesje is yn 'e earste pleats nij materiael to bringen oer Dr. Eeltsje. De wichtichste boarnen foar syn libben en syn wurk binne syn brieven oan Ds, Joast. Oant nou ta wie fan dy brieven mar in lyts bytsje bikend wurden, Dêrneist binne fansels ek de brieven fan Ds. Joast en

  12. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.


    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  13. Fixed Differences in the paralytic Gene Define Two Lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex Producing Different Types of Courtship Songs (United States)

    Lins, Rachel M. M. A.; Souza, Nataly A.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Maingon, Rhayza D. C.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.


    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse) males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para) gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species. PMID:22970200

  14. Fixed differences in the paralytic gene define two lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex producing different types of courtship songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M M A Lins

    Full Text Available The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species.

  15. Modeling and Control of a Tailsitter with a Ducted Fan (United States)

    Argyle, Matthew Elliott

    There are two traditional aircraft categories: fixed-wing which have a long endurance and a high cruise airspeed and rotorcraft which can take-off and land vertically. The tailsitter is a type of aircraft that has the strengths of both platforms, with no additional mechanical complexity, because it takes off and lands vertically on its tail and can transition the entire aircraft horizontally into high-speed flight. In this dissertation, we develop the entire control system for a tailsitter with a ducted fan. The standard method to compute the quaternion-based attitude error does not generate ideal trajectories for a hovering tailsitter for some situations. In addition, the only approach in the literature to mitigate this breaks down for large attitude errors. We develop an alternative quaternion-based error method which generates better trajectories than the standard approach and can handle large errors. We also derive a hybrid backstepping controller with almost global asymptotic stability based on this error method. Many common altitude and airspeed control schemes for a fixed-wing airplane assume that the altitude and airspeed dynamics are decoupled which leads to errors. The Total Energy Control System (TECS) is an approach that controls the altitude and airspeed by manipulating the total energy rate and energy distribution rate, of the aircraft, in a manner which accounts for the dynamic coupling. In this dissertation, a nonlinear controller, which can handle inaccurate thrust and drag models, based on the TECS principles is derived. Simulation results show that the nonlinear controller has better performance than the standard PI TECS control schemes. Most constant altitude transitions are accomplished by generating an optimal trajectory, and potentially actuator inputs, based on a high fidelity model of the aircraft. While there are several approaches to mitigate the effects of modeling errors, these do not fully remove the accurate model requirement. In this

  16. The Female Vikings, a women's fan group in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    on the historical development of a Danish women-only fan group called 'The Female Vikings', which support a professional football club, Lyngby Boldklub (BK), in a city north of Copenhagen. The article explores the backgrounds and motivations of female fans, as well as their ways of staging femininity in a man......'s world. Drawing on available information about football and fans in Denmark, we have reconstructed the developments of both Lyngby BK and its supporters. Special focus was placed on the histories and cultures as well as the experiences of female fans in this club. Insights into the foundation...... of the women's fan group were provided by problem-centred interviews which also contained open questions. The foundation and activities of the Female Vikings show how women can perform gender in the fan's stands and how they play a significant role in the fan movement. The interviews also reveal the loyalty...

  17. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas


    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques.Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets.Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  18. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.


    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  19. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy. (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas


    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  20. A CFD Case Study of a Fan Stage with Split Flow Path Subject to Total Pressure Distortion Inflow (United States)

    To, Wai-Ming


    This report is the documentation of the work performed under the Hypersonic Project of the NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. It was funded through Task Number NNC10E444T under GESS-2 Contract NNC06BA07B. The objective of the task is to develop advanced computational tools for the simulation of multi-stage turbomachinery in support of aeropropulsion. This includes work elements in extending the TURBO code and validating the multi-stage URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) simulation results with the experimental data. The unsteady CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) calculations were performed in full wheel mode with and without screen generated total pressure distortion at the computational inflow boundary, as well as in single passage phase lag mode for uniform inflow. The experimental data were provided by NASA from the single stage RTA (Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator) fan test program.Significant non-uniform flow condition at the fan-face of the aeropropulsion system is frequentlyencountered in many of the advanced aerospace vehicles. These propulsion systems can be eithera podded or an embedded design employed in HWB (Hybrid Wing Body) airframe concept. It isalso a topic of interest in military applications, in which advanced air vehicles have already deployedsome form of embedded propulsion systems in their design because of the requirementsof compact and low observable inlets. Even in the conventional airframe/engine design, the fancould operate under such condition when the air vehicle is undergoing rapid maneuvering action.It is believed that a better understanding of the fan’s aerodynamic and aeromechanical responseto this type of operating condition or off design operation would be beneficial to designing distortiontolerant blades for improved engine operability.The objective for this research is to assess the capability of turbomachinery code as an analysistool in understanding the effects and evaluating the impact of flow distortion

  1. Possible hormonal interaction for eliciting courtship behavior in the male newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. (United States)

    Toyoda, Fumiyo; Hasunuma, Itaru; Nakada, Tomoaki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kikuyama, Sakae


    Reproductive behavior in amphibians, as in other vertebrate animals, is under the control of multiple hormonal substances. Prolactin (PRL), arginine vasotocin (AVT), androgen, and 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), four such substances with hormonal activity, are known to be involved in the expression of the tail vibration behavior which is the initial step of courtship performed by the male newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. As current information on the interaction(s) between these hormones in terms of eliciting tail vibration behavior is limited, we have investigated whether the decline of expression of tail vibration behavior due to suppression of the activity of any one of these hormones can be restored by supplying any one of the other three hormones exogenously. Expression of the behavior was determined in terms of incidence (% of test animals exhibiting the behavior) and frequency (number of times that the behavior was repeated during the test period). Neither PRL nor androgen restored the decline in the incidence and frequency of the tail vibration behavior caused by the suppression of the activity of any one of other three hormones. AVT completely restored both the anti-PRL antibody-induced and flutamide (an androgen receptor antagonist)-induced, but not ketoconazole (an inhibitor of the steroidogenic CYP enzymes)-induced decline in the incidence and frequency of the tail vibration behavior. The neurosteroid, 7α-OH PREG, failed to restore flutamide-induced decline in the incidence and frequency of the behavior. However, it was able to restore both anti-PRL antibody-induced and AVT receptor antagonist-induced decline in the incidence, but not in the frequency of the behavior. In another experiment designed to see the activity of hormones enhancing the frequency of the tail vibration behavior, AVT was revealed to be more potent than 7α-OH PREG. The role of each hormonal substance in determining the expression of the tail vibration behavior was discussed based

  2. Evaluation of the courtship and of the hybrid male sterility among Drosophila buzzatii cluster species (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO L. P. de B.


    Full Text Available In the Drosophila repleta group the establishment of subgroups and complexes made on the basis of morphological and cytological evidences is supported by tests of reproductive isolation. Among species in the repleta group, the buzzatii cluster, due to its polymorphism and polytipism, is an excellent material for ecological and speciation studies. Some interspecific crosses involving Drosophila seriema, Drosophila sp. B, D. koepferae and D. buzzatii strains were completely sterile while others involving strains from these species produced F1 hybrids that did not yield F2. In the present work, data on courtship duration and copula occurrence obtained in the analysis of flies from parental sterile crosses and on spermatozoon mobility observed in F1 hybrids that did not yield F2 are presented. Copula did not occur during one hour of observation and the spermatozoon also did not show mobility at any of the analyzed stages (3, 7, 9 and 10 days old. There was a high variation in courtship average duration and in the percentage of males that courted the females. The reproductive isolation mechanisms indicated by these observations were pre and post-zygotic, as supported by the absence of copula and male sterility. Data obtained also showed the occurrence of different degrees of reproductive compatibility among the strains classified as the same species but from distinct geographic localities.

  3. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata. (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James


    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana. (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K


    Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice.

  5. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.


    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  6. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.


    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  7. Optical measurement of unducted fan blade deflections (United States)

    Kurkov, A. P.


    A nonintrusive optical method for measuring unducted fan (or propeller) blade deflections is described and evaluated. The measurement does not depend on blade surface reflectivity. Deflection of a point at the leading edge and a point at the trailing edge in a plane nearly perpendicular to the pitch axis is obtained with a single light beam generated by a low-power, helium-neon laser. Quantitative analyses are performed from taped signals on a digital computer. Averaging techniques are employed to reduce random errors. Measured static deflections from a series of high-speed wind tunnel tests of a counterrotating unducted fan model are compared with available, predicted deflections, which are also used to evaluate systematic errors.

  8. 'Bataille's boys': postmodernity, Fascists and football fans. (United States)

    Smith, T


    In his analysis of football hooliganism, Anthony King claims to reveal the historical, conceptual scheme young, male supporters draw upon. This 'masculine vision', he states, is similar to that held by the Freikorps. Both groups are said to adhere to modernist notions of masculinity, sexuality and nationhood, reinforced by rituals which maintain boundaries between these 'proper' males and deviant 'others'. Occasionally, football hooligans breach these boundaries in acts of postmodern transgression. King also claims that fans link sex and violence in their imaginations. In this response I examine King's critique of his fellow theorists; challenge his 'Freikorps-Fans' analogy; demonstrate the problem he has in establishing the sex-violence link and question the relevance of his concept of postmodernity.

  9. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  10. Mementoes: Raul Seixas’ fans and their collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Abonizio


    Full Text Available Raul Seixas’ fans are collectors of several objects. In order to unveil the relationship of the collectors with the idol, with others, and with themselves, I reviewed the letters sent to Raul Rock Club and analyzed his collection. The articulations among the various forms of relating with objects of the singer, or that refer to him, show that the collectible objects, more than vehicles of social reproduction, can function as poetic devices.

  11. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans (United States)


    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  12. Conceptual Study of Rotary-Wing Microrobotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chabak, Kelson D


    This thesis presents a novel rotary-wing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) robot design. Two MEMS wing designs were designed, fabricated and tested including one that possesses features conducive to insect level aerodynamics...

  13. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  14. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein


    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  15. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille


    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  16. Harmonic Balance Computations of Fan Aeroelastic Stability (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.


    A harmonic balance (HB) aeroelastic analysis, which has been recently developed, was used to determine the aeroelastic stability (flutter) characteristics of an experimental fan. To assess the numerical accuracy of this HB aeroelastic analysis, a time-domain aeroelastic analysis was also used to determine the aeroelastic stability characteristics of the same fan. Both of these three-dimensional analysis codes model the unsteady flowfield due to blade vibrations using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In the HB analysis, the unsteady flow equations are converted to a HB form and solved using a pseudo-time marching method. In the time-domain analysis, the unsteady flow equations are solved using an implicit time-marching approach. Steady and unsteady computations for two vibration modes were carried out at two rotational speeds: 100 percent (design) and 70 percent (part-speed). The steady and unsteady results obtained from the two analysis methods compare well, thus verifying the recently developed HB aeroelastic analysis. Based on the results, the experimental fan was found to have no aeroelastic instability (flutter) at the conditions examined in this study.

  17. Fan Blade Deflection Measurement and Analyses Correlation (United States)

    Mehmed, Oral; Janetzke, David C.


    Steady deflection measurements were taken of two identical NASA/Pratt & Whitney-designed fan blades while they were rotating in a vacuum in NASA Lewis Research Center's Dynamic Spin Facility. The one-fifth-scale fan blades, which have a tip diameter of 22 in. and a pinroot retention, are of sparshell construction and were unducted for this test. The purpose of the test was to measure the change of the radial deflection of the blade tip and blade angle at selected radial stations along the blade span with respect to rotational speed. The procedure for radial deflection measurement had no precedent and was newly developed for this test. Radial deflection measurements were made to assure adequate tip clearance existed between the fan blades and the duct for a follow-on wind tunnel test. Also, blade angle deflection measurements were desired before pitchsetting parts for the wind tunnel test were finish machined. During the test, laser beams were aimed across the blade path into photodiodes to give signals that were used to determine blade angle change or tip radial deflection. These laser beams were set parallel to the spin axis at selected radial stations.

  18. Thermal management of pico projector using a piezoelectric fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Jin-Cherng; Tsai, Ho-Min


    Highlights: • A fin-equipped pico projector cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan was studied. • The piezoelectric fan was actuated with four different frequencies at 90 V rms . • Both the heater power and the fan vibrating frequency affected the fan amplitude. • Forced and natural convection might be equally significant at a high heater power. • Fan amplitude strongly affected the thermal resistance of pico projector. - Abstract: A fin-array-equipped test pico projector with horizontal or vertical orientation was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan in this study. The 47 mm × 10 mm piezoelectric fan was operated at 90 V rms at a frequency ranging from 135.5 Hz to 129.5 Hz. It was found that the fan vibrating amplitude was affected by both the input power of the heater and the fan operating frequency. The thermal resistance of the fan-cooled test pico projector not always reduced as the heater power increased, and would be equally affected by both forced convection and natural convection depending on Gr and Re numbers. Such phenomenon that might arise from the temperature effect on the fan blade material and the fluidic damping was especially marked when the plate-fin-array-equipped test pico projector was horizontally tested. The results also showed that the pin-fin array was more favorable than plate-fin array for the cooling of test pico projector as a piezoelectric fan vibrated at a specific frequency, regardless of the orientation. When the pin-fin array was cooled by a vibrating piezoelectric fan at 133.5 Hz at 7 W in a horizontally and vertically oriented projector, the maximum thermal resistance reduction was about 3.4 °C/W and 3.8 °C/W, respectively

  19. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design (United States)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William


    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  20. Waving Wing Aerodynamics at Low Reynolds Numbers (United States)


    wing. An attached leading edge vortex has been observed by multiple research groups on both mechanical wing flappers (8; 22; 21; 4) and revolving wing...observed by Ellington et al. (8) in their earlier experiments on the mechanical hawkmoth flapper at Re ≈ 10,000. In these experiments the spanwise flow...on mechanical wing flappers at similar Reynolds numbers, Re ≈ 1,000 and 1,400 respectively. Both sets of experiments revealed a stable attached

  1. Active Processes: Bright Streaks and Dark Fans (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 In a region of the south pole known informally as 'Ithaca' numerous fans of dark frost form every spring. HiRISE collected a time lapse series of these images, starting at Ls = 185 and culminating at Ls = 294. 'Ls' is the way we measure time on Mars: at Ls = 180 the sun passes the equator on its way south; at Ls = 270 it reaches its maximum subsolar latitude and summer begins. In the earliest image (figure 1) fans are dark, but small narrow bright streaks can be detected. In the next image (figure 2), acquired at Ls = 187, just 106 hours later, dramatic differences are apparent. The dark fans are larger and the bright fans are more pronounced and easily detectable. The third image in the sequence shows no bright fans at all. We believe that the bright streaks are fine frost condensed from the gas exiting the vent. The conditions must be just right for the bright frost to condense. Observation Geometry Image PSP_002622_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 16-Feb-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.2 degrees latitude, 181.5 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 246.9 km (154.3 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.4 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 148 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 05:46 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 88 degrees, thus the sun was about 2 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 185.1 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  2. Wing area, wing growth and wing loading of common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos


    Yalden, Derek; Yalden, D. W.


    This study investigates the changes in wing length, area and loading in Common Sandpipers as chicks grow, and as adults add extra mass (during egg-laying or before migration). Common Sandpiper chicks weigh about 17 g and have "hands" that are about 35 mm long at one week old, when the primaries are just emerging from their sheaths. They grow steadily to reach about 40 g, with hands about 85 mm long, at 19 days, when they are just about fledging. Their wings have roughly adult chord width at t...

  3. A concept for a counterrotating fan with reduced tone noise (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.


    As subsonic jet engine designs incorporate higher bypass ratios to reduce jet noise and increase engine cycle efficiency, the fan noise becomes a significant part of the perceived total noise. The conventional method of reducing fan tone noise is to design a low tip-speed device. An alternative approach of using a counterrotating fan with a high number of rotor blades is investigated in this report. The source of noise at the blade passing frequency of this device is the rotor-only mechanism, which is cut off for a subsonic tip speed rotor. The interaction noise occurs at twice the blade passing frequency, which, for this fan, was shifted high enough in frequency to be above the perceived noise rating range. The result was a counterrotating fan which had more potential for tone noise reduction than does the conventional fan. A potential broadband noise reduction was also indicated.

  4. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. (United States)

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara


    The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size.

  5. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.


    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  6. How Do Wings Generate Lift?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton's second law of motion. Hence if a wing can generate lift equal to its weight (total weight of the vehicle) it can balance the gravitational pull and can maintain level flight. The equations for fluid flow that are equivalent to the second law are the well- known Navier–Stokes (N–S) equations [1]. These equations have.

  7. Werner helicase wings DNA binding


    Hoadley, Kelly A.; Keck, James L.


    In this issue of Structure, Kitano et al. describe the structure of the DNA-bound winged-helix domain from the Werner helicase. This structure of a RecQ/DNA complex offers insights into the DNA unwinding mechanisms of RecQ family helicases.

  8. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles. (United States)

    Millson, David


    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  9. 30 CFR 57.8534 - Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. 57.8534... Ventilation Underground Only § 57.8534 Shutdown or failure of auxiliary fans. (a) Auxiliary fans installed and... fan maintenance or fan adjustments where air quality is maintained in compliance with the applicable...

  10. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... (United States)


    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  11. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft


    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang


    The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can elimin...

  12. Improving the energy efficiency of mine fan assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Euler


    Energy associated with ventilating an underground operation comprises a significant portion of a mine operation's base energy demand and is consequently responsible for a large percentage of the total operating costs. Ventilation systems may account from 25 to 40% of the total energy costs and 40–50% of the energy consumption of a mine operation. Fans are the most important mechanical devices used to ventilate underground mines and the total fan power installed in a single mine operation can easily exceed 10,000 kW. Investigations of a number of mine main fan installations have determined their assemblage to be, in general, very energy inefficient. The author has found that 40–80% of the energy consumed by a main fan is used to overcome the resistance of fan assemblage components. This paper presents how engineering design principles can be applied to improve the performance and efficiency of fan installations, resulting in substantial reductions in power consumption, operating cost and greenhouse gas emissions. A detailed case study is presented to demonstrate that, by designing fan assemblages using proper engineering concepts of fluid physics and industrial ventilation design, main fan systems will operate at efficiencies well above 80–90% (compared to common operating efficiencies of between 20 and 65%), resulting in a drastic reduction in a mine's overall costs and base electrical and energy loads. - Highlights: • Increases in fan assemblage efficiencies with minimum capital investment. • Improved designs for substantial fan power and operating cost savings. • General solutions and tactics for improving existing main fan installations. • Case study presented to demonstrate proper design of fan assemblages.

  13. On-site testing of crop drying fans


    Winkelman, Paul M.


    The commercial peanut dryers used today were first conceived when energy was relatively inexpensive. Since then, energy costs have increased significantly, and more efficient peanuts dryers are desirable. To evaluate dryer efficiency, a mobile fan test facility was designed, built and calibrated for on-site fan airflow and energy measurements. Four-, six-, and eight-trailer peanut dryers were tested for performance. The characteristics observed were delivery of fan airflow as compared to m...

  14. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David


    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  15. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung


    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography by using fan beam collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihisa


    A multislice fan beam collimator which has parallel collimation along the cephalic-caudul axis of a patient and converging collimation within planes that are perpendicular to that axis was designed for a SPECT system with a rotating scintillation camera, and it was constructed by the lead casting method which was developed in recent years. A reconstruction algorithm for fan beam SPECT was formed originally by combining the reconstruction algorithm of the parallel beam SPECT with that of the fan beam X-ray CT. The algorithm for fan beam SPECT was confirmed by means of computer simulation and a head phantom filled with diluted radionuclide. Not only 99m Tc but also 123 I was used as a radionuclide. A SPECT image with the fan beam collimator was compared with that of a parallel hole, low energy, high resolution collimator which was routinely used for clinical and research SPECT studies. Both system resolution and sensitivity of the fan beam collimator were ∼20% better than those of the parallel hole collimator. Comparing SPECT images obtained from fan beam collimator with those of parallel hole collimator, the SPECT images using fan beam collimator had far better resolution. A fan beam collimator is a useful implement for the SPECT study. (author)

  17. The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard


    Full Text Available This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  18. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  19. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  20. The Lower Cretaceous Way Group of northern Chile: An alluvial fan-fan delta complex (United States)

    Flint, S.; Clemmey, H.; Turner, P.


    Alluvial fan sediments of the Lower Cretaceous Coloso Basin in northern Chile were deposited in a half-graben and derived from andesitic volcanics of a former island arc. Transport directions were towards the east, away from the present-day Peru-Chile trench. Grain flow, density modified grain flow and sheetflow processes were responsible for most of the sediment deposition with cohesive debris flows playing only a minor part. An early phase of conglomerate deposition (Coloso Formation) into a restricted basin records the transition from proximal fan facies with abundant grain flows and remobilized screes to mid-fan facies dominated by sheetflows. Stratiform copper mineralization near the top of the lower conglomerates is related to the unroofing of the Jurassic island arc. This mineralization comprises copper sulphide-cemented sands and gravels and formed by the reaction of mineralized detritus with diagenetic and hydrothermal solutions. A later phase of deposition (Lombriz Formation) includes sandstones, siltstones and conglomerates with a source area different from the Coloso Formation. This change in source may be related to strike-slip tectonics as the basin extended. The Lombriz conglomerates pass distally (eastwards) into red sandstones and purple siltstones with thin limestones deposited under marine conditions. This sequence is interpreted as a major fan delta complex. It passes conformably into marine carbonates of the Tableado Formation signifying the complete drowning of the basin in lower Cretaceous times.

  1. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  2. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)


    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  3. Tectonically controlled fan delta and submarine fan sedimentation of late Miocene age, southern Temblor Range, California (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Thomson, Alan


    The Santa Margarita Formation in the southern Temblor Range, composed of conglomerate and subordinate sandstone, evolved as a large complex of fan deltas and submarine fans in late Miocene time. An 80 to 90-m.y.-old granitic basement of the Salinian block and an accompanying 23.5-m.y.-old volcanic field now located in the northern Gabilan Range and the Pinnacles area, respectively, were the primary source terranes. In general, the fan deltas crop out along the west side of the southern Temblor Range, whereas the proximal parts of the submarine fans crop out along the east side of the range. The fan deltas consist of subaerial topset beds and low-angle basinward-dipping subaqueous foreset beds. Strata interpreted to be topset beds are composed largely of conglomerate with thick to very thick horizontal beds and matrix-supported clasts. Most of the thick to very thick conglomerate beds are internally massive and disorganized. Strata interpreted as foreset beds are composed of thick-bedded, large-scale, low-angle, cross-stratified conglomerate and sandstone units which commonly are internally massive. Abundant molluskan macrofossils such as Ostrea and Pecten are present in the subaqueous foreset beds; many have been displaced downslope from their original site of deposition. Conglomerate- and sandstone-filled submarine canyons, through which coarse-grained detritus was transported to the adjacent submarine fans, locally have cut into the foreset beds of the fan deltas. These submarine canyon deposits are generally better stratified than adjacent foreset-bed deposits, and they consist of thick horizontal beds, internally massive or normally graded, arranged in fining- and thinning-upward sequences. Isolated and composite conglomerate- and sandstone-filled channels, which crop out on the east flank of the southern Temblor Range, are interpreted as proximal submarine-fan channel deposits. These channel-form conglomerate and sandstone deposits are characterized by thick

  4. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa


    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  5. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.


    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Featured Image: Waves in a Coronal Fan (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The inset in this Solar Dynamics Observatory image shows a close-up view of a stunning coronal fan extending above the Suns atmosphere. These sweeping loops were observed on 7 March 2012 by a number of observatories, revealing the first known evidence of standing slow magnetoacoustic waves in cool coronal fan loops. The oscillations of the loops, studied in a recent article led by Vaibhav Pant (Indian Institute of Astrophysics), were triggered by blast waves that were generated by X-class flares from the distant active region AR 11429 (marked withthe yellow box at left). The overplotted X-ray curve in the top right corner of the image (click for the full view) shows the evolution of the flares that perturbed the footpoints of the loops. You can check out the video of the action below, and follow the link to the original article to read more about what these oscillations tell us about the Suns activity. CitationV. Pant et al 2017 ApJL 847 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa880f

  7. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.


    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  8. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings. (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P


    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  9. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.


    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  10. Fan Size and Foil Type in Recognition Memory. (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    An experiment involving 20 graduate and undergraduate students (7 males and 13 females) at West Virginia University (Morgantown) assessed "fan network structures" of recognition memory. A fan in network memory structure occurs when several facts are connected into a single node (concept). The more links from that concept to various…

  11. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills (United States)

    Kell, Tracey


    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  12. The performance of a centrifugal fan with enlarged impeller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxi; Song Lingwang; Jia Yakui


    Highlights: → The influence of impeller enlargement is evaluated numerically and experimentally. → Variation equations of the operation points for enlarged impellers are derived. → Impeller enlargement leads to louder fan noise due to reduced impeller-volute gap. - Abstract: The influence of enlarged impeller in unchanged volute on G4-73 type centrifugal fan performance is investigated in this paper. Comparisons are conducted between the fan with original impeller and two larger impellers with the increments in impeller outlet diameter of 5% and 10% respectively in the numerical and experimental investigations. The internal characteristics are obtained by the numerical simulation, which indicate there is more volute loss in the fan with larger impeller. Experiment results show that the flow rate, total pressure rise, shaft power and sound pressure level have increased, while the efficiency have decreased when the fan operates with larger impeller. Variation equations on the performance of the operation points for the fan with enlarged impellers are suggested. Comparisons between experiment results and the trimming laws show that the trimming laws for usual situation can predict the performance of the enlarged fan impeller with less error for higher flow rate, although the situation of application is not in agreement. The noise frequency analysis shows that higher noise level with the larger impeller fan is caused by the reduced impeller-volute gap.

  13. Motivational variables that influence fan attendance in domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the support of sport fans that underpins the sports industry, where they are in supreme authority and without which the golden core of the game has no currency. ... The motivational measures revealed in the study may be used by sport marketers to develop marketing communication strategies in various aspects of fan ...

  14. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.


    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  15. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders


    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  16. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis


    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  17. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda


    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  18. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  19. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J; Combes, S A


    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  20. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.


    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  1. c-fans and Newton polyhedra of algebraic varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskii, B Ya


    To every algebraic subvariety of a complex torus there corresponds a Euclidean geometric object called a c-fan. This correspondence determines an intersection theory for algebraic varieties. c-fans form a graded commutative algebra with visually defined operations. The c-fans of algebraic varieties lie in the subring of rational c-fans. It seems that other subrings may be used to construct an intersection theory for other categories of analytic varieties. We discover a relation between an old problem in the theory of convex bodies (the so-called Minkowski problem) and the ring of c-fans. This enables us to define a correspondence that sends any algebraic curve to a convex polyhedron in the space of characters of the torus

  2. Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review. (United States)

    Ostrowsky, Michael K


    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division


    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  4. The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the wings have defects in the wing blade and partially formed wing margin, which are the result of autonomous cell death in the ... [Yang D. 2007 The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings of Drosophila: implications for anterior wing margin formation. J. Genet. .... The relevant gene(s) may be.

  5. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem


    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  6. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190


    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  7. Analysis of bat wings for morphing (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim


    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  8. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  9. Quad-thopter: Tailless Flapping Wing Robot with 4 Pairs of Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagter, C.; Karasek, M.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval


    We present a novel design of a tailless flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), which uses four independently driven pairs of flapping wings in order to fly and perform agile maneuvers. The wing pairs are arranged such that differential thrust generates the desired roll and pitch moments, similar to

  10. A novel hovering type of fixed wing aircraft with stealth capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available The tactical need for fixed wing aircraft with hovering capably has long been recognized bythe military for two reasons: increased safety when landing on aircraft carriers and higher velocitiesthat the ones obtainable with rotary wing aircraft.Thus far, the only concept governing the field of vertical flight was to use thrust either from a liftfan-F35, puffer ducts –Harrier or smaller jet engines-D0 31 or Yak-141, i.e. direct lift thrust.In this paper we will look at the prospect of using a combination of the Coanda effect with theVenturi effect to generate lift by so- called “supercirculation”. This novel approach can yield manyadvantages to conventional vertical lifting by providing a more stable platform and requiring lowerpower settings – and thus lower fuel consumption.The aircraft has a fixed, negatively sweped wing that uses circulation control to achieve lift atzero air speed. The fluid used for supercirculation will come from the fan thrust reversers – which, ifcorrectly managed, can give a sufficient flow for lifting the craft and also a negative thrust componentto compensate for the positive thrust of the primary flow (not diverted.

  11. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.


    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. FOD impact testing of composite fan blades (United States)

    Johns, R. H.


    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin, and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  13. Impact testing on composite fan blades (United States)

    Johns, R. H.


    The results of impact tests on large, fiber composite fan blades for aircraft turbofan engine applications are discussed. Solid composite blades of two different sizes and designs were tested. Both graphite/epoxy and boron/epoxy were evaluated. In addition, a spar-shell blade design was tested that had a boron/epoxy shell bonded to a titanium spar. All blades were tested one at a time in a rotating arm rig to simulate engine operating conditions. Impacting media included small gravel, two inch diameter ice balls, gelatin and RTV foam-simulated birds, as well as starlings and pigeons. The results showed little difference in performance between the graphite and boron/epoxy blades. The results also indicate that composite blades may be able to tolerate ice ball and small bird impacts but need improvement to tolerate birds in the small duck and larger category.

  14. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico


    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  15. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ford


    Full Text Available For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community of soap opera fans. Although several scholars have studied soap opera fandom, few have taken an historical approach at understanding the trajectory of soap fandom, a view especially necessary in an era where online social networks are at the center of audience studies and where cornerstone U.S. soap operas are struggling to retain relevance and audience. To fill this gap, I argue that understanding fan networks today requires looking back to previous methods of fan networking. Soaps' longevity (the youngest U.S. soap is more than 20 years old and frequency (all U.S. daytime soaps are daily make them crucial texts in demonstrating how the roots of fan social networks in a pre-Internet era helped shape that fandom's transition onto the Internet, and they also illustrate the continued evolution of these networks as fans move online.

  16. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen


    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  17. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L


    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  18. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.


    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  19. The evolution of an academic-community partnership in the design, implementation, and evaluation of experience corps® Baltimore city: a courtship model. (United States)

    Tan, Erwin J; McGill, Sylvia; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C; Rebok, George W; Seeman, Teresa E; Fried, Linda P


    Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) is a product of a partnership between the Greater Homewood Community Corporation (GHCC) and the Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health (COAH) that began in 1998. EC recruits volunteers aged 55 and older into high-impact mentoring and tutoring roles in public elementary schools that are designed to also benefit the volunteers. We describe the evolution of the GHCC-COAH partnership through the "Courtship Model." We describe how community-based participatory research principals, such as shared governance, were applied at the following stages: (1) partner selection, (2) getting serious, (3) commitment, and (4) leaving a legacy. EC could not have achieved its current level of success without academic-community partnership. In early stages of the "Courtship Model," GHCC and COAH were able to rely on the trust developed between the leadership of the partner organizations. Competing missions from different community and academic funders led to tension in later stages of the "Courtship Model" and necessitated a formal Memorandum of Understanding between the partners as they embarked on a randomized controlled trial. The GHCC-COAH partnership demonstrates how academic-community partnerships can serve as an engine for social innovation. The partnership could serve as a model for other communities seeking multiple funding sources to implement similar public health interventions that are based on national service models. Unified funding mechanisms would assist the formation of academic-community partnerships that could support the design, implementation, and the evaluation of community-based public health interventions.

  20. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria


    Sang-Yeon Sung


    K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the ...

  1. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, R.H.


    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs

  2. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao


    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  3. Multiple view fan beam polarimetry on Tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geck, W.R.; Domier, C.W.; Luhmann, N.C.


    A polarimeter diagnostic is under development which utilizes several fan beams to accumulate line integrated Faraday rotation data in a Tokamak plasma. The utilization of a fan beam configuration over that of conventional vertical view polarimeter systems significantly reduces access requirements. The high angular separation inherent in a fan beam implementation increases plasma coverage and eliminates the necessity of assumed plasma symmetries to generate high quality current density profiles. Codes have been developed to generate these high-resolution two-dimensional images of the plasma current profile from data collected at arbitrary positions and viewing angles. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Large Fluvial Fans: Aspects of the Attribute Array (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin M.


    In arguing for a strict definition of the alluvial fan (coarse-grained with radii less than10 km, in mountain-front settings), Blair and McPherson (1994) proposed that there is no meaningful difference between large fluvial fans (LFF) and floodplains, because the building blocks of both are channel-levee-overbank deposits. Sediment bodies at the LFF scale (greater than 100 km long, fan-shaped in planform), are relatively unstudied although greater than 160 are now identified globally. The following perspectives suggest that the significance of LFF needs to be reconsidered.

  5. The Star Wars franchise, fan edits, and Lucasfilm [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest Phillips


    Full Text Available Fan edits assert that fan authority is on par with that of a work's original creator; this authority is generated not only through the argument, but through the structure of the text itself. Fan edits adhere to classical filmmaking techniques, creating coherent plots and editing for continuity. These recut texts are emblematic of current ownership debates; they are the read/write culture brought to fandom. The Star Wars series of films are among the most frequently recut texts and are my focus here.

  6. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan (United States)

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.


    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  7. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  8. 30 CFR 77.212 - Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.212 Draw-off tunnel ventilation fans; installation. When fans are used to ventilate draw-off tunnels the fans shall be: (a) Installed on the surface; (b...

  9. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans (United States)


    ... Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... referred to as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to furnace fans..., even though DOE interprets its authority as encompassing more than just circulation fans used in...

  10. Representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's Springsteen & I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, M.C.


    This article explores the representation of American versus non-American fans in Baillie Walsh's 2013 crowd/fan-sourced documentary Springsteen & I. The film—as much as it was fed by a wide and international range of fan-produced material—ultimately produced and presented one particular type of fan

  11. 14 CFR 33.27 - Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine, compressor, fan, and... Turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotors. (a) Turbine, compressor, fan, and... affect turbine, compressor, fan, and turbosupercharger rotor structural integrity will not be exceeded in...

  12. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings (United States)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  13. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of a continuation of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC), in the following referred to as ‘Phase 2'. The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave...

  14. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David


    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  15. Effect of leading edge roundness on a delta wing in wing-rock motion (United States)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.


    The effect of wing leading-edge roundness on wing rock was investigated using flow visualization in a water tunnel. Eighty degree delta wing models were tested on free-to-roll and forced oscillation rigs. The onset of wing rock was delayed by increasing the roundness of the leading edges. The wing rock amplitude and frequency results suggested that damping was increased at lower angles of attack but reduced at higher angles of attack. Vortex lift-off and vortex breakdown, especially during dynamic situations, were strongly affected by the leading edge roundness. Different forms of wing rock motion could be sustained by combinations of vortex breakdown and vortex lift-off. Behaviors of the wing and vortex motions were explained by the influence of leading edge roundness on the separation location, vortex trajectory, and vortex breakdown.

  16. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio (United States)


    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  17. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Porfiri, M; Fuller, R C


    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. (paper)

  18. Cryptic confounding compounds: A brief consideration of the influences of anthropogenic contaminants on courtship and mating behavior (United States)

    Blocker, Tomica D.; Ophir, Alexander G.


    Contaminants, like pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and metals, are persistent and ubiquitous and are known to threaten the environment. Traditionally, scientists have considered the direct physiological risks that these contaminants pose. However, scientists have just begun to integrate ethology and toxicology to investigate the effects that contaminants have on behavior. This review considers the potential for contaminant effects on mating behavior. Here we assess the growing body of research concerning disruptions in sexual differentiation, courtship, sexual receptivity, arousal, and mating. We discuss the implications of these disruptions on conservation efforts and highlight the importance of recognizing the potential for environmental stressors to affect behavioral experimentation. More specifically, we consider the negative implications for anthropogenic contaminants to affect the immediate behavior of animals, and their potential to have cascading and/or long-term effects on the behavioral ecology and evolution of populations. Overall, we aim to raise awareness of the confounding influence that contaminants can have, and promote caution when interpreting results where the potential for cryptic affects are possible. PMID:24244068

  19. Copulatory behavior in a pholcid spider: males use specialized genitalic movements for sperm removal and copulatory courtship (United States)

    Calbacho-Rosa, Lucía; Galicia-Mendoza, Ivette; Dutto, María Sofía; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Peretti, Alfredo V.


    Sexual selection may operate on pre-copulatory, copulatory, and post-copulatory traits. An example of a copulatory target of sexual selection is the genitalic movements a male performs during copulation. These movements may function either to prevent sperm competition or to influence a female's fertilization decision. Here we investigated how copulation duration, pedipalp movements, and abdominal movements that males of the pholcid spider Holocnemus pluchei produce during copulation influence sperm removal and/or patterns of successful sperm transfer. We compared mating events with virgin and mated females for differences in copulatory and post-copulatory behavior. We expected longer copulation duration, longer pedipalp movement duration, and more complex and frequent pedipalp and abdominal movements when males mated with mated females compared to virgin females. Except for abdominal movements, our results corroborated these predictions. Furthermore, when we investigated mating events with mated females, we observed sperm mass ejection from the female gonopore and physical removal of sperm by males' procursi. Females with interrupted second mating events showed a significant reduction of stored sperm masses compared to females with completed mating events. We suggest that males use alternating pedipalp movements to remove most of the rival sperm stored by mated females prior to sperm transfer. Copulation duration and pedipalp movements can be further used to transfer sperm and/or as a form of genitalic copulatory courtship.

  20. Heat sends wimbledon fans to a&e. (United States)


    Emergency nurses at the south London hospital that serves Wimbledon treated an influx of tennis fans suffering the effects of heatstroke last week. St George's in Tooting reported that the numbers were up on previous years.

  1. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida. (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N


    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  3. Acceptance test procedure MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.


    This acceptance test verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, and the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor

  4. Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuvia Kahane


    Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.

  5. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  6. Conceptual design studies of lift/cruise fans for military transports (United States)


    A study program for conceptual design studies of remote lift and lift/cruise fan systems to meet the requirements of military V/STOL aircraft was conducted. Parametric performance and design data are presented for fans covering a range of pressure ratios, including both single and two stage fan concepts. The gas generator selected for these fan systems was the J101-GE-100 engine. Noise generation and transient response were determined for selected fan systems.

  7. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave? (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G


    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion


    Sam Ford


    For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community...

  9. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator


    Mahmud Shehu AHMED; Abubakar Sadiq MOHAMMED; Temitope George ONIMOLE; Paul Obafemi ATTAH


    The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control st...

  10. Flutter of a fan blade in supersonic axial flow (United States)

    Kielb, Robert E.; Ramsey, John K.


    An application of a simple aeroelastic model to an advanced supersonic axial flow fan is presented. Lane's cascade theory is used to determine the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Parametric studies are performed to determine the effects of mode coupling, Mach number, damping, pitching axis location, solidity, stagger angle, and mistuning. The results show that supersonic axial flow fan and compressor blades are susceptible to a strong torsional mode flutter having critical reduced velocities which can be less than one.

  11. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.


    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  12. THz Beam Shaper Realizing Fan-Out Patterns (United States)

    Liebert, K.; Rachon, M.; Siemion, A.; Suszek, J.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Sypek, M.


    Fan-out elements create an array of beams radiating at particular angles along the propagation axis. Therefore, they are able to form a matrix of equidistant spots in the far-field diffraction region. In this work, we report on the first fan-out structures designed for the THz range of radiation. Two types of light-dividing fan-out structures are demonstrated: (i) the 3×1 matrix fan-out structure based on the optimized binary phase grating and (ii) the 3×3 fan-out structure designed on the basis of the well-known Dammann grating. The structures were generated numerically and manufactured using the 3D printing technique with polyamide PA12. To obtain equal powers and symmetry of diffracted beams, the computer-aided optimization algorithm was used. Diffractive optical elements designed for 140 and 282 GHz were evaluated experimentally at both these frequencies using illumination with the wavefront coming from the point-like source. Described fan-out elements formed uniform intensity and equidistant energy distribution in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  13. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen


    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  14. D0 Cryo Ventilation Fan Controls and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markley, D.


    This engineering note describes how exhaust fan 6 (EF-6) and exhaust fan 7 (EF-7) are controlled and monitored. Since these two fans are a vital link in the ODH safety system, they will be monitored, controlled and periodically operated by the programmable logic controller (PLC). If there should be a fault in the ventilation system, the PLC will print a warning message to the cryo control room printer and flash a descriptive warning on the ODH/ventilation graphics page. This fault is also logged to the Xpresslink graphics alarm page and to an alarm history hard disk file. The ventilation failure is also an input to the auto dialer which will continue it's automatic sequence until acknowledged. EF-6 delivers 13000 C.F.M. and is considered emergency ventilation. EF-7 delivers 4500 C.F.M. and will run 24 hrs a day. Both ventilation fans are located in an enclosed closet in the TRD gas room. Their ductwork, both inlets and outlets run along side the pipe chase, but are separated by an airtight wall. Their combination motor control starter cabinets are located in the TRD room in plain visible sight of the fans with the closet door open. The fans have signs that state they are automatically controlled and can energize at any time.

  15. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  16. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef


    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  17. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  18. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements. (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan


    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  19. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv


    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  20. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks (United States)


    Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs), researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI) network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our finding that disease genes in

  1. Authigenic Carbonate Fans from Lower Jurassic Marine Shales (Alberta, Canada) (United States)

    Martindale, R. C.; Them, T. R., II; Gill, B. C.; Knoll, A. H.


    Authigenic aragonite seafloor fans are a common occurrence in Archean and Paleoproterozoic carbonates, as well as Neoproterozoic cap carbonates. Similar carbonate fans are rare in Phanerozoic strata, with the exception of two mass extinction events; during the Permo-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundaries, carbonate fans formed at the sediment-water interface and within the sediment, respectively. These crystal fans have been linked to carbon cycle perturbations at the end of the Permian and Triassic periods driven by rapid flood volcanism. The Early Jurassic Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE) is also correlated with the emplacement of a large igneous province, but biological consequences were more modest. We have identified broadly comparable fibrous calcite layers (2-10 cm thick) in Pliensbachian-Toarcian cores from Alberta, Canada. This work focuses on the geochemical and petrographic description of these fans and surrounding sediment in the context of the T-OAE. At the macroscale, carbonates exhibit a fan-like (occasionally cone-in-cone) structure and displace the sediment around them as they grew. At the microscale, the carbonate crystals (pseudomorphs of aragonite) often initiate on condensed horizons or shells. Although they grow in multiple directions (growth within the sediment), the predominant crystal growth direction is towards the sediment-water interface. Resedimentation of broken fans is evidence that crystal growth was penecontemporaneous with sedimentation. The carbon isotope composition of the fans (transects up bladed crystals) and elemental abundances within the layers support shallow subsurface, microbially mediated growth. The resemblance of these Early Jurassic fibrous calcite layers to those found at the end-Triassic and their paucity in the Phanerozoic record suggest that analogous processes occurred at both events. Nevertheless, the Pliensbachian-Toarcian carbonate fans occur at multiple horizons and while some are within the T

  2. Nonlinear Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing MAVs (United States)


    nonlinear optimization, flapping wing, fluid structure interaction, micro -air vehicles, flexible wing, flapping mechanism 16. SECURITY... Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing Micro -Air Vehicles” was funded with Chief Scientist Innovative Research funds. This project was divided...predict a 10% resisting load to the model, and Python Scripting to wrap around everything. 2 Building the Model in Abaqus CAE The flapping wing

  3. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)


    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  4. Unemployment and Right-Wing Extremist Crime


    Falk, Armin; Zweimüller, Josef


    Right-wing extremism is a serious problem in many societies. A prominent hypothesis states that unemployment plays a crucial role for the occurrence of right-wing extremist crime. In this paper we empirically test this hypothesis. We use a previously not used data set which includes all officially recorded right-wing criminal acts in Germany. These data are recorded by the German Federal Criminal Police Office on a monthly and state level basis. Our main finding is that there is in fact a sig...

  5. FijiWings: an open source toolkit for semiautomated morphometric analysis of insect wings. (United States)

    Dobens, Alexander C; Dobens, Leonard L


    Development requires coordination between cell proliferation and cell growth to pattern the proper size of tissues, organs, and whole organisms. The Drosophila wing has landmark features, such as the location of veins patterned by cell groups and trichome structures produced by individual cells, that are useful to examine the genetic contributions to both tissue and cell size. Wing size and trichome density have been measured manually, which is tedious and error prone, and although image processing and pattern-recognition software can quantify features in micrographs, this approach has not been applied to insect wings. Here we present FijiWings, a set of macros designed to perform semiautomated morphophometric analysis of a wing photomicrograph. FijiWings uses plug-ins installed in the Fiji version of ImageJ to detect and count trichomes and measure wing area either to calculate trichome density of a defined region selected by the user or generate a heat map of overall trichome densities. For high-throughput screens we have developed a macro that directs a trainable segmentation plug-in to detect wing vein locations either to measure trichome density in specific intervein regions or produce a heat map of relative intervein areas. We use wing GAL4 drivers and UAS-regulated transgenes to confirm the ability of these tools to detect changes in overall tissue growth and individual cell size. FijiWings is freely available and will be of interest to a broad community of fly geneticists studying both the effect of gene function on wing patterning and the evolution of wing morphology.

  6. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.


    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  7. Golden Jubilee Event for Cinema Fans

    CERN Multimedia


    As part of the Organisation's Fiftieth Anniversary celebrations the CERN CineClub will be showing a special series of films beginning with works by British, French, German, Norwegian and Spanish directors. The Club hopes to include films from all of the Member States in the programme. CERN's linguistic and cultural diversity will be celebrated from mid-February onwards when the CERN CineClub, whose summer English language film season will be familiar to many of you, plans to show a series of films from CERN's 20 Member States. The programme marks the CineClub's contribution to CERN's fiftieth anniversary festivities. The first film, "Four weddings and a funeral" (Mike Newell, 1994), will be shown in the Main Auditorium on 12 February. Next in the series will be films from Germany (Himmel über Berlin, or "The Wings of Desire", by Wim Wenders, 1987), Spain (Los Lunes al Sol, or "Mondays in the Sun", by Fernando Leon de Aranoa, 2002), France ( Diva , by Jean Jacques Beinex, 1981) and Norway (Elling, b...

  8. The leading-edge vortex of swift-wing shaped delta wings (United States)

    Muir, Rowan; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria


    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta shaped wing with a sharp leading-edge is tested at low Reynolds Number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the un-modified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift-wing shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds Number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta shaped wing. This work received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [EP/M506515/1] and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  9. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings. (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David


    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. An experimental investigation into the deployment of 3-D, finned wing and shape memory alloy vortex generators in a forced air convection heat pipe fin stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris, M.S.; McGlen, R.; Owen, I.; Sutcliffe, C.J.


    Forced air convection heat pipe cooling systems play an essential role in the thermal management of electronic and power electronic devices such as microprocessors and IGBT's (Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors). With increasing heat dissipation from these devices, novel methods of improving the thermal performance of fin stacks attached to the heat pipe condenser section are required. The current work investigates the use of a wing type surface protrusions in the form of 3-D delta wing tabs adhered to the fin surface, thin wings punched-out of the fin material and TiNi shape memory alloy delta wings which changed their angles of attack based on the fin surface temperature. The longitudinal vortices generated from the wing designs induce secondary mixing of the cooler free stream air entering the fin stack with the warmer fluid close to the fin surfaces. The change in angle of the attack of the active delta wings provide heat transfer enhancement while managing flow pressure losses across the fin stack. A heat transfer enhancement of 37% compared to a plain fin stack was obtained from the 3-D tabs in a staggered arrangement. The punched-out delta wings in the staggered and inline arrangements provided enhancements of 30% and 26% respectively. Enhancements from the active delta wings were lower at 16%. However, as these devices reduce the pressure drop through the fin stack by approximately 19% in the de-activate position, over the activated position, a reduction in fan operating cost may be achieved for systems operating with inlet air temperatures below the maximum inlet temperature specification for the device. CFD analysis was also carried out to provide additional detail of the local heat transfer enhancement effects. The CFD results corresponded well with previously published reports and were consistent with the experimental findings. - Highlights: → Heat transfer enhancements of heat pipe fin stacks was successfully achieved using fixed and active delta

  11. Flow Modulation and Force Control of Flapping Wings (United States)


    tested on a flapping wing model in the oil tank. Robotic flapper equipped with DC motors drove the wing model, and the imbedded servo motor could flap...the overall wake structure on the hovering wings. Totally, two volumetric flow measurements were performed on two mechanical flappers with different...wing kinematics but similar wing geometry. On the flappers with small stroke angle and passive rotation, the general vortex wake structure

  12. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger


    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  13. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies. (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M


    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  14. Flow structure of vortex-wing interaction (United States)

    McKenna, Christopher K.

    Impingement of a streamwise-oriented vortex upon a fin, tail, blade or wing represents a fundamental class of flow-structure interaction that extends across a range of applications. This interaction can give rise to time-averaged loading, as well as unsteady loading known as buffeting. The loading is sensitive to parameters of the incident vortex as well as the location of vortex impingement on the downstream aerodynamic surface, generically designated as a wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity, vorticity, swirl ratio, and streamlines on successive cross-flow planes upstream of and along the wing, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the interaction. At locations upstream of the leading edge of the wing, the evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the presence of the wing, and is highly dependent on the spanwise location of vortex impingement. Even at spanwise locations of impingement well outboard of the wing tip, a substantial influence on the structure of the incident vortex at locations significantly upstream of the leading edge of the wing was observed. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: decrease the swirl ratio; increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the azimuthal vorticity; increase the upwash; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square fluctuations of both streamwise velocity and vorticity. The interrelationship between these effects is addressed, including the rapid attenuation of axial vorticity in presence of an enhanced defect of axial velocity in the central region of the vortex. Moreover, when the incident vortex is aligned with, or inboard of, the tip of the wing, the swirl ratio decreases to values associated with instability of the vortex, giving rise to enhanced values of azimuthal vorticity relative to the

  15. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris


    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  16. "I'm Buffy, and you're history": Putting fan studies into history [editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reagin


    Full Text Available This essay kicks off the special historical issue of Transformative Works and Cultures by offering an overview of the ways in which fan communities have been studied by academic historians, and how fan studies has written the history of fan communities. The essay discusses historical work done by amateur fan historians throughout the 20th century; what academic historians can offer fan communities; why academic historians could benefit from studying fandoms as part of the history of popular culture; and what fan studies as a discipline might gain from a broader historical analysis of fandoms.

  17. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang


    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  18. Fan array wind tunnel: a multifunctional, complex environmental flow manipulator (United States)

    Dougherty, Christopher; Veismann, Marcel; Gharib, Morteza


    The recent emergence of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has reshaped the aerospace testing environment. Traditional closed-loop wind tunnels are not particularly suited nor easily retrofit to take advantage of these coordinated, controls-based rotorcraft. As such, a highly configurable, novel wind tunnel aimed at addressing the unmet technical challenges associated with single or formation flight performance of autonomous drone systems is presented. The open-loop fan array wind tunnel features 1296 individually controllable DC fans arranged in a 2.88m x 2.88m array. The fan array can operate with and without a tunnel enclosure and is able to rotate between horizontal and vertical testing configurations. In addition to standard variable speed uniform flow, the fan array can generate both unsteady and shear flows. Through the aid of smaller side fan array units, vortex flows are also possible. Conceptual design, fabrication, and validation of the tunnel performance will be presented, including theoretical and computational predictions of flow speed and turbulence intensity. Validation of these parameters is accomplished through standard pitot-static and hot-wire techniques. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) of various complex flows will also be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST) at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories of the California Institute of Technology (GALCIT).

  19. Aeromechanics Analysis of a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Reddy, T. S. R.; Herrick, Gregory P.; Shabbir, Aamir; Florea, Razvan V.


    Boundary layer ingesting propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce fuel burn but these systems must overcome the challe nges related to aeromechanics-fan flutter stability and forced response dynamic stresses. High-fidelity computational analysis of the fan a eromechanics is integral to the ongoing effort to design a boundary layer ingesting inlet and fan for fabrication and wind-tunnel test. A t hree-dimensional, time-accurate, Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics code is used to study aerothermodynamic and a eromechanical behavior of the fan in response to both clean and distorted inflows. The computational aeromechanics analyses performed in th is study show an intermediate design iteration of the fan to be flutter-free at the design conditions analyzed with both clean and distorte d in-flows. Dynamic stresses from forced response have been calculated for the design rotational speed. Additional work is ongoing to expan d the analyses to off-design conditions, and for on-resonance conditions.

  20. Impeller Design of a Centrifugal Fan with Blade Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee


    Full Text Available A method is presented for redesigning a centrifugal impeller and its inlet duct. The double-discharge volute casing is a structural constraint and is maintained for its shape. The redesign effort was geared towards meeting the design volute exit pressure while reducing the power required to operate the fan. Given the high performance of the baseline impeller, the redesign adopted a high-fidelity CFD-based computational approach capable of accounting for all aerodynamic losses. The present effort utilized a numerical optimization with experiential steering techniques to redesign the fan blades, inlet duct, and shroud of the impeller. The resulting flow path modifications not only met the pressure requirement, but also reduced the fan power by 8.8% over the baseline. A refined CFD assessment of the impeller/volute coupling and the gap between the stationary duct and the rotating shroud revealed a reduction in efficiency due to the volute and the gap. The calculations verified that the new impeller matches better with the original volute. Model-fan measured data was used to validate CFD predictions and impeller design goals. The CFD results further demonstrate a Reynolds-number effect between the model- and full-scale fans.

  1. An intelligent FFR with a self-adjustable ventilation fan. (United States)

    Zhou, Song; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Siyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotie; Yang, James


    This article presents an intelligent Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) with a self-adjustable ventilation fan for improved comfort. The ventilation fan with an intelligent control aims to reduce temperature, relative humidity, and CO 2 concentrations inside the facepiece. Compared with a previous version of the FFR, the advantage of this new FFR is the intelligent control of the fan's rotation speed based on the change in temperature and relative humidity in the FFR dead space. The design of the control system utilizes an 8-bit, ultra-low power STC15W404AS microcontroller (HongJin technology, Shenzhen, China), and adopts a high-precision AM2320 device (AoSong electronic, Guangzhou, China) as temperature and relative humidity sensor so that control of temperature and relative humidity is realized in real time within the FFR dead space. The ventilation fan is intelligently driven and runs on a rechargeable lithium battery with a power-save mode that provides a correspondingly longer operational time. Meanwhile, the design is simplistic. Two experiments were performed to determine the best location to place the fan.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Erosion Caused by Biomimetic Axial Fan Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiu Zhang


    Full Text Available Damage caused by erosion has been reported in several industries for a wide range of situations. In the present work, a new method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components by biomimetic method. A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion in the standard and biomimetic configuration blade of axial fan is presented. The analysis consists in the application of the discrete phase model, for modeling the solid particles flow, and the Eulerian conservation equations to the continuous phase. The numerical study employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on a finite volume method. User-defined function was used to define wear equation. Gas/solid flow axial fan was simulated to calculate the erosion rate of the particles on the fan blades and comparatively analyzed the erosive wear of the smooth surface, the groove-shaped, and convex hull-shaped biomimetic surface axial flow fan blade. The results show that the groove-shaped biomimetic blade antierosion ability is better than that of the other two fan blades. Thoroughly analyze of antierosion mechanism of the biomimetic blade from many factors including the flow velocity contours and flow path lines, impact velocity, impact angle, particle trajectories, and the number of collisions.

  3. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings. (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria


    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus . The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  4. Using Mobile Marketing to Engage NASCAR Fans and Increase Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mobile marketing displays engage the consumer. This sponsorship activation tactic is highly visible at NASCAR races. Some common elements include show cars, interactive race simulators, video games and race suit/equipment displays. The authors of this study argue that by using mobile marketing effectively as a sponsorship activation tactic, the race fans derive more enjoyment from the race experience. This increased enjoyment links to higher product sales for the sponsor. The implications of this study show that sponsors in other sports should use mobile marketing to increase the fan satisfaction of the game experience in order to increase their product sales. Additionally, event mangers should support mobile marketing as a sponsorship activation tactic with the intention of increasing fan enjoyment and improving attendance.

  5. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals (United States)

    Dittmar, James H.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  6. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan


    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  7. Historicizing video game series through fan art discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Švelch


    Full Text Available In this article, we argue that fannish histories should not be dismissed as mere nostalgia over past experiences of one's own media fandom. Instead they should be understood as complex narratives which combine various historical layers (personal, productional, fictional and influence the future reception of and anticipation for sequels. They also shed light on the personal histories of fans, which are often juxtaposed with extratextual and fictional histories of a video game series. The subjective nature of these historical discourses is not to be seen as a constraint but as a feature of everyday history which points to the prominence of historicizing in fan cultures of video game series. These topics are examined in the selected multimodal material from the site DeviantArt consisting of fan art pieces, authorial captions, and respective comments inspired by two single-player video game series: Tomb Raider and Mass Effect.

  8. Design Optimization of a Centrifugal Fan with Splitter Blades (United States)

    Heo, Man-Woong; Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Kwang-Yong


    Multi-objective optimization of a centrifugal fan with additionally installed splitter blades was performed to simultaneously maximize the efficiency and pressure rise using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and hybrid multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. Two design variables defining the location of splitter, and the height ratio between inlet and outlet of impeller were selected for the optimization. In addition, the aerodynamic characteristics of the centrifugal fan were investigated with the variation of design variables in the design space. Latin hypercube sampling was used to select the training points, and response surface approximation models were constructed as surrogate models of the objective functions. With the optimization, both the efficiency and pressure rise of the centrifugal fan with splitter blades were improved considerably compared to the reference model.

  9. Aeroelasticity of morphing wings using neural networks (United States)

    Natarajan, Anand

    In this dissertation, neural networks are designed to effectively model static non-linear aeroelastic problems in adaptive structures and linear dynamic aeroelastic systems with time varying stiffness. The use of adaptive materials in aircraft wings allows for the change of the contour or the configuration of a wing (morphing) in flight. The use of smart materials, to accomplish these deformations, can imply that the stiffness of the wing with a morphing contour changes as the contour changes. For a rapidly oscillating body in a fluid field, continuously adapting structural parameters may render the wing to behave as a time variant system. Even the internal spars/ribs of the aircraft wing which define the wing stiffness can be made adaptive, that is, their stiffness can be made to vary with time. The immediate effect on the structural dynamics of the wing, is that, the wing motion is governed by a differential equation with time varying coefficients. The study of this concept of a time varying torsional stiffness, made possible by the use of active materials and adaptive spars, in the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an adaptable airfoil is performed here. Another type of aeroelastic problem of an adaptive structure that is investigated here, is the shape control of an adaptive bump situated on the leading edge of an airfoil. Such a bump is useful in achieving flow separation control for lateral directional maneuverability of the aircraft. Since actuators are being used to create this bump on the wing surface, the energy required to do so needs to be minimized. The adverse pressure drag as a result of this bump needs to be controlled so that the loss in lift over the wing is made minimal. The design of such a "spoiler bump" on the surface of the airfoil is an optimization problem of maximizing pressure drag due to flow separation while minimizing the loss in lift and energy required to deform the bump. One neural network is trained using the CFD code FLUENT to

  10. Automatic Lamp and Fan Control Based on Microcontroller (United States)

    Widyaningrum, V. T.; Pramudita, Y. D.


    In general, automation can be described as a process following pre-determined sequential steps with a little or without any human exertion. Automation is provided with the use of various sensors suitable to observe the production processes, actuators and different techniques and devices. In this research, the automation system developed is an automatic lamp and an automatic fan on the smart home. Both of these systems will be processed using an Arduino Mega 2560 microcontroller. A microcontroller is used to obtain values of physical conditions through sensors connected to it. In the automatic lamp system required sensors to detect the light of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) sensor. While the automatic fan system required sensors to detect the temperature of the DHT11 sensor. In tests that have been done lamps and fans can work properly. The lamp can turn on automatically when the light begins to darken, and the lamp can also turn off automatically when the light begins to bright again. In addition, it can concluded also that the readings of LDR sensors are placed outside the room is different from the readings of LDR sensors placed in the room. This is because the light intensity received by the existing LDR sensor in the room is blocked by the wall of the house or by other objects. Then for the fan, it can also turn on automatically when the temperature is greater than 25°C, and the fan speed can also be adjusted. The fan may also turn off automatically when the temperature is less than equal to 25°C.

  11. Backprojection filtering for variable orbit fan-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Zeng, G.L.


    Backprojection filtering algorithms are presented for three variable Orbit fan-beam geometries. Expressions for the fan beam projection and backprojection operators are given for a flat detector fan-beam geometry with fixed focal length, with variable focal length, and with fixed focal length and off-center focusing. Backprojection operators are derived for each geometry using transformation of coordinates to transform from a parallel geometry backprojector to a fan-beam backprojector for the appropriate geometry. The backprojection operator includes a factor which is a function of the coordinates of the projection ray and the coordinates of the pixel in the backprojected image. The backprojection filtering algorithm first backprojects the variable orbit fan-beam projection data using the appropriately derived backprojector to obtain a 1/r blurring of the original image then takes the two-dimensional (2D) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the backprojected image, then multiples the transformed image by the 2D ramp filter function, and finally takes the inverse 2D FFT to obtain the reconstructed image. Computer simulations verify that backprojectors with appropriate weighting give artifact free reconstructions of simulated line integral projections. Also, it is shown that it is not necessary to assume a projection model of line integrals, but the projector and backprojector can be defined to model the physics of the imaging detection process. A backprojector for variable orbit fan-beam tomography with fixed focal length is derived which includes an additional factor which is a function of the flux density along the flat detector. It is shown that the impulse response for the composite of the projection and backprojection operations is equal to 1/r

  12. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing. (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef


    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  13. A Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance and Noise of a Bionic Airfoil Based on Owl Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Liu


    Full Text Available Noise reduction and efficiency enhancement are the two important directions in the development of the multiblade centrifugal fan. In this study, we attempt to develop a bionic airfoil based on the owl wing and investigate its aerodynamic performance and noise-reduction mechanism at the relatively low Reynolds number. Firstly, according to the geometric characteristics of the owl wing, a bionic airfoil is constructed as the object of study at Reynolds number of 12,300. Secondly, the large eddy simulation (LES with the Smagorinsky model is adopted to numerically simulate the unsteady flow fields around the bionic airfoil and the standard NACA0006 airfoil. And then, the acoustic sources are extracted from the unsteady flow field data, and the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H equation based on Lighthill's acoustic theory is solved to predict the propagation of these acoustic sources. The numerical results show that the lift-to-drag ratio of bionic airfoil is higher than that of the traditional NACA 0006 airfoil because of its deeply concave lower surface geometry. Finally, the sound field of the bionic airfoil is analyzed in detail. The distribution of the A-weighted sound pressure levels, the scaled directivity of the sound, and the distribution of dP/dt on the airfoil surface are provided so that the characteristics of the acoustic sources could be revealed.

  14. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.


    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  15. "Cultural acupuncture": Fan activism and the Harry Potter Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jenkins


    Full Text Available Fan activists have struggled to defend series from cancellation, defend themselves from cease and desist orders, promote alternative representations, and raise money for charity. Building on this background, this article examines how the Harry Potter Alliance encourages young people to speak out as fans on a broad range of human rights and social justice issues through what the group's leader, Andrew Slack, calls "cultural acupuncture." The group's practice of mapping the fictional content world onto real-world concerns helps empower young people to become civicly engaged and politically active.

  16. Air Distribution in Rooms with a Fan-Driven Convector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Bindels, Rob H.W.; Michalak, Lukasz


    Experiments with a fan-driven convector used for both heating and cooling are de.scribed in this paper. Only the cooling situation is considered. The convector is positioned in the upper corner ofthe room, and from there the cold air is let out through the device along the ceiling. The airflow...... of 210 W. From the measurements, limitations for the fan-driven convector are set up in a design graph based onflow elements from the convector, amaximumvelocity assumption, and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room. The limits for the curves in the design graph are found by analyzing...

  17. Design and Construction of a Remote Controlled Fan Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Shehu AHMED


    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple design and implementation of a remote controlled fan regulator. It enables the user to operate a fan regulator from approximately 10 meters away. The remote transmits a tone using an infrared light-emitting diode. This tone is decoded by a receiver, since the receiver only switches when the tone is received. The system was broken down into simpler functional blocks namely; infra-red transmitter, infra-red sensor, signal amplifier, control logic, sampler, control stepper, output control logic, load and display unit. Details of each subunit are described in the paper.

  18. Condition monitoring of fans with rolling element bearings: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, J.M.; Kurre, M.D.


    A technique to predict impending bearing failures is currently nder development. Research was conducted to detmine the current state of the art of diagnostic monitoring of axial flow fan bearings. On the basis of this knowledge, a system was designed and built to monitor and store spectrum information of the vibration levels of a number of large axial-flow fan bearings. The system was in operation collecting data for almost 3 years. Results of the background research and analyis of data collected are presented along with methods for predicting impending failure. 25 refs., 32 figs.

  19. Towards a three-component model of fan loyalty: a case study of Chinese youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiao Zhang

    Full Text Available The term "fan loyalty" refers to the loyalty felt and expressed by a fan towards the object of his/her fanaticism in both everyday and academic discourses. However, much of the literature on fan loyalty has paid little attention to the topic from the perspective of youth pop culture. The present study explored the meaning of fan loyalty in the context of China. Data were collected by the method of in-depth interviews with 16 young Chinese people aged between 19 and 25 years who currently or once were pop fans. The results indicated that fan loyalty entails three components: involvement, satisfaction, and affiliation. These three components regulate the process of fan loyalty development, which can be divided into four stages: inception, upgrade, zenith, and decline. This model provides a conceptual explanation of why and how young Chinese fans are loyal to their favorite stars. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Low-pressure reversible axial fan designed with different specific work of elementary stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Božidar P.


    Full Text Available Low-pressure axial fan impellers designed according to the principle of equal specific work of all elementary stages have blades whose profile near the fan hub is under a significantly larger inclination angle than at the impeller periphery. In order to minimize the spatial curvature of the fan blades and the fan hub length, impeller blades of low-pressure axial fans can be designed with different specific work of elementary stages, so that the specific work of elementary stages is smaller at the hub than at the periphery. This paper presents the operating characteristics of a low-pressure reversible axial fan with straight blade profiles, designed with different specific work of elementary stages. The fan was tested on a standard test rig, with air intake loading on the suction side of the fan.

  1. Development Specification for the FN-323/324, Oxygen Ventilation Loop Fan Assembly (United States)

    Ralston, Russell; Campbell, Colin


    This specification establishes the requirements for design, performance, safety, and manufacture of the FN-323/324, Oxygen Ventilation Loop Fan Assembly as part of the Advanced EMU (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS). Fan development for the advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) began in 2009 with the development of Fan 1.0. This fan was used in PLSS 2.0 for circulation of the ventilation loop gas. Fan 2.0 was delivered in 2015 and will be used in the PLSS 2.5 Live Loads test series. This fan used the same motor as Fan 1.0, but had a larger volute and impeller in hopes of achieving lower speeds. The next iteration of the advanced PLSS fan is the subject of the requirements contained within this document, and will be used with the PLSS 2.5 -302 configuration.

  2. The Design and Integration of a Distributed Fan Propulsion System within a Split-Wing, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A baseline propulsion system has been designed as a starting point in a previous SBIR effort for this project which consists of two turboshaft engines, a generator...

  3. The effects of wing flexibility on the flight performance and stability of flapping wing micro air vehicles (United States)

    Bluman, James Edward

    Insect wings are flexible. However, the influence of wing flexibility on the flight dynamics of insects and flapping wing micro air vehicles is unknown. Most studies in the literature consider rigid wings and conclude that the hover equilibrium is unstable. This dissertation shows that a flapping wing flyer with flexible wings exhibits stable natural modes of the open loop system in hover, never reported before. The free-flight insect flight dynamics is modeled for both flexible and rigid wings. Wing mass and inertia are included in the nonlinear equations of motion. The flapping wing aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady model, a well-validated two dimensional Navier Stokes model, and a coupled, two dimensional Navier Stokes - Euler Bernoulli beam model that accurately models the fluid-structure interaction of flexible wings. Hover equilibrium is systematically and efficiently determined with a coupled quasi-steady and Navier-Stokes equation trimmer. The power and stability are reported at hover while parametrically varying the pitch axis location for rigid wings and the structural stiffness for flexible wings. The results indicate that the rigid wings possess an unstable oscillatory mode mainly due to their pitch sensitivity to horizontal velocity perturbations. The flexible wings stabilize this mode primarily by adjusting their wing shape in the presence of perturbations. The wing's response to perturbations generates significantly more horizontal velocity damping and pitch rate damping than in rigid wings. Furthermore, the flexible wings experience substantially less wing wake interaction, which, for rigid wings, is destabilizing. The power required to hover a fruit fly with actively rotating rigid wings varies between 16.9 and 34.2 W/kg. The optimal power occurs when the pitch axis is located at 30% chord, similar to some biological observations. Flexible wings require 23.1 to 38.5 W/kg. However, flexible wings exhibit more stable system dynamics and

  4. Morphogenesis and Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in the High Atlas Morocco: A Geomorphological Model of the Fans of the Wadi Beni Mhammed, Souss Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahoucine Chakir


    Full Text Available Morphosedimentary study of alluvial fans formed by the Wadi Beni Mhammed, on the southern piedmont of the western High-Atlas, has indicated three main generations of deposits. Their ages range from ancient (Plio-Pleistocene to Holocene and recent formations. The first generation, comprising small boundary fans, was deposited prior to lateral migration and subsequent entrenchment of the drainage pattern (the combination of the Wadis Aït Mekhlouf and Ida Ou Merouane. The confluence of these powerful streams gave birth to the principal fan that extends to the Souss valley. The third generation of fans was constructed after the incision of the principal fan, by the re-activation of a high secondary fan that was formed from downstream progradation. The morphological characteristics of the fans, such as their area, shape and gradient, are determined from catchment data and, in particular, from the lithology of their provenance areas, which defines the nature of gravel material, sedimentation processes and, finally, the distribtion of constituent materials. Fan shape also depends on the available accommodation space on the piedmont. The Wadi Beni Mhammed fans are elongated, because they are constrained by the mega fans of Wadis Irguitene and Aoukourta. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 293-311

  5. The search for causal traits of speciation: Divergent female mate preferences target male courtship song, not pheromones, in Drosophila athabasca species complex. (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman; Harvey, Taylor; Nguyen, Son; Kehlbeck, Joanne; Park, Agnes


    Understanding speciation requires the identification of traits that cause reproductive isolation. This remains a major challenge since it is difficult to determine which of the many divergent traits actually caused speciation. To overcome this difficulty, we studied the sexual cue traits and behaviors associated with rapid speciation between EA and WN sympatric behavioral races of Drosophila athabasca that diverged only 16,000-20,000 years ago. First, we found that sexual isolation was essentially complete and driven primarily by divergent female mating preferences. To determine the target of female mate choice, we found that, unlike cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), male courtship song is highly divergent between EA and WN in both allopatry and sympatry and is not affected by latitudinal variation. We then used pheromone rub-off experiments to show no effect of CHCs on divergent female mate choice. In contrast, both male song differences and male mating success in hybrids exhibited a large X-effect and playback song experiments confirmed that male courtship song is indeed the target of sexual isolation. These results show that a single secondary sexual trait is a major driver of speciation and suggest that we may be overestimating the number of traits involved in speciation when we study older taxa. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. More about the role of 2,6-dichlorophenol in tick courtship: identification and olfactometer bioassay in Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Braz Louly


    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP in Amblyomma cajennense and to evaluate its role in A. cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus courtship. Hexanic extract from attractive females was purified by solid phase extraction and the phenol was identified by the single ion monitoring method using GC/MS. In an olfactometer, the responses of A. cajennense and R. sanguineus males to females, control rubber septa or rubber septa impregnated with 2,6-DCP at 50, 500, and 5000 ng, respectively, were studied. 2,6-DCP was identified in A. cajennense extract and the males oriented themselves toward the concentration of 500 ng. These septa and the females were recognized as copula partners. The septa treated with 2,6-DCP did not attract and were not even recognized by the R. sanguineus males, whereas the females were recognized. Due to the presence of 2,6-DCP in A. cajennense and the results of biological bioassays, it was concluded that this compound acts as an attractant and mounting sex pheromone in this tick, but it does not play any role in R. sanguineus courtship.

  7. Process sedimentology of submarine fan deposits - new perspectives (United States)

    Postma, George


    To link submarine fan process sedimentology with sand distribution, sand body architecture, texture and fabric, the field geologist studies sedimentary facies, facies associations (fan elements) and stratigraphy. Facies analysis resides on factual knowledge of modern fan morphodynamics and physical modelling of en-masse sediment transport. Where do we stand after 55 years of submarine research, i.e. the date when the first submarine fan model was launched by Arnold Bouma in 1962? Since that date students of submarine fans have worked on a number of important, recurring questions concerned with facies analysis of submarine successions in outcrop and core: 1. What type of sediment transport produced the beds? 2. What facies can be related to initial flow conditions? 3. What is the significance of grain size jumps and bounding surface hierarchy in beds consisting of crude and spaced stratification (traction carpets)? Do these point to multi flow events or to flow pulsations by one and the same event? 4. What facies associations relate to the basic elements of submarine fans? 5. What are the autogenic and allogenic signatures in submarine fans? Particularly in the last decade, the enormous technical advancement helped to obtain high-quality data from observations of density flows in modern canyons, deep basins and deep-water delta slopes (refs 1,2,3). In combination with both physical (refs 4,5) and numerical modelling (ref 6) these studies broke new ground into our understanding of density flow processes in various submarine environments and have led to new concepts of submarine fan building by super- and subcritical high-density flow (ref 7). Do these new concepts provide better answers to our recurrent questions related to the morphodynamics of submarine fans and prediction of sand body architecture? In discussing this open question, I shall 1. apply the new concepts to a modern and ancient example of a channel-lobe-transition-zone (ref 8); 2. raise the problem of

  8. Optimization of the Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for male hockey fans. (United States)

    Blunt, Wendy; Gill, Dawn P; Sibbald, Shannon L; Riggin, Brendan; Pulford, Roseanne W; Scott, Ryan; Danylchuk, Karen; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J


    The health outcomes of men continue to be poorer than women globally. Challenges in addressing this problem include difficulties engaging men in weight loss programs as they tend to view these programs as contrary to the masculine narrative of independence and self-reliance. Researchers have been turning towards sports fans to engage men in health promotion programs as sports fans are typically male, and tend to have poor health habits. Developed from the highly successful gender-sensitized Football Fans in Training program, Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) recruited 80 male hockey fans of the London Knights and Sarnia Sting who were overweight or obese into a weekly, 90-minute classroom education and group exercise program held over 12 weeks; a 40-week minimally-supported phase followed. A process evaluation of the Hockey FIT program was completed alongside a pragmatic randomized controlled trial and outcome evaluation in order to fully explore the acceptability of the Hockey FIT program from the perspectives of coaches delivering and participants engaged in the program. Data sources included attendance records, participant focus groups, coach interviews, assessment of fidelity (program observations and post-session coach reflections), and 12-month participant interviews. Coaches enjoyed delivering the program and found it simple to deliver. Men valued being among others of similar body shape and similar weight loss goals, and found the knowledge they gained through the program helped them to make and maintain health behaviour changes. Suggested improvements include having more hockey-related information and activities, greater flexibility with timing of program delivery, and greater promotion of technology support tools. We confirmed Hockey FIT was an acceptable "gender-sensitized" health promotion program for male hockey fans who were overweight or obese. Minor changes were required for optimization, which will be evaluated in a future definitive trial

  9. Precautions against axial fan stall in reactor building to Tianwan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunlong; Pei Junmin


    The paper introduces the mechanism and harm of rotating stall of axial fans, analyzes the necessity for prevention against axial fan stall in reactor building of Tianwan NPP, introduces the precautions, and then makes an assessment on anti-stall effect of flow separators. It can provide reference for model-selection or reconstruction of similar fans in power stations, and for operation and maintenance of axial fans. (authors)

  10. Fluctuating pressures on fan blades of a turbofan engine, flight test investigation (United States)

    Schoenster, J. A.


    Miniature pressure transducers were used to measure the fluctuating pressure on the fan blades of a JT15D engine in flight to aid in understanding fan-noise generation. Although the blade pressures can be considered very useful in determining far-field noise sources in the subsonic fan-blade tip speeds, other mechanisms, and as shock waves in the transonic and supersonic fan-blade tip speeds, limit their usefulness in these higher speed ranges.

  11. [Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.


    We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men's and women's change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991

  12. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates. (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David


    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  14. Surface morphology of fans in the high-Arctic periglacial environment of Svalbard : Controls and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Tjalling|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023190; Kleinhans, Maarten G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/217675123; Carbonneau, Patrice E.; Rubensdotter, Lena; Hauber, Ernst


    Fan-shaped landforms occur in all climatic regions on Earth. They have been extensively studied in many of these regions, but there are few studies on fans in periglacial, Arctic and Antarctic regions. Fans in such regions are exposed to many site-specific environmental conditions in addition to

  15. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and... (United States)


    ... Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (hereinafter referred to as ``furnace fans''). To inform interested parties and to facilitate this process, DOE...: . DATES: DOE...

  16. FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031) (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT 2085 August 2016 FANS Simulation of Propeller Wash at Navy Harbors (ESTEP Project ER-201031) Pei-Fang Wang SSC Pacific Hamn...4 2.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for DDG 51 Ship ............................................................ 5 2.2 Disturbed Velocity...15 3.1 FANS Model Simulation Results for Tugboat with Ducted Propellers ..............................18 3.2 Disturbed Velocity Profiles

  17. Interaction between Dutch soccer teams and fans: a mathematical analysis through cooperative game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Driessen, Theo


    Inspired by the first lustrum of the Club Positioning Matrix (CPM) for professional Dutch soccer teams, we model the interaction between soccer teams and their potential fans as a cooperative cost game based on the annual voluntary sponsorships of fans in order to validate their fan registration in

  18. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans (United States)


    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation standards for ceiling fans. Specifically, DOE seeks information on the interaction between ceiling fan and air conditioning usage. To inform interested parties...

  19. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public... (United States)


    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  20. Football fan aggression: The importance of low basal cortisol and a fair referee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, L.; Klauke, F; Moore, H.L.; Ludwig, Y.S.; Almela, M.; van Lange, P.A.M.


    Fan aggression in football (soccer) is a societal problem that affects many countries worldwide. However, to date, most studies use an epidemiological or survey approach to explain football fan aggression. This study used a controlled laboratory study to advance a model of predictors for fan

  1. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls (United States)


    ... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

  2. 77 FR 68151 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan... (United States)


    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request: Main Fan Operation and Inspection (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A Mines... Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Main Fan Operation and Inspection...: Potentially gassy (explosive) conditions underground are largely controlled by main fans. When accumulations...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for underground...

  4. 78 FR 51749 - Proposed Information Collection; Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record (Pertains to... (United States)


    ...; Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record (Pertains to Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines) AGENCY... proposed information collection for updating Ventilation Plan and Main Fan Maintenance Record 30 CFR 57... or revisions must be submitted to MSHA for review and comment. The main ventilation fans for an...

  5. Tectonic controls on the geomorphic evolution of alluvial fans in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Piedmont Zone has formed as a result of coalescing alluvial fans,alluvial aprons and talus deposits.The fans have differential morphologies and aggradation processes within a common climatic zone and similar litho-tectonic setting of the catchment area. Morphotectonic analysis reveals that the fan morphologies and ...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  7. 30 CFR 75.312 - Main mine fan examinations and records. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan examinations and records. 75.312... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.312 Main mine fan examinations and records. (a) To assure electrical and mechanical reliability of main mine fans, each main mine...

  8. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  9. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  10. Identifying Crosscutting Concerns Using Fan-in Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, M.; Van Deursen, A.; Moonen, L.


    Aspect mining is a reverse engineering process that aims at finding crosscutting concerns in existing systems. This paper proposes an aspect mining approach based on determining methods that are called from many different places, and hence have a high fan-in, which can be seen as a symptom of

  11. Così fan tutte: Brilliance or Buffoonery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Whitfield


    Full Text Available Hardly any opera has endured more scrutiny and self-preserving apology than Mozart’s Così fan tutte. Flagrant opposition and a long string of “rescue” attempts shroud the receptive history of the work. Since its premiere, Così fan tutte has long been recognized as a problem opera. Many critics found it implausible that Mozart—the consummate composer and man that warranted their idolization—could have stooped so low as to agree to such an immoral plot. The great beauty in Mozart’s musical parody is that it at once mocks and transforms the supposed superficial experiment of Lorenzo Da Ponte’s libretto. The parody in Così fan tutte must be correctly interpreted. It is rampant, but it exists for much more than a perfunctory laugh. The beauty of Mozart’s music—in both moments of wild parody and heartfelt emotion—succeeds in giving Così fan tutte a depth that is both challenging and transforming.

  12. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts (United States)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.


    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  13. Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne


    Fans skriver videre på deres foretrukne historier Vi har kendt til at lære gennem børn og unges optagethed af populærkultur gennem de sidste tredive år, men alligevel kan man have betænkeligheder ved at involvere unges egenkultur, idet det kan problemati- seres, hvilke erkendelsesformer, der er her....

  14. Performance Assessment of a Class of Industrial Fans With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a statistical quality control study for on-condition monitoring of draught fans in a steelmaking process. The study proposes a procedure for obtaining consistent estimates of peak vibration levels for performance assessment the machines based on independent measurements of the variable assuming the ...

  15. On passion and sports fans: a look at football. (United States)

    Vallerand, Robert J; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Philippe, Frederick L; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Carbonneau, Noémie; Bonneville, Arielle; Lagacé-Labonté, Camille; Maliha, Gabrielle


    The purpose of the present research was to test the applicability of the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) to being a sport (football) fan. Three studies provided support for this dualistic conceptualization of passion. Study 1 showed that harmonious passion was positively associated with adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory), whereas obsessive passion was positively associated with maladaptive behaviours (e.g. risking losing one's job to go to a game). Study 2 used a short Passion Scale and showed that harmonious passion was positively related to the positive affective life of fans during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, psychological health (self-esteem and life satisfaction), and public displays of adaptive behaviours (e.g. celebrate the team's victory into the streets), whereas obsessive passion was predictive of maladaptive affective life (e.g. hating opposing teams' fans) and behaviours (e.g. mocking opposing teams' fans). Finally, Study 3 examined the role of obsessive passion as a predictor of partner's conflict that in turn undermined partner's relationship satisfaction. Overall, the present results provided support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. The conceptual and applied implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Electric fans for reducing adverse health impacts in heatwaves. (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Carmichael, Catriona; Simpson, Christina; Clarke, Mike J; Allen, Claire; Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y Y; Murray, Virginia


    Heatwaves are hot weather events, which breach regional or national thresholds, that last for several days. They are likely to occur with increasing frequency in some parts of the world. The potential consequences were illustrated in Europe in August 2003 when there were an estimated 30,000 excess deaths due to a heatwave. Electric fans might be used with the intention of reducing the adverse health effects of a heatwave. Fans do not cool the ambient air but can be used to draw in cooler air from outside when placed at an open window. The aim of the fans would be to increase heat loss by increasing the efficiency of all normal methods of heat loss, but particularly by evaporation and convection methods. However, it should be noted that increased sweating can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if these fluids and electrolytes are not replaced quickly enough. Research has also identified important gaps in knowledge about the use of fans, which might lead to their inappropriate use. To determine whether the use of electric fans contributes to, or impedes, heat loss at high ambient temperatures during a heatwave, and to contribute to the evidence base for the public health impacts of heatwaves. We sought unpublished and published studies that had been published in any language. The review team were able to assess studies reported in English, Chinese, Dutch, French and German; and reports in other languages would have been translated into English as necessary. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Indian biomedical literature (IndMED and MedIND) and databases of Chinese literature (Chinese Journal Net and Digital Periodical of WanFang Data). The most recent electronic searches were done in April 2012. We also checked the reference lists of relevant articles and the websites of relevant national and international organisations, and consulted with researchers and policy makers with experience in

  17. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.


    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material

  18. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lepicovsky


    velocity.To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the by-product of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  19. Construction of an automated temperature sensing electric fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An automated temperature-sensing fan regulator which controls the speed with respect to the sensed temperature, is designed and constructed. This design was implemented with simple and readily available electronics components at the local electric shops. The achieved results and its features when compared with ...

  20. The Nonrelativistic Scattering States of the Deng-Fan Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentol Hoda Yazarloo


    Full Text Available The approximately analytical scattering state solution of the Schrodinger equation is obtained for the Deng-Fan potential by using an approximation scheme to the centrifugal term. Energy eigenvalues, normalized wave functions, and scattering phase shifts are calculated. We consider and verify two special cases: the l=0 and the s-wave Hulthén potential.

  1. Acceptance test report MICON software exhaust fan control modifications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SILVAN, G.R.


    This report documents the results the acceptance test HNF-4108 which verifies the MICON program changes for the new automatic transfer switch ATS-2 alarms, the Closed Loop Cooling isolator status, the CB-3 position alarm, the alarms for the new emergency fan damper backup air compressor, and the generator sequencer logic

  2. Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and R&D Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goetzler, Matt Guernsey, Greg Chung


    This report provides the Building Technologies Office (BTO) and the research and development (R&D) community with a technical and market analysis of pumps and fans as they pertain to commercial and residential buildings as well as key conclusions regarding the R&D opportunities that can help achieve BTO’s energy savings goals.

  3. Placing Fandom : Film Tourism in Contemporary Fan Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Waysdorf (Abby)


    markdownabstractFilm tourism – visiting places associated with a film or television show – is an increasingly visible and popular practice. It is now almost expected whenever a new movie or television show draws on a particular place as a setting. But how are these places experienced by the fans who

  4. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examined the travel motives of South African World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) fans at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. Based on these motives, different market segments at the events were identified and profiled. This was the first time that the motives of ...

  5. Dimensions of attachment among fans within the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attachment to the level of sport in general appeared to be the most highly correlated form of attachment with attendance. Fans appear to attach greater importance to the sport, the level of soccer and the team as opposed to specific players or the coach. The study proposes a framework reflecting both its practical application ...

  6. Blade Crack Detection of Centrifugal Fan Using Adaptive Stochastic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Hu


    Full Text Available Centrifugal fans are widely used in various industries as a kind of turbo machinery. Among the components of the centrifugal fan, the impeller is a key part because it is used to transform kinetic energy into pressure energy. Crack in impeller’s blades is one of the serious hidden dangers. It is important to detect the cracks in the blades as early as possible. Based on blade vibration signals, this research applies an adaptive stochastic resonance (ASR method to diagnose crack fault in centrifugal fan. The ASR method, which can utilize the optimization ability of the grid search method and adaptively realize the optimal stochastic resonance system matching input signals, may weaken the noise and highlight weak characteristic and thus can diagnose the fault accurately. A centrifugal fan test rig is established and experiments with three cases of blades are conducted. In comparison with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD analysis and the traditional Fourier transform method, the experiment verified the effectiveness of the current method in blade crack detection.

  7. On a derivative-free fan-beam reconstruction formula. (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Wei, Yuchuan


    We clarify that the derivative-free fan-beam reconstruction formula [IEEE Trans. Image Process. 2, 543-547, 1993] only allows exact reconstruction of an object for a circular trajectory or at the origin of the coordinate system for a radially symmetric noncircular trajectory.

  8. Fans' multiple points of attachment and their influence on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby is one of South Africa's big three sports, alongside soccer and cricket. For many South African fans, rugby is a medium that provides entertainment, cultural identity and a sense of belonging to a particular sport. One of the main appeals for watching competitive sport events is the distinctive nature of competition.

  9. Motivational factors affecting fan decisions to attend Premier Soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' involvement in sport comes in different forms such as a profession, a hobby, or as entertainment. As part of the entertainment experience, an individual may be either a spectator or a fan. In South Africa, soccer is arguably the most popular sport, recreationally, economically as well as regarding active and ...

  10. Impact of cyclostationarity on fan broadband noise prediction (United States)

    Wohlbrandt, A.; Kissner, C.; Guérin, S.


    One of the dominant noise sources of modern Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines is the interaction of the rotor wakes with the leading edges of the stator vanes in the fan stage. While the tonal components of this noise generation mechanism are fairly well understood by now, the broadband components are not. This calls to further the understanding of the broadband noise generation in the fan stage. This article introduces a new extension to the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method, which accommodates in-depth studies of the impact of cyclostationary wake characteristics on the broadband noise in the fan stage. The RPM method is used to synthesize a turbulence field in the stator domain using a URANS simulation characterized by time-periodic turbulence and mean flow. The rotor-stator interaction noise is predicted by a two-dimensional CAA computation of the stator cascade. The impact of cyclostationarity is decomposed into various effects, which are separately investigated. This leads to the finding that the periodic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and periodic flow have only a negligible effect on the radiated sound power. The impact of the periodic integral length scale (TLS) is, however, substantial. The limits of a stationary representation of the TLS are demonstrated making this new extension to the RPM method indispensable when background and wake TKE are of comparable level. Good agreement of the predictions with measurements obtained from the 2015 AIAA Fan Broadband Noise Prediction Workshop are also shown.

  11. Moving Base Simulation of an ASTOVL Lift-Fan Aircraft (United States)


    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan : short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical : Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to : (1)assess ...

  12. Axial-flow fan with eccentric rotor | Blaho | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Axial-flow fan with eccentric rotor. M Blaho. Abstract. No Abstract. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  13. The Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea fans) of Antsiranana Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alison J. Evans, Mark D. Steer and Elise M. S. Belle

    ABSTRACT. During the past two decades, the Alcyonacea (soft corals and sea fans) of the western Indian Ocean have been the subject of numerous studies investigating their ecology and distribution. Comparatively, Madagascar remains understudied. This article provides the first record of the distribution of Alcyonacea on.

  14. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.


    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  15. Life Sciences Laboratory 2 Fan Exhaust Mixing Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Julia E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonio, Ernest J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    An SF6 tracer release was performed in the LSL-II ventilation stack over the weekend of March 5, 2016. The primary purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the gaseous concentration of material from a fume hood to the fan outlet, as well as at typical worker locations, to gain an understanding of potential worker exposures impacts. Five different fan operating configurations were utilized to ensure that the full spectrum of historical operating configurations was addressed. Some summary points from this study include: •Relatively high concentrations were observed within the stack area. –Between 50 and 100% of the exhaust concentration may be observed within the stack. •Background concentrations were observed outside the stack area. –Workers outside the stack itself, but on the roof, are unlikely to be impacted by the exhaust. •Elevated concentrations on the order of 25% of the exhaust concentrations were observed within the Penthouse. •Transport time from a laboratory fume hood to the exhaust fan is within one to two minutes. •Penthouse concentrations climb from background levels to steady state over 15+ minutes. •Wind speed and wind direction did not play a significant role in the test outcomes. –A slight bias in the concentration distribution may be discernable based on wind speed and direction. •When both fans are operating, material from fume hoods on the east side preferentially flow through the east fan, while material from fume hoods on the west side preferentially flow through the west fan. This effectively doubles the concentration at that fan. This mixing study will inform other study components to develop a more complete picture of the worker potential exposure from LSL-II Rooftop activities. Estimating the mean concentration in the stack from chemical inventories and fume hood emissions for both current and historical laboratory activities is a separate effort. These estimates of mean ventilation

  16. The role of wing kinematics of freely flying birds downstream the wake of flapping wings (United States)

    Krishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Gurka, Roi


    Avian aerodynamics has been a topic of research for centuries. Avian flight features such as flapping, morphing and maneuvering make bird aerodynamics a complex system to study, analyze and understand. Aerodynamic performance of the flapping wings can be quantified by measuring the vortex structures present in the downstream wake. Still, the direct correlation between the flapping wing kinematics and the evolution of wake features need to be established. In this present study, near wake of three bird species (western sandpiper, European starling and American robin) have been measured experimentally. Long duration, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry technique has been used to capture the wake properties. Simultaneously, the bird kinematics have been captured using high speed camera. Wake structures are reconstructed from the collected PIV images for long chord distances downstream. Wake vorticities and circulation are expressed in the wake composites. Comparison of the wake features of the three birds shows similarities and some key differences are also found. Wing tip motions of the birds are extracted for four continuous wing beat cycle to analyze the wing kinematics. Kinematic parameters of all the three birds are compared to each other and similar trends exhibited by all the birds have been observed. A correlation between the wake evolutions with the wing motion is presented. It was found that the wings' motion generates unique flow patterns at the near wake, especially at the transition phases. At these locations, a drastic change in the circulation was observed.

  17. Investigating the Force Production of Functionally-Graded Flexible Wings in Flapping Wing Flight (United States)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; He, Kai; Bateman, Daniel; Lipkis, Rory; Moored, Keith


    Birds, insects and bats oscillate their wings to propel themselves over long distances and to maneuver with unprecedented agility. A key element to achieve their impressive aerodynamic performance is the flexibility of their wings. Numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production, propulsive efficiency and lift efficiency. Yet, animal wings are not homogenously flexible, but instead have varying material properties. The aim of this study is to characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded flexible wings. A partially-flexible wing composed of a rigid section and a flexible section is used as a first-order model of functionally-graded materials. The flexion occurs in the spanwise direction and it is affected by the spanwise flexion ratio, that is, the ratio of the length of the rigid section compared to the total span length. By varying the flexion ratio as well as the material properties of the flexible section, the study aims to examine the force production and energetics of flapping flight with functionally-graded flexible wings. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  18. Aeroelastic Analysis of Modern Complex Wings (United States)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.; Reichenbach, Eric; Guruswamy, Guru P.


    A process is presented by which aeroelastic analysis is performed by using an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with an advanced computational structural dynamics (CSD) code. The process is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East CFD code) coupled with NASTRAN. The process is also demonstrated on an aeroelastic research wing (ARW-2) using ENSAERO (an in-house NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) coupled with a finite element wing-box structures code. Good results have been obtained for the F/A-18 Stabilator while results for the ARW-2 supercritical wing are still being obtained.

  19. Sex, Courtship, and Marriage. (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece

    The author presents an historical perspective on abortion, contraception and marriage as a prelude to an examination of changing attitudes toward sex. The article deals with the negative effects attributed to the increased incidence of early dating and early marriage of teenagers in the United States. The author also assumes positions on such…

  20. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertebrate vocalization came into existence for the first time in frogs. Acoustic signals produced by the frogs have well-defined physical characteristics and a clear biological meaning. The signals are meant to attract and assess the sex, species identity and genetic quality of potential mates. Acoustic communication plays a ...

  1. Active Twist Control for a Compliant Wing Structure, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Blended wing body (BWB) aircraft provide an aerodynamically superior solution over traditional tube-and-wing designs for a number of mission profiles. These...

  2. Fixed-Wing Micro Air Vehicles with Hovering Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bataille, Boris; Poinsot, Damien; Thipyopas, Chinnapat; Moschetta, Jean-Marc


    Fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV) are very attractive for outdoor surveillance missions since they generally offer better payload and endurance capabilities than rotorcraft or flapping-wing vehicles of equal size...

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.


    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  4. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    Wind turbines with a nominal effect of 5MW with a rotor diameter of up to 126m are produced today. With the increasing size wind turbines also become more and more optimized with respect to structural dimensions and material usage, without increasing the stiffness proportionally. Consequently......, large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  5. Stability and transition on swept wings (United States)

    Stuckert, Greg; Herbert, Thorwald; Esfahanian, Vahid


    This paper describes the extension and application of the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) to the stability and transition of the supersonic three-dimensional laminar boundary layer on a swept wing. The problem formulation uses a general coordinate transformation for arbitrary curvilinear body-fitted computational grids. Some testing using these coordinates is briefly described to help validate the software used for the investigation. The disturbance amplitude ratios as a function of chord position for supersonic (Mach 1.5) boundary layers on untapered, untwisted wings of different sweep angles are then presented and compared with those obtained from local parallel analyses.

  6. Damage Considerations of a Flexible Micro Air Vehicle Wing Using 3-D Laser Vibrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendoza, Jr, Leo L


    .... The flexible micro air vehicle wing studied was based on a University of Florida micro air vehicle wing design and was examined using measurements from the Polytec 400-3D Scanning Vibrometer. Comparisons of the wing?s natural frequencies and displacements were made between the wing?s undamaged and damaged states.

  7. Integrated multi-disciplinary design of a sailplane wing


    Strauch, Gregory J.


    The objective of this research is to investigate the techniques and payoffs of integrated aircraft design. Lifting line theory and beam theory are used for the analysis of the aerodynamics and the structures of a composite sailplane wing. The wing is described by 33 - 34 design variables which involve the planform geometry, the twist distribution, and thicknesses of the spar caps, spar webs, and the skin at various stations along the wing. The wing design must satisfy 30 â ...

  8. A Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics and Noise of a Ring Fan


    佐々木, 壮一; 福田, 雅治; 林, 秀千人


    The ring fan is a blower that has a shroud at the tip side of the axial flow impeller. In this study, to clarify the influence of the flow around the impeller on the aerodynamic characteristics and noise of the fan is aimed. The following characteristics were obtained; the efficiency of the ring fan is improved about 13% than the current propeller fan, the specific noise level is reduced approximately 6dB. The potential of the blade tip vortex of the ring fan has been weakened by the shroud. ...

  9. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)


    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  10. On-chip grating coupler array on the SOI platform for fan-in/fan-out of MCFs with low insertion loss and crosstalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ye, Feihong; Peucheret, Christophe


    We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design for the g......We report the design and fabrication of a compact multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out using a grating coupler array on the SOI platform. The grating couplers are fully-etched, enabling the whole circuit to be fabricated in a single lithography and etching step. Thanks to the apodized design...

  11. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 14, 2011 ... Figure 12. Thin spline plate graphics for the species belonging to the genus Cerceris. Figure 13. Fore wing landmarks of the significant wing characteristics in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Linnaeus. stated as the traditional wing morphometry that enables the practical discrimination of the honeybee (Apis sp ...

  12. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muller, U. K.; Stamhuis, E. J.; de Kat, R.; van Gestel, W.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenstrom, A.; Videler, J. J.


    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings(1-6), presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance(7-9). That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models(2,10), which

  13. Study of design parameters of flapping-wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, F.


    As one of the most important components of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV), the design of an energy-efficient flapping-wing has been a research interest recently. Research on insect flight from different perspectives has been carried out, mainly with regard to wing morphology, flapping

  14. Low Reynolds Number Wing Transients in Rotation and Translation (United States)

    Jones, Anya; Schlueter, Kristy


    The unsteady aerodynamic forces and flow fields generated by a wing undergoing transient motions in both rotation and translation were investigated. An aspect ratio 2 flat plate wing at a 45 deg angle of attack was driven over 84 deg of rotation (3 chord-lengths of travel at 3/4 span) and 3 and 10 chord-lengths of translation in quiescent water at Reynolds numbers between 2,500 and 15,000. Flow visualization on the rotating wing revealed a leading edge vortex that lifted off of the wing surface, but remained in the vicinity of the wing for the duration of the wing stroke. A second spanwise vortex with strong axial flow was also observed. As the tip vortex grew, the leading edge vortex joined the tip vortex in a loop-like structure over the aft half of the wing. Near the leading edge, spanwise flow in the second vortex became entrained in the tip vortex near the corner of the wing. Unsteady force measurements revealed that lift coefficient increased through the constant-velocity portion of the wing stroke. Forces were compared for variations in wing acceleration and Reynolds number for both rotational and translational motions. The effect of tank blockage was investigated by repeating the experiments on multiple wings, varying the distance between the wing tip and tank wall. U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Summer Faculty Fellowship Program.

  15. Booster fans : some considerations for their usage in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, S.; Slaughter, C. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Calizaya, F. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wu, H.W. [Gillies Wu Mining Technology Pty Ltd., Brisbane, QLD (Australia)


    This paper reported on a study that investigated the conditions under which booster fans can be used safely and efficiently in underground coal mines. Booster fans are installed in series with a main surface fan and are used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation air passing through it. Several coal mining countries use booster fans, but in the United States, they are only used in metal/non-metal mines due to concerns of uncontrolled recirculation. This study investigated installations of booster fans in non-US underground coal mines where safe and efficient atmospheric conditions are achieved. The purpose was to collect reliable information on airway resistances and flow requirements typical in large US coal mines. The study showed that safe booster fan installations are found in both high and low gas conditions, and sometimes where workings are located at great depths. The interlocking systems within the booster fan can control the underground fans and avoid recirculation when surface fans are unexpectedly turned off. Another purpose of the study was to determine when booster fans become a more viable solution in coal mines due to increases in air requirements at higher production rates. It was concluded that a new fan selection algorithm to produce recirculation-free ventilation designs will be developed to enable US coal mine operators to develop ventilation designs to extract coal seams from depths greater than 1000 m. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Depositional facies and Hohokam settlement patterns of Holocene alluvial fans, N. Tucson Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.J.


    The distribution of depositional facies on eight Holocene alluvial fans of varying dimensions is used to evaluate prehistoric Hohokam agricultural settlement patterns. Two facies are recognized: channel gravelly sand facies and overbank silty sand facies. No debris flow deposits occur. The channel facies is characterized by relatively well sorted stratified sands and gravels with common heavy mineral laminations. Overbank facies deposits are massive and very poorly sorted due to heavy bioturbation. Lithostratigraphic profiles from backhoe trenches and sediment size analysis document headward migration of depositional facies which results in fining upward sequences. Each sequence is a channel fan lobe with an underlying coarse grained channel sand which fines to overbank silty sands. Lateral and vertical variations in facies distributions show that depositional processes are affected by drainage basin area (fan size) and distance from fan head. Gravelly channel sands dominate at the headward portions of the fan and are more pervasive on large fans; overbank silty sands are ubiquitous at fan toes and approach closer to the fan head of smaller alluvial fans. When depositional facies are considered as records of water flow over an alluvial surface, the farming potential of each fan can be analyzed. Depositional models of alluvial fan sedimentation provide the basis for understanding Hohokam settlement patterns on active alluvial surfaces.

  17. Shaking table test study on seismic performance of dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kaiyan; Shi Weixing; Cao Jialiang; Wang Yang


    Seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan for nuclear power plants was evaluated based on the shaking table test of earthquake simulation. Dynamic characteristics including the orthogonal tri-axial fundamental frequencies and equivalent damping ratios were measured by the white noise scanning method. Artificial seismic waves were generated corresponding to the floor acceleration response spectra for nuclear power plants. Furthermore, five OBE and one SSE shaking table tests for dehydrogenation fan were performed by using the artificial seismic waves as the seismic inputs along the orthogonal axis simultaneity. Operating function of dehydrogenation fan was monitored and observed during all seismic tests, and performance indexes of dehydrogenation fan were compared before and after seismic tests. The results show that the structural integrity and operating function of the dehydrogenation fan are perfect during all seismic tests; and the performance indexes of the dehydrogenation fan can remain consistent before and after seismic tests; the seismic performance of the dehydrogenation fan can satisfy relevant technical requirements. (authors)

  18. Performance/Noise Optimization of Centrifugal Fan Using Response Surface Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghui; Cheong, Cheolung [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Heo Seung [Korea Aerospace Industries, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jung, Jiwon [LG Electronics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, centrifugal fan blades used to circulate cold air inside a household refrigerator were optimized to achieve high performance and low noise by using the response surface method, which is frequently employed as an optimization algorithm when multiple independent variables affect one dependent variable. The inlet and outlet blade angles, and the inner radius, were selected as the independent variables. First, the fan blades were optimized to achieve the maximum volume flow rate. Based on this result, a prototype fan blade was manufactured using a 3-D printer. The measured P-Q curves confirmed the increased volume flow rate of the proposed fan. Then, the rotation speed of the new fan was decreased to match the P-Q curve of the existing fan. It was found that a noise reduction of 1.7 dBA could be achieved using the new fan at the same volume flow rate.

  19. Air Base Wing and Air Mobility Wing Consolidating on AMC-LED Joint Bases: A Delphi Study (United States)



  20. Morphing Wing: Experimental Boundary Layer Transition Determination and Wing Vibrations Measurements and Analysis = (United States)

    Tondji Chendjou, Yvan Wilfried

    This Master's thesis is written within the framework of the multidisciplinary international research project CRIAQ MDO-505. This global project consists of the design, manufacture and testing of a morphing wing box capable of changing the shape of the flexible upper skin of a wing using an actuator system installed inside the wing. This changing of the shape generates a delay in the occurrence of the laminar to turbulent transition area, which results in an improvement of the aerodynamic performances of the morphed wing. This thesis is focused on the technologies used to gather the pressure data during the wind tunnel tests, as well as on the post processing methodologies used to characterize the wing airflow. The vibration measurements of the wing and their real-time graphical representation are also presented. The vibration data acquisition system is detailed, and the vibration data analysis confirms the predictions of the flutter analysis performed on the wing prior to wind tunnel testing at the IAR-NRC. The pressure data was collected using 32 highly-sensitive piezoelectric sensors for sensing the pressure fluctuations up to 10 KHz. These sensors were installed along two wing chords, and were further connected to a National Instrument PXI real-time acquisition system. The acquired pressure data was high-pass filtered, analyzed and visualized using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Standard Deviation (SD) approaches to quantify the pressure fluctuations in the wing airflow, as these allow the detection of the laminar to turbulent transition area. Around 30% of the cases tested in the IAR-NRC wind tunnel were optimized for drag reduction by the morphing wing procedure. The obtained pressure measurements results were compared with results obtained by infrared thermography visualization, and were used to validate the numerical simulations. Two analog accelerometers able to sense dynamic accelerations up to +/-16g were installed in both the wing and the aileron boxes

  1. The modern Kaoping transient fan offshore SW Taiwan: Morphotectonics and development (United States)

    Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing; Chiang, Cheng-Shing


    Using bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles, this study examined and determined the transient nature of the Kaoping Fan located in the topographically complex slope offshore southwest Taiwan. Kaoping Fan is located west of the lower reach of the Kaoping Canyon at the lower Kaoping Slope, ranging from 2,200 to 3,000 m water depth, and has a relatively small areal extent restricted in the topographic lows confined by structural highs due to mud diapiric uplifting and thrust faulting. Kaoping Fan shows an asymmetrical triangular fan-shaped bathymetric feature elongated in an NW-SE direction but with a strong skew toward the east. The fan deposits consist of three main seismic facies: layered high-amplitude reflections in the upper section and stratified, parallel to sub-parallel low-amplitude reflections with variable continuity and channel fill facies in the lower section. In the absence of ground-truthing from core data, the seismic patterns suggest that the Kaoping Fan recorded the onset of channelized and over-bank deposits in the lower part and layered turbidite facies in the upper part subsequently. The development of the Kaoping Fan can be divided into three stages in terms of canyon activities and fan-feeding processes. Initially, Kaoping Fan was mainly fed by a point sediment source at the apex of the fan. Secondly, Kaoping Fan was maintained as a slope fan, mainly fed laterally by over-spilled sediments from the canyon. Finally, the Kaoping Canyon completely passes through the Kaoping Fan and supplies over-spilled sediments laterally, forming a transient fan with canyon incision and sediment by-passing. The accumulation of sediments and the growth of Kaoping Fan are primarily controlled by inherited complex paleo-topography and the evolution of Kaoping Canyon. The sediment delivery system of Kaoping Fan is characterized by lateral supply of over-spilling sediment flows and sediments bypassing to and beyond the base of slope. The Kaoping Fan together

  2. Machine Learning for Flapping Wing Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Menno; van Kampen, E.; Armanini, S.F.; de Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.


    Flight control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles is challenging, because of their complex dynamics and variability due to manufacturing inconsistencies. Machine Learning algorithms can be used to tackle these challenges. A Policy Gradient algorithm is used to tune the gains of a

  3. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi


    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  4. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.


    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  5. Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus Tetragonolobus ), Pitanga cherries ( Eugenia uniflora) and orchid fruit ( Orchid fruit myristic a) ... The acid value ranged between 0.71 and 2.82 mg/KOH/g while iodine value ranged between 91.15 and 144.57. The refractive index ranged between 1.465 and 1.474 in all ...

  6. ``Schooling'' of wing pairs in flapping flight (United States)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; AML, Courant Collaboration; Physics NYU Collaboration


    The experimental setup implements two independent flapping wings swimming in tandem. Both are driven with the same prescribed vertical heaving motion, but the horizontal motion is free, which means that the swimmers can take up any relative position and forward speed. Experiments show however clearly coordinated motions, where the pair of wings `crystallize' into specific stable arrangements. The follower wing locks into the path of the leader, adopting its speed, and with a separation distance that takes on one of several discrete values. By systematically varying the kinematics and wing size, we show that the set of stable spacings is dictated by the wavelength of the periodic wake structure. The forces maintaining the pair cohesion are characterized by applying an external force to the follower to perturb it away from the `stable wells'. These results show that hydrodynamics alone is sufficient to induce cohesive and coordinated collective locomotion through a fluid, and we discuss the hypothesis that fish schools and bird flocks also represent stable modes of motion.

  7. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise (United States)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana


    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  8. Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato


    The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.

  9. Paleozoic Nymphal Wing Pads Support Dual Model of Insect Wing Origins. (United States)

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Nel, André; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Krzemińska, Ewa; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Engel, Michael S


    The appearance of wings in insects, early in their evolution [1], has been one of the more critical innovations contributing to their extraordinary diversity. Despite the conspicuousness and importance of wings, the origin of these structures has been difficult to resolve and represented one of the "abominable mysteries" in evolutionary biology [2]. More than a century of debate has boiled the matter down to two competing alternatives-one of wings representing an extension of the thoracic notum, the other stating that they are appendicular derivations from the lateral body wall. Recently, a dual model has been supported by genomic and developmental data [3-6], representing an amalgamation of elements from both the notal and pleural hypotheses. Here, we reveal crucial information from the wing pad joints of Carboniferous palaeodictyopteran insect nymphs using classical and high-tech techniques. These nymphs had three pairs of wing pads that were medially articulated to the thorax but also broadly contiguous with the notum anteriorly and posteriorly (details unobservable in modern insects), supporting their overall origin from the thoracic notum as well as the expected medial, pleural series of axillary sclerites. Our study provides support for the formation of the insect wing from the thoracic notum as well as the already known pleural elements of the arthropodan leg. These results support the unique, dual model for insect wing origins and the convergent reduction of notal fusion in more derived clades, presumably due to wing rotation during development, and they help to bring resolution to this long-standing debate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A microsatellite linkage map for Drosophila montana shows large variation in recombination rates, and a courtship song trait maps to an area of low recombination. (United States)

    Schäfer, M A; Mazzi, D; Klappert, K; Kauranen, H; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Schlötterer, C


    Current advances in genetic analysis are opening up our knowledge of the genetics of species differences, but challenges remain, particularly for out-bred natural populations. We constructed a microsatellite-based linkage map for two out-bred lines of Drosophila montana derived from divergent populations by taking advantage of the Drosophila virilis genome and available cytological maps of both species. Although the placement of markers was quite consistent with cytological predictions, the map indicated large heterogeneity in recombination rates along chromosomes. We also performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on a courtship song character (carrier frequency), which differs between populations and is subject to strong sexual selection. Linkage mapping yielded two significant QTLs, which explained 3% and 14% of the variation in carrier frequency, respectively. Interestingly, as in other recent studies of traits which can influence speciation, the strongest QTL mapped to a genomic region partly covered by an inversion polymorphism.

  11. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71. (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  12. Multiple cues for winged morph production in an aphid metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrparvar

    Full Text Available Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare. We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22208 - Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines... fans (I-A, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Auxiliary fans, except fans used in shops and other areas... applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18, and be operated so that recirculation is minimized. Auxiliary fans...

  14. Pattern recognition: A dialogue on racism in fan communities [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor


    Full Text Available In early 2009, science fiction fandom's online landscape erupted with discussions of race. A post regarding cultural appropriation on author Elizabeth Bear's blog sparked a wide-ranging conversation that soon became acrimonious, with professional science fiction and fantasy writers and fans of science fiction literature and media weighing in. More recently, criticisms of Patricia C. Wrede's decision to set her young adult novel, The Thirteenth Child (2009, in an America empty of indigenous people have spearheaded new waves of discussion. Often the more widely read summaries of these debates have focused on what they mean for writers and aspiring writers who plan to represent minority cultures in their works. But what has their significance been for members of fan communities?

  15. Analytical inversion formula for uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Y.; Zeng, G.L.; Gullberg, G.T.


    In deriving algorithms to reconstruct single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) projection data, it is important that the algorithm compensates for photon attenuation in order to obtain quantitative reconstruction results. A convolution backprojection algorithm was derived by Tretiak and Metz to reconstruct two-dimensional (2-D) transaxial slices from uniformly attenuated parallel-beam projections. Using transformation of coordinates, this algorithm can be modified to obtain a formulation useful to reconstruct uniformly attenuated fan-beam projections. Unlike that for parallel-beam projections, this formulation does not produce a filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm but instead has a formulation that is an inverse integral operator with a spatially varying kernel. This algorithm thus requires more computation time than does the filtered backprojection reconstruction algorithm for the uniformly attenuated parallel-beam case. However, the fan-beam reconstructions demonstrate the same image quality as that of parallel-beam reconstructions

  16. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A.


    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  17. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades (United States)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.


    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  18. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA


    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  19. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds. (United States)

    Skandalis, Dimitri A; Segre, Paolo S; Bahlman, Joseph W; Groom, Derrick J E; Welch, Kenneth C; Witt, Christopher C; McGuire, Jimmy A; Dudley, Robert; Lentink, David; Altshuler, Douglas L


    Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area. Conversely, wing velocity increases with body weight within species, compensating for lower relative wing area in larger individuals. By comparing inter- and intraspecific allometries, we find that the extreme wing area allometry of hummingbirds is likely an adaptation to maintain constant burst flight capacity and induced power requirements with increasing weight. Selection for relatively large wings simultaneously maximises aerial performance and minimises flight costs, which are essential elements of humming bird life history.

  20. Euler/Navier-Stokes Solvers Applied to Ducted Fan Configurations (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Srivastava, Rakesh


    Due to noise considerations, ultra high bypass ducted fans have become a more viable design. These ducted fans typically consist of a rotor stage containing a wide chord fan and a stator stage. One of the concerns for this design is the classical flutter that keeps occurring in various unducted fan blade designs. These flutter are catastrophic and are to be avoided in the flight envelope of the engine. Some numerical investigations by Williams, Cho and Dalton, have suggested that a duct around a propeller makes it more unstable. This needs to be further investigated. In order to design an engine to safely perform a set of desired tasks, accurate information of the stresses on the blade during the entire cycle of blade motion is required. This requirement in turn demands that accurate knowledge of steady and unsteady blade loading be available. Aerodynamic solvers based on unsteady three-dimensional analysis will provide accurate and fast solutions and are best suited for aeroelastic analysis. The Euler solvers capture significant physics of the flowfield and are reasonably fast. An aerodynamic solver Ref. based on Euler equations had been developed under a separate grant from NASA Lewis in the past. Under the current grant, this solver has been modified to calculate the aeroelastic characteristics of unducted and ducted rotors. Even though, the aeroelastic solver based on three-dimensional Euler equations is computationally efficient, it is still very expensive to investigate the effects of multiple stages on the aeroelastic characteristics. In order to investigate the effects of multiple stages, a two-dimensional multi stage aeroelastic solver was also developed under this task, in collaboration with Dr. T. S. R. Reddy of the University of Toledo. Both of these solvers were applied to several test cases and validated against experimental data, where available.