WorldWideScience

Sample records for wing air medical

  1. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Wing Manufacture and Force Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given...collected at 2kHz (www.polytec.com/psv3d). A 0.25V band-limited white noise input signal is input to a Bogen HTA -125 High Performance Amplifier, which...manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given

  2. Logistics Supply of the Distributed Air Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Event Graph The Consumption Process first instantiates the variables . The model follows a conveyor belt pattern, whereby after processing an event...to any part of the world. A capstone project, conducted by the system engineering curriculum, proposed to distribute the air assets from the aircraft...SUBJECT TERMS distributed air wing, logistics, supply, unmanned air systems , cargo UAS, unmanned systems , discrete event simulation, vehicle routing

  3. Air Base Wing and Air Mobility Wing Consolidating on AMC-LED Joint Bases: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    AIR BASE WING AND AIR MOBILITY WING CONSOLIDATION ON AMC-LED JOINT BASES: A DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Mason E. MacGarvey... DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering Management Air Force Institute of Technology...iv AIR BASE WING AND AIR MOBILITY WING CONSOLIDATION ON AMC-LED JOINT BASES: A DELPHI STUDY Mason E. MacGarvey, BS, MBA

  4. Fixed-Wing Micro Air Vehicles with Hovering Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bataille, Boris; Poinsot, Damien; Thipyopas, Chinnapat; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV) are very attractive for outdoor surveillance missions since they generally offer better payload and endurance capabilities than rotorcraft or flapping-wing vehicles of equal size...

  5. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J; Combes, S A

    2009-01-01

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  6. Damage Considerations of a Flexible Micro Air Vehicle Wing Using 3-D Laser Vibrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendoza, Jr, Leo L

    2007-01-01

    .... The flexible micro air vehicle wing studied was based on a University of Florida micro air vehicle wing design and was examined using measurements from the Polytec 400-3D Scanning Vibrometer. Comparisons of the wing?s natural frequencies and displacements were made between the wing?s undamaged and damaged states.

  7. Pitching stability analysis of half-rotating wing air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Yang; Li, Qian; Li, Congmin; Qiu, Zhizhen

    2017-06-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new power wing which had been developed by our work team using rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. Half-Rotating Wing Air Vehicle (HRWAV) is similar as Bionic Flapping Wing Air Vehicle (BFWAV). It is necessary to guarantee pitching stability of HRWAV to maintain flight stability. The working principle of HRW was firstly introduced in this paper. The rule of motion indicated that the fuselage of HRWAV without empennage would overturn forward as it generated increased pitching movement. Therefore, the empennage was added on the tail of HRWAV to balance the additional moment generated by aerodynamic force during flight. The stability analysis further shows that empennage could weaken rapidly the pitching disturbance on HRWAV and a new balance of fuselage could be achieved in a short time. Case study using numerical analysis verified correctness and validity of research results mentioned above, which could provide theoretical guidance to design and control HRWAV.

  8. Flapping and flexible wings for biological and micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Berg, Mats; Ljungqvist, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wing spans of 15 cm or less, and flight speed of 30-60 kph are of interest for military and civilian applications. There are two prominent features of MAV flight: (i) low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5), resulting in unfavorable aerodynamic conditions to support controlled flight, and (ii) small physical dimensions, resulting in certain favorable scaling characteristics including structural strength, reduced stall speed, and low inertia. Based on observations of biological flight vehicles, it appears that wing motion and flexible airfoils are two key attributes for flight at low Reynolds number. The small size of MAVs corresponds in nature to small birds, which do not glide like large birds, but instead flap with considerable change of wing shape during a single flapping cycle. With flapping and flexible wings, birds overcome the deteriorating aerodynamic performance under steady flow conditions by employing unsteady mechanisms. In this article, we review both biological and aeronautical literatures to present salient features relevant to MAVs. We first summarize scaling laws of biological and micro air vehicles involving wing span, wing loading, vehicle mass, cruising speed, flapping frequency, and power. Next we discuss kinematics of flapping wings and aerodynamic models for analyzing lift, drag and power. Then we present issues related to low Reynolds number flows and airfoil shape selection. Recent work on flexible structures capable of adjusting the airfoil shape in response to freestream variations is also discussed.

  9. The effects of wing flexibility on the flight performance and stability of flapping wing micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluman, James Edward

    Insect wings are flexible. However, the influence of wing flexibility on the flight dynamics of insects and flapping wing micro air vehicles is unknown. Most studies in the literature consider rigid wings and conclude that the hover equilibrium is unstable. This dissertation shows that a flapping wing flyer with flexible wings exhibits stable natural modes of the open loop system in hover, never reported before. The free-flight insect flight dynamics is modeled for both flexible and rigid wings. Wing mass and inertia are included in the nonlinear equations of motion. The flapping wing aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady model, a well-validated two dimensional Navier Stokes model, and a coupled, two dimensional Navier Stokes - Euler Bernoulli beam model that accurately models the fluid-structure interaction of flexible wings. Hover equilibrium is systematically and efficiently determined with a coupled quasi-steady and Navier-Stokes equation trimmer. The power and stability are reported at hover while parametrically varying the pitch axis location for rigid wings and the structural stiffness for flexible wings. The results indicate that the rigid wings possess an unstable oscillatory mode mainly due to their pitch sensitivity to horizontal velocity perturbations. The flexible wings stabilize this mode primarily by adjusting their wing shape in the presence of perturbations. The wing's response to perturbations generates significantly more horizontal velocity damping and pitch rate damping than in rigid wings. Furthermore, the flexible wings experience substantially less wing wake interaction, which, for rigid wings, is destabilizing. The power required to hover a fruit fly with actively rotating rigid wings varies between 16.9 and 34.2 W/kg. The optimal power occurs when the pitch axis is located at 30% chord, similar to some biological observations. Flexible wings require 23.1 to 38.5 W/kg. However, flexible wings exhibit more stable system dynamics and

  10. A program for scheduling a Patrol Air Wing training plan.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutson, David V.

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This research examined the feasibility of a computerized scheduling system to assist the development of an annual training plan for a Patrol Air Wing. A prototype is proposed incorporating a modified A* search control structure to handle the combinatorial part of the problem. The system uses a pre-existing file for its database and is implemented on an ISI workstation using the Prolog computer language. Comparisons with...

  11. High Performance Piezoelectric Actuators and Wings for Nano Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-26

    process to monolithically fabricate flying robotic insects at the pico air ve- hicle ( PAV ) scale from SUEX dry film, an epoxy based negative photoresist...cost. It simul- taneously defines the PAV airframe, compliant flapping mechanism, and artificial insect wing using photolithography. Using this process...81 4.4.3 Simulated Average Lift Versus Frequency of the Redesigned LionFly 82 5.1.1 Potential Fabrication Process for PAV Flapping

  12. Gust Mitigation of Micro Air Vehicles Using Passive Articulated Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji Oduyela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Birds and insects naturally use passive flexing of their wings to augment their stability in uncertain aerodynamic environments. In a similar manner, micro air vehicle designers have been investigating using wing articulation to take advantage of this phenomenon. The result is a class of articulated micro air vehicles where artificial passive joints are designed into the lifting surfaces. In order to analyze how passive articulation affects performance of micro air vehicles in gusty environments, an efficient 8 degree-of-freedom model is developed. Experimental validation of the proposed mathematical model was accomplished using flight test data of an articulated micro air vehicle obtained from a high resolution indoor tracking facility. Analytical investigation of the gust alleviation properties of the articulated micro air vehicle model was carried out using simulations with varying crosswind gust magnitudes. Simulations show that passive articulation in micro air vehicles can increase their robustness to gusts within a range of joint compliance. It is also shown that if articulation joints are made too compliant that gust mitigation performance is degraded when compared to a rigid system.

  13. 59th Medical Wing Office of the Chief Scientists Research Highlights Flyer-April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    Air Force Basic Training " (Pl: Capt Bryant Webber (59 MOOS)), presented to the 37 Training Wing Commander and the 559 Medical Group Commander. Capt... Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA Inventors: Col Todd Rasmussen, MC, USAF MEDCOM USAMRMC and Jonathan Eliason, MD, University of Michigan) Is a fluoroscopy-free...thoracic aortic balloon occlusion system to control non-compressible hemorrh and assess the effect of an occluding aorta. Research to develop the

  14. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from morphing wing motions for micro air vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2013-09-10

    Wing flapping and morphing can be very beneficial to managing the weight of micro air vehicles through coupling the aerodynamic forces with stability and control. In this letter, harvesting energy from the wing morphing is studied to power cameras, sensors, or communication devices of micro air vehicles and to aid in the management of their power. The aerodynamic loads on flapping wings are simulated using a three-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method. Active wing shape morphing is considered to enhance the performance of the flapping motion. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to pinpoint the optimal kinematics maximizing the propellent efficiency. To benefit from the wing deformation, we place piezoelectric layers near the wing roots. Gauss law is used to estimate the electrical harvested power. We demonstrate that enough power can be generated to operate a camera. Numerical analysis shows the feasibility of exploiting wing morphing to harvest energy and improving the design and performance of micro air vehicles.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the 920th Rescue Wing Beddown Patrick Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Vista Technologies Inc. Environmental Assessment, Development and Maintenance of Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. January 1997. Canter , Larry W...Space Wing 45 CES/CEVC PAFB, Florida 920th Rescue Wing Beddown Environmental Assessment 8-1 8.0 LIST OF PREPARERS 1. David B

  16. Air Force ALP AEF Initiative Wing-Level Cluster Development and Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stute, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the results for the Air Force ALP AEF Initiative Wing-Level Cluster Development and Demonstration task jointly sponsored by the Logistics Readiness Branch...

  17. Damage Considerations of a Flexible Micro Air Vehicle Wing Using 3-D Laser Vibrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendoza, Jr, Leo L

    2007-01-01

    .... The focus of this research is to evaluate the effects of damage on a flexible micro air vehicle wing, particularly its natural frequencies and mode shapes, using three dimensional laser vibrometry...

  18. Air Forces and Moments on Triangular and Related Wings With Subsonic Leading Edges Oscillating in Supersonic Potential Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Charles

    1961-01-01

    This analysis treats the air forces and moments in supersonic potential flow on oscillating triangular wings and a series of sweptback and arrow wings with subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges...

  19. Experimental Characterization of Wings for a Hawkmoth-Sized Micro Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of...24 3.1.2 Abaqus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.3 FEA Design Update Process...26 3.5 Abaqus Assembled Wing Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.6 Sample Results

  20. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings are able to produce sufficient lift to fly. The differences in the flapping aerodynamics were also detailed. Experiments on different wing designs and materials were conducted and a paramount wing was built for a test flight. The first prototype has a length of 46.5 cm, wing span of 88 cm, and weighs 161 g. A mechanism which produced a flapping motion was fabricated and designed to create flapping flight. The flapping flight was produced by using a single motor and a flexible and light wing structure. A force balance made of load cell was then designed to measure the thrust and lift force of the ornithopter. Three sets of wings varying flexibility were fabricated, therefore lift and thrust measurements were acquired from each different set of wings. The lift will be measured in ten cycles computing the average lift and frequency in three different speeds or frequencies (slow, medium and fast. The thrust measurement was measure likewise but in two cycles only. Several observations were made regarding the behavior of flexible flapping wings that should aid in the design of future flexible flapping wing vehicles. The wings angle or phase characteristic were analyze too and studied. The final ornithopter prototype weighs only 160 g, has a wing span of 88.5 cm, that could flap at a maximum flapping frequency of 3.869 Hz, and produce a maximum thrust and lift of about 0.719 and 0.264 N respectively. Next, we proposed resonance type flapping wing utilizes the near

  1. Design and mechanical analysis of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, E.; Ganesan, P. B.; Ward, T. A.; Viyapuri, R.; Romli, F. I.

    2016-10-01

    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. There are still many technological challenges involved with designing the BMAV. One of these is designing the ultra-lightweight materials and structures for the wings that have enough mechanical strength to withstand continuous flapping at high frequencies. Insects achieve this by having chitin-based, wing frame structures that encompass a thin, film membrane. The main objectives of this study are to design a biodegradable BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyze its mechanical properties. The dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. A chitosan nanocomposite film membrane was applied to the BMAV wing frames through casting method. Its mechanical performance was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). This analysis indicates that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the wing with a membrane is nearly double that of the wing without a membrane, which allow higher wing beat frequencies and deflections that in turn enable a greater lifting performance.

  2. Repeatable Manufacture of Wings for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles Using Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    life span, and must be cared for and used expeditiously. Once a hawkmoth hatches from its cocoon, its wing is liberated, taking care to cut the...more controlled fashion than the butterfly, but is not sufficiently so for a Micro- MAV (courtesy of http://www.science-store.com/ life /specimens/la460...50. Michelson, Robert C. and Naqvi, Messam A. Extraterrestrial Flight. s.l. : RTO- AVT von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Lecture Series, 2003

  3. Reliable Force Predictions for a Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle : A "Vortex-lift" Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielicke, W.; Kesel, A. B.; Stamhuis, Eize

    2011-01-01

    Vertical and horizontal force of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle (MAV) has been measured in slow-speed forward flight using a force balance. Detailed information on kinematics was used to estimate forces using a blade-element analysis. Input variables for this analysis are lift and drag

  4. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A

    2011-12-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s⁻¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10⁵ or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  5. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A; Tanaka, Y

    2011-01-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s −1 , operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10 5 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  6. CFD based aerodynamic modeling to study flight dynamics of a flapping wing micro air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Alok Ashok

    The demand for small unmanned air vehicles, commonly termed micro air vehicles or MAV's, is rapidly increasing. Driven by applications ranging from civil search-and-rescue missions to military surveillance missions, there is a rising level of interest and investment in better vehicle designs, and miniaturized components are enabling many rapid advances. The need to better understand fundamental aspects of flight for small vehicles has spawned a surge in high quality research in the area of micro air vehicles. These aircraft have a set of constraints which are, in many ways, considerably different from that of traditional aircraft and are often best addressed by a multidisciplinary approach. Fast-response non-linear controls, nano-structures, integrated propulsion and lift mechanisms, highly flexible structures, and low Reynolds aerodynamics are just a few of the important considerations which may be combined in the execution of MAV research. The main objective of this thesis is to derive a consistent nonlinear dynamic model to study the flight dynamics of micro air vehicles with a reasonably accurate representation of aerodynamic forces and moments. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, derivation of the nonlinear dynamics of flapping wing micro air vehicles is presented. The flapping wing micro air vehicle (MAV) used in this research is modeled as a system of three rigid bodies: a body and two wings. The design is based on an insect called Drosophila Melanogaster, commonly known as fruit-fly. The mass and inertial effects of the wing on the body are neglected for the present work. The nonlinear dynamics is simulated with the aerodynamic data published in the open literature. The flapping frequency is used as the control input. Simulations are run for different cases of wing positions and the chosen parameters are studied for boundedness. Results show a qualitative inconsistency in boundedness for some cases, and demand a better

  7. Design of flapping wings for application to single active degree of freedom micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kelvin Thomas

    This dissertation covers an experimental program to understand how wing compliance influences the performance of flapping micro air vehicle wings. The focus is the design of a membraned flapping wing for a single active degree of freedom mechanism, looking to maximize thrust performance in hover conditions. The optimization approach is unique in that experiments were the chosen engine as opposed to a computation model; this is because of the complexity involved in hover-mode flapping aerodynamics. The flapping mechanism and manufacturing process for fabricating the wings were carefully developed. The uncertainty in the thrust measurement was identified and reduced by implementing precision machining and repeatable techniques for fabrication. This resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing coefficient of variation from 16.8% to 2.6%. Optimization was then conducted for a single objective (Maximize thrust), using a three parameter design space, finding the highest thrust performance in wings with high aspect ratio; then, a multi-objective optimization was conducted with two objectives (Thrust and Power) and a four parameter space. The research then shifted focus to identifying the stiffness and deformation characteristics of high performance wing designs. Static stiffness measurements with a simple line load suggested that high chordwise stiffness or lower spanwise stiffness would be favorable for aerodynamic performance. To explore more components of the deformation, a full-field imaging technique was used and a uniform load was substituted to engage with the membrane. It was found that there is a range of torsional compliance where the wing is most efficient especially at higher flapping frequencies. The final component of the study was the dynamic deformation measurement. The two system, four camera digital image correlation setup uses stroboscopic measurement to capture the wing deformation. The phase shift between the twist and stroke, and the tip deflection

  8. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Kernaghan, Robert; Wong, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV

  9. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Wong, Franklin; Kernaghan, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV.

  10. 59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard; and those attending technical training. This large student population is seen by many in the research...requirements that build upon protections provided by the common rule. The purpose of this poster is to 1) describe DoD vulnerable populations-BMT, students ...graduates more than 80,000 students annually. These five training groups encompass basic military training of all enlisted recruits entering the Air

  11. Understanding of Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics and Micro Rotary-Wing Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Justin Michael

    The goal of the present research is to understand aerodynamics at low Reynolds numbers and synthesize rules towards the development of hovering micro rotary-wing air vehicles (MRAVs). This entailed the rigorous study of airfoil characteristics at low Reynolds numbers through available experimental results as well as the use of an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver. A systematic, experimental, variation of parameters approach with physical rotors was carried out to design and develop a micro air vehicle-scale rotor which maximizes the hover Figure of Merit. The insights gained in low Reynolds number aerodynamics have been utilized in the systematic design of a high endurance micro-quadrotor. Based on available characteristics, the physical relations governing electric propulsion system and structural weights have been derived towards a sizing methodology for small-scale rotary-wing vehicles.

  12. A helicopter that flaps its wings : The Ornicopter flaps its wings like a bird to get into the air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Holten, T.; Mols, B.

    2003-01-01

    No other type of aircraft is as manoeuvrable as a helicopter. Reverse in full flight, rotate in the air, hover at a standstill, the helicopter can do it all. The police, fire services, medical services, military and civil aviation all use the helicopter for the freedom of flight it offers. However,

  13. Functional Alignment of the Wing-Level Logistics Plans Division in the Strategic Air Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 87-2250 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME...THIS PA(:4___ TTNC LASSI FIZD PREFACE What’s to be gained, or lost, if the Strategic Air Command (SAC) function- ally realigned Its wing-level...product as meeting academic requirements for graduation, the views and opinions expressed or implied are solely those of the author and should , not be

  14. An insect-inspired flapping wing micro air vehicle with double wing clap-fling effects and capability of sustained hovering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Viet; Chan, Woei Leong; Debiasi, Marco

    2015-03-01

    We present our recent flying insect-inspired Flapping-Wing Micro Air Vehicle (FW-MAV) capable of hovering flight which we have recently achieved. The FW-MAV has wing span of 22 cm (wing tip-to-wing tip), weighs about 16.6 grams with onboard integration of radio control system including a radio receiver, an electronic speed control (ESC) for brushless motor, three servos for attitude flight controls of roll, pitch, and yaw, and a single cell lithium-polymer (LiPo) battery (3.7 V). The proposed gear box enables the FW-MAV to use one DC brushless motor to synchronously drive four wings and take advantage of the double clap-and-fling effects during one flapping cycle. Moreover, passive wing rotation is utilized to simplify the design, in addition to passive stabilizing surfaces for flight stability. Powered by a single cell LiPo battery (3.7 V), the FW-MAV flaps at 13.7 Hz and produces an average vertical force or thrust of about 28 grams, which is sufficient for take-off and hovering flight. Finally, free flight tests in terms of vertical take-off, hovering, and manual attitude control flight have been conducted to verify the performance of the FW-MAV.

  15. Design of a high altitude long endurance flying-wing solar-powered unmanned air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahlani, A. A.; Johnston, L. J.; Atcliffe, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    The low-Reynolds number environment of high-altitude §ight places severe demands on the aerodynamic design and stability and control of a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The aerodynamic efficiency of a §ying-wing configuration makes it an attractive design option for such an application and is investigated in the present work. The proposed configuration has a high-aspect ratio, swept-wing planform, the wing sweep being necessary to provide an adequate moment arm for outboard longitudinal and lateral control surfaces. A design optimization framework is developed under a MATLAB environment, combining aerodynamic, structural, and stability analysis. Low-order analysis tools are employed to facilitate efficient computations, which is important when there are multiple optimization loops for the various engineering analyses. In particular, a vortex-lattice method is used to compute the wing planform aerodynamics, coupled to a twodimensional (2D) panel method to derive aerofoil sectional characteristics. Integral boundary-layer methods are coupled to the panel method in order to predict §ow separation boundaries during the design iterations. A quasi-analytical method is adapted for application to flyingwing con¦gurations to predict the wing weight and a linear finite-beam element approach is used for structural analysis of the wing-box. Stability is a particular concern in the low-density environment of high-altitude flight for flying-wing aircraft and so provision of adequate directional stability and control power forms part of the optimization process. At present, a modified Genetic Algorithm is used in all of the optimization loops. Each of the low-order engineering analysis tools is validated using higher-order methods to provide con¦dence in the use of these computationally-efficient tools in the present design-optimization framework. This paper includes the results of employing the present optimization tools in the design of a

  16. Air medical transport of cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essebag, Vidal; Halabi, Abdul R; Churchill-Smith, Michael; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2003-11-01

    The air medical transport of cardiac patients is a rapidly expanding practice. For various medical, social, and economic indications, patients are being flown longer distances at commercial altitudes, including international and intercontinental flights. There are data supporting the use of short-distance helicopter flights early in the course of a cardiac event for patients needing emergent transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention or aortocoronary bypass. When considering elective long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients for social or economic reasons, it is necessary to weigh the benefits against the potential risks of flight. A few recent studies suggest that long-distance air medical transport is safe under certain circumstances. Current guidelines for air travel after myocardial infarction do not address the use of medical escorts or air ambulances equipped with intensive care facilities. Further research using larger prospective studies is needed to better define criteria for safe long-distance air medical transport of cardiac patients.

  17. Nano-mechanical properties and structural of a 3D-printed biodegradable biomimetic micro air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, E.; Montazer, E.; Ward, T. A.; Ganesan, P. B.

    2017-06-01

    The biomimetic micro air vehicles (BMAV) are unmanned, micro-scaled aircraft that are bio-inspired from flying organisms to achieve the lift and thrust by flapping their wings. The main objectives of this study are to design a BMAV wing (inspired from the dragonfly) and analyse its nano-mechanical properties. In order to gain insights into the flight mechanics of dragonfly, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the dragonfly wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then mechanical test of the real dragonfly wings was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. The mechanical properties of wings were measured by nanoindentre. Finally, a simplified model was designed and the dragonfly-like wing frame structure was bio-mimicked and fabricated using a 3D printer. Then mechanical test of the BMAV wings was performed to analyse and compare the wings under a variety of simplified load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of BMAV wings.

  18. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  19. 59th Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clinical Investigations Program Posters (Count: 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    research or technical documents will not be forwarded to the 502 ISGIJAC legal office for an ethics rovlow. To assist you in making this decision...a legal ethics review is required. If you (as the author) or your supervisor check "YES" in block 17 of the Form 3039, your research or technical...SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 18 APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled 591h Medical Wing Clinical Research Division Clin ical

  20. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings at Re=10,000-100,000 for Micro-Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-11

    MICO AIR VEHICLE (MAV) APPLICATIONS , Proceedings of the 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, IIT...deviations on the aerodynamic forces. Then we used the knowledge gathered in this domain to attack the complex measured kinematics of a bat wing. The...immersed in a background grid. One surprising conclusion from this work was that in spite of the apparent complexity of wing motion, the motion could be

  1. Pilot fatigue survey: exploring fatigue factors in air medical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Kevin B; Winn, William; Johnson, Kent; Rosekind, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Humans confront significant physiological challenges with sleep and alertness when working in 24/7 operations. A web-based national survey of air medical pilots examined issues relevant to fatigue and sleep management. Six hundred ninety-seven responses were received, with a majority of rotor wing pilots working 3/3/7 and 7/7 duty schedules. Over 84% of the pilots reported that fatigue had affected their flight performance; less than 28% reported "nodding off" during flight. More than 90% reported a separate work site "rest" room with a bed available. Over 90% reported no company policies restricting on-duty sleep. Approximately half of the pilots reported getting 4 hours or more sleep during a typical night shift. Approximately half reported that sleep inertia had never compromised flight safety. Over 90% reported that it was better to sleep during the night and overcome sleep inertia if necessary. Survey results reflected practices that can mitigate the degrading effects of fatigue, including the availability of designated work-site sleep rooms. As demands continue to evolve, the need remains for sustained efforts to address fatigue-related risks in the air medical transport industry. This includes further study of sleep inertia issues and the need for alertness management programs. Copyright © 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modeling and Closed Loop Flight Testing of a Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikumar Kandath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the nonlinear six degrees of freedom dynamic modeling of a fixed wing micro air vehicle. The static derivatives of the micro air vehicle are obtained through the wind tunnel testing. The propeller effects on the lift, drag, pitching moment and side force are quantified through wind tunnel testing. The dynamic derivatives are obtained through empirical relations available in the literature. The trim conditions are computed for a straight and constant altitude flight condition. The linearized longitudinal and lateral state space models are obtained about trim conditions. The variations in short period mode, phugoid mode, Dutch roll mode, roll subsidence mode and spiral mode with respect to different trim operating conditions is presented. A stabilizing static output feedback controller is designed using the obtained model. Successful closed loop flight trials are conducted with the static output feedback controller.

  3. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  4. [Air medical evacuation on modern stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevitin, A B; Shelepov, A M; Bochenkov, A A; Iamenskov, V V; Grebeniuk, S A; Peshkov, V V

    2010-01-01

    There was effectuated an analyze of using of aircrafts for medical air evacuation of ill and wounded persons, was shown it's place in system of treatment-evacuation measures during the war and peaceful time in course of liquidation of consequences of natural disasters. The article presents main clinical-physiological aspects of medical air evacuation, peculiarities of organization of delivery of health care aboard aircraft, state of medical air evacuation for now-days. The article presents characteristics of purposes and supply of created sanitary planes and helicopters: Mi-8MB "Bisectrix", An-26M "Saver", Il-76MD "Bistoury". There elaborated recommendations upon organization of medical air evacuation during war and peaceful time.

  5. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  6. Power Requirements for Bi-Harmonic Amplitude and Bias Modulation Control of a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    nature, would have the inherent benefit of stealth through mimicry of insects. Such a MAV is referred to as a flapping wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV...S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. “The Animal Diversity Web”, 2013. URL http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Manduca_sexta

  7. Aircraft impact risk assessment data base for assessment of fixed wing air carrier impact risk in the vicinity of airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, F.; Read, J.

    1979-06-01

    The FIXED WING AIRCRAFT accidents occurring to US air carriers during the years 1956 through 1977 are listed, with those resulting in impact within five miles of airports in the contiguous US being considered in detail as to location of impact relative to the airport runways

  8. Experimental Investigation of Pitch Control Enhancement to the Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kian, Chin C

    2006-01-01

    .... The MAV without the main fixed-wing is placed in a laminar flow field within a low speed wind tunnel with the wake after the flapping wings characterized with a constant temperature anemometer...

  9. An efficient fluid-structure interaction method for conceptual design of flexible micro air vehicle wings: Development, comparison, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Thomas P.

    This thesis summarizes the development, comparison, and applications of an efficient fluid-structure interaction method capable of simulating the effects that wing flexibility has on micro air vehicle (MAV) performance. Micro air vehicles wing designs often incorporate flexible wing structures that mimic the skeleton / membrane designs found in natural flyers such as bats and insects. However, accurate performance prediction for these wings requires the coupling of the simulation of the fluid physics around the wing and the simulation of the structural deformation. These fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are often accomplished using high fidelity, computationally expensive techniques such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the fluid physics and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) for the structural simulation. The main drawback of these methods, especially for use simulating vehicles that are able to be manufactured relatively quickly, is that the computational cost required to perform relevant trade studies on the design is prohibitively large and time-consuming. The main goal of this research is the development of a coupled fluid-structure interaction method computationally efficient and accurate enough to be used for conceptual design of micro air vehicles. An advanced potential flow model is used to calculate aerodynamic performance and loading, while a simplified finite element structural model using frame and shell elements calculates the wing deflection due to aerodynamic loading. The contents of this thesis include a literature survey of current approaches, an introduction to the efficient FSI formulation, comparison of the presented FSI method with higher-fidelity simulation methods, demonstrations of the method's capability for tradeoff and optimization studies, and an overview of contributions to a nonlinear dynamic algorithm for the simulation of flapping flight.

  10. United States Air Force Personalized Medicine and Advanced Diagnostics Program Panel: Representative Research at the San Antonio Military Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL WING (AETC) LACKLAND AIR FORCE BASE TEXAS MEMORANDUMFORSGVT ATTN: DEBRA M NIEMEYER FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU... Dato of Mooting) 181 PLATFORM PRESENTATION (At c ivilian lnstitulionsfNamo of Meeting, State, Dato of Mooting) University of Texas at San Antonio...SAMHS & Universities Research Forum {SURF2016). TX, 05-20-2016 D OTHER (Describe: Name of Mooting, City, State, and Dato of Meeting) 6. WHAT IS THE

  11. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M; Karakas, Zeynep N; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω με −1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was −5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle. (paper)

  12. New compliant strain gauges for self-sensing dynamic deformation of flapping wings on miniature air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, James; Perez-Rosado, Ariel; Edgerton, Alex; Levi, Benjamin M.; Karakas, Zeynep N.; Kujawski, Mark; Philipps, Alyssa; Papavizas, Nicholas; Fallon, Danielle; Bruck, Hugh A.; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-08-01

    Over the past several years there has been an increasing interest in the development of miniature air vehicles (MAVs) with flapping wings. To allow these MAVs to adjust to changes in wind direction and to maximize their efficiency, it is desirable to monitor the deformation of the wing during flight. This paper presents a step in this direction, demonstrating the measurement of strain on the surface of the wing using minimally invasive compliant piezoresistive sensors. The strain gauges consisted of latex mixed with electrically conducting exfoliated graphite, and they were applied by spray coating. To calibrate the gauges, both static and dynamic testing up to 10 Hz were performed using cantilever structures. In tension the static sensitivity was a linear 0.4 Ω μɛ-1 and the gauge factor was 28; in compression, the gauge factor was -5. Although sensitivities in tension and compression differed by a factor of almost six, this was not reflected in the dynamic data, which followed the strain reversibly with little distortion. There was no attenuation with frequency, indicating a sufficiently small time constant for this application. The gauges were thin, compliant, and light enough to measure, without interference, deformations due to shape changes of the flexible wing associated with generating lift and thrust. During flapping the resistance closely tracked the generated thrust, measured on a test stand, with both signals tracing figure-8 loops as a function of wing position throughout each cycle.

  13. Experimental characterization and multidisciplinary conceptual design optimization of a bendable load stiffened unmanned air vehicle wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdale, Vijay Narayan

    Demand for deployable MAVs and UAVs with wings designed to reduce aircraft storage volume led to the development of a bendable wing concept at the University of Florida (UF). The wing shows an ability to load stiffen in the flight load direction, still remaining compliant in the opposite direction, enabling UAV storage inside smaller packing volumes. From the design prospective, when the wing shape parameters are treated as design variables, the performance requirements : high aerodynamic efficiency, structural stability under aggressive flight loads and desired compliant nature to prevent breaking while stored, in general conflict with each other. Creep deformation induced by long term storage and its effect on the wing flight characteristics are additional considerations. Experimental characterization of candidate bendable UAV wings is performed in order to demonstrate and understand aerodynamic and structural behavior of the bendable load stiffened wing under flight loads and while the wings are stored inside a canister for long duration, in the process identifying some important wing shape parameters. A multidisciplinary, multiobjective design optimization approach is utilized for conceptual design of a 24 inch span and 7 inch root chord bendable wing. Aerodynamic performance of the wing is studied using an extended vortex lattice method based Athena Vortex Lattice (AVL) program. An arc length method based nonlinear FEA routine in ABAQUS is used to evaluate the structural performance of the wing and to determine maximum flying velocity that the wing can withstand without buckling or failing under aggressive flight loads. An analytical approach is used to study the stresses developed in the composite wing during storage and Tsai-Wu criterion is used to check failure of the composite wing due to the rolling stresses to determine minimum safe storage diameter. Multidisciplinary wing shape and layup optimization is performed using an elitist non-dominated sorting

  14. Active Air Force Wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF Active Flying, Space, and Missile Squadrons as of 1 October 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Endicott, Judy G; Bailey, Carl E; Cully, George W; Harris, W. S; Hartman, Sara K; Heskett, K. D; Light, J. R; Perdue, Johnna A

    1998-01-01

    .... Among other initiatives, he directed the Air Force Historical Research Agency to compile a two-volume series publicizing the lineage and heraldry of the wings and flying squadrons that would remain...

  15. Unsteady Aerodynamic Investigation of the Propeller-Wing Interaction for a Rocket Launched Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Q. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of propeller-wing interaction for the rocket launched UAV have been investigated numerically by means of sliding mesh technology. The corresponding forces and moments have been collected for axial wing placements ranging from 0.056 to 0.5D and varied rotating speeds. The slipstream generated by the rotating propeller has little effects on the lift characteristics of the whole UAV. The drag can be seen to remain unchanged as the wing's location moves progressively closer to the propeller until 0.056D away from the propeller, where a nearly 20% increase occurred sharply. The propeller position has a negligible effect on the overall thrust and torque of the propeller. The efficiency affected by the installation angle of the propeller blade has also been analyzed. Based on the pressure cloud and streamlines, the vortices generated by propeller, propeller-wing interaction, and wing tip have also been captured and analyzed.

  16. Flow characteristics of air in square duct using delta wing vortex generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Ingalagi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance improvement in terms of improving heat transfer coefficient and reducing pressure drop becomes essential in heat exchange applications and a large number of methods for reducing pressure drop exist in the literature and the present work is an investigation on use of delta wings as vortex generators for reducing pressure drop. Methodology includes air from a blower entering the test section through orificemeter and differential-micro manometer to measure the flow rate and pressure drop across the test section. Depending upon the pressure drops, friction factors for smooth and rough surface of the duct are estimated. The effect of geometrical parameters of delta wing and duct aspect ratio on friction factor ratios are reported Based on Reynolds number in the range of 8000−24000. The geometrical parameters of vortex generators varied in this study were the pitch-to-vortex generator height ratio (p/e, vortex generator height to duct hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh, aspect ratio of vortex generator (ar. Results are reported for 0.1 < e/Dh < 0.5, p/e = 4,8,12,16, (ar = 1.6,2.3,4, N = 1 in ducts having aspect ratio AR = 1, Detailed friction factor analysis for Re 8000−24000 has been presented for different configurations of vortex generators used in the square duct. The experimental results of the present study for friction factor in smooth square duct matches well with values taken from formula proposed by Blasius. The friction factor ratio increases with increase in e/Dh value, which may be attributed to increased blockage of the flow passage. For a given p/e, increasing e/Dh ratio for the same (ar has the effect of increasing circulation strength and core size of the vortex thereby offering more resistance to flow that results into a higher friction factor ratio. The results have been presented in the form of the friction factor ratio of the roughened and smooth ducts operating at equal Reynolds numbers. Semi

  17. Inerting a Boeing 747SP Center Wing Tank Scale Model With Nitrogen-Enriched Air

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavage, William

    2002-01-01

    Tests were performed in a 0.24 scale model of a Boeing 747SP center wing tank to validate the existing assumptions for inerting complex geometric spaces, which were developed from previous experiments, and to facilitate design...

  18. Flow Control and High-Lift Performance for Flying-Wing Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Configurations by inserting slots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study on Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs are two-fold: first to control the flow by inserting leading-edge and cross-flow slots and analysing the viscous flow development over the outer panels of a flying-wing configuration to maximise the performance of the elevons control surfaces; second to predict high-lift performance particularly the maximum-lift characteristics. This is demonstrated using a variety of inviscid Vortex Lattice Method (VLM and Euler, and viscous CFD Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS methods. The computational results are validated against experiment measured in a wind tunnel. Two flying-wing planforms are considered based around a generic 40˚ edge-aligned configuration. The VLM predicts a linear variation of lift and pitching moment with incidence angle, and substantially under-predicts the induced drag. Results obtained from RANS and Euler agree well with experiment.

  19. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (ϕ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F(net)) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms⁻¹.

  20. Inertial attitude control of a bat-like morphing-wing air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Parra, C

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bat-like unmanned aerial vehicle inspired by the morphing-wing mechanism of bats. The goal of this paper is twofold. Firstly, a modelling framework is introduced for analysing how the robot should manoeuvre by means of changing wing morphology. This allows the definition of requirements for achieving forward and turning flight according to the kinematics of the wing modulation. Secondly, an attitude controller named backstepping+DAF is proposed. Motivated by biological evidence about the influence of wing inertia on the production of body accelerations, the attitude control law incorporates wing inertia information to produce desired roll (φ) and pitch (θ) acceleration commands (desired angular acceleration function (DAF)). This novel control approach is aimed at incrementing net body forces (F net ) that generate propulsion. Simulations and wind-tunnel experimental results have shown an increase of about 23% in net body force production during the wingbeat cycle when the wings are modulated using the DAF as a part of the backstepping control law. Results also confirm accurate attitude tracking in spite of high external disturbances generated by aerodynamic loads at airspeeds up to 5 ms −1 . (paper)

  1. Active Air Force Wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF Active Flying, Space, and Missile Squadrons as of 1 October 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Office of Air Force History, 1984], by Charles A. Ravenstein , showed the overlapping of the lineages that conformed to the orders of the time. The...appeared in Charles A. Ravenstein , Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors Histories, 1947–1977, (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office

  2. Initial Investigation on the Aerodynamic Performance of Flapping Wings for Nano Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    drag) in still fluid [4, 5]. However, as the high aerodynamic performance of insect’s wings is achieved by three-degrees-of-freedom ( 3DOF ) motions...it will be very important to study its aerodynamic behavior under 3DOF conditions. Thus, a 3DOF system, i.e. pitch motion (α), dihedral motion (γ...the wing, all of the equipment was above the water surface, including a 3DOF gearbox, a 3DOF control system and a small five-component strain gauge

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Flapping Wing Propulsion for Micro Air Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duggan, Sean

    2000-01-01

    ...). Experimental work is conducted in the NPS 1.5 m x 1.5 m in-draft wind tunnel. A previously constructed model is suspended by thin wires and is used to measure the thrust performance of the flapping-wing MAV...

  4. Relocation of the Air National Guard 176th Wing to Elmendorf AFB, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    widely (from a soft whisper to a jet engine) and is measured on a logarithmic scale to accommodate this wide range. The use of logarithms is a...abbreviated SEL or LAE ) combines both of these characteristics into a single metric. Relocation of the ANG 176th Wing to Elmendorf AFB Page D-4

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Studies of a Flapping Wing Nano Air Vehicle (NAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    24 Propeller as a flapper ... flapper The propeller blade described above was used as a flapping wing with reversing camber and twist. The robot fly rotation angle profile (Eq. 6c...frequency reduced to 80Hz, the mean thrust developed by this propeller blade as a flapper is 0.04725N and the mean aerodynamic power is 0.971 W, as

  6. An experimental investigation into the deployment of 3-D, finned wing and shape memory alloy vortex generators in a forced air convection heat pipe fin stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris, M.S.; McGlen, R.; Owen, I.; Sutcliffe, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Forced air convection heat pipe cooling systems play an essential role in the thermal management of electronic and power electronic devices such as microprocessors and IGBT's (Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors). With increasing heat dissipation from these devices, novel methods of improving the thermal performance of fin stacks attached to the heat pipe condenser section are required. The current work investigates the use of a wing type surface protrusions in the form of 3-D delta wing tabs adhered to the fin surface, thin wings punched-out of the fin material and TiNi shape memory alloy delta wings which changed their angles of attack based on the fin surface temperature. The longitudinal vortices generated from the wing designs induce secondary mixing of the cooler free stream air entering the fin stack with the warmer fluid close to the fin surfaces. The change in angle of the attack of the active delta wings provide heat transfer enhancement while managing flow pressure losses across the fin stack. A heat transfer enhancement of 37% compared to a plain fin stack was obtained from the 3-D tabs in a staggered arrangement. The punched-out delta wings in the staggered and inline arrangements provided enhancements of 30% and 26% respectively. Enhancements from the active delta wings were lower at 16%. However, as these devices reduce the pressure drop through the fin stack by approximately 19% in the de-activate position, over the activated position, a reduction in fan operating cost may be achieved for systems operating with inlet air temperatures below the maximum inlet temperature specification for the device. CFD analysis was also carried out to provide additional detail of the local heat transfer enhancement effects. The CFD results corresponded well with previously published reports and were consistent with the experimental findings. - Highlights: → Heat transfer enhancements of heat pipe fin stacks was successfully achieved using fixed and active delta

  7. Development of Photographic Dynamic Measurements Applicable to Evaluation of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Selectable error plot from calib_gui.m……………………………………………… 27 Figure 16: O’Hara flapper ……………………………………………………………………….. 30 Figure 17: Record tab in Motion...Wing downstroke three dimensional point cloud, from the top of the wing stroke... 57 Figure 38: Deleón flapper with hightlighted reference points...purposes. One point is directly over the flapper mount and the other is placed near the mount. The two points can be considered rigid to one another

  8. A Rotary Wing System for Micro Air Vehicle Applications. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BUTOESCU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to propose a new type of ornithopter that avoids the mechanical difficulties of a flapping system. It uses a modified design of a cycloidal propulsor. The modification regards the special setting of the wings that is intended to help the formation of a stable leading edge vortex (LEV. It is known that the LEV is the main feature that allows the insects to achieve the necessary lift to fly.

  9. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-05-14

    Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s) to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  10. Pointed wings, low wingloading and calm air reduce migratory flight costs in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Bowlin

    Full Text Available Migratory bird, bat and insect species tend to have more pointed wings than non-migrants. Pointed wings and low wingloading, or body mass divided by wing area, are thought to reduce energy consumption during long-distance flight, but these hypotheses have never been directly tested. Furthermore, it is not clear how the atmospheric conditions migrants encounter while aloft affect their energy use; without such information, we cannot accurately predict migratory species' response(s to climate change. Here, we measured the heart rates of 15 free-flying Swainson's Thrushes (Catharus ustulatus during migratory flight. Heart rate, and therefore rate of energy expenditure, was positively associated with individual variation in wingtip roundedness and wingloading throughout the flights. During the cruise phase of the flights, heart rate was also positively associated with wind speed but not wind direction, and negatively but not significantly associated with large-scale atmospheric stability. High winds and low atmospheric stability are both indicative of the presence of turbulent eddies, suggesting that birds may be using more energy when atmospheric turbulence is high. We therefore suggest that pointed wingtips, low wingloading and avoidance of high winds and turbulence reduce flight costs for small birds during migration, and that climate change may have the strongest effects on migrants' in-flight energy use if it affects the frequency and/or severity of high winds and atmospheric instability.

  11. Wingbeat Shape Modulation for Flapping-Wing Micro-Air-Vehicle Control During Hover (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AUTHOR(S) David B. Doman, Michael W. Oppenheimer, and David O. Sigthorsson (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2401 5e. TASK NUMBER N/A 5f. WORK UNIT...AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7542 Air

  12. Precision Position Control of the DelFly II Flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle in a Wind-tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunis, T.; Karasek, M.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Flapping-wing MAVs represent an attractive alternative to conventional designs with rotary wings, since they promise a much higher efficiency in forward flight. However, further insight into the flapping-wing aerodynamics is still needed to get closer to the flight performance observed in natural

  13. A Finite Element Analysis of a Carbon Fiber Composite Micro Air Vehicle Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the...using a developed MATLAB code that generated finite element input files to be solved using ABAQUS , a finite element program. The developed MATLAB code...program that is capable of generating an input file to be submitted to ABAQUS , a finite element model solver. This technique was used in order to

  14. Effects of external stores on the air combat capability of a delta wing fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Delta wing point-design fighters with two pylon mounted missiles and aft tail controls (similar to several Soviet designs) have been investigated for a Mach number range from about 0.6 to 2.0. Whereas minimum drag penalties that are expected with the addition of external stores do occur, the effects at higher lifts, corresponding to maneuvering flight, are less severe and often favorable. The drag-due-to-lift factor is less with stores on although the lift curve slope is unaffected. The longitudinal stability level is reduced by the addition of stores while the pitch control effectiveness is unchanged. The directional stability was generally reduced at subsonic speeds and increased at supersonic speeds by the addition of stores but sufficiently high stability levels are obtainable that are compatible with the longitudinal maneuvering limits. Some examples of the potential maneuvering capability in terms of normal acceleration and turn radius are included.

  15. Altitude Control of a Single Degree of Freedom Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) David B. Doman, Michael W. Oppenheimer, Michael A. Bolender, and David O. Sigthorsson (AFRL/ RBCA ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...NUMBER Control Design and Analysis Branch (AFRL/ RBCA ) Control Sciences Division Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Vehicles Directorate Wright

  16. Implementation of the Rauch-Tung-Striebel Smoother for Sensor Compatibility Correction of a Fixed-Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Bin Hsiao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete procedure for sensor compatibility correction of a fixed-wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV. The sensors consist of a differential air pressure transducer for airspeed measurement, two airdata vanes installed on an airdata probe for angle of attack (AoA and angle of sideslip (AoS measurement, and an Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS that provides attitude angles, angular rates, and acceleration. The procedure is mainly based on a two pass algorithm called the Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS smoother, which consists of a forward pass Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and a backward recursion smoother. On top of that, this paper proposes the implementation of the Wiener Type Filter prior to the RTS in order to avoid the complicated process noise covariance matrix estimation. Furthermore, an easy to implement airdata measurement noise variance estimation method is introduced. The method estimates the airdata and subsequently the noise variances using the ground speed and ascent rate provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS. It incorporates the idea of data regionality by assuming that some sort of statistical relation exists between nearby data points. Root mean square deviation (RMSD is being employed to justify the sensor compatibility. The result shows that the presented procedure is easy to implement and it improves the UAV sensor data compatibility significantly.

  17. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Desert iguana Cnemidophorous tivis Western whiptail (observed) Cal lisau rus draconoide s Zebra -tailed lizard Crotaphytus collaris Collared lizard Uma...general plan amendments involving the El Toro Marine Corp Air Station (ETMAS) and its relationship to the urbanizing South Orange County area. I see many

  18. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: In-Flight Medical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Pettyjohn, Frank S; Alves, Paulo M

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. All airlines are required to provide first aid training for cabin crew, and the crew are responsible for managing any in-flight medical events. There are also regulatory requirements for the carriage of first aid and medical kits. AsMA has developed recommendations for first aid kits, emergency medical kits, and universal precaution kits.

  19. Winged Metal Needles versus Plastic Winged and Nonwinged Cannulae for Subcutaneous Infusions in Palliative Care: A Quality Improvement Project To Enhance Patient Care and Medical Staff Safety in a Singaporean Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Shirlyn Hui-Shan; Khemlani, Mansha Hari; Sim, Lai Kiow; Seah, Angeline Soek Tian

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of metal needles and plastic cannulae (winged and nonwinged) for continuous subcutaneous infusion was done during a quality improvement project to reduce device-induced complications at our hospital. Design, Setting, and Measurements: Data were collected on incidence of site reactions (bruising, swelling, erythema, and blisters); mechanical complications (kinking and dislodgement); device durability; type, and volume of medications; and incidence of needle-stick injuries. All infusion devices used for patients in the Palliative Care Service from February 3 to March 26, 2014 were studied. Devices examined were: winged metal needle (Venofix(®), 23G, B. Braun Melsungen AG, Melsungen, Germany), winged vialon cannula (BD Nexiva™, 24G, Becton Dickinson Infusion Therapy Systems Inc., Sandy, UT), and nonwinged polyurethane cannula (Introcan Safety(®), 24G, B. Braun Medical, Mundelein, IL). Thirty devices (10 per type) were used. Incidence of site reactions was 50.0%, 10.0%, and 0.0% for the metal needles, polyurethane cannulae, and vialon cannulae, respectively. Incidence of mechanical complications was 20.0% for the polyurethane cannulae and 0.0% for the metal needles and vialon cannulae. Duration of use was up to 60 hours, 83 hours, and 113 hours for the metal needles, polyurethane cannulae, and vialon cannulae, respectively. Daily volumes infused were up to 28.9 mL, 60.0 mL, and 29.4 mL for the metal needles, polyurethane cannulae, and vialon cannulae, respectively. No needle-stick injuries occurred. The winged vialon cannula was the most durable, with no site reactions or mechanical complications, tolerating a volume comparable to that of the metal needle. We suggest its utilization for continuous subcutaneous infusions and consideration of future randomized controlled trials with an integrated economic evaluation for further in-depth comparisons of subcutaneous indwelling devices.

  20. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Fitness to Fly and Medical Clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D; Dowdall, Nigel P

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Not everyone is fit to travel by air and physicians should advise their patients accordingly. They should review the passenger's medical condition, giving special consideration to the dosage and timing of any medications, contagiousness, and the need for special assistance during travel. In general, an individual with an unstable medical condition should not fly; cabin altitude, duration of exposure, and altitude of the destination airport are all considerations when recommending a passenger for flight.

  1. EXPERIENCES IN THE AIR SPINNING TO MANUFACTURE MEDICAL DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSAL Feliu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to determine, with scientific rigor, differences in key parameters of the yarns produced by conventional ring spinning systems, open-end and air spinning and its interrelation with the main parameters of those products that are intended for medical-sanitary sector. The experiences have been made in a Spanish company from short fibers sector that has three spinning systems, with tradition and prestige in world market, validating the results in Innotex Center laboratories of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. Considering the results, it shows that the technology of manufacture of yarns by air is suitable for yarn, woven fabrics and knitting, structures to textile medical-sanitary application, by specific properties as well as enhanced competitiveness, due to the high production rate and shortened spinning process. The viscose yarns manufactured by air mass are more mass regular. The new DR parameter clearly indicates a better look of the finished fabric when we work with yarns produced by air technology.The significant reduction of the hairiness means less formation of loose fibres by friction, very important in the application of these yarns in the manufacture of textile structures for medical-sanitary use. Also no-table increase of about 15% in the absorption capacity of the fluids, especially water, from the yarns made by air. In the functionalization of fabrics obtained from spun yarn by air will need to apply a permanent smoothing.

  2. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Defense Language Institute English Language Center (DLIELC), and the Inter-American Air Forces Academy (IAAFA) Area Development Plan at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Medical Wing; the Air Force Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency; and the 67th Network Warfare Wing (LAFB undated b). There are 18 Air...Combat Command units under the Air Force Intelligence , Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Agency and the 67th Network Warfare Wing at Lackland AFB. The...recorded in the Texan Biotic Province (LAFB 2006a). Most reptiles and amphibians would likely not occur within the Project area. The majority of

  3. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  4. Air Force Host and Tenant Agreements Between the 50th Space Wing, the Joint National Integration Center, and Tenants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... The 50th Space Wing makes available by permit two buildings on the base's real property records, 720 and 730, to the Joint National Integration Center, a Component of the Missile Defense Agency...

  5. Nonlinear Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing MAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    nonlinear optimization, flapping wing, fluid structure interaction, micro -air vehicles, flexible wing, flapping mechanism 16. SECURITY... Structures Optimization for Flexible Flapping Wing Micro -Air Vehicles” was funded with Chief Scientist Innovative Research funds. This project was divided...predict a 10% resisting load to the model, and Python Scripting to wrap around everything. 2 Building the Model in Abaqus CAE The flapping wing

  6. Clipping the angel's wings: why the medicalization of love may still be worrying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauskeller, Michael

    2015-07-01

    This is a critique of Earp, Sandberg and Savulescu's argument in support of a possible future neuromodulation of love and love-related relationships. I argue that, contrary to what is suggested by Earp, Sandberg and Savulescu, we do have good reason to be concerned about that possibility as well as about the medicalization of love that its pursuit would bring about.

  7. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  8. Air medical transport personnel experiences with and opinions about research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jolene; Thomas, Frank; Carpenter, Judi; Handrahan, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined air medical transport (AMT) personnel's experiences with and opinions about prehospital and AMT research. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to eight randomly selected AMT programs from each of six Association of Air Medical Services (AAMS) regions. Responders were defined by university association (UA) and AMT professional role. Forty-eight of 54 (89%) contacted programs and 536 of 1,282 (42%) individuals responded. Non-UA responders (74%) had significantly more work experience in emergency medical services (EMS) (13.5 +/- 8.5 vs. 10.8 +/- 8.3 years, P = .002) and AMT (8.3 +/- 6.3 vs. 6.8 +/- 5.7 years, P = .008), whereas UA responders (26%) had more research training (51% vs. 37%, P = .006), experience (79% vs. 59%, P < .001), and grants (7% vs. 2%, P = .006). By AMT role, administrators had the most work experience, and physicians had the most research experience. Research productivity of responders was low, with only 9% having presented and 10% having published research; and UA made no difference in productivity. A majority of responders advocated research: EMS (66%) and AMT (68%), program (53%). Willingness to participate in research was high for both EMS research (87%) and AMT research (92%). Although AMT personnel were strong advocates of and willing to participate in research, few had research knowledge. For AMT personnel, disparity exists between advocating for and producing research. Copyright 2010 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Distributed Air Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    typhoon strikes the Philippines, where nearly 100 million people live in an area of 116,000 square miles. Following the catastrophic storm food ...perform any designated missions. Thus, it is imperative to provide the operating crew with basic essentials like food and water, as well as hygienic...consist of both specially outfitted surveillance vessels as well as disguised fishing junks capable of passing along location data. It is assumed that

  10. Rocuronium versus succinylcholine in air medical rapid-sequence intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Brian; Cudnik, Michael T; Thomson, David; Werman, Howard A

    2011-01-01

    It is not known how rocuronium compares with succinylcholine in its effect on intubation success during air medical rapid-sequence intubation (RSI). To examine the impact of succinylcholine use on the odds of successful prehospital intubation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a critical care transport service administrative database containing patient encounters from 2004 to 2008. Rotor transports of patients ≥ 18 years old, requiring airway management (intubation or backup airway: laryngeal mask airway, Combitube, or cricothyrotomy), and receiving either rocuronium or succinylcholine were included in the analysis. Patients receiving both drugs were excluded. Multiple imputation was used to account for records that were missing data elements. A propensity score based on patient and encounter characteristics was calculated to control for the effect of clinical factors on the choice of drug by air medical personnel. Logistic regression was used to assess the impact of succinylcholine use on the odds of first-attempt intubation. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the impact of succinylcholine on the number of attempts required to intubate (1, 2, or ≥ 3 or backup airway). A total of 1,045 patients met the criteria for analysis; 761 (73%) were male, and the median age was 41 years (interquartile range 26-56). Eight hundred seventy-six (84%) were transported from the scene, and 484 (46%) received succinylcholine. Six hundred twelve (59%) were intubated on the first attempt, 322 (31%) required two attempts, 69 required three or more attempts (7%), and 42 required a backup airway (4%). After propensity score adjustment, succinylcholine was associated with a higher incidence of first-attempt intubation (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8), as well as improved odds for requiring fewer attempts to intubate (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9), as compared with rocuronium. Rapid-sequence intubation was more successful with fewer attempts in patients intubated

  11. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Reported In-Flight Medical Events and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Although there are no publicly available databases providing information on the number of in-flight medical emergencies, the few studies published in the literature indicate that they are uncommon. Minor illnesses such as near-fainting, dizziness, and hyperventilation occur more frequently. However, serious illnesses, such as seizures and myocardial infarction, also occur. In-flight deaths are also rare.

  12. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    antiretroviral roll-out in full swing, the. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS. The free time and expertise given by its deeply committed core of professional volunteers. (including pilots) is the lifeblood of the operation. Red Cross Air Mercy Service volunteer, German national Dr Florian Funk, at the AMS Durban base.

  13. Obstetric air medical retrievals in the Australian outback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Claire L; Costello, Cartan; Clark, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Women in labor or with complications of pregnancy in the remote, outback region of Australia's Northern Territory are transported to the hospital by air. The objective of this study was to describe the interventions required by obstetric and newborn patients during air medical transport and to evaluate how often these were beyond the scope of practice of a team consisting of an experienced midwife with or without a general flight doctor. A retrospective cohort analysis of 200 consecutive women between 20 weeks gestation up to 24 hours postpartum and newborns transferred during the same time period. Only 1 obstetric patient required intervention beyond the scope of a midwife. Forty-eight newborn infants were transferred. Eleven (23%) required interventions within the skill range of a general flight doctor. Twenty (42%) required neonatal specialist care. Ten of 31 newborns requiring more than midwifery care were referred for transport while in utero. In this specific cohort, a midwife provided an appropriate level of maternal care to the majority of patients. Newborns frequently required clinical expertise beyond the practice scope of a midwife and general flight doctor. Most women in labor do not deliver during transport. The transport service has finite economic resources and logistical constraints. This study highlighted an ongoing challenge regarding when to request additional neonatal specialist care for preterm or high-risk patients referred for transport in utero. Copyright © 2013 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multispectral and DSLR sensors for assessing crop stress in corn and cotton using fixed-wing unmanned air systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Henrickson, James V.; Bowden, Ezekiel; Shi, Yeyin; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Neely, Haly L.

    2016-05-01

    As small unmanned aircraft systems become increasingly affordable, reliable, and formally recognized under federal regulation, they become increasingly attractive as novel platforms for civil applications. This paper details the development and demonstration of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture tasks. Tasks such as soil moisture content and high throughput phenotyping are considered. Rationale for sensor, vehicle, and ground equipment selections are provided, in addition to developed flight operation procedures for minimal numbers of crew. Preliminary imagery results are presented and analyzed, and these results demonstrate that fixed-wing unmanned aircraft systems modified to carry non-traditional sensors at extended endurance durations can provide high quality data that is usable for serious scientific analysis.

  15. Activation of air and concrete in medical isotope production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Adam C.; Shackelton, R. J.; Carr, D. A.; Ismail, A.

    2017-05-01

    Medical isotope facilities operating in the 10 to 25 MeV proton energy range have long been used to generate radioisotopes for medical diagnostic imaging. In the last few years the beam currents available in commercially available cyclotrons have increased dramatically, and so the activation of the materials within cyclotron vaults may now pose more serious radiological hazards. This will impact the regulatory oversight of cyclotron operations, cyclotron servicing and future decommissioning activities. Air activation could pose a hazard to cyclotron staff. With the increased cyclotron beam currents it was necessary to examine the issue more carefully. Therefore the ways in which radioactivity may be induced in air by neutron reactions and neutron captures were considered and it was found that the dominant mechanism is neutron capture on Ar-40. A study of the activation of the air by neutron capture on Ar-40 within a cyclotron vault was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The neutron source energy spectrum used was from the production of the widely used F-18 PET isotope. The results showed that the activation of the air within a cyclotron vault does not pose a significant radiological hazard at the beam intensities currently in use and shows how ventilation affects the results. A second MCNP study on the activation of ordinary concrete in cyclotron vaults by neutron capture was made with a view to determining the optimum thickness of borated polyethylene to reduce neutron activation on both the inner surfaces of the vault and around production targets. This is of importance in decommissioning cyclotrons and therefore in the design of new cyclotron vaults. The distribution of activation on the walls as a function of the source position was also studied. Results are presented for both borated and regular polyethylene, and F-18 and Tc-99 neutron spectra.

  16. Design and stable flight of a 21 g insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle with angular rates feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Kang, Taesam; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2017-04-04

    An insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) without feedback control eventually becomes unstable after takeoff. Flying an insect-like tailless FW-MAV is more challenging than flying a bird-like tailed FW-MAV, due to the difference in control principles. This work introduces the design and controlled flight of an insect-like tailless FW-MAV, named KUBeetle. A combination of four-bar linkage and pulley-string mechanisms was used to develop a lightweight flapping mechanism that could achieve a high flapping amplitude of approximately 190°. Clap-and-flings at dorsal and ventral stroke reversals were implemented to enhance vertical force. In the absence of a control surface at the tail, adjustment of the location of the trailing edges at the wing roots to modulate the rotational angle of the wings was used to generate control moments for the attitude control. Measurements by a 6-axis load cell showed that the control mechanism produced reasonable pitch, roll and yaw moments according to the corresponding control inputs. The control mechanism was integrated with three sub-micro servos to realize the pitch, roll and yaw controls. A simple PD feedback controller was implemented for flight stability with an onboard microcontroller and a gyroscope that sensed the pitch, roll and yaw rates. Several flight tests demonstrated that the tailless KUBeetle could successfully perform a vertical climb, then hover and loiter within a 0.3 m ground radius with small variations in pitch and roll body angles.

  17. Quad-thopter: Tailless Flapping Wing Robot with 4 Pairs of Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagter, C.; Karasek, M.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel design of a tailless flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), which uses four independently driven pairs of flapping wings in order to fly and perform agile maneuvers. The wing pairs are arranged such that differential thrust generates the desired roll and pitch moments, similar to

  18. Air medical referring customer satisfaction: a valuable insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fultz, J H; Coyle, C B; Reynolds, P W

    1998-01-01

    To remain competitive and survive, air medical programs must have a mechanism for obtaining customer feedback, especially when alternate transport options are available. The goal of this survey was to examine the air medical service's performance as perceived by customers requesting the transport. Surveys were mailed to 400 referring customers who had contact with the flight crew during the transition of patient care. The survey consisted of 16 statements evaluating the service by using a 4-point Likert scale, three demographic questions, one statement evaluating overall satisfaction, and two open-ended questions for comments or suggestions. Two hundred forty-four surveys were returned for a 61% responses rate. Results indicated referring customers are satisfied with the service provided Written comments and suggestions were divided into two categories, positive comments and suggestions for improvement. Three common themes were identified within the suggestions for improvement: crew rapport, communications, and operations. Suggested improvements were evaluated, and selected strategies were incorporated into program operation. Customer feedback furnishes valuable insight into their needs and perception of a service. Comments and suggestions for improvement can promote critical inquiry into service operation and provide a catalyst for improvement.

  19. Air Force Personalized Medicine Program Panel: Representative Research at the 59th Medical Wing San Antonio Military Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    electronic signature. 3. Attach a copy of the 59 MOW IRB or IACUC approval letter for the research related study. If this is a technical...block or use an electronic signature. 7. Submit your completed form and all supporting documentation to the CRD for processing (59crdpubspres...context of the PMI The principles include ·strategies for engendering public trust and maximizing the possible benefits of a large national research

  20. Error analysis and assessment of unsteady forces acting on a flapping wing micro air vehicle: free flight versus wind-tunnel experimental methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, J V; Percin, M; van Oudheusden, B W; Remes, B; de Wagter, C; de Croon, G C H E; de Visser, C C

    2015-08-20

    An accurate knowledge of the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on a bio-inspired, flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV) is crucial in the design development and optimization cycle. Two different types of experimental approaches are often used: determination of forces from position data obtained from external optical tracking during free flight, or direct measurements of forces by attaching the FWMAV to a force transducer in a wind-tunnel. This study compares the quality of the forces obtained from both methods as applied to a 17.4 gram FWMAV capable of controlled flight. A comprehensive analysis of various error sources is performed. The effects of different factors, e.g., measurement errors, error propagation, numerical differentiation, filtering frequency selection, and structural eigenmode interference, are assessed. For the forces obtained from free flight experiments it is shown that a data acquisition frequency below 200 Hz and an accuracy in the position measurements lower than ± 0.2 mm may considerably hinder determination of the unsteady forces. In general, the force component parallel to the fuselage determined by the two methods compares well for identical flight conditions; however, a significant difference was observed for the forces along the stroke plane of the wings. This was found to originate from the restrictions applied by the clamp to the dynamic oscillations observed in free flight and from the structural resonance of the clamped FWMAV structure, which generates loads that cannot be distinguished from the external forces. Furthermore, the clamping position was found to have a pronounced influence on the eigenmodes of the structure, and this effect should be taken into account for accurate force measurements.

  1. Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment of Proposed Actions by the 58th Special Operations Wing, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Recreation - Commercial Service - Public & Institutional - Drainage & Flood Control D Single Family N Noise Contour D Industrial & Manufacturing D...Generator Saw 81 Industrial Saw 83 Welder 74 Truck 80 Forklift 67 Crane 83 Source: COL 2001 Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment of...Naval Air Systems Command  Hotaling ,  Jim R  USAF AFSOC/A5RX  CV‐22 Logistics  Air Force Special Operations Command/Plans and  Programs  Vandzura

  2. The Effects of Leadership on Carrier Air Wing Sixteen’s Loss Rates during Operation Rolling Thunder, 1965-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    forces could operate freely in a Soviet SAM environment, there were serious repercussions for Soviet forces in Europe . Likewise, if North...... neophytes in the air war. But these junior aviators were going to be wingmen for them during an extremely dangerous combat tour, and the senior officers

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for Proposed Construction Projects for the 140th Wing, Colorado Air National Guard at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    biologica l resou rces, cultura l resomces, environmenta l justice, socioeconomics, geology, soUs and topography, water resources, solid and hazardous...emissions associated with the implementation of the Proposed Action were to cause or contribute to a violation of any national or state ambient air...control technology MOA Memorandum of Agreement MSA munitions storage areas NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NEPA National Environmental

  4. Study of design parameters of flapping-wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, F.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the most important components of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FWMAV), the design of an energy-efficient flapping-wing has been a research interest recently. Research on insect flight from different perspectives has been carried out, mainly with regard to wing morphology, flapping

  5. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Rectangular Air-Duct Entrances in the Leading Edge of an NACA 23018 Wing, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, David; McLellan, Charles H.

    1940-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of a number of duct entrances of rectangular shape installed in the leading edge of a wing was conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the external drag, the available pressure, the critical Mach numbers, and the effect on the maximum lift. The results showed that the most satisfactory entrances, which had practically no effect on the wing characteristics, had their lips approximately in the vertical plane of the leading edge of the wing. This requirement necessitated extending the lips outside the wing contour for all except the small entrances. Full dynamic pressure was found to be available over a fairly wide range of angle of attack. The critical Mach number for a small entrance was calculated to be as high as that for the plain wing but was slightly lower for the larger entrances tested.

  6. The relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of Anopheles species housed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwattana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; McCardle, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Established colonies of Anopheles campestris, Anopheles cracens, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles sinensis are maintained at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS). Females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. The mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blood meal volume, and numbers of eggs oviposited. Except for An. campestris and An. cracens, there were significant interspecies differences in wing length. The mean blood meal volumes (mm(3)) of An. kleini and An. sinensis were significantly higher than the other 5 species. For all species, the ratios of unfed females weights/blood meal volumes were similar (range: 0.76-0.88), except for An. kleini (1.08) and An. cracens (0.52), that were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Adult females were allowed to feed undisturbed for 1, 3, and 5min intervals before blood feeding was interrupted. Except for An. campestris and An. sawadwongporni, the number of eggs oviposited were significantly higher for females that fed for 3min when compared to those that only fed for 1min. This information is critical to better understand the biology of colonized Anopheles spp. and their role in the transmission of malaria parasites as they relate to the relative size of adult females, mean volumes of blood of engorged females for each of the anopheline species, and the effect of blood feeding duration on specific blood meal volumes and fecundity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Relocation of the 146th Tactical Airlift Wing of the California Air National Guard. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    lAth Street Sacr,•eto. CA 9M14 SaerMa . CA 9614916/322-2996 916/445-7416 James R--groueO Dept. of G*eeCl Services 1125 Teeth Street Sacramento . CA 9...Species from Fish and Wildlife Service’s Endnagered Species Office in Sacramento at 2800 Cottage Way, Room E-1823, Sacramento , California 95825...proposed addition to Naval Air Station Point Mugu was located within the Rancho El Rio de Santa Clara o La Colonia . The rancho was granted in 1837, by

  8. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  9. Induced radioactivity in air and water at medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Toyoda, A.; Iijima, K.; Kosako, K.; Oishi, K.; Nobuhara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of air and water has been evaluated at the 10 and 15 MeV linear electron accelerator facilities. At 15 MeV irradiation, the activity of 10-min-half-life 13 N was observed in the case of the air in the glove box. Air and water samples were also bombarded by 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon, and the irradiation dose was 10 Gy at the isocenter. Upon the ion-chamber monitoring of the air sampled from the glove box, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C activities were mainly observed. At the end of proton and carbon irradiation, the activity of the water was found to be about 10 kBq·cm -3 and several kBq·cm -3 , respectively. From the decay analysis of the induced activity in water, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C were detected. (author)

  10. the effect of air medical transport on survival after trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Transport by road' refers to road-based emergency medical services and to patients brought in by non-medical personnel, e.g. family, friends or bystanders. This study utilises ... Johannesburg Hospital (public sector) work on a similar system. Patients with ..... number of people who could benefit from an investment in a.

  11. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  12. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  13. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  14. Medical and psychological aspects of mass air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-03-01

    The increase in air transportation depends not only on the technological progress and the availability of more and larger aircraft, but also on the corresponding increase in flight safety. Since, in most of the aircraft accidents, pilot error is a co...

  15. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction in Air Force Medical Training: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Lessons were also taken by personnel who worked in medical areas but who were not PA students. This group included nurses , laboratory and pharmacy...interviewed further about these attitudes, students repeated that they did not have time to watch the animations, work the g; aphs , or wait for text

  17. Risk and Resilience in Deployed Air Force Medical Personnel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    exposure, deployed healthcare specialists must cope with stressors related to providing medical care in a combat zone, such as exposure to grotesque ... grotesque aftermath of battle while providing care to fellow service members with life threatening injuries. Healthcare stress has been associated with the

  18. Veins Improve Fracture Toughness of Insect Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Taylor, David

    2012-01-01

    During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect’s flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material’s resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m). However, the cross veins increase the wing’s toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm). This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically ‘optimal’ solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial ‘venous’ wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species. PMID:22927966

  19. The Morphological Characterization of the Forewing of the Manduca sexta Species for the Application of Biomimetic Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    on tobacco and tomato plants, but will occasionally feed on potato and pepper crops and other plants in the Solenaceae family, hence their name... composite plates and is applied here [8]. The experimental sample is harvested from a wing in which the membrane scales have been removed. Then a section

  20. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  1. Low Reynolds Number Wing Transients in Rotation and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anya; Schlueter, Kristy

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces and flow fields generated by a wing undergoing transient motions in both rotation and translation were investigated. An aspect ratio 2 flat plate wing at a 45 deg angle of attack was driven over 84 deg of rotation (3 chord-lengths of travel at 3/4 span) and 3 and 10 chord-lengths of translation in quiescent water at Reynolds numbers between 2,500 and 15,000. Flow visualization on the rotating wing revealed a leading edge vortex that lifted off of the wing surface, but remained in the vicinity of the wing for the duration of the wing stroke. A second spanwise vortex with strong axial flow was also observed. As the tip vortex grew, the leading edge vortex joined the tip vortex in a loop-like structure over the aft half of the wing. Near the leading edge, spanwise flow in the second vortex became entrained in the tip vortex near the corner of the wing. Unsteady force measurements revealed that lift coefficient increased through the constant-velocity portion of the wing stroke. Forces were compared for variations in wing acceleration and Reynolds number for both rotational and translational motions. The effect of tank blockage was investigated by repeating the experiments on multiple wings, varying the distance between the wing tip and tank wall. U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Summer Faculty Fellowship Program.

  2. Structural Technology Evaluation and Analysis Program (STEAP). Delivery Order 0035: Dynamics and Control and Computational Design of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    prototype FWMAVs. A brushless DC motor was used to drive a four-bar crank- rocker mechanism to transform rotational motion into a rocking motion, i.e...stroke actuation using brushless DC motors . Furthermore, the microcontrollers were required to communicate with a remote controller and with each other...low-level motor control laws that enable wing beat motion profiles to be produced that generate desired cycle-averaged control forces and moments

  3. SU-F-T-656: Monte Carlo Study On Air Activation Around a Medical Electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horst, F [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Fehrenbacher, G [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, University of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In high energy photon therapy, several radiation protection issues result from photonuclear reactions. The activation of air - directly by photonuclear reactions as well as indirectly by capture of photoneutrons generated inside the linac head - is a major point of concern for the medical staff. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual effective dose to medical workers due to activated air around a medical high energy electron linac by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The treatment head of a Varian Clinac in 18 MV-X mode as well as the surrounding concrete bunker were modeled and the radiation transport was simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, starting from the primary electron striking the bremsstrahlung target. The activation yields in air from photo-disintegration of O-16 and N-14 nuclei as well as from neutron capture on Ar-40 nuclei were obtained from the simulations. The activation build-up, radioactive decay and air ventilation were studied using a mathematical model. The annual effective dose to workers was estimated by using published isotope specific conversion factors. Results: The oxygen and nitrogen activation yields were in contrast to the argon activation yield found to be field size dependent. The impact of the treatment room ventilation on the different air activation products was investigated and quantified. An estimate with very conservative assumptions gave an annual effective dose to workers of < 1 mSv/a. Conclusion: From the results of this study it can be concluded that the contribution of air activation to the radiation exposure to medical workers should be negligible in modern photon therapy, especially when it is compared to the dose due to prompt neutrons and the activation of heavy solid materials such as the jaws and the collimators inside the linac head.

  4. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  5. Effect of negative air ions on the potential for bacterial contamination of plastic medical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Kevin G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been renewed interest in the use of air ionizers to control the spread of infection in hospitals and a number of researchers have investigated the biocidal action of ions in both air and nitrogen. By comparison, the physical action of air ions on bacterial dissemination and deposition has largely been ignored. However, there is clinical evidence that air ions might play an important role in preventing the transmission of Acinetobacter infection. Although the reasons for this are unclear, it is hypothesized that a physical effect may be responsible: the production of air ions may negatively charge items of plastic medical equipment so that they repel, rather than attract, airborne bacteria. By negatively charging both particles in the air and items of plastic equipment, the ionizers minimize electrostatic deposition on these items. In so doing they may help to interrupt the transmission of Acinetobacter infection in certain healthcare settings such as intensive care units. Methods A study was undertaken in a mechanically ventilated room under ambient conditions to accurately measure changes in surface potential exhibited by items of plastic medical equipment in the presence of negative air ions. Plastic items were suspended on nylon threads, either in free space or in contact with a table surface, and exposed to negative ions produced by an air ionizer. The charge build-up on the specimens was measured using an electric field mill while the ion concentration in the room air was recorded using a portable ion counter. Results The results of the study demonstrated that common items of equipment such as ventilator tubes rapidly developed a large negative charge (i.e. generally >-100V in the presence of a negative air ionizer. While most items of equipment tested behaved in a similar manner to this, one item, a box from a urological collection and monitoring system (the only item made from styrene

  6. [Medical aspects of current flight safety concept of air forces of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaginin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2012-12-01

    Issues of medical supply of aviation operations, that is part of general system of flight safety are analyzed in this article. One of the main issues is development of the system of vocational preparation of medical personnel, taking part in organization and carrying flights. This issue consists of several themes: formation of united system of education from primary to post graduate; formation of modern training facility; assurance of high potential in academic and teaching staff and providing of good basic training and high learning motivation of applicants, who wants to become a air medical officer. Fundamental principles of developed concept of medical supply of flight safety are presented. It is shown that the essential condition of good implementation of the given concept is informaltion support of all its structures.

  7. Flapping wing actuation using resonant compliant mechanisms : An insect-inspired design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolsman, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    The realization of a wing actuation mechanism for a flapping wing micro air vehicle requires a move away from traditional designs based on gears and links. An approach inspired by nature’s flyers is better suited. For flapping flight two wing motions are important: the sweeping and the pitching

  8. Measurement of shape and deformation of insect wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Duo; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Zeyu; Zhou, Changqiu

    2018-01-01

    To measure the shape and deformation of an insect wing, a scanning setup adopting laser triangulation and image matching was developed. Only one industry camera with two light sources was employed to scan the transparent insect wings. 3D shape and point to point full field deformation of the wings could be obtained even when the wingspan is less than 3 mm. The venation and corrugation could be significantly identified from the results. The deformation of the wing under pin loading could be seen clearly from the results as well. Calibration shows that the shape and deformation measurement accuracies are no lower than 0.01 mm. Laser triangulation and image matching were combined dexterously to adapt wings' complex shape, size, and transparency. It is suitable for insect flight research or flapping wing micro-air vehicle development.

  9. Optimization of aerodynamic efficiency for twist morphing MAV wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twist morphing (TM is a practical control technique in micro air vehicle (MAV flight. However, TM wing has a lower aerodynamic efficiency (CL/CD compared to membrane and rigid wing. This is due to massive drag penalty created on TM wing, which had overwhelmed the successive increase in its lift generation. Therefore, further CL/CDmax optimization on TM wing is needed to obtain the optimal condition for the morphing wing configuration. In this paper, two-way fluid–structure interaction (FSI simulation and wind tunnel testing method are used to solve and study the basic wing aerodynamic performance over (non-optimal TM, membrane and rigid wings. Then, a multifidelity data metamodel based design optimization (MBDO process is adopted based on the Ansys-DesignXplorer frameworks. In the adaptive MBDO process, Kriging metamodel is used to construct the final multifidelity CL/CD responses by utilizing 23 multi-fidelity sample points from the FSI simulation and experimental data. The optimization results show that the optimal TM wing configuration is able to produce better CL/CDmax magnitude by at least 2% than the non-optimal TM wings. The flow structure formation reveals that low TV strength on the optimal TM wing induces low CD generation which in turn improves its overall CL/CDmax performance.

  10. Machine Learning for Flapping Wing Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Menno; van Kampen, E.; Armanini, S.F.; de Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Flight control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles is challenging, because of their complex dynamics and variability due to manufacturing inconsistencies. Machine Learning algorithms can be used to tackle these challenges. A Policy Gradient algorithm is used to tune the gains of a

  11. The United States Air Force and Profession: Why Sixty Percent of Air Force General Officers are Still Pilots When Pilots Comprise Just Twenty Percent of the Officer Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-25

    auto mechanic and the medical doctor turn out to be quite similar at a certain level of abstraction in terms of diagnosing, inferring, and treating a...scientists, and they will wear no pilot’s wings on their chests. That insignia will cease to be the yardstick of Air Force achievement. That’s something for

  12. Environmental Assessment for Construction of the United States Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) on Patrick Air Force Base, Florida (Amended)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    architectural , and Native American resources. Areas of potential impact include properties, structures, landscapes, or traditional cultural sites...occur before packaging). Laboratory processes, storage and handling will be coordinated with 45 SW units of Bioenvironmental , Wing Safety, Medical...1994. Historical and Architectural Documentation Reports of Patrick Air Force Base, Cocoa Beach, Florida. U.S. Army Construction Engineering

  13. Flow structure of vortex-wing interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christopher K.

    streamwise (axial) vorticity, as well as relatively large root-mean-square values of streamwise velocity and vorticity. Along the chord of the wing, the vortex interaction gives rise to distinct modes, which may involve either enhancement or suppression of the vortex generated at the tip of the wing. These modes are classified and interpreted in conjunction with computed modes at the Air Force Research Laboratory. Occurrence of a given mode of interaction is predominantly determined by the dimensionless location of the incident vortex relative to the tip of the wing and is generally insensitive to the Reynolds number and dimensionless circulation of the incident vortex. The genesis of the basic modes of interaction is clarified using streamline topology with associated critical points. Whereas formation of an enhanced tip vortex involves a region of large upwash in conjunction with localized flow separation, complete suppression of the tip vortex is associated with a small-scale separation-attachment bubble bounded by downwash at the wing tip. Oscillation of the wing at an amplitude and velocity nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the wing chord and free stream velocity respectively can give rise to distinctive patterns of upwash, downwash, and shed vorticity, which are dependent on the outboard displacement of the incident vortex relative to the wing tip. Moreover, these patterns are a strong function of the phase of the wing motion during its oscillation cycle. At a given value of phase, the wing oscillation induces upwash that is reinforced by the upwash of the incident vortex, giving a maximum value of net upwash. Conversely, when these two origins of upwash counteract, rather than reinforce, one another during the oscillation cycle, the net upwash has its minimum value. Analogous interpretations hold for regions of maximum and minimum net downwash located outboard of the regions of upwash. During the oscillation cycle of the wing, the magnitude and scale of the

  14. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Darocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors’ own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient’s health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition.

  15. Point-of-care ultrasonography during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darocha, Tomasz; Gałązkowski, Robert; Sobczyk, Dorota; Żyła, Zbigniew; Drwiła, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound examination has been increasingly widely used in pre-hospital care. The use of ultrasound in rescue medicine allows for a quick differential diagnosis, identification of the most important medical emergencies and immediate introduction of targeted treatment. Performing and interpreting a pre-hospital ultrasound examination can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and thus reduce mortality. The authors' own experiences are presented in this paper, which consist in using a portable, hand-held ultrasound apparatus during rescue operations on board a Polish Medical Air Rescue helicopter. The possibility of using an ultrasound apparatus during helicopter rescue service allows for a full professional evaluation of the patient's health condition and enables the patient to be brought to a center with the most appropriate facilities for their condition.

  16. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: stresses of flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-05-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Modern commercial aircraft are very safe and, in most cases, reasonably comfortable. However, all flights, short or long haul, impose stresses on passengers. Preflight stresses include airport commotion on the ground such as carrying baggage, walking long distances, getting to the gate on time, and being delayed. In-flight stresses include acceleration, vibration (including turbulence), noise, lowered barometric pressure, variations of temperature and humidity, and fatigue among others. Healthy passengers normally tolerate these stresses quite well; however, there is the potential for passengers to become ill during or after the flight due to these stresses, especially for those with pre-existing medical conditions and reduced physiological reserves.

  17. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rajabi

    Full Text Available Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs.

  18. Spreading knowledge in medical informatics: the contribution of the hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Bernaldo de Quiros, F; Luna, D; Otero, P; Baum, A; Borbolla, D

    2009-01-01

    Medical Informatics (MI) is an emerging discipline with a high need of trained and skillful professionals. To describe the educational experience of the Department of Health Informatics of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. A descriptive study of the development of the Medical Informatics Residency Program (MIRP) and the e-learning courses related to medical informatics. A four-year MIRP with 15 rotations was started in 2000, and was awarded national educational accreditation. Eight residents have been fully trained and their main academic contributions are shown in this study. The e-learning courses related to medical informatics (Healthcare Management, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Information Retrieval, Computer Literacy started, 10x10 Spanish version and HL7 introductory course) started in 2006 and were followed by more than 2266 students from all over the world, with an increase trend in foreign students. These educational activities have produced skilled human resources for the development and maintenance of the health informatics projects at our Hospital. In parallel, the number of students trained by e-learning continues to increase, demonstrating the worldwide need of knowledge in this field.

  19. A Conceptual Development of a Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Variable Camber Morphing Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, J.P.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development of a morphing wing concept for a Portuguese Air Force Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), the UAS-30. Nowadays, optimized fuel efficiency is a primary requirement in the aerospace industry, and it can be significantly improved by designing adaptive wings which can change

  20. Modeled occupational exposures to gas-phase medical laser-generated air contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Jones, Rachael M

    2014-01-01

    Exposure monitoring data indicate the potential for substantive exposure to laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC); however the diversity of medical lasers and their applications limit generalization from direct workplace monitoring. Emission rates of seven previously reported gas-phase constituents of medical laser-generated air contaminants (LGAC) were determined experimentally and used in a semi-empirical two-zone model to estimate a range of plausible occupational exposures to health care staff. Single-source emission rates were generated in an emission chamber as a one-compartment mass balance model at steady-state. Clinical facility parameters such as room size and ventilation rate were based on standard ventilation and environmental conditions required for a laser surgical facility in compliance with regulatory agencies. All input variables in the model including point source emission rates were varied over an appropriate distribution in a Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations in the near and far field zones of the room in a conservative approach inclusive of all contributing factors to inform future predictive models. The concentrations were assessed for risk and the highest values were shown to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than the relevant occupational exposure limits (OELs). Estimated values do not appear to present a significant exposure hazard within the conditions of our emission rate estimates.

  1. Evaluating air kerma at a medical cyclotron after refined shielding design using the TLD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng Hsienchun; Liu Wenshan; Lin Jyebin; Chen Chienyi; Hsieh Tengsan

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotrons are increasingly constructed at medical universities in Taiwan to produce nuclear medicine. However, their operation generates amounts of highly energetic photons from 18 O(p, γn) 18 F reactions. This reaction posed a health hazard to the public. Chung Shan University Hospital had to increase its 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose products in 2011 to 11.5 times that in 2004 and redesign the self-shielded (CTI) Radioisotope Delivery System (RDS)-111 to meet guild requirements regarding the production of positron emission tomography (PET). This study is the first to evaluate air kerma in a CTI RDS-111 cyclotron center with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Air kerma of up to 17.0±2.8 mGy/mo indicated that heavy leakage of photons penetrated the PET/CT facility. The new L-shaped concrete shield and added d 2 door can adequately protect the public. The minimum detectable limit of air kerma is discussed to demonstrate the reliability of the TLD approach. (author)

  2. Bending the Eagle’s Wing - How Advanced Air Defenses put the Enemy’s Vital Centers Beyond the Reach of American Airpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    29 Carl von Clausewitz, On War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 358. 68 More so...Air University Press, 1994. Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Edited and Translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton...Randolph, Stephen P. Powerful and Brutal Weapons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007. Sagan , Scott D. and Kenneth N. Waltz. The Spread of

  3. Variable camber wing based on pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-07-01

    As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, a variable camber wing with the pneumatic artificial muscle is developed. Firstly, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle is designed. The relationship between the static output force and the air pressure is investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. Secondly, the finite element model of the variable camber wing is developed. Numerical results show that the tip displacement of the trailing-edge increases linearly with increasing external load and limited with the maximum static output force of pneumatic artificial muscles. Finally, the variable camber wing model is manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure and that it compare very well with the FEM result.

  4. The Characterization of Material Properties and Structural Dynamics of the Manduca Sexta Forewing for Application to Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.

    Collateral damage presents a significant risk during air drops and airstrikes, risking citizens' lives and property, straining the relationship between the United States Air Force and host nations. This dissertation presents a methodology to determine the optimal location for making supply airdrops in order to minimize collateral damage while maintaining a high likelihood of successful recovery. A series of non-linear optimization algorithms are presented along with their relative success in finding the optimal location in the airdrop problem. Additionally, we present a quick algorithm for accurately creating the Pareto frontier in the multi-objective airstrike problem. We demonstrate the effect of differing guidelines, damage functions, and weapon employment selection which significantly alter the location of the optimal aimpoint in this targeting problem. Finally, we have provided a framework for making policy decisions in fast-moving troops-in-contact situations where observers are unsure of the nature of possible enemy forces in both finite and infinite time horizon problems. Through a recursive technique of solving this Markov decision process we have demonstrated the effect of improved intelligence and differing weights in the face of uncertain situations.

  5. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Airline Special Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-07-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Treating physicians should advise patients in need of special services to contact the airline well before travel to find out if the required services will be available. Ensuring the required services are available throughout a journey can be challenging, especially when different airlines and aircraft types are involved. For example, airlines carry a limited supply of oxygen for use in the event of an unexpected in-flight emergency; however, this supply is not intended for use by passengers needing supplemental oxygen. Arrangements must be made in advance with the airline. Therefore, early contact with the airline is helpful.

  6. Preflight versus en route success and complications of rapid sequence intubation in an air medical service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, E A; Weiss, S J; Ernst, A A; Haynes, M

    1998-09-01

    Maintenance of an airway in the air medically transported patient is of paramount importance. The purpose of this study is to compare preflight versus en route rapid sequence intubation (RSI)-assisted intubations and to determine the value of air medical use of RSI. This study is a 31-month retrospective review of all patients intubated and transported by a large city air medical service. Subgroup analysis was based on whether patients were transported from a hospital or a scene and whether they were intubated preflight or en route. Information on age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, type of scene, ground time, and previous attempts at intubation was recorded. Complications included failures, multiple attempts at intubation, arrhythmias, and need for repeated paralytic agents. Comparisons were made using a confidence interval analysis. An alpha of 0.05 was considered significant; Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons. Three hundred twenty-five patients were intubated and transported by Lifeflight during the study period. Two hundred eighty-eight patients were intubated using RSI (89%). The success rate was 97%. Preflight intubations were performed on 100 hospital calls and 86 scene calls. En route intubations were performed on 40 hospital cases and 62 scene calls. Patients who underwent preflight intubations were significantly younger than those who underwent en route intubations for both the hospital group (34 +/- 11 vs. 44 +/- 24 years, p < 0.05) and the scene group (27 +/- 13 vs. 32 +/- 16 years,p < 0.05). Otherwise, the demographic characteristics of the four groups were similar. Trauma accounted for 60 to 70% of hospital transfers and almost 95 to 100% of scene calls. Compared with preflight intubations, there was a significant decrease in ground time for hospital patients who were intubated en route (26 +/- 10 vs. 34 +/- 11 minutes, p < 0.05) and for scene patients who were intubated en route (11 +/- 8 vs. 18 +/- 9 minutes, p < 0.05). There were

  7. Portable Cathode-Air Vapor-Feed Electrochemical Medical Oxygen Concentrator (OC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Missions on the International Space Station and future space exploration will present significant challenges to crew health care capabilities, particularly in the efficient utilization of onboard oxygen resources. Exploration vehicles will require lightweight, compact, and portable oxygen concentrators that can provide medical-grade oxygen from the ambient cabin air. Current pressure-swing adsorption OCs are heavy and bulky, require significant start-up periods, operate in narrow temperature ranges, and require a liquid water feed. Lynntech, Inc., has developed an electrochemical OC that operates with a cathode-air vapor feed, eliminating the need for a bulky onboard water supply. Lynntech's OC is smaller and lighter than conventional pressure-swing OCs, is capable of instant start-up, and operates over a temperature range of 5-80 C. Accomplished through a unique nanocomposite proton exchange membrane and catalyst technology, the unit delivers 4 standard liters per minute of humidified oxygen at 60 percent concentration. The technology enables both ambient-pressure operating devices for portable applications and pressurized (up to 3,600 psi) OC devices for stationary applications.

  8. Temporal variation of wing geometry in Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Oliveira Vidal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia, Aedes albopictus is now found on five continents, primarily due to its great capacity to adapt to different environments. This species is considered a secondary vector of dengue virus in several countries. Wing geometric morphometrics is widely used to furnish morphological markers for the characterisation and identification of species of medical importance and for the assessment of population dynamics. In this work, we investigated the metric differentiation of the wings of Ae. albopictus samples collected over a four-year period (2007-2010 in São Paulo, Brazil. Wing size significantly decreased during this period for both sexes and the wing shape also changed over time, with the wing shapes of males showing greater differences after 2008 and those of females differing more after 2009. Given that the wings play sex-specific roles, these findings suggest that the males and females could be affected by differential evolutionary pressures. Consistent with this hypothesis, a sexually dimorphic pattern was detected and quantified: the females were larger than the males (with respect to the mean and had a distinct wing shape, regardless of allometric effects. In conclusion, wing alterations, particularly those involving shape, are a sensitive indicator of microevolutionary processes in this species.

  9. Temporal variation of wing geometry in Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Carvalho, Eneas; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2012-12-01

    Although native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia, Aedes albopictus is now found on five continents, primarily due to its great capacity to adapt to different environments. This species is considered a secondary vector of dengue virus in several countries. Wing geometric morphometrics is widely used to furnish morphological markers for the characterisation and identification of species of medical importance and for the assessment of population dynamics. In this work, we investigated the metric differentiation of the wings of Ae. albopictus samples collected over a four-year period (2007-2010) in São Paulo, Brazil. Wing size significantly decreased during this period for both sexes and the wing shape also changed over time, with the wing shapes of males showing greater differences after 2008 and those of females differing more after 2009. Given that the wings play sex-specific roles, these findings suggest that the males and females could be affected by differential evolutionary pressures. Consistent with this hypothesis, a sexually dimorphic pattern was detected and quantified: the females were larger than the males (with respect to the mean) and had a distinct wing shape, regardless of allometric effects. In conclusion, wing alterations, particularly those involving shape, are a sensitive indicator of microevolutionary processes in this species.

  10. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...... in a complete sample of low redshift clusters to be used as reference sample for evolutionary studies. The WINGS survey is still ongoing and the original dataset will be enlarged with new observations. This paper presents the entire collection of WINGS measurements obtained so far. Methods. We decided to make......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90...

  11. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat

    2018-02-01

    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  12. AERODYNAMIC LOAD OF AN AIRCRAFT WITH A HIGHLY ELASTIC WING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Schoř

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a method for calculation of air loads of an aircraft with an elastic wing is presented. The method can predict a redistribution of air loads when the elastic wing deforms. Unlike the traditional Euler or Navier-Stokes CFD to FEM coupling, the method uses 3D panel method as a source of aerodynamic data. This makes the calculation feasible on a typical recent workstation. Due to a short computational time and low hardware demands this method is suitable for both the preliminary design stage and the load evaluation stage. A case study is presented. The study compares a glider wing performing a pull maneuver at both rigid and and elastic state. The study indicates a significant redistribution of air load at the elastic case.

  13. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids - An Enigma for Entomologists. Alpana Mazumdar. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Modeling the Motion of a Flapping Wing Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorochaeva L.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the vertical flight of a flapping wing aerial vehicle, which is also called an ornithopter. The robot is a chain of five links connected in series by active cylindrical hinges with the central link being the body and the remainder forming folding wings in pairs. The distinctive feature of this device is that the flaps of its wings imitate those of a seagull i.e. the device has a biological prototype. We construct a mathematical model of this device; much attention is given to the model of the interaction of the wings with the air environment and we determine the positions and velocities of points of application of the reduced aerodynamic forces to each of the links. Based on the results of numerical modelling of the vertical flight of the robot three modes of flight were established: ascent, hovering at a certain height and descent. The device can operate in these modes based on the oscillation parameters of the wings in particular flapping frequency and amplitude, the ratio of the amplitudes of two links and one wing and the shift of the equilibrium oscillation position of the wings relative to zero.

  15. Fabrication of corrugated artificial insect wings using laser micromachined molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Wood, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of an artificial insect wing with a rich set of topological features by micromolding a thermosetting resin. An example 12 mm long hoverfly-like wing is fabricated with 50–125 µm vein heights and 100 µm corrugation heights. The solid veins and membrane were simultaneously formed and integrated by a single molding process. Employing a layered laser ablation technique, three-dimensional molds were created with 5 µm resolution in height. Safe demolding of the wing was achieved with a water-soluble sacrificial layer on the mold. Measured surface profiles of the wing matched those of the molds, demonstrating the high replication accuracy of this molding process. Using this process, the morphological features of insect wings can be replicated at-scale with high precision, enabling parametric experiments of the functional morphology of insect wings. This fabrication capability also makes it possible to create a variety of wing types for micro air vehicles on scales similar to insects.

  16. Occupational health and safety assessment of exposure to jet fuel combustion products in air medical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Russell D; Thomas, Laura; Rusk, Frederick C; Marques, Shauna D; McGuire, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Transport medicine personnel are potentially exposed to jet fuel combustion products. Setting-specific data are required to determine whether this poses a risk. This study assessed exposure to jet fuel combustion products, compared various engine ignition scenarios, and determined methods to minimize exposure. The Beechcraft King Air B200 turboprop aircraft equipped with twin turbine engines, using a kerosene-based jet fuel (Jet A-1), was used to measure products of combustion during boarding, engine startup, and flight in three separate engine start scenarios ("shielded": internal engine start, door closed; "exposed": ground power unit start, door open; and "minimized": ground power unit right engine start, door open). Real-time continuous monitoring equipment was used for oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Integrated methods were used for aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Samples were taken in the paramedic breathing zone for approximately 60 minutes, starting just before the paramedics boarded the aircraft. Data were compared against regulated time-weighted exposure thresholds to determine the presence of potentially harmful products of combustion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, volatile organic compounds, and aliphatic hydrocarbons were found at very low concentrations or beneath the limits of detection. There were significant differences in exposures to particulates, carbon monoxide, and total volatile organic compound between the "exposed" and "minimized" scenarios. Elevated concentrations of carbon monoxide and total volatile organic compounds were present during the ground power unit-assisted dual-engine start. There were no appreciable exposures during the "minimized" or "shielded" scenarios. Air medical personnel exposures to jet fuel combustion products were

  17. Improving the indoor air quality of respiratory type of medical facility by zeolite filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jyun-Hong; Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Lin, Jhan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Hung; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the indoor air quality (IAQ) conditions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), and bio-aerosols (bacteria and fungi) in a respiratory type of medical facility in Chia-Yi County in southern Taiwan. Among those IAQ conditions, the concentrations of CO, O3, and HCHO exceeded the regulation values of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) mostly in the morning. The concentrations of bacteria and fungi did not exceed the regulation values but still posed potential health and environment problems for workers, patients, and visitors. Therefore, self-made silver-coated zeolite (AgZ) was used as a filter material in air cleaners to remove bio-aerosols in the respiratory care ward (RCW), and the removals were still effective after 120 hr. The cumulative bio-aerosol removals for bacteria and fungi were 900 and 1,088 colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) after 24 hr and were above 3,100 and 2,700 CFU g(-1) after 120 hr. From the research results, it is suggested that AgZ filtering could be used as a feasible engineering measure for hospitals to control their bacteria and fungi parameters in IAQ management. Hospitals should maintain their environmental management and monitoring programs and use different engineering measures to improve different IAQ parameters. This study investigated the IAQ conditions in the field at a hospital in Chia-Yi County in southern Taiwan. Although concentrations of most parameters were still within the regulation values, the concentrations of CO, O3, and HCHO were partially exceeded. We propose a method using an air cleaner with silver-coated zeolite (AgZ) as a possible engineering measure, and there were effective reductions of bacteria and fungi to lower levels with antibacterial effects after 120 hr. Furthermore, this study implies that hospitals should continuously maintain environmental monitoring programs and adopt optimal

  18. Application of SMP composite in designing a morphing wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yin, Weilong; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2008-11-01

    A new concept of a morphing wing based on shape memory polymer (SMP) and its reinforced composite is proposed in this paper. SMP used in this study is a thermoset styrene-based resin in contrast to normal thermoplastic SMP. In our design, the wing winded on the airframe can be deployed during heating, which provides main lift for a morphing aircraft to realize stable flight. Aerodynamic characteristics of the deployed morphing wing are calculated by using CFD software. The static deformation of the wing under the air loads is also analyzed by using the finite element method. The results show that the used SMP material can provide enough strength and stiffness for the application.

  19. Sponge divers of the Aegean and medical consequences of risky compressed-air dive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toklu, Akin Savas; Cimsit, Maide

    2009-04-01

    Historically, Turkey once had a substantial number of professional sponge divers, a population known for a relatively high incidence of diving-related conditions such as decompression sickness (DCS) and dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON). Sponge diving ended in the mid-1980s when nearly all of the sponges in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas contracted a bacterial disease and the occupation became unprofitable. We reviewed the records of Turkish sponge divers for information on their level of knowledge, diving equipment, dive profiles, and occupational health problems. Information was collected by: 1) interviewing former sponge divers near Bodrum, where most of them had settled; 2) reviewing the relevant literature; and 3) examining the medical records of sponge divers who underwent recompression treatment. These divers used three types of surface-supplied equipment, including hard helmets, Fernez apparatus, and hookahs; the latter were preferred because they allowed divers the greatest freedom of movement while harvesting sponges underwater. These divers used profiles that we now know involved a high risk for DCS and DON. We were able to access the records of 58 divers who had received recompression treatment. All of the cases involved severe DCS and delays from dive to recompression that averaged 72 h. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred in only 11 cases (19%). Thus, we were able to document the several factors that contributed to the risks in this occupational group, including unsafe dive profiles, resistance to seeking treatment, long delays before recompression, and the fact that recompression treatment used air rather than oxygen.

  20. Insect-inspired wing actuation structures based on ring-type resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolsman, C.T.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate and study the opportunities of resonant ring type structures as wing actuation mechanisms for a flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). Various design alternatives are presented and studied based on computational and physical models. Insects provide an excellent source of

  1. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Sällström, E; Ukeiley, L; Ifju, P G

    2011-03-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  2. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G; Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L

    2011-01-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  3. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, MAE-A 231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L, E-mail: diccidwp@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Shalimar, FL 32579 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  4. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  5. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  6. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  7. Assessing air medical crew real-time readiness to perform critical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Darren; Goldsmith, Timothy; Weiss, Steven J

    2011-01-01

    Air medical transport has had problems with its safety record, attributed in part to human error. Flight crew members (FCMs) must be able to focus on critical safety tasks in the context of a stressful environment. Flight crew members' cognitive readiness (CR) to perform their jobs may be affected by sleep deprivation, personal problems, high workload, and use of alcohol and drugs. The current study investigated the feasibility of using a computer-based cognitive task to assess FCMs' readiness to perform their job. The FCMs completed a short questionnaire to evaluate their physiologic and psychological state at the beginning and end of each shift. The FCMs then performed 3 minutes of a computer-based cognitive task called synthetic work environment (SYNWIN test battery). Task performance was compared with the questionnaire variables using correlation and regression analysis. Differences between the beginning and end of each shift were matched and compared using a paired Students t test. SYNWIN performance was significantly worse at the end of a shift compared with the beginning of the shift (p = 0.028) primarily because of decrement in the memory component. The SYNWIN composite scores were negatively correlated to degree of irritability felt by the participant, both before (r = -0.25) and after (r = -0.34) a shift and were significantly correlated with amount of sleep (0.22), rest (0.30), and life satisfaction (0.30). Performance by FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based psychological test correlates well with self-reported sleep, rest, life satisfaction, and irritability. Although further studies are warranted, these findings suggest that assessment of the performance of FCMs on a simple, rapid, computer-based, multitasking battery is feasible as an approach to determine their readiness to perform critical safety tasks through the SYNWIN task battery.

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Wake Characteristics of a Flapping Wing Optimized for both Aerial and Aquatic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Kotidis, Miranda; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Multiple aquatic bird species (including murres, puffins, and other auks) employ a single actuator to propel themselves in two different fluid media: both flying and swimming using primarily their flapping wings. This impressive design compromise could be adopted by engineered implementations of dual aerial/aquatic robotic platforms, as it offers an existence proof for favorable flow physics. We discuss one realization of a 3D flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing oscillates by the root and employs an active in-line motion degree-of-freedom. An experiment-coupled optimization routine generates the wing trajectories, controlling the unsteady forces throughout each flapping cycle. We elucidate the wakes of these wing trajectories using dye visualization, correlating the wake vortex structures with simultaneous force measurements. After optimization, the wing generates the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media, and furthermore, demonstrate improved control over the unsteady wake.

  10. Phasing of dragonfly wings can improve aerodynamic efficiency by removing swirl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, James R; Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    2008-11-06

    Dragonflies are dramatic, successful aerial predators, notable for their flight agility and endurance. Further, they are highly capable of low-speed, hovering and even backwards flight. While insects have repeatedly modified or reduced one pair of wings, or mechanically coupled their fore and hind wings, dragonflies and damselflies have maintained their distinctive, independently controllable, four-winged form for over 300Myr. Despite efforts at understanding the implications of flapping flight with two pairs of wings, previous studies have generally painted a rather disappointing picture: interaction between fore and hind wings reduces the lift compared with two pairs of wings operating in isolation. Here, we demonstrate with a mechanical model dragonfly that, despite presenting no advantage in terms of lift, flying with two pairs of wings can be highly effective at improving aerodynamic efficiency. This is achieved by recovering energy from the wake wasted as swirl in a manner analogous to coaxial contra-rotating helicopter rotors. With the appropriate fore-hind wing phasing, aerodynamic power requirements can be reduced up to 22 per cent compared with a single pair of wings, indicating one advantage of four-winged flying that may apply to both dragonflies and, in the future, biomimetic micro air vehicles.

  11. The ratios of effective dose to entrance skin dose to the air kerma for some medical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, K.N. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Yallambie, VIC (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Results are presented for the ratios of the effective dose to skin entrance dose and to air kerma for broad beams of radiation expected to be encountered by medical workers. These workers are monitored by the Personal Radiation Monitoring Service (PRMS) using thermoluminescent dosimeters worn at the front of the body to provide estimates of the entrance skin dose. Factors are given for converting estimates of entrance skin dose to effective dose as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1991) for beams incident on the body by one of three modes-from the front of the subject, from the back of the subject or by rotation around the subject. Additional tables are also given to calculate effective dose for these beams from a measurement of air kerma free-in-air 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Electro-Magnetic Flow Control to Enable Natural Laminar Flow Wings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research team has developed a solid-state electromagnetic device that, when embedded along the leading edge of an aircraft wing, can disrupt laminar air flow on...

  13. Electro-Magnetic Flow Control to Enable Natural Laminar Flow Wings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research team has developed a solid-state electromagnetic device that, when embedded along the leading edge of an aircraft wing, can disrupt laminar air flow on...

  14. Application of Piezoelectrics to Flapping-Wing MAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widstrand, Alex; Hubner, J. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) are a class of unmanned aerial vehicles that are size-restricted and operate at low velocities and low Reynolds numbers. An ongoing challenge with MAVs is that their flight-related operations are highly constrained by their size and weight, which limits battery size and, therefore, available power. One type of MAV called an ornithopter flies using flapping wings to create both lift and thrust, much like birds and insects do. Further bio-inspiration from bats led to the design of membrane wings for these vehicles, which provide aerodynamic benefits through passive vibration. In an attempt to capitalize on this vibration, a piezoelectric film, which generates a voltage when stressed, was investigated as the wing surface. Two wing planforms with constant area were designed and fabricated. The goal was to measure the wings' flight characteristics and output energy in freestream conditions. Complications with the flapper arose which prevented wind tunnel tests from being performed; however, energy data was obtained from table-top shaker tests. Preliminary results indicate that wing shape affects the magnitude of the charge generated, with a quarter-elliptic planform outperforming a rectangular planform. Funding provided by NSF REU Site Award number 1358991.

  15. Risk Factors for Incident Postdeployment Mental Health Conditions Among U.S. Air Force Medical Service Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Genny M; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; White, Edward D; Lysfjord, Heather J

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of postdeployment mental health (PDMH) conditions in military health care personnel appears to be on par with that of other military personnel. However, there is no comprehensive analysis of incident PDMH conditions within the overall population of U.S. Air Force Medical Service personnel. This study explored the epidemiology of incident PDMH conditions among Air Force Medical Service personnel returning from deployment. A cohort survival analysis was conducted of 24,409 subjects without preexisting mental health conditions and at least one deployment during 2003-2013. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a PDMH condition. The primary outcome measure was an incident PDMH condition defined as a mental health diagnosis on at least two separate clinical encounters. The incidence of PDMH conditions was 59.74 per 1,000 person-years. Adjustment, anxiety, mood, sleep, and post-traumatic stress disorders accounted for 78% diagnoses. Protective factors included officer, surgeon, specific enlisted career fields, Air National Guard or Air Force Reserve, and multiple deployments. Risk factors included nurse, other specific enlisted career fields, female, and unmarried with dependents. Most subjects (73%) were diagnosed within the standard 30-month surveillance time period; median time to diagnosis was 13 months. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. Comparison of a Padded Patient Litter and Long Spine Board for Spinal Immobilization in Air Medical Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Steven R; Rauscher, Patrick; Winsett, Rebecca P

    2015-01-01

    The long spinal board is the immobilization standard during prehospital transport. The flat surface of the board increases the pressure placed on both the thoracic kyphosis and the sacrum and increases the risk for pressure ulcers. This study compared patient stability and comfort between a padded litter system used in air medical transport and the long spine board. The study was completed at a large 350-bed Magnet Recognized nonteaching hospital. The hospital owns and operates an air medical transport service. Subjects were secured to a padded litter and a long spinal board with a cervical collar and head blocks and 3 straps. Laser pointers were used to mark neutral at points on the subject's head, sternum, and pelvis. The subject was tilted 45 degrees left and right with movement measured in inches. Comfort level was measured before and after. Paired t-tests were used to detect differences in movement. No statistical difference in movement was found between devices for the head; however, there was statistically significant greater movement on the padded litter for the sternum and pelvis. The padded litter did not immobilize as tightly as the long board although the effect of the differences was small. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of a Full-Scale Wing Fatigue Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Jaap; Hwang, Joong Sun

    2014-01-01

    A wing of a decommissioned aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) was fatigue tested to more than two times the design life. Part of the test was the evaluation of load monitoring and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques. For load monitoring the data of conventional resistance

  18. Aeroelastic Modelling and Design of Aeroelastically Tailored and Morphing Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werter, N.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to accommodate the growth in air traffic whilst reducing the impact on the environment, operational efficiency is becoming more and more important in the design of the aircraft of the future. A possible approach to increase the operational efficiency of aircraft wings is the use of

  19. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz

    2017-06-01

    Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird & insect species. This article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of bird's & insect's wings. The fundamentals of bird flight are similar to those of aircraft. Flying animals flap their wings to generate lift and thrust as well as to perform remarkable maneuvers with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Insects and birds provide illuminating examples of unsteady aerodynamics. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, which is an airfoil. The airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the bird's & insect's body in some species, especially during intermittent flight while the wings are folded or semi-folded. Bird's & insect's flight in nature are sub-divided into two stages. They are Unpowered Flight: Gliding and Soaring & Powered Flight: Flapping. When gliding, birds and insects obtain both a vertical and a forward force from their wings. When a bird & insect flaps, as opposed to gliding, its wings continue to develop lift as before, but the lift is rotated forward to provide thrust, which counteracts drag and increases its speed, which has the effect of also increasing lift to counteract its weight, allowing it to maintain height or to climb. Flapping flight is more complicated than flight with fixed wings because of the structural movement and the resulting unsteady fluid dynamics. Flapping involves two stages: the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, which can also (depending on the bird's & insect's wings) provide some thrust. Most kinds of bird & insect wing can be grouped into four types, with some falling between two of these types. These types of wings are elliptical wings, high speed wings, high aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots. Hovering is used

  20. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  1. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  2. A PERSPECTIVE ON MILITARY MEDICAL SERVICE ROLE IN STABILIZATION OPERATIONS: EXPANSION OF AIR FORCE MEDICAL SERVICE CAPABILITIES INMEDICAL DIPLOMACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    long as the conflict and violence persist in Afghanistan, its people will continue to fall victims to poor health care system. In Afghanistan, as of...distribution unlimited. 15 countries , the military medical organization plays a significant role in providing health services to the civilian populace...cooperation and health capacity building. The FFHSG provides higher headquarters or an embassy country team with insight and assistance in policy and

  3. Pneumatic artificial muscle and its application on driving variable trailing-edge camber wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2010-04-01

    As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle was designed and the relationship between the static output force and the air pressure was investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. A variable camber wing based on the pneumatic artificial muscle was developed and the variable camber wing model was manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Wind tunnel tests were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  5. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  6. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  7. Wing sexual dimorphism of pathogen-vector culicids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginio, Flávia; Oliveira Vidal, Paloma; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-03-14

    Sexual dimorphism in animals has been studied from different perspectives for decades. In 1874 Darwin hypothesized that it was related to sexual selection, and even after nearly 140 years, when additional empirical data has become available and the subject has been investigated from a contemporary viewpoint, this idea is still supported. Although mosquito (Culicidae) wings are of great importance as they play a sex-specific role, little is known about wing sexual dimorphism in these pathogen-vector insects. Detection and characterization of wing sexual dimorphism in culicids may indirectly enhance our knowledge of their epidemiology or reveal sex-linked genes, aspects that have been discussed by vector control initiatives and developers of genetically modified mosquitoes. Using geometric morphometrics, we carried out a comparative assessment of wing sexual dimorphism in ten culicid species of medical/veterinary importance from genera Culex, Aedes, Anopheles and Ochlerotatus collected in Brazil. Discriminant analysis revealed significant sexual dimorphism in all the species studied, indicating that phenotypic expression of wing shape in mosquitoes is indeed sex-specific. A cross-validated test performed to reclassify the sexes with and without allometry yielded very similar results. Mahalanobis distances among the ten species showed that the species had different patterns of shape sexual dimorphism and that females are larger than males in some species. Wing morphology differed significantly between species. The finding of sexual dimorphism in all the species would suggest that the wing geometry of Culicidae is canalized. Although sexual dimorphism is prevalent, species-specific patterns occur. Allometry was not the main determinant of sexual dimorphism, which suggests that sexual selection or other evolutionary mechanisms underlie wing sexual dimorphism in these insects.

  8. Nano-architecture of gustatory chemosensory bristles and trachea in Drosophila wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmalette, Jean Christophe; Raad, Hussein; Qiu, Nan; Ohara, Satoshi; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2015-09-18

    In the Drosophila wing anterior margin, the dendrites of gustatory neurons occupy the interior of thin and long bristles that present tiny pores at their extremities. Many attempts to measure ligand-evoked currents in insect wing gustatory neurons have been unsuccessful for technical reasons. The functions of this gustatory activity therefore remain elusive and controversial. To advance our knowledge on this understudied tissue, we investigated the architecture of the wing chemosensory bristles and wing trachea using Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. We hypothesized that the wing gustatory hair, an open-ended capillary tube, and the wing trachea constitute biological systems similar to nano-porous materials. We present evidence that argues in favour of the existence of a layer or a bubble of air beneath the pore inside the gustatory hair. We demonstrate that these hollow hairs and wing tracheal tubes fulfil conditions for which the physics of fluids applied to open-ended capillaries and porous materials are relevant. We also document that the wing gustatory hair and tracheal architectures are capable of trapping volatile molecules from the environment, which might increase the efficiency of their spatial detection by way of wing vibrations or during flight.

  9. A novel mechanism for emulating insect wing kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, Pranay; Benedict, Moble; Chopra, Inderjit

    2012-01-01

    A novel dual-differential four-bar flapping mechanism that can accurately emulate insect wing kinematics in all three degrees of freedom (translation, rotation and stroke plane deviation) is developed. The mechanism is specifically designed to be simple and scalable such that it can be utilized on an insect-based flapping wing micro air vehicle. Kinematic formulations for the wing stroke position, pitch angle and coning angle for this model are derived from first principles and compared with a 3D simulation. A benchtop flapping mechanism based on this model was designed and built, which was also equipped with a balance for force measurements. 3D motion capture tests were conducted on this setup to demonstrate the capability of generating complex figure-of-eight flapping motions along with dynamic pitching. The dual-differential four-bar mechanism was implemented on a light-weight vehicle that demonstrated tethered hover. (paper)

  10. Wing bone geometry reveals active flight in Archaeopteryx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeten, Dennis F A E; Cubo, Jorge; de Margerie, Emmanuel; Röper, Martin; Beyrand, Vincent; Bureš, Stanislav; Tafforeau, Paul; Sanchez, Sophie

    2018-03-13

    Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil taxon with feathered wings from the Late Jurassic of Germany that occupies a crucial position for understanding the early evolution of avian flight. After over 150 years of study, its mosaic anatomy unifying characters of both non-flying dinosaurs and flying birds has remained challenging to interpret in a locomotory context. Here, we compare new data from three Archaeopteryx specimens obtained through phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography to a representative sample of archosaurs employing a diverse array of locomotory strategies. Our analyses reveal that the architecture of Archaeopteryx's wing bones consistently exhibits a combination of cross-sectional geometric properties uniquely shared with volant birds, particularly those occasionally utilising short-distance flapping. We therefore interpret that Archaeopteryx actively employed wing flapping to take to the air through a more anterodorsally posteroventrally oriented flight stroke than used by modern birds. This unexpected outcome implies that avian powered flight must have originated before the latest Jurassic.

  11. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  12. Flight Testing of Novel Compliant Spines for Passive Wing Morphing on Ornithopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissa, Aimy; Guerreiro, Nelson; Grauer, Jared; Altenbuchner, Cornelia; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Tummala, Yashwanth; Frecker, Mary; Roberts, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are proliferating in both the civil and military markets. Flapping wing UAVs, or ornithopters, have the potential to combine the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft with excellent performance in low Reynolds number flight regimes. The purpose of this paper is to present new free flight experimental results for an ornithopter equipped with one degree of freedom (1DOF) compliant spines that were designed and optimized in terms of mass, maximum von-Mises stress, and desired wing bending deflections. The spines were inserted in an experimental ornithopter wing spar in order to achieve a set of desired kinematics during the up and down strokes of a flapping cycle. The ornithopter was flown at Wright Patterson Air Force Base in the Air Force Research Laboratory Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) indoor flight facility. Vicon motion tracking cameras were used to track the motion of the vehicle for five different wing configurations. The effect of the presence of the compliant spine on wing kinematics and leading edge spar deflection during flight is presented. Results show that the ornithopter with the compliant spine inserted in its wing reduced the body acceleration during the upstroke which translates into overall lift gains.

  13. Pulsed eddy current inspection of CF-188 inner wing spar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Peter Francis

    Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) CF-188 Hornet aircraft engineering authorities have stated a requirement for a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) technique to detect Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the inner wing spars without fastener or composite wing skin removal. Current radiographic inspections involve significant aircraft downtime, and Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) inspection is proposed as a solution. The aluminum inner wing spars of CF-188 Hornet aircraft may undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC) along the spar between the fasteners that secure carbon-fiber/ epoxy composite skin to the wing. Inspection of the spar through the wing skin is required to avoid wing disassembly. The thickness of the wing skin varies between 8 and 20 mm (0.3 to 0.8 inch) and fasteners may be either titanium or ferrous. PEC generated by a probe centered over a fastener, demonstrates capability of detecting simulated cracks within spars with the wing skin present. Comparison of signals from separate sensors, mounted to either side of the excitation coil, is used to detect differences in induced eddy current fields, which arise in the presence of cracks. To overcome variability in PEC signal response due to variation in 1) skin thickness, 2) fastener material and size, and 3) centering over fasteners, a large calibration data set is acquired. Multi-dimensional scores from a Modified Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the data are reduced to one dimension (1D) using a Discriminant Analysis method. Under inspection conditions, calibrated PCA scores combined with discriminant analysis permit rapid real time go/no-go PEC detection of cracks in CF-188 inner wing spar. Probe designs using both pickup coils and Giant Magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors were tested on samples with the same ferrous and titanium fasteners found on the CF-188. Flaws were correctly detected at lift-offs of up to 21mm utilizing a variety of insulating skin materials simulating the carbon-fibre reinforced polymer

  14. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  15. The United States Air Force and Humanitarian Airlift Operations 1947-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...AFHRA. 15. Military Airlift Command History, 1988, vol. I, pp. 231–34, AFHRA. 16. Charles A. Ravenstein , Air Force Combat Wings (Washington, D.C.: Office...Involved: 37th, 41st, and 48th Aerosp RR Sqs. Airlifted: Unknown numbers of flood victims, disaster workers, medical person- nel, and law enforcement

  16. Follow up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    evaluation of persons who screen positive in the future. 59th Medical Wing (59th MOW) Institutional Review Board (IRB) 59th Clinical Research Division...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 31 JULY2017 Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening...Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and

  17. 78 FR 10608 - David Grant United States Air Force Medical Center Specialty Care Travel Reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... adequate clinical case mix of patients for approved Graduate Medical Education program functioning in the... identified specialties. There will also be quarterly tracking of marketing initiatives to measure their...

  18. A Discussion of Patient Safety Programs in the United States Air Force Ground Medical Expeditionary Environment and an Analysis of Potential Solutions for Increasing Their Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    deployed environments.13 The following paragraphs explore some of the actions previously taken to evaluate and potentially improve patient safety...GROUND MEDICAL EXPEDITIONARY ENVIRONMENT AND AN ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR INCREASING THEIR EFFECTIVENESS By: James Lee...DISCUSSION OF PATIENT SAFETY PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE GROUND MEDICAL EXPEDITIONARY ENVIRONMENT AND AN ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS FOR

  19. Archives of Environmental Health, Volume 18 Number 4. Ninth AMA Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, July 22-24, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Frank

    Papers read before the Ninth American Medical Association (AMA) Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Denver, Colorado, July 22-24, 1968, are presented in this document. Topics deal with the relationship and effects of atmospheric pollution to respiratory diseases, epidemiology, human physiological reactions, urban morbidity, health of school…

  20. Detainee Healthcare in Theater Hospitals: Are Air Force Medics Prepared for the Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    detainee then yelled in anger that the blood of an infidel was on him and demanded new cloths. 57 In another such incident, a Navy medic was severely...bunch of stuff to read. The Koran was important, as was the Manchester document. I also read some psychology journal articles on treating Muslims...Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills (C-STARS), Self Aid-Buddy Care, Medical Unit Readiness Training (MURT), Unit Type Code (UTC) training, Just

  1. Research of Morphing Wing Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarov, Valery

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU) as follows: The contractor will develop and investigate aerodynamic and structural weight theories associated with morphing wing technology...

  2. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  3. Successful medical management of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Stan L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The causes of diffuse abdominal pain following pelvic surgery are numerous. We present a rare case of acute abdominal pain in a woman in the post-partum period. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian woman with neurofibromatosis type 1 presented to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain immediately after a cesarean section. The patient was acutely ill and toxic with a fever of 38.8°C, a pulse of 120 beats per minute and a distended abdomen with absent bowel sounds. A computed tomography scan showed air in the wall of the stomach and portal venous system. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous antibiotics, bowel rest and total parenteral nutrition. Conclusion It is rare for a case of emphysematous gastritis associated with portal venous air to be treated successfully without surgery. To the best of our knowledge, to date there has been no reported association of emphysematous gastritis with neurofibromatosis.

  4. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  5. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. ► We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. ► Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10–20 μm long, 0.5–1 μm diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30–60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m 2 , these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  6. Trusted Care In The Air Force Medical Service: Practical Recommendations For Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    in the U.S. Air Force Dental Corps. As a dental officer, he completed his residency in periodontics in 2006 at The University of Texas Health...Force Academy, followed by a position on the teaching staff at the periodontics residency at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland. Prior to his current...Implementing and Validating a Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program.” Journal of Patient Safety 1 (2005): 33-40. Cited by: Pronovost, Peter J

  7. Effect of torsional stiffness and inertia on the dynamics of low aspect ratio flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Hu, Jianxin; Liu, Hao

    2014-03-01

    Micro air vehicle-motivated aerodynamics in biological flight has been an important subject in the past decade. Inspired by the novel flapping wing mechanisms in insects, birds and bats, we have carried out a numerical study systematically investigating a three-dimensional flapping rigid wing with passively actuated lateral and rotational motion. Distinguishing it from the limited existing studies, this work performs a systematic examination on the effects of wing aspect ratio (AR = 1.0 to infinity), inertia (density ratio σ = 4-32), torsional stiffness (frequency ratio F = 1.5-10 and infinity) and pivot point (from chord-center to leading edge) on the dynamics response of a low AR rectangular wing under an initial zero speed flow field condition. The simulation results show that the symmetry breakdown of the flapping wing results in a forward/backward motion with a rotational pitching. When the wing reaches its stable periodic state, the induced pitching frequency is identical to its forced flapping frequency. However, depending on various kinematic and dynamic system parameters, (i.e. flapping frequency, density ratio and pitching axis), the lateral induced velocity shows a number of different oscillating frequencies. Furthermore, compared with a one degree of freedom (DoF) wing in the lateral direction only, the propulsion performance of such a two DoF wing relies very much on the magnitude of torsional stiffness adding on the pivot point, as well as its pitching axis. In all cases examined here, thrust force and moment generated by a long span wing is larger than that of a short wing, which is remarkably linked to the strong reverse von Kármán vortex street formed in the wake of a wing.

  8. Policy Implications of Using Genomic Medicine in the Air Force Medical Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    The delay was likely caused by its gradual appearance in medical records in the form of hemophilia, sickle cell or cystic fibrosis tests, not as a full...and diagnosis . For example, screening can identify risk of breast cancer in carriers of the BRCA gene. On the other hand, genomics offers the

  9. Study of Tranexamic Acid During Air Medical Prehospital Transport Trial (STAAMP Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    d. CFR, Title 2, Part 215, "Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements with Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals , and...Form 483, warning letters or actions taken by any Regulatory Agencies including legal or medical actions, and any instances of serious or continuing

  10. Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W; Dial, Kenneth P

    2007-05-01

    Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) is a form of locomotion in which a bird flaps its wings to aid its hindlimbs in climbing a slope. WAIR is used for escape in ground birds, and the ontogeny of this behavior in precocial birds has been suggested to represent a model analogous to transitional adaptive states during the evolution of powered avian flight. To begin to reveal the aerodynamics of flap-running, we used digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) and measured air velocity, vorticity, circulation and added mass in the wake of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar as they engaged in WAIR (incline 65-85 degrees; N=7 birds) and ascending flight (85 degrees, N=2). To estimate lift and impulse, we coupled our DPIV data with three-dimensional wing kinematics from a companion study. The ontogeny of lift production was evaluated using three age classes: baby birds incapable of flight [6-8 days post hatching (d.p.h.)] and volant juveniles (25-28 days) and adults (45+ days). All three age classes of birds, including baby birds with partially emerged, symmetrical wing feathers, generated circulation with their wings and exhibited a wake structure that consisted of discrete vortex rings shed once per downstroke. Impulse of the vortex rings during WAIR was directed 45+/-5 degrees relative to horizontal and 21+/-4 degrees relative to the substrate. Absolute values of circulation in vortex cores and induced velocity increased with increasing age. Normalized circulation was similar among all ages in WAIR but 67% greater in adults during flight compared with flap-running. Estimated lift during WAIR was 6.6% of body weight in babies and between 63 and 86% of body weight in juveniles and adults. During flight, average lift was 110% of body weight. Our results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet

  11. An Evidence-based Guideline for the air medical transportation of prehospital trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen H; Brown, Kathleen M; Oliver, Zoë J; Spaite, Daniel W; Lawner, Benjamin J; Sahni, Ritu; Weik, Tasmeen S; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Wright, Joseph L; Lang, Eddy S

    2014-01-01

    Decisions about the transportation of trauma patients by helicopter are often not well informed by research assessing the risks, benefits, and costs of such transport. The objective of this evidence-based guideline (EBG) is to recommend a strategy for the selection of prehospital trauma patients who would benefit most from aeromedical transportation. A multidisciplinary panel was recruited consisting of experts in trauma, EBG development, and emergency medical services (EMS) outcomes research. Representatives of the Federal Interagency Committee on Emergency Medical Services (FICEMS), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) (funding agency), and the Children's National Medical Center (investigative team) also contributed to the process. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to guide question formulation, evidence retrieval, appraisal/synthesis, and formulate recommendations. The process followed the National Evidence-Based Guideline Model Process, which has been approved by the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS and the National EMS Advisory Council. Two strong and three weak recommendations emerged from the process, all supported only by low or very low quality evidence. The panel strongly recommended that the 2011 CDC Guideline for the Field Triage of Injured Patients be used as the initial step in the triage process, and that ground emergency medical services (GEMS) be used for patients not meeting CDC anatomic, physiologic, and situational high-acuity criteria. The panel issued a weak recommendation to use helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) for higher-acuity patients if there is a time-savings versus GEMS, or if an appropriate hospital is not accessible by GEMS due to systemic/logistical factors. The panel strongly recommended that online medical direction should not be required for activating HEMS. Special consideration was given to the potential need for local

  12. Numerical and Theoretical Considerations for the Design of the AVT-183 Diamond-Wing Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelens, Okko J.; Luckring, James M.; Breitsamter, Christian; Hovelmann, Andreas; Knoth, Florian; Malloy, Donald J.; Deck, Sebatien

    2015-01-01

    A diamond-wing configuration has been developed to isolate and study blunt-leading edge vortex separation with both computations and experiments. The wing has been designed so that the results are relevant to a more complex Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicle concept known as SACCON. The numerical and theoretical development process for this diamond wing is presented, including a view toward planned wind tunnel experiments. This work was conducted under the NATO Science and Technology Organization, Applied Vehicle Technology panel. All information is in the public domain.

  13. Protection against wing icing for Airbus A300 and A310

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfer, G.

    1981-01-01

    To improve economy of operation, it is now planned to modify the anti-icing system used on the A300 Airbus wing. Thus, for the A310 Airbus, the deicing system will be applied to only half the wing length. Other essential modifications are a substantial simplification of the warm-air system and discontinuation of the use of a double wall in slats.

  14. Comments on prospects of fully adaptive aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Daniel J.; Gern, Frank H.; Robertshaw, Harry H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Pettit, Greg; Natarajan, Anand; Sulaeman, Erwin

    2001-06-01

    New generations of highly maneuverable aircraft, such as Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles (UCAV) or Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) are likely to feature very flexible lifting surfaces. To enhance stealth properties and performance, the replacement of hinged control surfaces by smart wings and morphing airfoils is investigated. This requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction between aerodynamics, structures, and control systems. The goal is to build a model consistent with distributed control and to exercise this model to determine the progress possible in terms of flight control (lift, drag and maneuver performance) with an adaptive wing. Different modeling levels are examined and combined with a variety of distributed control approaches to determine what types of maneuvers and flight regimes may be possible. This paper describes the current progress of the project and highlights some recent findings.

  15. Pretreated Butterfly Wings for Tuning the Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in the scales of Blue butterflies are responsible for their vivid blue wing coloration. These nanoarchitectures are quasi-ordered nanocomposites which are constituted from a chitin matrix with embedded air holes. Therefore, they can act as chemically selective sensors due to their color changes when mixing volatile vapors in the surrounding atmosphere which condensate into the nanoarchitecture through capillary condensation. Using a home-built vapor-mixing setup, the spectral changes caused by the different air + vapor mixtures were efficiently characterized. It was found that the spectral shift is vapor-specific and proportional with the vapor concentration. We showed that the conformal modification of the scale surface by atomic layer deposition and by ethanol pretreatment can significantly alter the optical response and chemical selectivity, which points the way to the efficient production of sensor arrays based on the knowledge obtained through the investigation of modified butterfly wings. PMID:27618045

  16. Elastically Shaped Wing Optimization and Aircraft Concept for Improved Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh; Reynolds, Kevin; Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael; Urnes, James, Sr.; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted tn 2010 by the NASA Innovation Fund Award project entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept". The study presents three themes in support of meeting national and global aviation challenges of reducing fuel burn for present and future aviation systems. The first theme addresses the drag reduction goal through innovative vehicle configurations via non-planar wing optimization. Two wing candidate concepts have been identified from the wing optimization: a drooped wing shape and an inflected wing shape. The drooped wing shape is a truly biologically inspired wing concept that mimics a seagull wing and could achieve about 5% to 6% drag reduction, which is aerodynamically significant. From a practical perspective, this concept would require new radical changes to the current aircraft development capabilities for new vehicles with futuristic-looking wings such as this concept. The inflected wing concepts could achieve between 3% to 4% drag reduction. While the drag reduction benefit may be less, the inflected-wing concept could have a near-term impact since this concept could be developed within the current aircraft development capabilities. The second theme addresses the drag reduction goal through a new concept of elastic wing shaping control. By aeroelastically tailoring the wing shape with active control to maintain optimal aerodynamics, a significant drag reduction benefit could be realized. A significant reduction in fuel burn for long-range cruise from elastic wing shaping control could be realized. To realize the potential of the elastic wing shaping control concept, the third theme emerges that addresses the drag reduction goal through a new aerodynamic control effector called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap. Conventional aerodynamic control surfaces are discrete independent surfaces that cause geometric discontinuities at the trailing edge region. These discontinuities promote

  17. How the pterosaur got its wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Throughout the evolutionary history of life, only three vertebrate lineages took to the air by acquiring a body plan suitable for powered flight: birds, bats, and pterosaurs. Because pterosaurs were the earliest vertebrate lineage capable of powered flight and included the largest volant animal in the history of the earth, understanding how they evolved their flight apparatus, the wing, is an important issue in evolutionary biology. Herein, I speculate on the potential basis of pterosaur wing evolution using recent advances in the developmental biology of flying and non-flying vertebrates. The most significant morphological features of pterosaur wings are: (i) a disproportionately elongated fourth finger, and (ii) a wing membrane called the brachiopatagium, which stretches from the posterior surface of the arm and elongated fourth finger to the anterior surface of the leg. At limb-forming stages of pterosaur embryos, the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) cells, from which the fourth finger eventually differentiates, could up-regulate, restrict, and prolong expression of 5'-located Homeobox D (Hoxd) genes (e.g. Hoxd11, Hoxd12, and Hoxd13) around the ZPA through pterosaur-specific exploitation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling. 5'Hoxd genes could then influence downstream bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling to facilitate chondrocyte proliferation in long bones. Potential expression of Fgf10 and Tbx3 in the primordium of the brachiopatagium formed posterior to the forelimb bud might also facilitate elongation of the phalanges of the fourth finger. To establish the flight-adapted musculoskeletal morphology shared by all volant vertebrates, pterosaurs probably underwent regulatory changes in the expression of genes controlling forelimb and pectoral girdle musculoskeletal development (e.g. Tbx5), as well as certain changes in the mode of cell-cell interactions between muscular and connective tissues in the early phase of their evolution. Developmental data now

  18. Wing morphometrics as a tool in species identification of forensically important blow flies of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Zajac, Barbara K; Zehner, Richard; Sukontason, Kom; Wannasan, Anchalee; Amendt, Jens

    2017-05-10

    Correct species identification of blow flies is a crucial step for understanding their biology, which can be used not only for designing fly control programs, but also to determine the minimum time since death. Identification techniques are usually based on morphological and molecular characters. However, the use of classical morphology requires experienced entomologists for correct identification; while molecular techniques rely on a sound laboratory expertise and remain ambiguous for certain taxa. Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of insect wings has been extensively applied in species identification. However, few wing morphometric analyses of blow fly species have been published. We applied a landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wings for species identification of 12 medically and forensically important blow fly species of Thailand. Nineteen landmarks of each right wing of 372 specimens were digitised. Variation in wing size and wing shape was analysed and evaluated for allometric effects. The latter confirmed the influence of size on the shape differences between species and sexes. Wing shape variation among genera and species were analysed using canonical variates analysis followed by a cross-validation test. Wing size was not suitable for species discrimination, whereas wing shape can be a useful tool to separate taxa on both, genus and species level depending on the analysed taxa. It appeared to be highly reliable, especially for classifying Chrysomya species, but less robust for a species discrimination in the genera Lucilia and Hemipyrellia. Allometry did not affect species separation but had an impact on sexual shape dimorphism. A landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis of wings is a useful additional method for species discrimination. It is a simple, reliable and inexpensive method, but it can be time-consuming locating the landmarks for a large scale study and requires non-damaged wings for analysis.

  19. Aerodynamics and Ecomorphology of Flexible Feathers and Morphing Bird Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett

    Birds are talented fliers capable of vertical take-off and landing, navigating turbulent air, and flying thousands of miles without rest. How is this possible? What allows birds to exploit the aerial environment with such ease? In part, it may be because bird wings are unlike any engineered wing. They are flexible, strong, lightweight, and dynamically capable of changes in shape on a nearly instantaneous basis (Rayner, 1988; Tobalske, 2007). Moreover, much of this change is passive, modulated only by changes in airflow angle and velocity. Birds actively morph their wings and their feathers morph passively in response to airflow to meet aerodynamic demands. Wings are highly adapted to myriad aeroecological factors and aerodynamic conditions (e.g. Lockwood et al., 1998; Bowlin and Winkler, 2004). This dissertation contains the results of my research on the complexities of morphing avian wings and feathers. I chose to study three related-but-discrete aspects of the avian wing: 1) the aerodynamics of morphing wings during take-off and gliding flight, 2) the presence and significance of wing tip slots across the avian clade, and 3) the aerodynamic role of the emarginate primary feathers that form these wing tip slots. These experiments ask fundamental questions that have intrigued me since childhood: Why do birds have different wing shapes? And why do some birds have slotted wing tips? It's fair to say that you will not find definitive answers here--rather, you will find the methodical, incremental addition of new hypotheses and empirical evidence which will serve future researchers in their own pursuits of these questions. The first chapter explores active wing morphing in two disparate aerodynamic regimes: low-advance ratio flapping (such as during takeoff) and high-advance ratio gliding. This chapter was published in the Journal of Experimental Biology (Klaassen van Oorschot et al., 2016) with the help of an undergraduate researcher, Emily Mistick. We found that wing

  20. Wing Infrastructure and Development Outlook (WINDO) Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    divert airfield for military aircraft training in the NTTR and support the flying operations of the 57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine ...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp...be stored or used in work areas. Marine mammal —any mammal that is morphologically adapted to the marine environment, or primarily inhabits the

  1. A comparison of the effects of carbon dioxide and medical air for abdominal insufflation on respiratory parameters in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, J D; Hay Kraus, B L; Sathe, S R

    2018-03-28

    To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO 2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO 2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation, and 10 minutes after being returned to a standing position. Blood samples were collected in heparinised syringes, stored on ice, and analysed for arterial pH, partial pressure of arterial O 2 (PaO 2 ), and CO 2 (PaCO 2 ). The number of ewes conceiving to AI was also determined. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated temporal effects on RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 and arterial pH during the laparoscopic AI procedure (p0.01). No sheep experienced hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >50 mmHg) or acidaemia (pHAI compared with 16/22 (72.7%) in the medical air group (p=0.867). There were no statistical or clinical differences in RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, or conception to AI when comparing the effects of CO 2 and medical air as abdominal insufflation gases. None of the sheep experienced hypercapnia or acidaemic, yet 42% (19/45) of sheep developed clinical hypoxaemia, with a higher percentage of ewes in the CO 2 group developing hypoxaemia than in the medical air group. Based on the overall analysis, medical air could be utilised as a comparable alternative for abdominal insufflation during laparoscopic AI procedures.

  2. Indoor air pollution. Chemical, physiological, hygienic, medical and toxicological aspects; Innenraum-Luftverunreinigungen. Chemie, Physiologie, Hygiene, Medizin und Toxikologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botzenhart, K.; Mueller, H.E.; Strubelt, O.

    2001-07-01

    The book starts by presenting the fundamentals of indoor air hygiene with all relevant chemical, physical and physiological data, standards, criteria of comfort and tolerance levels. Indoor air pollutants are combustion products, volatile organic substances, dust, fibres, radon and bio-aerosols. They are analyzed toxicologically in consideration of the dose/time effect principle and of NOEL, ADI, immission MIC and MPC levels. The somatic and psychosomatic reactions that can be defined in medical terms are described, and the complex symptoms of SBS are derived from them. SBS is a phenomenon with serious consequences: Either the building must be modified to ensure more wholesome living and working conditions, or else the inhabitants need psychological consulting. [German] Das Buch behandelt zunaechst die Grundlagen der Luft- und Wohnungshygiene mit ihren relevanten chemischen, physikalischen und physiologischen Kenndaten, Normwerten, Behaglichkeitskriterien und Toleranzschwellen. Schadstoffe in Innenraeumen sind Verbrennungsprodukte, fluechtige organische Verbindungen sowie Staeube, Fasern, Radon und Bioaerosole. Sie werden toxikologisch unter Beruecksichtigung des Dosis-Zeit-Wirkungsprinzips sowie von NOEL, ADI-, Immissions-, MIK- und MAK-Werten beurteilt. Die medizinisch fassbaren somatischen und psychosomatischen Reaktionen werden beschrieben und daraus die komplexe Symptomatik des SBS abgeleitet. Es macht entweder eine Gebaeudesanierung notwendig oder die psychologische Betreuung der Betroffenen. (orig.)

  3. Conceptual Study of Rotary-Wing Microrobotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chabak, Kelson D

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel rotary-wing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) robot design. Two MEMS wing designs were designed, fabricated and tested including one that possesses features conducive to insect level aerodynamics...

  4. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  5. Waving Wing Aerodynamics at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    wing. An attached leading edge vortex has been observed by multiple research groups on both mechanical wing flappers (8; 22; 21; 4) and revolving wing...observed by Ellington et al. (8) in their earlier experiments on the mechanical hawkmoth flapper at Re ≈ 10,000. In these experiments the spanwise flow...on mechanical wing flappers at similar Reynolds numbers, Re ≈ 1,000 and 1,400 respectively. Both sets of experiments revealed a stable attached

  6. AN IMPACT OF THE EFFICIENT FUNCTIONING OF THE VENTILATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM ON THERMAL COMFORT OF THE MEDICAL STAFF IN THE OPERATING ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jankowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation and air conditioning systems are necessary for developing proper parameters of indoor envi-ronment in operating rooms. The main task of ventilation and air conditioning in those specific areas consists in creating desirable temperature, reducing the number of microorganisms and the concen-trations of hazardous gases and substances in the air, as well as ensuring the proper direction of airflow. In Poland, indoor environment in operating rooms has to comply with the requirements set out in three regulations (Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 75, item 690, as amended, Journal of Laws of 2002 No. 217, item 1833, Journal of Laws of 2011 No. 31, item 158, as amended and the document entitled "Guidelines for the design of general hospitals". Given insufficient accuracy of the abovementioned national documents, it is a common practice to use foreign standards, i.e. ASHRAE Standard 170-2013, DIN 1946-4: 2008 and FprCEN TR 16244: 2011. When considering the conditions for thermal comfort, it is important to bear in mind a close link between air flow velocity and air temperature. Air in the zone occupied by patients and medical staff must not cause the sensation of draft. Furthermore, air velocity should be sufficient to eliminate interference caused by the presence of people and other sources of heat. It should also reduce the turbulence level in the air in the operating room. Efficient functioning of ventilation and air conditioning was tested during treatments and operations carried out on three wards of a Warsaw hospital. Tests were performed with the participation of medical staff from various surgical units. They were asked to perform minor manual tasks to simulate work on the op-erating table, and to complete a questionnaire on subjective thermal sensation. The applied methodology is widely used during testing of general and local ventilation in public buildings. Air temperature, relative humidity, air flow supply and exhaust air from the

  7. Air pollution and asthma in children. The relationship between air pollution and anti-ashma medication despensing to children from 6 until 12 years old in the North of the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide van der, Lianne

    2005-01-01

    This explorative study aimed to investigate the relationship between anthropogenic air pollution like summer smog, and anti-asthma medication dispensing by pharmacies to children from 6 until 12 years old in a city and a town in the North of the Netherlan

  8. Medical and biochemical training in radioprotection at the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Buenos Aires University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergoc, R.M.; Caro, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires offers four different coursers on Radioisotope Methodology in which Radiological Protection concepts are given to: 1) biochemistry undergraduates; 2) physicians, biochemists, biologists and chemists; 3) professionals who need to put their theoretical and practical knowledge up-to-date; 4) technicians working at nuclear medicine centers or at biomedicine laboratories. Each course has a different purpose: the first one, which has been given at different levels of the curricula since 1960, is mainly informative; the second one, given during five months from 1962, is formative. 1513 professionals have passed the examinations of this course and asked for the authorization to handle radioactive materials from Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority. Training is theoretical and practical. It includes: dosimetric magnitudes and units, internal and external dosimetry of 125 I, 131 I, 201 TI, 99m Tc, 60 Co and other isotopes with the intensity required by each professional according to his/her specialty; qualification of areas, working conditions, contamination barriers, shielding; justification, optimization and dose limits; radioactive wastes; legal aspects, national and international regulations. The third course, which has been given since 1992, has the aim to being the knowledge of radioprotection up-to-date. The fourth course, which started in 1997, includes mainly operational aspects: columns elution, injection of radioactive drugs to patients, decontamination of areas. Our results are quite satisfactory: 95% of the enrolled students passed the examinations of the respective levels; the requirement is the acquisition of criteria according to their professional/technical responsibility. (author) [es

  9. Wing area, wing growth and wing loading of common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos

    OpenAIRE

    Yalden, Derek; Yalden, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the changes in wing length, area and loading in Common Sandpipers as chicks grow, and as adults add extra mass (during egg-laying or before migration). Common Sandpiper chicks weigh about 17 g and have "hands" that are about 35 mm long at one week old, when the primaries are just emerging from their sheaths. They grow steadily to reach about 40 g, with hands about 85 mm long, at 19 days, when they are just about fledging. Their wings have roughly adult chord width at t...

  10. Aerodynamic improvement of a delta wing in combination with leading edge flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadateru Ishide

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various studies of micro air vehicle (MAV and unmanned air vehicle (UAV have been reported from wide range points of view. The aim of this study is to research the aerodynamic improvement of delta wing in low Reynold’s number region to develop an applicative these air vehicle. As an attractive tool in delta wing, leading edge flap (LEF is employed to directly modify the strength and structure of vortices originating from the separation point along the leading edge. Various configurations of LEF such as drooping apex flap and upward deflected flap are used in combination to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics in the delta wing. The fluid force measurement by six component load cell and particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis are performed as the experimental method. The relations between the aerodynamic superiority and the vortex behavior around the models are demonstrated.

  11. How Do Wings Generate Lift?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton's second law of motion. Hence if a wing can generate lift equal to its weight (total weight of the vehicle) it can balance the gravitational pull and can maintain level flight. The equations for fluid flow that are equivalent to the second law are the well- known Navier–Stokes (N–S) equations [1]. These equations have.

  12. Werner helicase wings DNA binding

    OpenAIRE

    Hoadley, Kelly A.; Keck, James L.

    2010-01-01

    In this issue of Structure, Kitano et al. describe the structure of the DNA-bound winged-helix domain from the Werner helicase. This structure of a RecQ/DNA complex offers insights into the DNA unwinding mechanisms of RecQ family helicases.

  13. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  14. Role of wing color and seasonal changes in ambient temperature and solar irradiation on predicted flight efficiency of the Albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Throneberry, G; Ali, M; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2018-01-01

    Drag reduction of the wings of migrating birds is crucial to their flight efficiency. Wing color impacts absorption of solar irradiation which may affect drag but there is little known in this area. To this end, the drag reduction induced by the thermal effect of the wing color of migrating birds with unpowered flight modes is presented in this study. Considering this natural phenomenon in the albatross as an example of migrating birds, and applying an energy balance for this biological system, a thermal analysis is performed on the wings during the summer and winter to obtain different ranges of air density, viscosity, and wing surface temperature brought about from a range of ambient temperatures and climatic conditions seen in different seasons and to study their effects. The exact shape of the albatross wing is used and nine different wing colors are considered in order to gain a better understanding of the effect different colors' absorptivities make on the change in aerodynamic performances. The thermal effect is found to be more important during the summer than during the winter due to the higher values of solar irradiation and a maximum drag reduction of 7.8% is found in summer changing the wing color from light white to dark black. The obtained results show that albatrosses with darker colored wings are more efficient (constant lift to drag ratio and drag reduction) and have better endurance due to this drag reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wing-pitch modulation in maneuvering fruit flies is explained by an interplay between aerodynamics and a torsional spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2015-08-01

    While the wing kinematics of many flapping insects have been well characterized, understanding the underlying sensory, neural, and physiological mechanisms that determine these kinematics is still a challenge. Two main difficulties in understanding the physiological mechanisms arise from the complexity of the interaction between a flapping wing and its own unsteady flow, as well as the intricate mechanics of the insect wing hinge, which is among the most complicated joints in the animal kingdom. These difficulties call for the application of reduced-order approaches. Here this strategy is used to model the torques exerted by the wing hinge along the wing-pitch axis of maneuvering fruit flies as a damped torsional spring with elastic and damping coefficients as well as a rest angle. Furthermore, we model the air flows using simplified quasistatic aerodynamics. Our findings suggest that flies take advantage of the passive coupling between aerodynamics and the damped torsional spring to indirectly control their wing-pitch kinematics by modulating the spring parameters. The damped torsional-spring model explains the changes measured in wing-pitch kinematics during roll correction maneuvers through modulation of the spring damping and elastic coefficients. These results, in conjunction with the previous literature, indicate that flies can accurately control their wing-pitch kinematics on a sub-wing-beat time scale by modulating all three effective spring parameters on longer time scales.

  16. Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Kang, Chang-Kwon; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ravi, Sridhar; Liu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward relative to the air, they also flap up and down, plunge and sweep, so that both lift and thrust can be generated and balanced, accommodate uncertain surrounding environment, with superior flight stability and dynamics with highly varied speeds and missions. As the size of a flyer is reduced, the wing-to-body mass ratio tends to decrease as well. Furthermore, these flyers use integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic forces, muscles to move the wings, and sensing and control systems to guide and manoeuvre. In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered. In particular, the special features of the low Reynolds number flyers associated with small sizes, thin and light structures, slow flight with comparable wind gust speeds, bioinspired fabrication of wing structures, neuron-based sensing and adaptive control are highlighted.

  17. Wings as a new route of exposure to pesticides in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poquet, Yannick; Kairo, Guillaume; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P

    2015-09-01

    In pesticide risk assessment, estimating the routes and levels of exposure is critical. For honey bees subjected to pesticide spray, toxicity is assessed by thorax contact to account for all possible contact exposures. In the present study, the authors tested 6 active substances with different hydrophobicity. For the first time, the authors demonstrated that it is possible to induce mortality by pesticide contact with only the wings of the honey bee. The toxicities induced by contact with the wings and thorax were similar, with the wing median lethal dose (LD50) being 0.99 to 2.23 times higher than that of the thorax. This finding demonstrates that the wings represent a relevant route of exposure in the honey bee. In a second approach, the authors estimated the air volume displaced by the wings during 1 beating cycle to be 0.51 ± 0.03 cm(3), which corresponds to a volume of 116.8 ± 5.8 cm(3)  s(-1) at a wing beat frequency of 230 Hz. The authors then tested realistic scenarios of exposure for bees flying through a pesticide cloud at different concentrations. In the worst-case scenario, the dose accumulated during the flight reached 525 ng bee(-1)  s(-1). These results show that the procedure used to assess the risk posed by contact with pesticides could be improved by accounting for wing exposure. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Daily Hospital Visits for Various Respiratory Diseases and the Relevant Medical Expenditures in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The evidence concerning the acute effects of ambient air pollution on various respiratory diseases was limited in China, and the attributable medical expenditures were largely unknown. From 2013 to 2015, we collected data on the daily visits to the emergency- and outpatient-department for five main respiratory diseases and their medical expenditures in Shanghai, China. We used the overdispersed generalized additive model together with distributed lag models to fit the associations of criteria air pollutants with hospital visits, and used the linear models to fit the associations with medical expenditures. Generally, we observed significant increments in emergency visits (8.81–17.26% and corresponding expenditures (0.33–25.81% for pediatric respiratory diseases, upper respiratory infection (URI, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD for an interquartile range increase of air pollutant concentrations over four lag days. As a comparison, there were significant but smaller increments in outpatient visits (1.36–4.52% and expenditures (1.38–3.18% for pediatric respiratory diseases and upper respiratory infection (URI. No meaningful changes were observed for asthma and lower respiratory infection. Our study suggested that short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution may induce the occurrences or exacerbation of pediatric respiratory diseases, URI, and COPD, leading to considerable medical expenditures upon the patients.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Shoreline Stabilization at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dischner, David M; Lingner, David; Rock, Howard B; Combs, Jennifer; Brandenburg, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The United States Air Force (Air Force), 1st Fighter Wing (1 FW) proposes to implement various methods to stabilize the shoreline at several locations along the Back River waterfront at Langley Air Force Base (AFB...

  20. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  1. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  2. Source term estimates of radioxenon released from the BaTek medical isotope production facility using external measured air concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Cameron, Ian M; Dumais, Johannes Robert; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T

    2015-10-01

    BATAN Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies (99m)Tc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of (133)Xe in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the radionuclide network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The major xenon isotopes released from BaTek are also produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide if a specific measurement result could have originated from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84 × 10(13) Bq of (133)Xe. Concentrations of (133)Xe in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88 × 10(13) Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70 × 10(13) Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10% of each other. Unpublished production data and the release estimate from June 2013 yield a rough annual release estimate of 8 × 10(14) Bq of (133)Xe in 2014. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates based on atmospheric samplers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DAST in Flight just after Structural Failure of Right Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones

  4. Locating Air Force Base Sites History’s Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Ravenstein , Air Force Combat Wings (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1984), (hereafter, Ravenstein ) 141–142; Mueller, 1989 edition, 467–468... Ravenstein , author checked aircraft types and bases under each bombardment and strategic wing; Knaack, 156, 200–201, 292–293. 26. Lemmer, 194. History...Goldberg, 58–89. 36. Charles A. Ravenstein , The Organization and Lineage of the United States Air Force (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History

  5. Technical Note: A Proposal of Air Ventilation System Design Criteria for a Clinical Room in a Heavy-ion Medical Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Oyeon

    2018-04-16

    An optimized air ventilation system design for a treatment room in Heavy-ion Medical Facility is an important issue in the aspects of nuclear safety because the activated air produced in a treatment room can directly affect the medical staff and the general public in the radiation free area. Optimized design criterion of air ventilation system for a clinical room in 430 MeV/u carbon ion beam medical accelerator facility was performed by using a combination of MCNPX2.7.0 and CINDER'90 codes. Effective dose rate and its accumulated effective dose by inhalation and residual gamma were calculated for a normal treatment scenario (two minutes irradiation for one fraction) as a function of decay time. Natural doses around the site were measured before construction and used as reference data. With no air ventilation system, the maximum effective dose rate was about 3 μSv/h (total dose of 90 mSv/y) and minimum 0.2 μSv/h (total dose of 6 mSv/y), which are over the legal limits for medical staff and for the general public. Although inhalation dose contribution was relatively small, it was considered seriously because of its long-lasting effects in the body. The integrated dose per year was 1.8 mSv/y in the radiation free area with the 20 minutes rate of air ventilation system. An optimal air ventilation rate of 20 minutes is proposed for a clinical room, which also agrees with the best mechanical design value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Health- and Performance-Related Outcomes in Air Force Medical Service Personnel with a Post-Deployment Mental Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jacob L; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined associations between incident post-deployment mental health (PDMH) conditions and health- and performance-related outcomes in the population of Air Force Medical Service personnel on active duty between 2003 and 2013 who had at least one deployment. Using a posttest-only with nonequivalent groups design, the study cohort was divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an incident PDMH condition, and the groups were then compared in terms of the following health- and performance-related outcomes: health care and pharmaceutical utilization, duty and mobility restrictions, and physical fitness assessment exemptions and composite fitness score. Archival data were extracted from existing databases and associations were assessed using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. The cohort comprised 12,216 participants, from which subcohorts were drawn to assess specific outcome measures. Participants with an incident PDMH used health care at 1.8 times the rate and were 6.2 times more likely to be classified as a high utilizer of health care as compared with those without a PDMH condition (controls). They were 2.1-103.0 times more likely to be prescribed one of 22 therapeutic classes of medication and were 2.4 times more likely to have polypharmacy than controls. They were 2.5 times more likely to have a duty or mobility restriction, and the ratio of days spent with a restriction to days without a restriction was 1.8 times that of controls. Lastly, they were 2.4 times more likely to have a physical fitness assessment exemption, but there was no significant difference in the likelihood of a composite fitness score of <90 points. The presence of an incident PDMH condition was associated with increased health care and pharmaceutical utilization and decreased occupational performance as assessed in terms of restricted duty status and participation in physical fitness assessments.

  7. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants.

  8. The NRL MITE Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kellogg, James; Bovais, Christopher; Dahlburg, Jill; Foch, Richard; Gardner, John; Gordon, Diana; Hartley, Ralph; Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; McFarlane, Hugh; Pipitone, Frank; Ramamurti, Ravi; Sciambi, Adam; Spears, William; Srull, Donald; Sullivan, Carol

    2001-01-01

    .... The NRL Micro Tactical Expendable "MITE" air vehicle is a result of this research. The operational MITE is a hand-launched, dual-propeller, fixed-wing air vehicle, with a 9-inch chord and a wingspan of 8 to 18 inches, depending on payload weight...

  9. Examining Reliability and Validity of an Online Score (ALiEM AIR) for Rating Free Open Access Medical Education Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa Man-Yee; Grock, Andrew; Paddock, Michael; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Yarris, Lalena M; Lin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Since 2014, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) has used the Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) score to critically appraise online content. The primary goals of this study are to determine the interrater reliability (IRR) of the ALiEM AIR rating score and determine its correlation with expert educator gestalt. We also determine the minimum number of educator-raters needed to achieve acceptable reliability. Eight educators each rated 83 online educational posts with the ALiEM AIR scale. Items include accuracy, usage of evidence-based medicine, referencing, utility, and the Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine rating score. A generalizability study was conducted to determine IRR and rating variance contributions of facets such as rater, blogs, posts, and topic. A randomized selection of 40 blog posts previously rated through ALiEM AIR was then rated again by a blinded group of expert medical educators according to their gestalt. Their gestalt impression was subsequently correlated with the ALiEM AIR score. The IRR for the ALiEM AIR rating scale was 0.81 during the 6-month pilot period. Decision studies showed that at least 9 raters were required to achieve this reliability. Spearman correlations between mean AIR score and the mean expert gestalt ratings were 0.40 for recommendation for learners and 0.35 for their colleagues. The ALiEM AIR scale is a moderately to highly reliable, 5-question tool when used by medical educators for rating online resources. The score displays a fair correlation with expert educator gestalt in regard to the quality of the resources. The score displays a fair correlation with educator gestalt. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleeping on the wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C

    2017-02-06

    Wakefulness enables animals to interface adaptively with the environment. Paradoxically, in insects to humans, the efficacy of wakefulness depends on daily sleep, a mysterious, usually quiescent state of reduced environmental awareness. However, several birds fly non-stop for days, weeks or months without landing, questioning whether and how they sleep. It is commonly assumed that such birds sleep with one cerebral hemisphere at a time (i.e. unihemispherically) and with only the corresponding eye closed, as observed in swimming dolphins. However, the discovery that birds on land can perform adaptively despite sleeping very little raised the possibility that birds forgo sleep during long flights. In the first study to measure the brain state of birds during long flights, great frigatebirds ( Fregata minor ) slept, but only during soaring and gliding flight. Although sleep was more unihemispheric in flight than on land, sleep also occurred with both brain hemispheres, indicating that having at least one hemisphere awake is not required to maintain the aerodynamic control of flight. Nonetheless, soaring frigatebirds appeared to use unihemispheric sleep to watch where they were going while circling in rising air currents. Despite being able to engage in all types of sleep in flight, the birds only slept for 0.7 h d -1 during flights lasting up to 10 days. By contrast, once back on land they slept 12.8 h d -1 . This suggests that the ecological demands for attention usually exceeded that afforded by sleeping unihemispherically. The ability to interface adaptively with the environment despite sleeping very little challenges commonly held views regarding sleep, and therefore serves as a powerful system for examining the functions of sleep and the consequences of its loss.

  11. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  13. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-06

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  14. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  15. Air Pollution and Dispensed Medications for Asthma, and Possible Effect Modifiers Related to Mental Health and Socio-Economy: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Swedish Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Bråbäck, Lennart; Oudin Åström, Daniel; Forsberg, Bertil

    2017-11-16

    It has been suggested that children that are exposed to a stressful environment at home have an increased susceptibility for air pollution-related asthma. The aim here was to investigate the association between air pollution exposure and asthma, and effect modification by mental health and by socio-economic status (as markers of a stressful environment). All individuals under 18 years of age in four Swedish counties during 2007 to 2010 (1.2 million people) were included. The outcome was defined as dispensing at least two asthma medications during follow up. We linked data on NO₂ from an empirical land use regression to data from national registers on outcome and potential confounders. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. There was an odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.01-1.03) for asthma associated with a 10 µg·m -3 increase in NO₂. The association only seemed to be present in areas where NO₂ was higher than 15 µg·m -3 with an OR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.07-1.12), and the association seemed stronger in children with parents with a high education, OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and OR = 1.04 (95% CI: 1.01-1.07) in children to mothers and father with a high education, respectively. The association did not seem to depend on medication history of psychiatric disorders. There was weak evidence for the association between air pollution and asthma to be stronger in neighborhoods with higher education levels. In conclusion, air pollution was associated with dispensed asthma medications, especially in areas with comparatively higher levels of air pollution, and in children to parents with high education. We did not observe support for our hypothesis that stressors linked to socio-economy or mental health problems would increase susceptibility to the effects of air pollution on the development of asthma.

  16. The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Most of the wings have defects in the wing blade and partially formed wing margin, which are the result of autonomous cell death in the ... [Yang D. 2007 The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings of Drosophila: implications for anterior wing margin formation. J. Genet. .... The relevant gene(s) may be.

  17. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  18. Aerodynamic efficiency of a bioinspired flapping wing rotor at low Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Guo, S

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the aerodynamic efficiency of a bioinspired flapping wing rotor kinematics which combines an active vertical flapping motion and a passive horizontal rotation induced by aerodynamic thrust. The aerodynamic efficiencies for producing both vertical lift and horizontal thrust of the wing are obtained using a quasi-steady aerodynamic model and two-dimensional (2D) CFD analysis at Reynolds number of 2500. The calculated efficiency data show that both efficiencies (propulsive efficiency- η p , and efficiency for producing lift- P f ) of the wing are optimized at Strouhal number ( St ) between 0.1 and 0.5 for a range of wing pitch angles (upstroke angle of attack α u less than 45°); the St for high P f ( St  = 0.1 ∼ 0.3) is generally lower than for high η p ( St  = 0.2 ∼ 0.5), while the St for equilibrium rotation states lies between the two. Further systematic calculations show that the natural equilibrium of the passive rotating wing automatically converges to high-efficiency states: above 85% of maximum P f can be obtained for a wide range of prescribed wing kinematics. This study provides insight into the aerodynamic efficiency of biological flyers in cruising flight, as well as practical applications for micro air vehicle design.

  19. Performance study of winglets on tapered wing with curved trailing edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Ismat; Ali, Mohammad; Islam, Md. Quamrul; Haque, M. Nazmul

    2017-06-01

    Induced drag is the result of wingtip vortex produced from generating lift by finite wing. It is one of the main drags that an aircraft wing encounters during flight. It hampers aircraft performance by increasing fuel consumption and reducing endurance, range and speed. Winglets are used to reduce the induced drag. They weakens wingtip vortex and thus reduces induced drag. This paper represents the experimental investigation to reduce induced drag using winglet at the wingtip. A model of tapered wing with curved trailing edge (without winglet) as well as two similar wings with blended winglet and double blended winglet are prepared using NACA 4412 aerofoil in equal span and surface area. All the models are tested in a closed circuit subsonic wind tunnel at air speed of 108 km/h (0.09 Mach). Reynolds number of the flow is 2.28 × 105 on the basis of average chord length of the wings. The point surface static pressures at different angles of attack from -4° to 24° are measured for each of the wing and winglet combinations through different pressure tapings by using a multi-tube water manometer. From the static pressure distribution, lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift to drag ratio of all models are calculated. From the analysis of calculated values, it is found that both winglets are able to minimize induced drag; however, the tapered curved trailing edge span with blended winglet provides better aerodynamic performance.

  20. Development of Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Performance Adaptive Aeroelastic Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Kaul, Upender; Lebofsky, Sonia; Ting, Eric; Chaparro, Daniel; Urnes, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent development of an adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control technology called variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF). As wing flexibility increases, aeroelastic interactions with aerodynamic forces and moments become an increasingly important consideration in aircraft design and aerodynamic performance. Furthermore, aeroelastic interactions with flight dynamics can result in issues with vehicle stability and control. The initial VCCTEF concept was developed in 2010 by NASA under a NASA Innovation Fund study entitled "Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept," which showed that highly flexible wing aerodynamic surfaces can be elastically shaped in-flight by active control of wing twist and bending deflection in order to optimize the spanwise lift distribution for drag reduction. A collaboration between NASA and Boeing Research & Technology was subsequently funded by NASA from 2012 to 2014 to further develop the VCCTEF concept. This paper summarizes some of the key research areas conducted by NASA during the collaboration with Boeing Research and Technology. These research areas include VCCTEF design concepts, aerodynamic analysis of VCCTEF camber shapes, aerodynamic optimization of lift distribution for drag minimization, wind tunnel test results for cruise and high-lift configurations, flutter analysis and suppression control of flexible wing aircraft, and multi-objective flight control for adaptive aeroelastic wing shaping control.

  1. Modeling, design and optimization of flapping wings for efficient hovering flighth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by insect flights, flapping wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) keep attracting attention from the scientific community. One of the design objectives is to reproduce the high power efficiency of insect flight. However, there is no clear answer yet to the question of how to design flapping

  2. Three-dimensional wake reconstruction of a flapping-wing MAV using a Kriging regression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; De Baar, J.H.S.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Dwight, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    The work explores the three-dimensional unsteady wake of a flapping-wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) ‘DelFly II’, applying a Kriging regression technique for the spatial regression of time-resolved Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) data. In the view of limited number of measurement

  3. Micro-Scale Flapping Wings for the Advancement of Flying MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Then in 1959, Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman would challenge the world to develop microsystems ranging from biological systems to computer data...of flapping wings for nano air vehicles,” tech. rep., FEB 2008. 3. R. P. Feynman , “There’s plenty of room at the bottom,” Journal of Microelec

  4. A Tribute to Professor Rene H. Miller - A Pioneer in Aeromechanics and Rotary Wing Flight Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Peretz P.; Johnson, Wayne; Scully, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Rene H. Miller (May 19, 1916 January 28, 2003), Emeritus H. N. Slater Professor of Flight Transportation, was one of the most influential pioneers in rotary wing aeromechanics as well as a visionary whose dream was the development of a tilt-rotor based short haul air transportation system. This paper pays a long overdue tribute to his memory and to his extraordinary contributions.

  5. DYNAMIC TUNING OF INSECT AND BIRD WINGS AND COPEPOD AND DAPHNIA APPENDAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compressible flow theory suggests, and dimensional analysis and growing empirical evidence confirm that, to aid flight, many insects and even some birds, notably hummingbirds, tune their wing-beat frequency to a corresponding characteristic harmonic frequency of air. The same pro...

  6. Vorticity Transport on a Flexible Wing in Stall Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkala, James; Buchholz, James; Farnsworth, John; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The circulation budget within dynamic stall vortices was investigated on a flexible NACA 0018 wing model of aspect ratio 6 undergoing stall flutter. The wing had an initial angle of attack of 6 degrees, Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 and large-amplitude, primarily torsional, limit cycle oscillations were observed at a reduced frequency of k = πfc / U = 0 . 1 . Phase-locked stereo PIV measurements were obtained at multiple chordwise planes around the 62.5% and 75% spanwise locations to characterize the flow field within thin volumetric regions over the suction surface. Transient surface pressure measurements were used to estimate boundary vorticity flux. Recent analyses on plunging and rotating wings indicates that the magnitude of the pressure-gradient-driven boundary flux of secondary vorticity is a significant fraction of the magnitude of the convective flux from the separated leading-edge shear layer, suggesting that the secondary vorticity plays a significant role in regulating the strength of the primary vortex. This phenomenon is examined in the present case, and the physical mechanisms governing the growth and evolution of the dynamic stall vortices are explored. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research through the Flow Interactions and Control Program monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith, and through the 2014 AFOSR/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (JA and JB).

  7. The analysis of the flying wing in morphing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionică CÎRCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination between the flying wing morphing concept and the use of modern command and control system offers exponential advantages having a leverage effect in the economy and research. The flying wing architecture has the advantage of low cost against efficiency, the morphing of this concept defining the new characteristic frontiers and aerodynamic performances which derive immediately. On designing an unmanned aerial vehicle for a various range of missions, its lifting surface needs to display optimal geometrical features, so that the UAV may maintain the induced drag and the moment coefficient at reasonable levels. The command and control of the lifting surfaces in morphing concept offer characteristics and in-flight performances at a superior level. The limits of the system depend on the reliability of the execution elements and the grade of accuracy for the control laws which are implemented in the calculation module. The paper aims at presenting an analysis regarding the robotic air systems of flying wing type through the aerodynamic analysis and with the help of specific software instruments. The performances and flight qualities depend directly on the geometry of the lifting surface of the aerial vehicle.

  8. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  9. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of a continuation of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC), in the following referred to as ‘Phase 2'. The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave...

  10. Effect of leading edge roundness on a delta wing in wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wing leading-edge roundness on wing rock was investigated using flow visualization in a water tunnel. Eighty degree delta wing models were tested on free-to-roll and forced oscillation rigs. The onset of wing rock was delayed by increasing the roundness of the leading edges. The wing rock amplitude and frequency results suggested that damping was increased at lower angles of attack but reduced at higher angles of attack. Vortex lift-off and vortex breakdown, especially during dynamic situations, were strongly affected by the leading edge roundness. Different forms of wing rock motion could be sustained by combinations of vortex breakdown and vortex lift-off. Behaviors of the wing and vortex motions were explained by the influence of leading edge roundness on the separation location, vortex trajectory, and vortex breakdown.

  11. Needs and workflow assessment prior to implementation of a digital pathology infrastructure for the US Air Force Medical Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in digital pathology are accelerating integration of this technology into anatomic pathology (AP. To optimize implementation and adoption of digital pathology systems within a large healthcare organization, initial assessment of both end user (pathologist needs and organizational infrastructure are required. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered tool for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating such detailed data about work practices that can be employed to help identify specific needs and requirements. Aim: Using contextual inquiry, the objective of this study was to identify the unique work practices and requirements in AP for the United States (US Air Force Medical Service (AFMS that had to be targeted in order to support their transition to digital pathology. Subjects and Methods: A pathology-centered observer team conducted 1.5 h interviews with a total of 24 AFMS pathologists and histology lab personnel at three large regional centers and one smaller peripheral AFMS pathology center using contextual inquiry guidelines. Findings were documented as notes and arranged into a hierarchal organization of common themes based on user-provided data, defined as an affinity diagram. These data were also organized into consolidated graphic models that characterized AFMS pathology work practices, structure, and requirements. Results: Over 1,200 recorded notes were grouped into an affinity diagram composed of 27 third-level, 10 second-level, and five main-level (workflow and workload distribution, quality, communication, military culture, and technology categories. When combined with workflow and cultural models, the findings revealed that AFMS pathologists had needs that were unique to their military setting, when compared to civilian pathologists. These unique needs included having to serve a globally distributed patient population, transient staff, but a uniform information technology (IT structure. Conclusions: The

  12. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-05-06

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces.

  13. The effect of aspect ratio on the leading-edge vortex over an insect-like flapping wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan; Knowles, Kevin; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-10-09

    Insect wing shapes are diverse and a renowned source of inspiration for the new generation of autonomous flapping vehicles, yet the aerodynamic consequences of varying geometry is not well understood. One of the most defining and aerodynamically significant measures of wing shape is the aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of wing length (R) to mean wing chord (c). We investigated the impact of aspect ratio, AR, on the induced flow field around a flapping wing using a robotic device. Rigid rectangular wings ranging from AR = 1.5 to 7.5 were flapped with insect-like kinematics in air with a constant Reynolds number (Re) of 1400, and a dimensionless stroke amplitude of 6.5c (number of chords traversed by the wingtip). Pseudo-volumetric, ensemble-averaged, flow fields around the wings were captured using particle image velocimetry at 11 instances throughout simulated downstrokes. Results confirmed the presence of a high-lift, separated flow field with a leading-edge vortex (LEV), and revealed that the conical, primary LEV grows in size and strength with increasing AR. In each case, the LEV had an arch-shaped axis with its outboard end originating from a focus-sink singularity on the wing surface near the tip. LEV detachment was observed for AR > 1.5 around mid-stroke at ~70% span, and initiated sooner over higher aspect ratio wings. At AR > 3 the larger, stronger vortex persisted under the wing surface well into the next half-stroke leading to a reduction in lift. Circulatory lift attributable to the LEV increased with AR up to AR = 6. Higher aspect ratios generated proportionally less lift distally because of LEV breakdown, and also less lift closer to the wing root due to the previous LEV's continuing presence under the wing. In nature, insect wings go no higher than AR ~ 5, likely in part due to architectural and physiological constraints but also because of the reducing aerodynamic benefits of high AR wings.

  14. Contribution of a winged phlebotomy device design to blood splatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiduven, Donna J; McGuire-Wolfe, Christine; Applegarth, Shawn P

    2012-11-01

    Despite a proliferation of phlebotomy devices with engineered sharps injury protection (ESIP), the impact of various winged device designs on blood splatter occurring during venipuncture procedures has not been explored. To evaluate the potential for blood splatter of 6 designs of winged phlebotomy devices. A laboratory-based device evaluation without human subjects, using a simulated patient venous system. We evaluated 18 winged phlebotomy devices of 6 device designs by Terumo, BD Vacutainer (2 designs), Greiner, Smith Medical, and Kendall (designated A-F, respectively). Scientific filters were positioned around the devices and weighed before and after venipuncture was performed. Visible blood on filters, exam gloves, and devices and measurable blood splatter were the primary units of analysis. The percentages of devices and gloves with visible blood on them and filters with measurable blood splatter ranged from 0% to 20%. There was a statistically significant association between device design and visible blood on devices ([Formula: see text]) and between device design and filters with measurable blood splatter ([Formula: see text]), but not between device design and visible blood on gloves. A wide range of associations were demonstrated between device design and visible blood on gloves or devices and incidence of blood splatter. The results of this evaluation suggest that winged phlebotomy devices with ESIP may produce blood splatter during venipuncture. Reinforcing the importance of eye protection and developing a methodology to assess ocular exposure to blood splatter are major implications for healthcare personnel who use these devices. Future studies should focus on evaluating different designs of intravascular devices (intravenous catheters, other phlebotomy devices) for blood splatter.

  15. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  16. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research

  17. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  18. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  19. Air quality monitoring of the post-operative recovery room and locations surrounding operating theaters in a medical center in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Sheng Tang

    Full Text Available To prevent surgical site infection (SSI, the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH, and carbon dioxide (CO2, suspended particulate matter (PM, and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18% and traumatic surgery room (8%. The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.

  20. Novel Control Effectors for Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Edward V.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Joshi, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    At cruise flight conditions very high aspect ratio/low sweep truss braced wings (TBW) may be subject to design requirements that distinguish them from more highly swept cantilevered wings. High aspect ratio, short chord length and relative thinness of the airfoil sections all contribute to relatively low wing torsional stiffness. This may lead to aeroelastic issues such as aileron reversal and low flutter margins. In order to counteract these issues, high aspect ratio/low sweep wings may need to carry additional high speed control effectors to operate when outboard ailerons are in reversal and/or must carry additional structural weight to enhance torsional stiffness. The novel control effector evaluated in this study is a variable sweep raked wing tip with an aileron control surface. Forward sweep of the tip allows the aileron to align closely with the torsional axis of the wing and operate in a conventional fashion. Aft sweep of the tip creates a large moment arm from the aileron to the wing torsional axis greatly enhancing aileron reversal. The novelty comes from using this enhanced and controllable aileron reversal effect to provide roll control authority by acting as a servo tab and providing roll control through intentional twist of the wing. In this case the reduced torsional stiffness of the wing becomes an advantage to be exploited. The study results show that the novel control effector concept does provide roll control as described, but only for a restricted class of TBW aircraft configurations. For the configuration studied (long range, dual aisle, Mach 0.85 cruise) the novel control effector provides significant benefits including up to 12% reduction in fuel burn.

  1. Exploration of the rotational power consumption of a rigid flapping wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppel, Michael; Rossi, Lionel

    2011-10-01

    The development of Micro Air Vehicles with flapping wings is inspired from the observation and study of natural flyers such as insects and birds. This article explores the rotational power consumption of a flapping wing using a mechanical flapper at Re ≃ 4,500. This mechanical flapper is simplified to a 2D translation and a rotation in a water tank. Moreover, the wing kinematics are reduced to a linear translation and a rotation for the purpose of our study. We introduce the notion of non-ideal flapper and associated non-ideal rotational power. Such non-ideal devices are defined as consuming power for adding and removing mechanical power to and from the flow, respectively. First, we use a traditional symmetrical wing kinematic which is a simplified kinematic inspired from natural flyers. The lift coefficient of this flapping is about C L ≃ 1.5. This symmetrical wing kinematic is chosen as a reference. Further, wing kinematics with asymmetric rotations are then compared with this one. These new kinematics are built using a differential velocity defined according to the translational kinematics, a time lag and a distance, r kp. The analogy of this distance is discussed as a key point to follow along the chord. First, the wing kinematics are varied keeping a similar shape for the profiles of the angular velocity. It is shown that when compared to the reference wing kinematic, a 10% reduction in the rotational power is obtained whilst the lift is reduced by 9%. Second, we release the limitation to a similar shape for the profiles of the angular velocity leading to a novel shape for the angular velocity profile named here as "double bump" profile. With these new wing kinematics, we show that a 60% reduction in the non-ideal rotational power can be achieved whilst the lift coefficient is only reduced by 1.7%. Such "double bump kinematics" could then be of interest to increase the endurance of Micro Air Vehicles.

  2. Aerodynamic and aeroelastic characteristics of the DARPA Smart Wing Phase II wind tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brian P.; Martin, Christopher A.; Cowan, David L.

    2001-06-01

    A wind tunnel demonstration was conducted on a scale model of an unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV). The model was configured with traditional hinged control surfaces and control surfaces manufactured with embedded shape memory alloys. Control surfaces constructed with SMA wires enable a smooth and continuous deformation in both the spanwise and cordwise directions. This continuous shape results in some unique aerodynamic effects. Additionally, the stiffness distribution of the model was selected to understand the aeroelastic behavior of a wing designed with these control surfaces. The wind tunnel experiments showed that the aerodynamic performance of a wing constructed with these control surfaces is significantly improved. However, care must be taken when aeroelastic effects are considered since the wing will show a more rapid reduction in the roll moment due to increased moment arm about the elastic axis. It is shown, experimentally, that this adverse effect is easily counteracted using leading edge control surfaces.

  3. Variable Camber Continuous Aerodynamic Control Surfaces and Methods for Active Wing Shaping Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamic control apparatus for an air vehicle improves various aerodynamic performance metrics by employing multiple spanwise flap segments that jointly form a continuous or a piecewise continuous trailing edge to minimize drag induced by lift or vortices. At least one of the multiple spanwise flap segments includes a variable camber flap subsystem having multiple chordwise flap segments that may be independently actuated. Some embodiments also employ a continuous leading edge slat system that includes multiple spanwise slat segments, each of which has one or more chordwise slat segment. A method and an apparatus for implementing active control of a wing shape are also described and include the determination of desired lift distribution to determine the improved aerodynamic deflection of the wings. Flap deflections are determined and control signals are generated to actively control the wing shape to approximate the desired deflection.

  4. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  5. Unemployment and Right-Wing Extremist Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Zweimüller, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Right-wing extremism is a serious problem in many societies. A prominent hypothesis states that unemployment plays a crucial role for the occurrence of right-wing extremist crime. In this paper we empirically test this hypothesis. We use a previously not used data set which includes all officially recorded right-wing criminal acts in Germany. These data are recorded by the German Federal Criminal Police Office on a monthly and state level basis. Our main finding is that there is in fact a sig...

  6. Flapping and fixed wing aerodynamics of low Reynolds number flight vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viieru, Dragos

    Lately, micro air vehicles (MAVs), with a maximum dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speed around 10m/s, have attracted interest from scientific and engineering communities due to their potential to perform desirable flight missions and exhibit unconventional aerodynamics, control, and structural characteristics, compared to larger flight vehicles. Since MAVs operate at a Reynolds number of 105 or lower, the lift-to-drag ratio is noticeably lower than the larger manned flight vehicles. The light weight and low flight speed cause MAVs to be sensitive to wind gusts. The MAV's small overall dimensions result in low aspect ratio wings with strong wing tip vortices that further complicate the aerodynamics of such vehicles. In this work, two vehicle concepts are considered, namely, fixed wings with flexible structure aimed at passive shape control, and flapping wings aimed at enhancing aerodynamic performance using unsteady flow fields. A finite volume, pressure-based Navier-Stokes solver along with moving grid algorithms is employed to simulate the flow field. The coupled fluid-structural dynamics of the flexible wing is treated using a hyperelastic finite element structural model, the above-mentioned fluid solver via the moving grid technique, and the geometric conservation law. Three dimensional aerodynamics around a low aspect ratio wing for both rigid and flexible structures and fluid-structure interactions for flexible structures have been investigated. In the Reynolds numbers range of 7x10 4 to 9x104, the flexible wing exhibits self-initiated vibrations even in steady free-stream, and is found to have a similar performance to the identical rigid wing for modest angles of attack. For flapping wings, efforts are made to improve our understanding of the unsteady fluid physics related to the lift generation mechanism at low Reynolds numbers (75 to 1,700). Alternative moving grid algorithms, capable of handling the large movements of the boundaries (characteristic

  7. Kinematics and wing shape across flight speed in the bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Von Busse

    2012-10-01

    The morphology and kinematics of a flying animal determines the resulting aerodynamic lift through the regulation of the speed of the air moving across the wing, the wing area and the lift coefficient. We studied the detailed three-dimensional wingbeat kinematics of the bat, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (0–7 m/s, to determine how factors affecting the lift production vary across flight speed and within wingbeats. We found that the wing area, the angle of attack and the camber, which are determinants of the lift production, decreased with increasing speed. The camber is controlled by multiple mechanisms along the span, including the deflection of the leg relative to the body, the bending of the fifth digit, the deflection of the leading edge flap and the upward bending of the wing tip. All these measures vary throughout the wing beat suggesting active or aeroelastic control. The downstroke Strouhal number, Std, is kept relatively constant, suggesting that favorable flow characteristics are maintained during the downstroke, across the range of speeds studied. The Std is kept constant through changes in the stroke plane, from a strongly inclined stroke plane at low speeds to a more vertical stroke plane at high speeds. The mean angular velocity of the wing correlates with the aerodynamic performance and shows a minimum at the speed of maximum lift to drag ratio, suggesting a simple way to determine the optimal speed from kinematics alone. Taken together our results show the high degree of adjustments that the bats employ to fine tune the aerodynamics of the wings and the correlation between kinematics and aerodynamic performance.

  8. A CFD-informed quasi-steady model of flapping wing aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance and agility during flapping flight are determined by the combination of wing shape and kinematics. The degree of morphological and kinematic optimisation is unknown and depends upon a large parameter space. Aimed at providing an accurate and computationally inexpensive modelling tool for flapping-wing aerodynamics, we propose a novel CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-informed quasi-steady model (CIQSM), which assumes that the aerodynamic forces on a flapping wing can be decomposed into the quasi-steady forces and parameterised based on CFD results. Using least-squares fitting, we determine a set of proportional coefficients for the quasi-steady model relating wing kinematics to instantaneous aerodynamic force and torque; we calculate power with the product of quasi-steady torques and angular velocity. With the quasi-steady model fully and independently parameterised on the basis of high-fidelity CFD modelling, it is capable of predicting flapping-wing aerodynamic forces and power more accurately than the conventional blade element model (BEM) does. The improvement can be attributed to, for instance, taking into account the effects of the induced downwash and the wing tip vortex on the force generation and power consumption. Our model is validated by comparing the aerodynamics of a CFD model and the present quasi-steady model using the example case of a hovering hawkmoth. It demonstrates that the CIQSM outperforms the conventional BEM while remaining computationally cheap, and hence can be an effective tool for revealing the mechanisms of optimization and control of kinematics and morphology in flapping-wing flight for both bio-flyers and unmanned air systems.

  9. Autonomous Aerodynamic Control of Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-19

    29 Design of the Air Force Research Laboratory Micro Aerial Vehicle Research Configuration Kelly Stewart*, Jeffrey Wagener †, and Gregg Abate‡ Air...Development and Initial Flight Tests of a Single-Jointed Articulated-Wing Micro Air Vehicle Kelly C. Stewart*, Ken Blackburn†, Jeffrey Wagener ‡, Lt... Wagener , J., Abate, G., and Salichon, M., “Design of the Air Force Research Laboratory Micro Aerial Vehicle Research Configuration,” AIAA 45th Aerospace

  10. FijiWings: an open source toolkit for semiautomated morphometric analysis of insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobens, Alexander C; Dobens, Leonard L

    2013-08-07

    Development requires coordination between cell proliferation and cell growth to pattern the proper size of tissues, organs, and whole organisms. The Drosophila wing has landmark features, such as the location of veins patterned by cell groups and trichome structures produced by individual cells, that are useful to examine the genetic contributions to both tissue and cell size. Wing size and trichome density have been measured manually, which is tedious and error prone, and although image processing and pattern-recognition software can quantify features in micrographs, this approach has not been applied to insect wings. Here we present FijiWings, a set of macros designed to perform semiautomated morphophometric analysis of a wing photomicrograph. FijiWings uses plug-ins installed in the Fiji version of ImageJ to detect and count trichomes and measure wing area either to calculate trichome density of a defined region selected by the user or generate a heat map of overall trichome densities. For high-throughput screens we have developed a macro that directs a trainable segmentation plug-in to detect wing vein locations either to measure trichome density in specific intervein regions or produce a heat map of relative intervein areas. We use wing GAL4 drivers and UAS-regulated transgenes to confirm the ability of these tools to detect changes in overall tissue growth and individual cell size. FijiWings is freely available and will be of interest to a broad community of fly geneticists studying both the effect of gene function on wing patterning and the evolution of wing morphology.

  11. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyu Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings. When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  12. The hydraulic mechanism in the hind wing veins of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.

  13. Generation of Fullspan Leading-Edge 3D Ice Shapes for Swept-Wing Aerodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camello, Stephanie C.; Lee, Sam; Lum, Christopher; Bragg, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effect of ice accretion on aircraft is often assessed through dry-air flight and wind tunnel testing with artificial ice shapes. This paper describes a method to create fullspan swept-wing artificial ice shapes from partial span ice segments acquired in the NASA Glenn Icing Reserch Tunnel for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Full-scale ice accretion segments were laser scanned from the Inboard, Midspan, and Outboard wing station models of the 65% scale Common Research Model (CRM65) aircraft configuration. These were interpolated and extrapolated using a weighted averaging method to generate fullspan ice shapes from the root to the tip of the CRM65 wing. The results showed that this interpolation method was able to preserve many of the highly three dimensional features typically found on swept-wing ice accretions. The interpolated fullspan ice shapes were then scaled to fit the leading edge of a 8.9% scale version of the CRM65 wing for aerodynamic wind-tunnel testing. Reduced fidelity versions of the fullspan ice shapes were also created where most of the local three-dimensional features were removed. The fullspan artificial ice shapes and the reduced fidelity versions were manufactured using stereolithography.

  14. Dipteran wing motor-inspired flapping flight versatility and effectiveness enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harne, R L; Wang, K W

    2015-03-06

    Insects are a prime source of inspiration towards the development of small-scale, engineered, flapping wing flight systems. To help interpret the possible energy transformation strategies observed in Diptera as inspiration for mechanical flapping flight systems, we revisit the perspective of the dipteran wing motor as a bistable click mechanism and take a new, and more flexible, outlook to the architectural composition previously considered. Using a representative structural model alongside biological insights and cues from nonlinear dynamics, our analyses and experimental results reveal that a flight mechanism able to adjust motor axial support stiffness and compression characteristics may dramatically modulate the amplitude range and type of wing stroke dynamics achievable. This corresponds to significantly more versatile aerodynamic force generation without otherwise changing flapping frequency or driving force amplitude. Whether monostable or bistable, the axial stiffness is key to enhance compressed motor load bearing ability and aerodynamic efficiency, particularly compared with uncompressed linear motors. These findings provide new foundation to guide future development of bioinspired, flapping wing mechanisms for micro air vehicle applications, and may be used to provide insight to the dipteran muscle-to-wing interface. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  16. The leading-edge vortex of swift-wing shaped delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-11-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta shaped wing with a sharp leading-edge is tested at low Reynolds Number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the un-modified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift-wing shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds Number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta shaped wing. This work received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [EP/M506515/1] and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  17. Fruit fly scale robots can hover longer with flapping wings than with spinning wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Elliot W; Lentink, David

    2016-10-01

    Hovering flies generate exceptionally high lift, because their wings generate a stable leading edge vortex. Micro flying robots with a similar wing design can generate similar high lift by either flapping or spinning their wings. While it requires less power to spin a wing, the overall efficiency depends also on the actuator system driving the wing. Here, we present the first holistic analysis to calculate how long a fly-inspired micro robot can hover with flapping versus spinning wings across scales. We integrate aerodynamic data with data-driven scaling laws for actuator, electronics and mechanism performance from fruit fly to hummingbird scales. Our analysis finds that spinning wings driven by rotary actuators are superior for robots with wingspans similar to hummingbirds, yet flapping wings driven by oscillatory actuators are superior at fruit fly scale. This crossover is driven by the reduction in performance of rotary compared with oscillatory actuators at smaller scale. Our calculations emphasize that a systems-level analysis is essential for trading-off flapping versus spinning wings for micro flying robots. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Flow Modulation and Force Control of Flapping Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-29

    tested on a flapping wing model in the oil tank. Robotic flapper equipped with DC motors drove the wing model, and the imbedded servo motor could flap...the overall wake structure on the hovering wings. Totally, two volumetric flow measurements were performed on two mechanical flappers with different...wing kinematics but similar wing geometry. On the flappers with small stroke angle and passive rotation, the general vortex wake structure

  19. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  20. A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Bosch-Ramon, Valentí; Paredes, Josep M

    2017-11-24

    A subclass of extragalactic radio sources known as winged radio galaxies has puzzled astronomers for many years. The wing features are detected at radio wavelengths as low-surface-brightness radio lobes that are clearly misaligned with respect to the main lobe axis. Different models compete to account for these peculiar structures. Here, we report observational evidence that the parsec-scale radio jets in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1758-258 give rise to a Z-shaped radio emission strongly reminiscent of the X and Z-shaped morphologies found in winged radio galaxies. This is the first time that such extended emission features are observed in a microquasar, providing a new analogy for its extragalactic relatives. From our observations, we can clearly favour the hydrodynamic backflow interpretation against other possible wing formation scenarios. Assuming that physical processes are similar, we can extrapolate this conclusion and suggest that this mechanism could also be at work in many extragalactic cases.

  1. Concurso de residencias médicas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires: importancia del género y universidad Medical residencies contest in Buenos Aires city: Importance of gender and university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Neuman

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El objetivo fue evaluar la importancia del género y la universidad de procedencia de los aspirantes a residencias médicas respecto de su rendimiento en el Concurso 2003 del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (GCBA. Método: El concurso se basó en un examen de opción múltiple y el promedio de la carrera. En el mismo participaron 3 927 médicos (mujeres 57%, varones 43% de menos de 5 años de graduación, provenientes de universidades estatales y privadas de Capital Federal (66%, interior del país (32% y extranjero (2%. Resultados: De las mujeres que se presentaron accedió a residencias el 10,51%, mientras que de los varones lo logró el 7,76%, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (PIntroduction: The objective was to evaluate the importance of applicants to medical residencies gender and origin university concerning their yield in the Buenos Aires City Government (GCBA Contest, year 2003. Method: The contest was based on a multiple-choice test and the career average, and there took part 3 927 physicians (57% women and 43% males less than 5 years of graduation. The applicants were composed of 66%, 32% and 2% physicians from different public and private universities of Buenos Aires City, the rest of the country, and foreign countries, respectively. Results: There was statistically significant difference (P<0,003 between females (10.51 % and males (7.76 % who acceded to residencies. Of the applicants graduated from the Buenos Aires city public university (UBA,14.31% acceded to residencies, being situated statistically significant difference (P<0,001 concerning the total private universities of Capital Federal (5.31% and the public universities of the rest of the country (3.5%. When discriminating each university UBA occupied the first position, without showing statistically significant differences concerning some of another universities: Austral, Salvador, Cuyo, Favaloro or Maimónides. From the total applicants who

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meilin

    suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carried out in this work. Both the rectangular and bio-inspired wings with different kinematics are investigated. The formation process of two-jet-like wake patterns behind the finite-span flapping wing is found to be closely related to the interaction between trailing edge vortices and tip vortices. Then the effects of the wing planforms on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings are elucidated in terms of the evolution and dynamic interaction of unsteady vortex structures.

  3. A prospective survey of air and surface fungal contamination in a medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Dalle, Frédéric; Olivieri, Claire; L'ollivier, Coralie; Enderlin, Emilie; Salome, Elsa; Chovelon, Isabelle; Vagner, Odile; Sixt, Nathalie; Fricker-Pap, Véronique; Aho, Serge; Fontaneau, Olivier; Cachia, Claire; Bonnin, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Invasive filamentous fungi infections resulting from inhalation of mold conidia pose a major threat in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis is based on direct smears, cultural symptoms, and culturing fungi. Airborne conidia present in the laboratory environment may cause contamination of cultures, resulting in false-positive diagnosis. Baseline values of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory have not been determined to date. A 1-year prospective survey of air and surface contamination was conducted in a clinical mycology laboratory during a period when large construction projects were being conducted in the hospital. Air was sampled with a portable air system impactor, and surfaces were sampled with contact Sabouraud agar plates. The collected data allowed the elaboration of Shewhart graphic charts. Mean fungal loads ranged from 2.27 to 4.36 colony forming units (cfu)/m(3) in air and from 0.61 to 1.69 cfu/plate on surfaces. Strict control procedures may limit the level of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory even in the context of large construction projects at the hospital site. Our data and the resulting Shewhart graphic charts provide baseline values to use when monitoring for inappropriate variations of the fungal contamination in a mycology laboratory as part of a quality assurance program. This is critical to the appropriate management of the fungal risk in hematology, cancer and transplantation patients.

  4. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a semispan STOL jet transport wing body with an upper surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Letko, W.; Henderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan STOL jet transport wing-body with an upper-surface blown jet flap for lift augmentation was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel having a 12-ft octagonal test section. The semispan swept wing had an aspect ratio of 3.92 (7.84 for the full span) and had two simulated turbofan engines mounted ahead of and above the wing in a siamese pod equipped with an exhaust deflector. The purpose of the deflector was to spread the engine exhaust into a jet sheet attached to the upper surface of the wing so that it would turn downward over the flap and provide lift augmentation. The wing also had optional boundary-layer control provided by air blowing through a thin slot over a full-span plain trailing-edge flap.

  5. Analytical modeling and experimental evaluation of a passively morphing ornithopter wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissa, Aimy A.

    compliant spine design insert. A research ornithopter platform was tested in air and in vacuum as well as in free and constrained flight with various compliant spine designs inserted in its wings. Results from the constrained flight tests indicated that the ornithopter with a compliant spine inserted in its wings consumed 45% less electrical power and produced 16% of its weight in additional lift, without incurring any thrust penalties. Results from, the vacuum constrained tests attributed these benefits to aerodynamic effects rather than inertial effects. Free flight tests were performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, which houses the largest indoor flight laboratory in the country. The wing kinematics along with the vehicle dynamics were captured during this testing using ViconRTM motion tracking cameras. These flight tests proved to be successful in producing consistent and repeatable flight data over more than eight free flight flapping cycles of free flight and validated a new and novel testing technique. The ornithopter body dynamics were shown to be significant, i.e. +/-4gs. Inserting the compliant spine into the leading edge spar of the ornithopter during free flight reduced the baseline configuration body vertical center of mass positive acceleration by 69%, which translates into overall lift gains. It also increased the horizontal propulsive force by 300%, which translates into thrust gains.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 24: Commissioning and preliminary measurements using an Attix-style free air ionization chamber for air kerma measurements on the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D; McEwen, M; Shen, H; Siegbahn, EA; Fallone, BG; Warkentin, B

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron facilities, including the Canadian Light Source (CLS), provide opportunities for the development of novel imaging and therapy applications. A vital step progressing these applications toward clinical trials is the availability of accurate dosimetry. In this study, a refurbished Attix-style (cylindrical) free air chamber (FAC) is tested and used for preliminary air kerma measurements on the two BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the CLS. The FAC consists of a telescoping chamber that relies on a difference measurement of collected charge in expanded and collapsed configurations. At the National Research Council's X-ray facility, a Victoreen Model 480 FAC was benchmarked against two primary standard FACs. The results indicated an absolute accuracy at the 0.5% level for energies between 60 and 150 kVp. A series of measurements were conducted on the small, non-uniform X-ray beams of the 05B1-1 (∼8 – 100 keV) and 05ID-2 (∼20 – 200 keV) beamlines for a variety of energies, filtrations and beam sizes. For the 05B1-1 beam with 1.1 mm of Cu filtration, recombination corrections of less than 5 % could only be achieved for field sizes no greater than 0.5 mm × 0.6 mm (corresponding to an air kerma rate of ∼ 57 Gy/min). Ionic recombination thus presents a significant challenge to obtaining accurate air kerma rate measurements using this FAC in these high intensity beams. Future work includes measurements using a smaller aperture to sample a smaller and thus more uniform beam area, as well as experimental and Monte Carlo-based investigation of correction factors

  7. Wing and body kinematics of takeoff and landing flight in the pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Angela M; Biewener, Andrew A

    2010-05-01

    Takeoff and landing are critical phases in a flight. To better understand the functional importance of the kinematic adjustments birds use to execute these flight modes, we studied the wing and body movements of pigeons (Columba livia) during short-distance free-flights between two perches. The greatest accelerations were observed during the second wingbeat of takeoff. The wings were responsible for the majority of acceleration during takeoff and landing, with the legs contributing only one-quarter of the acceleration. Parameters relating to aerodynamic power output such as downstroke amplitude, wingbeat frequency and downstroke velocity were all greatest during takeoff flight and decreased with each successive takeoff wingbeat. This pattern indicates that downstroke velocity must be greater for accelerating flight to increase the amount of air accelerated by the wings. Pigeons used multiple mechanisms to adjust thrust and drag to accelerate during takeoff and decelerate during landing. Body angle, tail angle and wing plane angles all shifted from more horizontal orientations during takeoff to near-vertical orientations during landing, thereby reducing drag during takeoff and increasing drag during landing. The stroke plane was tilted steeply downward throughout takeoff (increasing from -60+/-5 deg. to -47+/-1 deg.), supporting our hypothesis that a downward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air rearward to accelerate the bird forward. Similarly, the stroke plane tilted upward during landing (increasing from -1+/-2 deg. to 17+/-7 deg.), implying that an upward-tilted stroke plane pushes more air forward to slow the bird down. Rotations of the stroke plane, wing planes and tail were all strongly correlated with rotation of the body angle, suggesting that pigeons are able to redirect aerodynamic force and shift between flight modes through modulation of body angle alone.

  8. Temperature and saturation dependence in the vapor sensing of butterfly wing scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertész, K., E-mail: kertesz.krisztian@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Piszter, G. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Jakab, E. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P O Box 17 (Hungary); Bálint, Zs. [Hungarian Natural History Museum, H-1088, Budapest, Baross utca 13 (Hungary); Vértesy, Z.; Biró, L.P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary)

    2014-06-01

    The sensing of gasses/vapors in the ambient air is the focus of attention due to the need to monitor our everyday environment. Photonic crystals are sensing materials of the future because of their strong light-manipulating properties. Natural photonic structures are well-suited materials for testing detection principles because they are significantly cheaper than artificial photonic structures and are available in larger sizes. Additionally, natural photonic structures may provide new ideas for developing novel artificial photonic nanoarchitectures with improved properties. In the present paper, we discuss the effects arising from the sensor temperature and the vapor concentration in air during measurements with a photonic crystal-type optical gas sensor. Our results shed light on the sources of discrepancy between simulated and experimental sensing behaviors of photonic crystal-type structures. Through capillary condensation, the vapors will condensate to a liquid state inside the nanocavities. Due to the temperature and radius of curvature dependence of capillary condensation, the measured signals are affected by the sensor temperature as well as by the presence of a nanocavity size distribution. The sensing materials used are natural photonic nanoarchitectures present in the wing scales of blue butterflies. - Highlights: • We report optical gas sensing on blue butterfly wing scale nanostructures. • The sample temperature decrease effects a reversible break-down in the measured spectra. • The break-down is connected with the vapor condensation in the scales and wing surface. • Capillary condensation occurs in the wing scales.

  9. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-08-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus . The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  10. Estimates of radioxenon released from Southern Hemisphere medical isotope production facilities using measured air concentrations and atmospheric transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, Paul W; Friese, Judah I; Lowrey, Justin D; McIntyre, Justin I; Miley, Harry S; Schrom, Brian T

    2014-09-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and (133)Xe data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of (133)Xe from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8 × 10(14) Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 2.2 × 10(16) to 2.4 × 10(16) Bq, estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 9.2 × 10(13) to 3.7 × 10(14) Bq and estimates for the facility in Argentina range from 4.5 × 10(12) to 9.5 × 10(12) Bq. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An aerodynamic model for insect flapping wings in forward flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Seob; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung

    2017-03-31

    This paper proposes a semi-empirical quasi-steady aerodynamic model of a flapping wing in forward flight. A total of 147 individual cases, which consisted of advance ratios J of 0 (hovering), 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and  ∞, and angles of attack α of  -5 to 95° at intervals of 5°, were examined to extract the aerodynamic coefficients. The Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy and power functions were then employed to establish the aerodynamic model. In order to preserve the existing level of simplicity, K P and K V , the correction factors of the potential and vortex force models, were rebuilt as functions of J and α. The estimations were nearly identical to direct force/moment measurements which were obtained from both artificial and practical wingbeat motions of a hawkmoth. The model effectively compensated for the influences of J, particularly showing outstanding moment estimation capabilities. With this model, we found that using a lower value of α during the downstroke would be an effective strategy for generating adequate lift in forward flight. The rotational force and moment components had noticeable portions generating both thrust and counteract pitching moment during pronation. In the upstroke phase, the added mass component played a major role in generating thrust in forward flight. The proposed model would be useful for a better understanding of flight stability, control, and the dynamic characteristics of flapping wing flyers, and for designing flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation in the Optimization of a Free-Air Ionization Chamber for Dosimetric Control in Medical Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Pinera, I.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Montano, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    During the earliest tests of a free-air ionization chamber a poor response to the X-rays emitted by several sources was observed. Then, the Monte Carlo simulation of X-rays transport in matter was employed in order to evaluate chamber behavior as X-rays detector. The photons energy deposition dependence with depth and its integral value in all active volume were calculated. The obtained results reveal that the designed device geometry is feasible to be optimized

  13. Aeroelasticity of morphing wings using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anand

    In this dissertation, neural networks are designed to effectively model static non-linear aeroelastic problems in adaptive structures and linear dynamic aeroelastic systems with time varying stiffness. The use of adaptive materials in aircraft wings allows for the change of the contour or the configuration of a wing (morphing) in flight. The use of smart materials, to accomplish these deformations, can imply that the stiffness of the wing with a morphing contour changes as the contour changes. For a rapidly oscillating body in a fluid field, continuously adapting structural parameters may render the wing to behave as a time variant system. Even the internal spars/ribs of the aircraft wing which define the wing stiffness can be made adaptive, that is, their stiffness can be made to vary with time. The immediate effect on the structural dynamics of the wing, is that, the wing motion is governed by a differential equation with time varying coefficients. The study of this concept of a time varying torsional stiffness, made possible by the use of active materials and adaptive spars, in the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an adaptable airfoil is performed here. Another type of aeroelastic problem of an adaptive structure that is investigated here, is the shape control of an adaptive bump situated on the leading edge of an airfoil. Such a bump is useful in achieving flow separation control for lateral directional maneuverability of the aircraft. Since actuators are being used to create this bump on the wing surface, the energy required to do so needs to be minimized. The adverse pressure drag as a result of this bump needs to be controlled so that the loss in lift over the wing is made minimal. The design of such a "spoiler bump" on the surface of the airfoil is an optimization problem of maximizing pressure drag due to flow separation while minimizing the loss in lift and energy required to deform the bump. One neural network is trained using the CFD code FLUENT to

  14. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  15. THE FUTURE OF THE EUROPEAN AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND: AN ANALYSIS OF CAPABILITY ENHANCEMENTS FROM THE ITALIAN AIR FORCE AND AIR MOBILITY COMMAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-15

    from 1 July 2009; moreover, in the following years Spain and Luxembourg joined the venture and from January 2016 also Italy is part of the EATC. The...Mazzini is assigned to the Air War College, Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL. He joined the Italian Air Force Academy in 1994. He earned his pilot wings...essay identifies Italy’s decision to join the European Air Transport Command as a pivotal opportunity. The research argues that the European Air

  16. Review of Part 67 of the Federal Air Regulations and the Medical Certification of Civilian Airmen. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    spasm 6. Radiation esophagitis 7. Reflux esophagitis not controlled by medical treatment o Nondisqualifying conditions are: 1. Peptic esophagitis...committees, whose charge was to review the diagnoses and treatments of diseases and disorders that may affect flight safety, also discussed risk factors for...schizoaffective disorder and atypical psycho3, infantile autism, childhood onset pervasive developmental disorder, and atypical pervasive devvlopmental

  17. Design and Control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    haltere in Diptera . The halteres are small appendages, apparently evolved from the hindwing, that oscillate in flight at the same frequency as the...maneuverability of Diptera , though numerous other sufficiently agile taxa get by without them. Experiments on the pathways between these sensors and the flight...applicable, as MAVs are further miniaturized, they may be an attractive option given their high power density and low voltage requirements

  18. Composite corrugated structures for morphing wing skin applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thill, C; Etches, J A; Bond, I P; Potter, K D; Weaver, P M

    2010-01-01

    Composite corrugated structures are known for their anisotropic properties. They exhibit relatively high stiffness parallel (longitudinal) to the corrugation direction and are relatively compliant in the direction perpendicular (transverse) to the corrugation. Thus, they offer a potential solution for morphing skin panels (MSPs) in the trailing edge region of a wing as a morphing control surface. In this paper, an overview of the work carried out by the present authors over the last few years on corrugated structures for morphing skin applications is first given. The second part of the paper presents recent work on the application of corrugated sandwich structures. Panels made from multiple unit cells of corrugated sandwich structures are used as MSPs in the trailing edge region of a scaled morphing aerofoil section. The aerofoil section features an internal actuation mechanism that allows chordwise length and camber change of the trailing edge region (aft 35% chord). Wind tunnel testing was carried out to demonstrate the MSP concept but also to explore its limitations. Suggestions for improvements arising from this study were deduced, one of which includes an investigation of a segmented skin. The overall results of this study show that the MSP concept exploiting corrugated sandwich structures offers a potential solution for local morphing wing skins for low speed and small air vehicles

  19. Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundlach, John Frederick, IV

    Through this research, a robust aircraft design methodology is developed for analysis and optimization of the Air Vehicle (AV) segment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems. The analysis functionality of the AV design is integrated with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to form an integrated Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology for optimal AV design synthesis. This research fills the gap in integrated subsonic fixed-wing UAV AV MDO methods. No known single methodology captures all of the phenomena of interest over the wide range of UAV families considered here. Key advancements include: (1) parametric Low Reynolds Number (LRN) airfoil aerodynamics formulation, (2) UAV systems mass properties definition, (3) wing structural weight methods, (4) self-optimizing flight performance model, (5) automated geometry algorithms, and (6) optimizer integration. Multiple methods are provided for many disciplines to enable flexibility in functionality, level of detail, computational expediency, and accuracy. The AV design methods are calibrated against the High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Global Hawk, Medium-Altitude Endurance (MAE) Predator, and Tactical Shadow 200 classes, which exhibit significant variations in mission performance requirements and scale from one another. All three UAV families show significant design gross weight reductions as technology improves. The overall technology synergy experienced 10--11 years after the initial technology year is 6.68% for Global Hawk, 7.09% for Predator, and 4.22% for the Shadow 200, which means that the technology trends interact favorably in all cases. The Global Hawk and Shadow 200 families exhibited niche behavior, where some vehicles attained higher aerodynamic performance while others attained lower structural mass fractions. The high aerodynamic performance Global Hawk vehicles had high aspect ratio wings with sweep, while the low structural mass fraction vehicles had straight, relatively low aspect ratios and

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  1. [Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men's and women's change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991

  2. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  4. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  5. Vibration receptive sensilla on the wing margins of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2010-03-01

    Bristles along the wing margins (wm-bristles) of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, were studied morphologically and electrophysiologically. The male moth has ca. 50 wm-bristles on each forewing and hindwing. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these wm-bristles are typical mechanosensilla. Leuco-methylene blue staining demonstrated that each wm-bristle has a single receptor neuron, which is also characteristic of the mechanosensillum. The receptor neuron responded to vibrating air currents but did not respond to a constant air current. The wm-bristles showed clear directional sensitivity to vibrating air currents. The wm-bristles were classified into two types, type I and type II, by their response patterns to sinusoidal movements of the bristle. The neuron in type I discharged bursting spikes immediately following stimulation onset and also discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle for frequencies less than ca. 60 Hz. The neuron in type II only responded to vibrations over 40 Hz and, specifically at 75 Hz, discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle throughout the stimulation period. These results suggest that the two types of wm-bristles are highly tuned in different ways to detect vibrations due to the wing beat. The roles of the wm-bristles in the wing beat are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of wing kinematics of freely flying birds downstream the wake of flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Gurka, Roi

    2016-11-01

    Avian aerodynamics has been a topic of research for centuries. Avian flight features such as flapping, morphing and maneuvering make bird aerodynamics a complex system to study, analyze and understand. Aerodynamic performance of the flapping wings can be quantified by measuring the vortex structures present in the downstream wake. Still, the direct correlation between the flapping wing kinematics and the evolution of wake features need to be established. In this present study, near wake of three bird species (western sandpiper, European starling and American robin) have been measured experimentally. Long duration, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry technique has been used to capture the wake properties. Simultaneously, the bird kinematics have been captured using high speed camera. Wake structures are reconstructed from the collected PIV images for long chord distances downstream. Wake vorticities and circulation are expressed in the wake composites. Comparison of the wake features of the three birds shows similarities and some key differences are also found. Wing tip motions of the birds are extracted for four continuous wing beat cycle to analyze the wing kinematics. Kinematic parameters of all the three birds are compared to each other and similar trends exhibited by all the birds have been observed. A correlation between the wake evolutions with the wing motion is presented. It was found that the wings' motion generates unique flow patterns at the near wake, especially at the transition phases. At these locations, a drastic change in the circulation was observed.

  7. Investigating the Force Production of Functionally-Graded Flexible Wings in Flapping Wing Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; He, Kai; Bateman, Daniel; Lipkis, Rory; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Birds, insects and bats oscillate their wings to propel themselves over long distances and to maneuver with unprecedented agility. A key element to achieve their impressive aerodynamic performance is the flexibility of their wings. Numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production, propulsive efficiency and lift efficiency. Yet, animal wings are not homogenously flexible, but instead have varying material properties. The aim of this study is to characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded flexible wings. A partially-flexible wing composed of a rigid section and a flexible section is used as a first-order model of functionally-graded materials. The flexion occurs in the spanwise direction and it is affected by the spanwise flexion ratio, that is, the ratio of the length of the rigid section compared to the total span length. By varying the flexion ratio as well as the material properties of the flexible section, the study aims to examine the force production and energetics of flapping flight with functionally-graded flexible wings. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  8. Aeroelastic Analysis of Modern Complex Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapania, Rakesh K.; Bhardwaj, Manoj K.; Reichenbach, Eric; Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1996-01-01

    A process is presented by which aeroelastic analysis is performed by using an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with an advanced computational structural dynamics (CSD) code. The process is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas Aerospace East CFD code) coupled with NASTRAN. The process is also demonstrated on an aeroelastic research wing (ARW-2) using ENSAERO (an in-house NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) coupled with a finite element wing-box structures code. Good results have been obtained for the F/A-18 Stabilator while results for the ARW-2 supercritical wing are still being obtained.

  9. Fast, epithermal and thermal photoneutron dosimetry in air and in tissue equivalent phantom for a high-energy X-ray medical accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Hakimi, Amir

    2018-02-01

    Photoneutron (PN) dosimetry in fast, epithermal and thermal energy ranges originated from the beam and albedo neutrons in high-energy X-ray medical accelerators is highly important from scientific, technical, radiation protection and medical physics points of view. Detailed dose equivalents in the fast, epithermal and thermal PN energy ranges in air up to 2m as well as at 35 positions from the central axis of 12 cross sections of the phantom at different depths were determined in 18MV X-ray beams of a Siemens ONCOR accelerator. A novel dosimetry method based on polycarbonate track dosimeters (PCTD)/ 10 B (with/without cadmium cover) was used to determine and separate different PN dose equivalents in air and in a multilayer polyethylene phantom. Dose equivalent distributions of PNs, as originated from the main beam and/or albedo PNs, on cross-plane, in-plane and diagonal axes in 10cm×10cm fields are reported. PN dose equivalent distributions on the 3 axes have their maxima at the isocenter. Epithermal and thermal PN depth dose equivalent distributions in the phantom for different positions studied peak at ∼3cm depth. The neutron dosimeters used for the first time in such studies are highly effective for separating dose equivalents of PNs in the studied energy ranges (beam and/or albedo). The PN dose equivalent data matrix made available in this paper is highly essential for detailed patient dosimetry in general and for estimating secondary cancer risks in particular. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Active Twist Control for a Compliant Wing Structure, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Blended wing body (BWB) aircraft provide an aerodynamically superior solution over traditional tube-and-wing designs for a number of mission profiles. These...

  11. Combined particle-image velocimetry and force analysis of the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction of a natural owl wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzen, A; Roidl, B; Schröder, W

    2016-04-01

    Low-speed aerodynamics has gained increasing interest due to its relevance for the design process of small flying air vehicles. These small aircraft operate at similar aerodynamic conditions as, e.g. birds which therefore can serve as role models of how to overcome the well-known problems of low Reynolds number flight. The flight of the barn owl is characterized by a very low flight velocity in conjunction with a low noise emission and a high level of maneuverability at stable flight conditions. To investigate the complex three-dimensional flow field and the corresponding local structural deformation in combination with their influence on the resulting aerodynamic forces, time-resolved stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry and force and moment measurements are performed on a prepared natural barn owl wing. Several spanwise positions are measured via PIV in a range of angles of attack [Formula: see text] 6° and Reynolds numbers 40 000 [Formula: see text] 120 000 based on the chord length. Additionally, the resulting forces and moments are recorded for -10° ≤ α ≤ 15° at the same Reynolds numbers. Depending on the spanwise position, the angle of attack, and the Reynolds number, the flow field on the wing's pressure side is characterized by either a region of flow separation, causing large-scale vortical structures which lead to a time-dependent deflection of the flexible wing structure or wing regions showing no instantaneous deflection but a reduction of the time-averaged mean wing curvature. Based on the force measurements the three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction is assumed to considerably impact the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing leading to a strong mechanical loading of the interface between the wing and body. These time-depending loads which result from the flexibility of the wing should be taken into consideration for the design of future small flying air vehicles using flexible wing structures.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    Wind turbines with a nominal effect of 5MW with a rotor diameter of up to 126m are produced today. With the increasing size wind turbines also become more and more optimized with respect to structural dimensions and material usage, without increasing the stiffness proportionally. Consequently......, large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  13. Stability and transition on swept wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckert, Greg; Herbert, Thorwald; Esfahanian, Vahid

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the extension and application of the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) to the stability and transition of the supersonic three-dimensional laminar boundary layer on a swept wing. The problem formulation uses a general coordinate transformation for arbitrary curvilinear body-fitted computational grids. Some testing using these coordinates is briefly described to help validate the software used for the investigation. The disturbance amplitude ratios as a function of chord position for supersonic (Mach 1.5) boundary layers on untapered, untwisted wings of different sweep angles are then presented and compared with those obtained from local parallel analyses.

  14. Comparison of wing geometry data and genetic data for assessing the population structure of Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2012-04-01

    Aedes aegypti is the most important vector of dengue viruses in tropical and subtropical regions. Because vaccines are still under development, dengue prevention depends primarily on vector control. Population genetics is a common approach in research involving Ae. aegypti. In the context of medical entomology, wing morphometric analysis has been proposed as a strong and low-cost complementary tool for investigating population structure. Therefore, we comparatively evaluated the genetic and phenotypic variability of population samples of Ae. aegypti from four sampling sites in the metropolitan area of São Paulo city, Brazil. The distances between the sites ranged from 7.1 to 50 km. This area, where knowledge on the population genetics of this mosquito is incipient, was chosen due to the thousands of dengue cases registered yearly. The analysed loci were polymorphic, and they revealed population structure (global F(ST)=0.062; p<0.05) and low levels of gene flow (Nm=0.47) between the four locations. Principal component and discriminant analyses of wing shape variables (18 landmarks) demonstrated that wing polymorphisms were only slightly more common between populations than within populations. Whereas microsatellites allowed for geographic differentiation, wing geometry failed to distinguish the samples. These data suggest that microevolution in this species may affect genetic and morphological characters to different degrees. In this case, wing shape was not validated as a marker for assessing population structure. According to the interpretation of a previous report, the wing shape of Ae. aegypti does not vary significantly because it is stabilised by selective pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated multi-disciplinary design of a sailplane wing

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Gregory J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the techniques and payoffs of integrated aircraft design. Lifting line theory and beam theory are used for the analysis of the aerodynamics and the structures of a composite sailplane wing. The wing is described by 33 - 34 design variables which involve the planform geometry, the twist distribution, and thicknesses of the spar caps, spar webs, and the skin at various stations along the wing. The wing design must satisfy 30 â ...

  16. [Extended medical quality management exemplified by the tracer diagnosis multiple trauma. Pilot study in the air rescue service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, M; Hauke, J; Schlafer, O; Schlechtriemen, T; Lampl, L

    2012-02-01

    Adequate prehospital and inhospital primary care is a decisive factor in the successful treatment of multiple trauma patients. For optimization of treatment algorithms the implementation of a medical quality management is of utmost importance. The aim of this study was to extend quality management by including data on process quality. A retrospective study of primary rescue missions of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) Christoph 22 in Ulm over a period of 2.5 years was performed. In a detailed analysis of filter criteria, in which relevant deviations from the recommendations (not fulfilled in  > 10% of the cases) occurred, process data was included (vital data, measurements and events). In the study population (n = 298, males 71.8%, mean age 39.8 ± 21.8 years) 2 filter criteria were identified in which relevant deviations where observed: time management where prehospital treatment time  ≤ 60 min in 36% of the cases was not fulfilled and circulatory management where the systolic blood pressure, detected with Riva-Rocci method (RR(sys))  ≥ 120 mmHg on hospital admission in patients with severe head trauma was not fulfilled in 45% of the cases. In patients with deviations in time management, prehospital treatment time was prolonged (75.6 ± 18.3 min versus 50.5 ± 6.7 min; p < 0.01) caused by a prolonged on scene attendance time (34.1 ± 22.1 min versus 20.6 ± 9.2 min; p < 0.01) and transport time (17.3 ± 9.4 min versus 13.3 ± 4.8 min; p < 0.01). In entrapment trauma prehospital treatment time was expanded (44% versus 10%; p < 0.01). Patients in whom circulatory management deviations were observed were more often in shock on arrival at the scene (RR(sys)  ≤ 90 mmHg: 60% versus 30%; p < 0.01), more often hypoxemic [pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (S(p)O(2)) ≤ 90%: 36% versus 19%; p < 0.05] and more often sustained a trauma to the chest as well as to chest and abdomen/pelvis (69% versus 52% and 42% versus 28%, respectively; p < 0

  17. Wind tunnel and numerical data on the ventilation performance of windcatcher with wing wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Nejat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled “Evaluation of a two-sided windcatcher integrated with wing wall (as a new design and comparison with a conventional windcatcher” (P. Nejat, J.K. Calautit, M.Z.A. Majid, B.R. Hughes, I. Zeynali, F. Jomehzadeh, 2016 [1] which presents the effect of wing wall on the air flow distribution under using the windcatchers as a natural ventilation equipment. Here, we detail the wind tunnel testing and numerical set-up used for obtaining the data on ventilation rates and indoor airflow distribution inside a test room with a two-sided windcatcher and wing wall. Three models were integrated with wing wall angled at 30°, 45° and 60° and another windcatcher was a conventional two-sided device. The computer-aided design (CAD three-dimensional geometries which were produced using Solid Edge modeler are also included in the data article.

  18. Wind tunnel and numerical data on the ventilation performance of windcatcher with wing wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejat, Payam; Calautit, John Kaiser; Abd Majid, Muhd Zaimi; Hughes, Ben Richard; Zeynali, Iman; Jomehzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled "Evaluation of a two-sided windcatcher integrated with wing wall (as a new design) and comparison with a conventional windcatcher" (P. Nejat, J.K. Calautit, M.Z.A. Majid, B.R. Hughes, I. Zeynali, F. Jomehzadeh, 2016) [1] which presents the effect of wing wall on the air flow distribution under using the windcatchers as a natural ventilation equipment. Here, we detail the wind tunnel testing and numerical set-up used for obtaining the data on ventilation rates and indoor airflow distribution inside a test room with a two-sided windcatcher and wing wall. Three models were integrated with wing wall angled at 30°, 45° and 60° and another windcatcher was a conventional two-sided device. The computer-aided design (CAD) three-dimensional geometries which were produced using Solid Edge modeler are also included in the data article.

  19. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-12-06

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother.

  20. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Figure 12. Thin spline plate graphics for the species belonging to the genus Cerceris. Figure 13. Fore wing landmarks of the significant wing characteristics in the honeybee Apis mellifera. Linnaeus. stated as the traditional wing morphometry that enables the practical discrimination of the honeybee (Apis sp ...

  1. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muller, U. K.; Stamhuis, E. J.; de Kat, R.; van Gestel, W.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenstrom, A.; Videler, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings(1-6), presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance(7-9). That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models(2,10), which

  2. THE EFFECTS OF SWIRL GENERATOR HAVING WINGS WITH HOLES ON HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP IN TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki ARGUNHAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of turbulance creators on heat transfer and pressure drop used in concentric heat exchanger experimentaly. Heat exchanger has an inlet tube with 60 mm in diameter. The angle of swirl generators wings is 55º with each wing which has single, double, three and four holes. Swirl generators is designed to easily set to heat exchanger entrance. Air is passing through inner tube of heat exhanger as hot fluid and water is passing outer of inner tube as cool fluid.

  3. Assessment of radiological status of underground tunnel of radiochemistry wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patre, D.K.; Thanamani, S.; Ojha, Shashikala; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiochemistry Wing, RLG has design based safety systems for lab exhaust and glove box ventilation exhaust. The respective exhaust headers are routed from the lab exhaust point to the filter house. The concretized underground tunnel runs between Radiochemistry wing, RLG and Filter house about 100 m away. It houses the main exhaust tunnel made of MS, has reportedly developed leakage in the MS lines of exhaust due to ageing. It was indicated by the inadequate ventilation to the lab exhaust which reduced ∼ 10 % of the total exhaust. It was decided to carry out the replacement of main exhaust duct subject to radiological safety and clearance from the regulatory agencies. Since the duct had been in use since past 40 years, HP assessment on contamination status, clearance from local safety committee and related regulatory agency are mandatory. In view of the same, the study on radiological parameters was taken up and the paper describes the results of our radiological surveillance. Proposed replacement work involves approximately estimated surface area of duct as 520 m 2 , volume of the material as 106 m 3 and the weight of material of exhaust duct as 12.5 tons. Underground tunnel of radiochemistry wing consists of 3 main segments. It was monitored thoroughly by radiation survey. Spot air sample was collected during the radiological survey. Around 200 swipes were taken from various portions of the segments and the effluent pipelines. Last two tunnel segment were not approachable. Smear swipes were taken from top, side, bottom and floor of each segment. Calibrated scintillation counters were used for assessment of μ air activity and μ contamination check. Spot air samples were taken during different operations showed no activity. Dose rate in the tunnel was found to be less than 1 μSv/h (0.1 mR/h). The μ contamination levels were found in increasing order from the first segment to the last segment. (0.05 - 0.1 Bq/cm 2 ). Effluent pipelines were found to have

  4. Morphing Wing: Experimental Boundary Layer Transition Determination and Wing Vibrations Measurements and Analysis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondji Chendjou, Yvan Wilfried

    This Master's thesis is written within the framework of the multidisciplinary international research project CRIAQ MDO-505. This global project consists of the design, manufacture and testing of a morphing wing box capable of changing the shape of the flexible upper skin of a wing using an actuator system installed inside the wing. This changing of the shape generates a delay in the occurrence of the laminar to turbulent transition area, which results in an improvement of the aerodynamic performances of the morphed wing. This thesis is focused on the technologies used to gather the pressure data during the wind tunnel tests, as well as on the post processing methodologies used to characterize the wing airflow. The vibration measurements of the wing and their real-time graphical representation are also presented. The vibration data acquisition system is detailed, and the vibration data analysis confirms the predictions of the flutter analysis performed on the wing prior to wind tunnel testing at the IAR-NRC. The pressure data was collected using 32 highly-sensitive piezoelectric sensors for sensing the pressure fluctuations up to 10 KHz. These sensors were installed along two wing chords, and were further connected to a National Instrument PXI real-time acquisition system. The acquired pressure data was high-pass filtered, analyzed and visualized using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Standard Deviation (SD) approaches to quantify the pressure fluctuations in the wing airflow, as these allow the detection of the laminar to turbulent transition area. Around 30% of the cases tested in the IAR-NRC wind tunnel were optimized for drag reduction by the morphing wing procedure. The obtained pressure measurements results were compared with results obtained by infrared thermography visualization, and were used to validate the numerical simulations. Two analog accelerometers able to sense dynamic accelerations up to +/-16g were installed in both the wing and the aileron boxes

  5. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  6. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  7. Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical evaluation of winged beans ( Psophocarpus Tetragonolobus ), Pitanga cherries ( Eugenia uniflora) and orchid fruit ( Orchid fruit myristic a) ... The acid value ranged between 0.71 and 2.82 mg/KOH/g while iodine value ranged between 91.15 and 144.57. The refractive index ranged between 1.465 and 1.474 in all ...

  8. ``Schooling'' of wing pairs in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif; AML, Courant Collaboration; Physics NYU Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The experimental setup implements two independent flapping wings swimming in tandem. Both are driven with the same prescribed vertical heaving motion, but the horizontal motion is free, which means that the swimmers can take up any relative position and forward speed. Experiments show however clearly coordinated motions, where the pair of wings `crystallize' into specific stable arrangements. The follower wing locks into the path of the leader, adopting its speed, and with a separation distance that takes on one of several discrete values. By systematically varying the kinematics and wing size, we show that the set of stable spacings is dictated by the wavelength of the periodic wake structure. The forces maintaining the pair cohesion are characterized by applying an external force to the follower to perturb it away from the `stable wells'. These results show that hydrodynamics alone is sufficient to induce cohesive and coordinated collective locomotion through a fluid, and we discuss the hypothesis that fish schools and bird flocks also represent stable modes of motion.

  9. Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.

  10. Paleozoic Nymphal Wing Pads Support Dual Model of Insect Wing Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jakub; Pecharová, Martina; Nel, André; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Krzemińska, Ewa; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Engel, Michael S

    2017-01-23

    The appearance of wings in insects, early in their evolution [1], has been one of the more critical innovations contributing to their extraordinary diversity. Despite the conspicuousness and importance of wings, the origin of these structures has been difficult to resolve and represented one of the "abominable mysteries" in evolutionary biology [2]. More than a century of debate has boiled the matter down to two competing alternatives-one of wings representing an extension of the thoracic notum, the other stating that they are appendicular derivations from the lateral body wall. Recently, a dual model has been supported by genomic and developmental data [3-6], representing an amalgamation of elements from both the notal and pleural hypotheses. Here, we reveal crucial information from the wing pad joints of Carboniferous palaeodictyopteran insect nymphs using classical and high-tech techniques. These nymphs had three pairs of wing pads that were medially articulated to the thorax but also broadly contiguous with the notum anteriorly and posteriorly (details unobservable in modern insects), supporting their overall origin from the thoracic notum as well as the expected medial, pleural series of axillary sclerites. Our study provides support for the formation of the insect wing from the thoracic notum as well as the already known pleural elements of the arthropodan leg. These results support the unique, dual model for insect wing origins and the convergent reduction of notal fusion in more derived clades, presumably due to wing rotation during development, and they help to bring resolution to this long-standing debate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Air tankers in Southern California Fires...effectiveness in delivering retardants rated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore G. Storey; Leon W. Cooley

    1967-01-01

    Eleven air attack experts were asked to rate 12 models of fixed-wing tankers and light helitankers for effectiveness ill delivering chemical fire retardants under 21 typical situations. They rated fixed-wing tankers as more effective in strong wind crosswinds, and downwind approaches, but helitankers as more effective in narrow canyons and on steep slopes. Certain...

  12. Multiple cues for winged morph production in an aphid metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrparvar

    Full Text Available Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare. We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues.

  13. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor-Bowles, Isabelle; Bowles, Devin C

    2017-01-01

    Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation.

  14. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation.

  15. Trump, Brexit, Right-wing Anti-globalisation, and An Uncertain Future for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor-Bowles, Isabelle; Bowles, Devin C.

    2017-01-01

    Global public health is intimately linked with political, economic and social determinants. The current global order has been built on the assumption that the globalisation agenda shared by political elites of the last several decades will continue. Individuals, businesses and countries have all made decisions, many of them linked to health, based on this assumption. The election of Donald Trump to the US presidency and the vote in Britain to exit the European Union exemplify a recent wave of right-wing anti-globalisation, which has risen in much of the West. The right-wing anti-globalisation movement will substantially affect global health through four pathways. Restrictions on trade will dampen economic growth and could diminish food security and the availability of medical supplies. Xenophobia will harm mental health through the lived experience of minorities, and will elevate the risk of economic and military conflict between countries. Increased defence expenditure in a time of limited government budgets will constrict funding available for healthcare and the social determinants of health. Mistrust of international treaties, including for climate change, will undermine the Paris Agreement and hasten greenhouse gas emissions. Without rapid mitigation, climate change could devastate population health globally through a range of mechanisms, including diminished food security and increased violent conflict. These would amplify many of the other health effects of right-wing anti-globalisation. By emphasising the shared humanity of all people, population health offers an antidote to the narrow focus of right-wing anti-globalisation. PMID:29546210

  16. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dimitri A; Segre, Paolo S; Bahlman, Joseph W; Groom, Derrick J E; Welch, Kenneth C; Witt, Christopher C; McGuire, Jimmy A; Dudley, Robert; Lentink, David; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-10-19

    Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area. Conversely, wing velocity increases with body weight within species, compensating for lower relative wing area in larger individuals. By comparing inter- and intraspecific allometries, we find that the extreme wing area allometry of hummingbirds is likely an adaptation to maintain constant burst flight capacity and induced power requirements with increasing weight. Selection for relatively large wings simultaneously maximises aerial performance and minimises flight costs, which are essential elements of humming bird life history.

  17. Lift and Power Required for Flapping Wing Hovering Flight on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohly, Jeremy; Sridhar, Madhu; Bluman, James; Kang, Chang-Kwon; Landrum, D. Brian; Fahimi, Farbod; Aono, Hikaru; Liu, Hao

    2017-11-01

    Achieving flight on Mars is challenging due to the ultra-low density atmosphere. Bio-inspired flapping motion can generate sufficient lift if bumblebee-inspired wings are scaled up between 2 and 4 times their nominal size. However, due to this scaling, the inertial power required to sustain hover increases and dominates over the aerodynamic power. Our results show that a torsional spring placed at the wing root can reduce the flapping power required for hover by efficiently storing and releasing energy while operating at its resonance frequency. The spring assisted reduction in flapping power is demonstrated with a well-validated, coupled Navier-Stokes and flight dynamics solver. The total power is reduced by 79%, whereas the flapping power is reduced by 98%. Such a reduction in power paves the way for an efficient, realizable micro air vehicle capable of vertical takeoff and landing as well as sustained flight on Mars. Alabama Space Grant Consortium Fellowship.

  18. Achieving Medical Currency via Selected Staff Integration in Civilian and Veterans Administration Medical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    medical license as long as care is delivered in a military facility.26 Hurdles—Liability Medical malpractice also presents a formidable challenge. In...AIR UNIVERSITY AIR WAR COLLEGE Achieving Medical Currency via Selected Staff Integration in Civilian and Veterans Administration... Medical Facilities THOMAS W. HARRELL Colonel, USAF, MC, SFS Air War College Maxwell Paper No. 68 Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama

  19. Laser Noise Reduction in Air

    OpenAIRE

    Bejot, Pierre; Kasparian, Jerome; Salmon, Estelle; Ackermann, Roland; Gisin, Nicolas; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations of the white-light supercontinuum produced by ultrashort laser pulses in selfguided filaments (spatio-temporal solitons) in air are investigated. We demonstrate that correlations exist within the white-light supercontinuum, and that they can be used to significantly reduce the laser intensity noise by filtering the spectrum. More precisely, the fundamental wavelength is anticorrelated with the wings of the continuum, while conjugated wavelength pairs on both sides of the continuu...

  20. Is pushing the wall, the best known method for scapular winging, really the best? A Comparative analysis of various methods in neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Satish V; Chaudhari, Chetan R; Soni, Girish; Bhutada, Ashish

    2015-04-15

    'Pushing the wall' has found acceptance in medical teachings. Other methods of scapular winging are less known. Comparative evaluation of the five available methods has not been undertaken. This study focuses on evaluation of the available methods in groups of neuromuscular disorders to select the most sensitive method and to characterize patterns of scapular winging. A survey of methods practiced by clinicians also forms a part of the study. Prospective study. Part A: questionnaire based survey of clinicians to explore the preferred method of examination for scapular winging. Part B: comparative analysis of five methods of scapular winging in four categories of neuromuscular disorders [facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and neurogenic disorders]. Forward lowering of arms was the most sensitive method [100%]. The use of this method in clinical teachings and routine bedside examination should be promoted. Pushing the wall was the most popular method, but was fourth in the sensitivity [60.41%]. Arm maneuvers can bring out winging, when it is not apparent at rest. FSHD patients had a unique combination of winging at rest, persistence of winging throughout the range of motion and elevation of scapulae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    57th Wing, other Air Force units, Navy, Marine Corps and allied air forces. Creech AFB is also the primary training site for the United States Air...Forces, Air National Guard, U.S. Air Force Reserve, Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and allied air forces. They are led by a Blue Forces commander who...includes desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), zebra-tailed lizard (Callosaurus draconoides), side-blotched lizard, horned lizards (Phrynosoma spp

  2. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  3. Adjoint-based optimization for flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wei, Mingjun

    2012-11-01

    Adjoint-based methods show great potential in flow control and optimization of complex problems with high- or infinite-dimensional control space. It is attractive to solve an adjoint problem to understand the complex effects from multiple control parameters to a few performance indicators of the flight of birds or insects. However, the traditional approach to formulate the adjoint problem becomes either impossible or too complex when arbitrary moving boundary (e.g. flapping wings) and its perturbation is considered. Here, we use non-cylindrical calculus to define the perturbation. So that, a simple adjoint system can be derived directly in the inertial coordinate. The approach is first applied to the optimization of cylinder oscillation and later to flapping wings. Supported by AFOSR.

  4. Experience of the air medical evacuation team of Serbian armed forces in the united nations mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo - deployment stress and psychological adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joković Danilo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Wars of the nineties in former Yugoslavia, Somalia, Rwanda imposed new tasks to the United Nations (UN forces, such as providing humanitarian aid, protection of civilians, peacekeeping, and in many instances providing armed enforcement of peace. The aim of this study was an observational analysis of Serbian participation in the UNs Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with the emphasis on stress and coping techniques. Methods. Serbian contribution in this mission dates back to April 2003 till the present days with a military contingent consisting of six members as a part of Air Medical Evacuation Team. The observed stressogenous factors acted before arrival to the mission area and in the mission area. In this paper we analysed ways to overcome them. Results. The productive ways of overwhelming stress used in this mission were: honesty and openness in interpersonal communications, dedication to work, maintaining discipline and order, strict following of appropriate regime of work, diet, rest and recreation; regular communication with family and organizing and participation in various social, cultural and sports manifestations. Conclusion. This analysis indicates that out of all the observed factors, the most important is appropriate selection of personnel.

  5. Laser-generated air contaminants from medical laser applications: a state-of-the-science review of exposure characterization, health effects, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John E

    2011-07-01

    The clinical use of lasers in surgery began in 1973 with applications of the carbon dioxide laser in otolaryngology, and since then the use of lasers has become commonplace in many medical and surgical specialties. Nonetheless, when biological tissue is subjected to laser radiation, the target cells can be vaporized, resulting in the aerosolization of their contents and the subsequent exposure of health care workers to laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs). The purpose of our analysis was to summarize and present all of the published literature pertaining to the laser-induced plume chemical and physical composition, health effects, and methods of control. The objective was to identify knowledge gaps within exposure science to set a research agenda for the protection of health care personnel exposed to LGACs. A literature search was performed using the PubMed database using a variety of search strategies and keyword combinations. To locate additional studies, we systematically searched the reference lists of all studies identified by our search, as well as key review papers. To date, researchers have identified roughly 150 chemical constituents of plume, as well as fine and ultrafine particulate matter, which has been shown to include viable cellular material, viruses, and bacteria. However, very few studies have attempted to characterize the effects of laser system type, power, and tissue treated, as it relates to LGAC exposure. Furthermore, current control strategies do not appear to be adequate in preventing occupational exposure to LGACs.

  6. Quantifying the dynamic wing morphing of hovering hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masateru; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Ikuo; Tanaka, Hiroto; Liu, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Animal wings are lightweight and flexible; hence, during flapping flight their shapes change. It has been known that such dynamic wing morphing reduces aerodynamic cost in insects, but the consequences in vertebrate flyers, particularly birds, are not well understood. We have developed a method to reconstruct a three-dimensional wing model of a bird from the wing outline and the feather shafts (rachides). The morphological and kinematic parameters can be obtained using the wing model, and the numerical or mechanical simulations may also be carried out. To test the effectiveness of the method, we recorded the hovering flight of a hummingbird ( Amazilia amazilia ) using high-speed cameras and reconstructed the right wing. The wing shape varied substantially within a stroke cycle. Specifically, the maximum and minimum wing areas differed by 18%, presumably due to feather sliding; the wing was bent near the wrist joint, towards the upward direction and opposite to the stroke direction; positive upward camber and the 'washout' twist (monotonic decrease in the angle of incidence from the proximal to distal wing) were observed during both half-strokes; the spanwise distribution of the twist was uniform during downstroke, but an abrupt increase near the wrist joint was found during upstroke.

  7. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  8. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    can combine the advantages of a variable stiffness design with- out the use of actuators. Curved beams, which couple torsion and bending , counteract... torsional deflection, control natural frequency, exploit coupling of bending and tor- sion to control flutter, reduce thickness to chord ratios due to...disregarded any bending or torsional effects caused by displacement of the wing, and was thus not considered. Therefore, the initial design analysis

  9. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unsteady fluid dynamics around a hovering wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa; Mulleners, Karen

    2017-11-01

    The unsteady flow around a hovering flat plate wing has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry and direct force measurements. The measurements are conducted on a wing that rotates symmetrically about the stroke reversal at a reduced frequency of k = 0.32 and Reynolds number of Re = 220 . The Lagrangian finite-time Lyapunov exponent method is used to analyse the unsteady flow fields by identifying dynamically relevant flow features such as the primary leading edge vortex (LEV), secondary vortices, and topological saddles, and their evolution within a flapping cycle. The flow evolution is divided into four stages that are characterised by the LEV (a)emergence, (b)growth, (c)lift-off, and (d)breakdown and decay. Tracking saddle points is shown to be helpful in defining the LEV lift-off which occurs at the maximum stroke velocity. The flow fields are correlated with the aerodynamic forces revealing that the maximum lift and drag are observed just before LEV lift-off. The end of wing rotation in the beginning of the stroke stimulates a change in the direction of the LEV growth and the start of rotation at the end of the stroke triggers the breakdown of the LEV.

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach in Providing Air Defense Support to Ground Combat Vehicle Maneuver Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    SLAMRAAM surface launched advanced medium range air-to-air missile SME subject matter expert SOS system of systems UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UCAV ...threats of fixed wing aircraft and attack helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned combat aerial vehicles ( UCAVs ) are fast becoming a... UCAVs and capable of conducting offensive attacks. UAVs/ UCAVs are physically smaller in size compared to fixed wing aircraft or attack helicopters and

  12. Golden Legacy, Boundless Future: Essays on the United States Air Force and the Rise of Aerospace Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Charles A. Ravenstein , The Organization and Lineage of the United States Air Force (D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1986), 17. 13. James L... Ravenstein , Air Force Combat Wings: Lineage and Honors, 1947-1977 (Washington, D.C: Office of Air Force History, 1984), pp. 47-48, 88-89. 14. Monograph, "H 0

  13. Wing geometry of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) populations from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2017-04-01

    Triatoma sordida has a widespread distribution in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay and is frequently found in peridomestic environments. We investigated size and shape variability of T. sordida wings across Brazil. Field-collected adults from twelve populations were studied. For each individual female, seven landmarks on the right wing were digitalized. Shape variables derived from Procrustes superimposition were used in Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Wing size and shape variations among populations was explored by means of ANOVA. Wing centroid size was significantly different among T. sordida populations; specimens from Bahia (East) were larger than those of Mato Grosso do Sul (West). PCA based on wing shape variables showed low wing shape variability. These results reinforce previous data showing low genetic variability among T. sordida populations from Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Free vibration analysis of dragonfly wings using finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    M Darvizeh; A Darvizeh; H Rajabi; A Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, investigations on the microstructure and mechanicalproperties of the dragonfly wing are carried out and numerical modelingbased on Finite Element Method (FEM) is developed to predict Flightcharacteristics of dragonfly wings. Vibrational behavior of wings typestructures is immensely important in analysis, design and manufacturing ofsimilar engineering structures. For this purpose natural frequencies andmode shapes are calculated. In addition, the kind of deformation in eac...

  15. Poster Puzzler Solution: Taking in Air | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current Poster Puzzler image shows the top of Building 560, where a new supply air handler was recently installed by Facilities Maintenance and Engineering (FME) staff, as part of lab renovations in wing 1, floor 1. FME staff enlarged the attic of the building to make space for the air handler. Building 560, the largest building at the NCI at Frederick campus, houses about 120 labs and has 19 air handlers. A supply air handler draws in outside air, filters it, cools or heats it, and adjusts the humidity to provide clean conditioned air to the laboratories. The Building 560 air handler weighs approximately 22,500 pounds and moves 22,000 cubic feet of air per minute.

  16. Dose control programme of Hot Cell facility at Isotope Wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapkal, Jyotsna A.; Suresh, Manju; Shreenivas, V.; Amruta, C.T.; Yadav, R.K.B.; Gopalkrishanan, R.K.; Patil, B.N.; Sastry, K.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Hot Cell Facility of Board of Radiation Isotope Technology (BRIT) at Radiological Laboratories (RLG) is involved in fabrication of sealed radioisotopes like Cobalt-60, Cesium-137 and Iridium-192 radioisotopes which are widely used for various medical and industrial applications. In the field of Medicine, above radioactive sources are used for treatment procedures such as Teletherapy and Brachytherapy. 192 Ir radioisotope is widely used for industrial radiography particularly for non-destructive testing of welds in steel in the oil and gas industries. In spite of the increased production of these radioisotopes to meet the requirements from medical and industrial sector, the annual Collective Dose for BRIT facility, during 2011-2013 has shown a downward trend. This paper describes in brief the measures adopted by the facility based on the radiological safety inputs provided by Radiation Hazards Control (RHC) Unit of Isotope Wing, RLG for reducing the collective dose during year 2012 and 2013 by nearly 40% of collective dose consumed for year-2011. Strict implementation of the radiological safety measures during handling of radioactive sources, administrative controls and engineered safety measures resulted in lowering of collective dose during year 2011-2013. (author)

  17. Investigation and design of a C-Wing passenger aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan BIKKANNAVAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel nonplanar wing concept called C-Wing is studied and implemented on a commercial aircraft to reduce induced drag which has a significant effect on fuel consumption. A preliminary sizing method which employs an optimization algorithm is utilized. The Airbus A320 aircraft is used as a reference aircraft to evaluate design parameters and to investigate the C-Wing design potential beyond current wing tip designs. An increase in aspect ratio due to wing area reduction at 36m span results in a reduction of required fuel mass by 16%. Also take-off mass savings were obtained for the aircraft with C-Wing configuration. The effect of a variations of height to span ratio (h/b of C-Wings on induced drag factor k, is formulated from a vortex lattice method and literature based equations. Finally the DOC costing methods used by the Association of European Airlines (AEA was applied to the existing A320 aircraft and to the C-Wing configuration obtaining a reduction of 6% in Direct Operating Costs (DOC for the novel concept resulted. From overall outcomes, the C-Wing concept suggests interesting aerodynamic efficiency and stability benefits.

  18. Effects of Canard on the Flowfield over a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebzadeh, Arash

    2015-11-01

    Surface and flowfield pressure measurements have been done over delta wing/canard configuration in a variety of canard vertical and horizontal locations and angles of attack. The experimental model consisted of wing, canard and a body to accommodate pressure tubing and canard rotation mechanism. All the tests have been performed at subsonic velocities and the effect of canard were analyzed through comparison between surface and flowfield pressure distributions. It was found that vortex flow pattern over the wing is dominated mainly by canard vertical position and in some cases, by merging of canard and wing vortices. In addition, the pressure loss induced by canard vortex on the wing surface moves the wing vortex toward the leading edge. In the mid canard configuration, canard and wing vortices merge at x/c greater than 0.5 and as a result of this phenomenon, abrupt pressure loss induces more stable vortex flow over the wing. It is also shown that canard plays a vital role in vortex break down over the wing.

  19. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  20. 76 FR 75453 - Restricted Areas and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... and Danger Zones at Eglin Air Force Base, FL AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of... within the Eglin Air Force Base (AFB) facilities and along the Eglin AFB facility shoreline in Florida... have the permission of the Commander, 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB or his/her authorized representative...

  1. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mikó

    Full Text Available We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea. It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  2. Cantilever Wings for Modern Aircraft: Some Aspects of Cantilever Wing Construction with Special Reference to Weight and Torsional Stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, H J

    1929-01-01

    In the foregoing remarks I have made an attempt to touch on some of the structural problems met with in cantilever wings, and dealt rather fully with a certain type of single-spar construction. The experimental test wing was a first attempt to demonstrate the principles of this departure from orthodox methods. The result was a wing both torsionally stiff and of light weight - lighter than a corresponding biplane construction.

  3. Variable multilayer reflection together with long-pass filtering pigment determines the wing coloration of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Vukusic, Peter; Sterke, C. Martijn de

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal wing surfaces of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group are marked by bands of brilliant blue-green-colored cover scales. The thin, cuticular lower lamina of the scales acts as a blue reflector. The thick upper lamina forms a dense two-dimensional cuticular lattice of air cavities

  4. Demonstration of an in situ morphing hyperelliptical cambered span wing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-01-01

    Research on efficient shore bird morphology inspired the hyperelliptical cambered span (HECS) wing, a crescent-shaped, aft-swept wing with vertically oriented wingtips. The wing reduces vorticity-induced circulation loss and outperforms an elliptical baseline when planar. Designed initially as a rigid wing, the HECS wing makes use of morphing to transition from a planar to a furled configuration, similar to that of a continuously curved winglet, in flight. A morphing wing concept mechanism is presented, employing shape memory alloy actuators to create a discretized curvature approximation. The aerodynamics for continuous wing shapes is validated quasi-statically through wind tunnel testing, showing enhanced planar HECS wing lift-to-drag performance over an elliptical wing, with the furled HECS wing showing minimal enhancements beyond this point. Wind tunnel tests of the active morphing wing prove the mechanism capable of overcoming realistic loading, while further testing may be required to establish aerodynamic merits of the HECS wing morphing maneuver

  5. A novel hovering type of fixed wing aircraft with stealth capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRĂGAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The tactical need for fixed wing aircraft with hovering capably has long been recognized bythe military for two reasons: increased safety when landing on aircraft carriers and higher velocitiesthat the ones obtainable with rotary wing aircraft.Thus far, the only concept governing the field of vertical flight was to use thrust either from a liftfan-F35, puffer ducts –Harrier or smaller jet engines-D0 31 or Yak-141, i.e. direct lift thrust.In this paper we will look at the prospect of using a combination of the Coanda effect with theVenturi effect to generate lift by so- called “supercirculation”. This novel approach can yield manyadvantages to conventional vertical lifting by providing a more stable platform and requiring lowerpower settings – and thus lower fuel consumption.The aircraft has a fixed, negatively sweped wing that uses circulation control to achieve lift atzero air speed. The fluid used for supercirculation will come from the fan thrust reversers – which, ifcorrectly managed, can give a sufficient flow for lifting the craft and also a negative thrust componentto compensate for the positive thrust of the primary flow (not diverted.

  6. Flight dynamic investigations of flying wing with winglet configured unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kapseong

    2006-05-01

    A swept wing tailless vehicle platform is well known in the radio control (RC) and sailing aircraft community for excellent spiral stability during soaring or thermaling, while exhibiting no Dutch roll behavior at high speed. When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is subjected to fly a mission in a rugged mountainous terrain where air current or thermal up-drift is frequently present, this is great aerodynamic benefit over the conventional cross-tailed aircraft which requires careful balance between lateral and directional stability. Such dynamic characteristics can be studied through vehicle dynamic modeling and simulation, but it requires configuration aerodynamic data through wind tunnel experiments. Obtaining such data is very costly and time consuming, and it is not feasible especially for low cost and dispensable UAVs. On the other hand, the vehicle autonomy is quite demanding which requires substantial understanding of aircraft dynamic characteristics. In this study, flight dynamics of an UAV platform based on flying wing with a large winglet was investigated through analytical modeling and numerical simulation. Flight dynamic modeling software and experimental formulae were used to obtain essential configuration aerodynamic characteristics, and linear flight dynamic analysis was carried out to understand the effect of wing sweep angle and winglet size on the vehicle dynamic characteristics.

  7. Measurement of circulation around wing-tip vortices and estimation of lift forces using stereo PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shinichiro; Sato, Haru; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Applying the flapping flight to the development of an aircraft as Mars space probe and a small aircraft called MAV (Micro Air Vehicle) is considered. This is because Reynolds number assumed as the condition of these aircrafts is low and similar to of insects and small birds flapping on the earth. However, it is difficult to measure the flow around the airfoil in flapping flight directly because of its three-dimensional and unsteady characteristics. Hence, there is an attempt to estimate the flow field and aerodynamics by measuring the wake of the airfoil using PIV, for example the lift estimation method based on a wing-tip vortex. In this study, at the angle of attack including the angle after stall, we measured the wing-tip vortex of a NACA 0015 cross-sectional and rectangular planform airfoil using stereo PIV. The circulation of the wing-tip vortex was calculated from the obtained velocity field, and the lift force was estimated based on Kutta-Joukowski theorem. Then, the validity of this estimation method was examined by comparing the estimated lift force and the force balance data at various angles of attack. The experiment results are going to be presented in the conference.

  8. Control of wing-tip vortex using winglets at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seunghyun; Choi, Haecheon

    2014-11-01

    Winglets are considered as one of the effective devices for reducing induced drag, and thus many studies have been conducted, but mainly at high Reynolds numbers (Re ~106 ~107) for commercial airplanes. However, small-size unmanned air vehicles (UAV), operating at low Reynolds numbers (Re PIV measurements are conducted at several cross-flow planes for a few different angles of attack (α) . At high angles of attack (7° ~13°) , the winglets with the cant angle of 70° increase the aerodynamic performance, whereas at low angles of attack (2° ~6°) , the wing-tip extension (cant angle of 0°) shows better performances. The velocity fields measured from PIV indicate that, with the winglet, the wing-tip vortex moves away from the wing surface at α =12° , and the downwash motion in the wake behind the trailing edge is decreased, reducing the magnitude of the induced drag. A concept of changing the cant angle during flight is also suggested at this talk. Supported by 2011-0028032.

  9. Biomechanics of smart wings in a bat robot: morphing wings using SMA actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Breuer, K S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a bat-like micro aerial vehicle with actuated morphing wings. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) acting as artificial biceps and triceps muscles are used for mimicking the morphing wing mechanism of the bat flight apparatus. Our objective is twofold. Firstly, we have implemented a control architecture that allows an accurate and fast SMA actuation. This control makes use of the electrical resistance measurements of SMAs to adjust morphing wing motions. Secondly, the feasibility of using SMA actuation technology is evaluated for the application at hand. To this purpose, experiments are conducted to analyze the control performance in terms of nominal and overloaded operation modes of the SMAs. This analysis includes: (i) inertial forces regarding the stretchable wing membrane and aerodynamic loads, and (ii) uncertainties due to impact of airflow conditions over the resistance–motion relationship of SMAs. With the proposed control, morphing actuation speed can be increased up to 2.5 Hz, being sufficient to generate lift forces at a cruising speed of 5 m s −1 . (paper)

  10. Biomechanics of smart wings in a bat robot: morphing wings using SMA actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Bahlman, J W; Breuer, K S

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a bat-like micro aerial vehicle with actuated morphing wings. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) acting as artificial biceps and triceps muscles are used for mimicking the morphing wing mechanism of the bat flight apparatus. Our objective is twofold. Firstly, we have implemented a control architecture that allows an accurate and fast SMA actuation. This control makes use of the electrical resistance measurements of SMAs to adjust morphing wing motions. Secondly, the feasibility of using SMA actuation technology is evaluated for the application at hand. To this purpose, experiments are conducted to analyze the control performance in terms of nominal and overloaded operation modes of the SMAs. This analysis includes: (i) inertial forces regarding the stretchable wing membrane and aerodynamic loads, and (ii) uncertainties due to impact of airflow conditions over the resistance-motion relationship of SMAs. With the proposed control, morphing actuation speed can be increased up to 2.5 Hz, being sufficient to generate lift forces at a cruising speed of 5 m s(-1).

  11. A parametric wing design study for a modern laminar flow wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegler, J. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric wing design study using a modern laminar flow airfoil designed to exhibit desirable stall characteristics while maintaining high cruise performance are presented. It was found that little is sacrificed in cruise performance when satisfying the stall margin requirements if a taper ratio of 0.65 or greater is used.

  12. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-01-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 10 M sun , are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R e ) = 1.61 ± 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 ± 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 ± 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10 -2 Mpc -3 for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10 -5 Mpc -3 in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z ∼ 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M * > 4 x 10 11 M sun compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  13. Effects of boundary layer forcing on wing-tip vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Ward, Samantha

    The nature of turbulence within wing-tip vortices has been a topic of research for decades, yet accurate measurements of Reynolds stresses within the core are inherently difficult due to the bulk motion wandering caused by initial and boundary conditions in wind tunnels. As a result, characterization of a vortex as laminar or turbulent is inconclusive and highly contradicting. This research uses several experimental techniques to study the effects of broadband turbulence, introduced within the wing boundary layer, on the development of wing-tip vortices. Two rectangular wings with a NACA 0012 profile were fabricated for the use of this research. One wing had a smooth finish and the other rough, introduced by P80 grade sandpaper. Force balance measurements showed a small reduction in wing performance due to surface roughness for both 2D and 3D configurations, although stall characteristics remained relatively unchanged. Seven-hole probes were purpose-built and used to assess the mean velocity profiles of the vortices five chord lengths downstream of the wing at multiple angles of attack. Above an incidence of 4 degrees, the vortices were nearly axisymmetric, and the wing roughness reduced both velocity gradients and peak velocity magnitudes within the vortex. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to further assess the time-resolved vortex at an incidence of 5 degrees. Evidence of wake shedding frequencies and wing shear layer instabilities at higher frequencies were seen in power spectra within the vortex. Unlike the introduction of freestream turbulence, wing surface roughness did not appear to increase wandering amplitude. A new method for removing the effects of vortex wandering is proposed with the use of carefully selected high-pass filters. The filtered data revealed that the Reynolds stress profiles of the vortex produced by the smooth and rough wing were similar in shape, with a peak occurring away from the vortex centre but inside of the core. Single hot

  14. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-03-25

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  15. Spatial perturbation of a wing-tip vortex using pulsed span-wise jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A. L.; Smith, D. A. R.

    The separation distance required between transport aircraft to avoid wake vortices remains a limiting factor on airport capacity. The dissipation of the wake can be accelerated by perturbing co-operative instabilities between multiple pairs of vortices. This paper presents the results of a preliminary experimental investigation into the use of pulsed span-wise air jets in the wing tip to perturb a single tip vortex in the very near field. Velocity measurements were made using PIV and hot-wire anemometry. The results demonstrate that the vortex position can be modulated at frequencies up to 50 Hz and, as such, the method shows promise for forcing instability in multiple vortex wakes.

  16. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  17. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)

  18. Preliminary wing model tests in the variable density wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Max M

    1926-01-01

    This report contains the results of a series of tests with three wing models. By changing the section of one of the models and painting the surface of another, the number of models tested was increased to five. The tests were made in order to obtain some general information on the air forces on wing sections at a high Reynolds number and in particular to make sure that the Reynolds number is really the important factor, and not other things like the roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge. The few tests described in this report seem to indicate that the air forces at a high Reynolds number are not equivalent to respective air forces at a low Reynolds number (as in an ordinary atmospheric wind tunnel). The drag appears smaller at a high Reynolds number and the maximum lift is increased in some cases. The roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge do not materially change the results, so that we feel confident that tests with systematic series of different wing sections will bring consistent results, important and highly useful to the designer.

  19. Blended Wing Body Concept Development with Open Rotor Engine Intergration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, David M.; DeHaan, Mark; Brown, Derrell; Kawai, Ronald T.; Hollowell, Steve; Camacho, Peter; Bruns, David; Rawden, Blaine K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a systems analysis of a Blended Wing Body (BWB) open rotor concept at the conceptual design level. This concept will be utilized to estimate overall noise and fuel burn performance, leveraging recent test data. This study will also investigate the challenge of propulsion airframe installation of an open rotor engine on a BWB configuration. Open rotor engines have unique problems relative to turbofans. The rotors are open, exposed to flow conditions outside of the engine. The flow field that the rotors are immersed in may be higher than the free stream flow and it may not be uniform, both of these characteristics could increase noise and decrease performance. The rotors sometimes cause changes in the flow conditions imposed on aircraft surfaces. At high power conditions such as takeoff and climb out, the stream tube of air that goes through the rotors contracts rapidly causing the boundary layer on the body upper surface to go through an adverse pressure gradient which could result with separated airflow. The BWB / Open Rotor configuration must be designed to mitigate these problems.

  20. Small-scale fixed wing airplane software verification flight test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natasha R.

    The increased demand for micro Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) driven by military requirements, commercial use, and academia is creating a need for the ability to quickly and accurately conduct low Reynolds Number aircraft design. There exist several open source software programs that are free or inexpensive that can be used for large scale aircraft design, but few software programs target the realm of low Reynolds Number flight. XFLR5 is an open source, free to download, software program that attempts to take into consideration viscous effects that occur at low Reynolds Number in airfoil design, 3D wing design, and 3D airplane design. An off the shelf, remote control airplane was used as a test bed to model in XFLR5 and then compared to flight test collected data. Flight test focused on the stability modes of the 3D plane, specifically the phugoid mode. Design and execution of the flight tests were accomplished for the RC airplane using methodology from full scale military airplane test procedures. Results from flight test were not conclusive in determining the accuracy of the XFLR5 software program. There were several sources of uncertainty that did not allow for a full analysis of the flight test results. An off the shelf drone autopilot was used as a data collection device for flight testing. The precision and accuracy of the autopilot is unknown. Potential future work should investigate flight test methods for small scale UAV flight.

  1. Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John Peter

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

  2. Morphing Wing Design with an Innovative Three-Dimensional Warping Actuation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced wing configurations where traditional control surfaces are replaced by dynamically controlled distribution of wing twist and/or camber can provide...

  3. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  4. Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, W B; Van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H

    2014-01-01

    The numerical simulation of an insect-sized ‘X-wing’ type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices’ breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar

  5. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  6. Wing design for light transport aircraft with improved fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, D.; Birrenbach, R.; Haberland, W.

    An advanced technology wing has been designed for a light utility and commuter service aircraft with the requirements for economy, safety and flexibility. Trade-off studies give optimum area and aspect-ratio of the wing. A new airfoil was developed to fulfill the performance requirements. Wing planform and twist were chosen to give high maximum lift, low drag and good stall characteristics. Preset ailerons were optimized for wheel forces and lateral control. The applied aerodynamic methods, including two- and three-dimensional wind tunnel tests are shown. Various structural configurations of the wing and various flap systems are evaluated. The cantilever tapered wing and a Fowler-flap with a two-lever mechanism were found to be the most economic ones. The wing was constructed and flight-tested with a modified Dornier Do 28 Skyservant as a test bed. The new wing is being applied to a family of light transport aircraft. Finally, aircraft with the new wing are compared performancewise with contemporary aircraft.

  7. Design and Testing of Aeroelastically Tailored Wings Under Maneuver Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werter, N.P.M.; Sodja, J.; De Breuker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to provide experimental validation data for the aeroelastic analysis of composite aeroelastically tailored wings with a closed-cell cross-sectional structure. Several rectangular wings with differ- ent skin thicknesses and composite layups are designed in order to

  8. Optimisation of the Sekwa blended-wing-Body research UAV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A variable stability, blended-wing-body research mini-UAV was developed at the CSIR in South Africa. The purpose of the UAV was to study some of the aerodynamic design and control issues associated with flying wing geometries and to develop a...

  9. Flapping-wing mechanical butterfly on a wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Thiria, Benjamin; Pradal, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We examine the propulsive performance of a flapping-wing device turning on a ``merry-go-round'' type base. The two-wing flapper is attached to a mast that is ball-bearing mounted to a central shaft in such a way that the thrust force produced by the wings makes the flapper turn around this shaft. The oscillating lift force produced by the flapping wings is aligned with the mast to avoid vibration of the system. A turning contact allows to power the motor that drives the wings. We measure power consumption and cruising speed as a function of flapping frequency and amplitude as well as wing flexibility. The design of the wings permits to change independently their flexibility in the span-wise and chord-wise directions and PIV measurements in various planes let us examine the vorticity field around the device. A complete study of the effect of wing flexibility on the propulsive performance of the system will be presented at the conference.

  10. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outline analysis, in which geometric and traditional morphometry potentials are insufficient, was performed by using the Fourier transformation. As a result of the comprehensive wing morphometry study, it was found that both Cerceris species can be distinguished according to their wing structures and the metric ...

  11. Energy-based Aeroelastic Analysis and Optimisation of Morphing Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Breuker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Morphing aircraft can change their shape radically when confronted with a variety of conflicting flight conditions throughout their mission. For instance the F-14 Tomcat fighter aircraft, known from the movie Top Gun, was able to sweep its wings from a straight wing configuration to a highly swept

  12. COLIBRI : A hovering flapping twin-wing robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshanbin, A.; Altartouri, H.; Karasek, M.; Preumont, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a six-year project aiming at designing and constructing a flapping twin-wing robot of the size of hummingbird (Colibri in French) capable of hovering. Our prototype has a total mass of 22 g, a wing span of 21 cm and a flapping frequency of 22 Hz; it is actively

  13. Design, Development and Testing of Shape Shifting Wing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ninian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of morphing (shape shifting aircraft wings—an innovative technology that has the potential to increase the aerodynamic efficiency and reduce noise signatures of aircrafts—was carried out. This research was focused on reducing lift-induced drag at the flaps of the aerofoil and to improve the design to achieve the optimum aerodynamic efficiency. Simulation revealed a 10.8% coefficient of lift increase for the initial morphing wing and 15.4% for the optimized morphing wing as compared to conventional wing design. At angles of attack of 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees, the optimized wing has an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 18.3%, 10.5%, 10.6% and 4% respectively when compared with the conventional wing. Simulations also showed that there is a significant improvement on pressure distribution over the lower surface of the morphing wing aerofoil. The increase in flow smoothness and reduction in vortex size reduced pressure drag along the trailing edge of the wing as a result an increase in pressure on the lower surface was experienced. A morphing wing reduced the size of the vortices and therefore the noise levels measured were reduced by up to 50%.

  14. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  15. Hydraulic Evaluation of the Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC). The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to generate power. Model tests have been performed using a scal...

  16. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wing of a Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agoes Moelyadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow behavior and time-dependent aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping motion of a bird’s wing were investigated using a computational method. During flapping, aerodynamic interactions between bird wing surfaces and surrounding flow may occur, generating local time-dependent flow changes in the flow field and aerodynamic load of birds. To study the effect of flapping speed on unsteady aerodynamic load, two kinds of computational simulations were carried out, namely a quasi-steady and an unsteady simulation. To mimic the movement of the down-stroke and the upstroke of a bird, the flapping path accorded to a sinus function, with the wing attitude changing in dihedral angle and time. The computations of time-dependent viscous flow were based on the solution of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by applying the k-e turbulence model. In addition, the discretization for the computational domain around the model used multi-block structured grid to provide more accuracy in capturing viscous flow, especially in the vicinity of the wing and body surfaces, to obtain a proper wing-body geometry model. For this research, the seagull bird was chosen, which has high aspect ratio wings with pointed wing-tips and a high camber wing section. The results include mesh movement, velocity contours as well as aerodynamic coefficients of the flapping motion of the bird at various flapping frequencies.

  17. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  18. Closed-type wing for drones: positive and negative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Gretchihin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aerodynamics of a wing of a closed oval ellipsoidal shape, designed with the use of the molecular-kinetic theory. The positive and negative characteristics of aircraft - drones with an oval wing are described. The theoretical calculations have been experimentally checked.

  19. DETERMINATION OF COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT WING GEOMETRY DURING THE FLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the task of determination of wing shape for sub-sonic commercial aircraft by photogrammetric method. It provides the procedure for measurements taken on ground and in flight. It also provides the outcome of wing twist for commercial aircraft at cruise.

  20. Global Local Structural Optimization of Transportation Aircraft Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciampa, P.D.; Nagel, B.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The study presents a multilevel optimization methodology for the preliminary structural design of transportation aircraft wings. A global level is defined by taking into account the primary wing structural components (i.e., ribs, spars and skin) which are explicitly modeled by shell layered finite

  1. Wing flexibility effects in clap-and-fling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; Hu, Y.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Remes, B.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The work explores the use of time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements to study a flapping-wing model, the related vortex generation mechanisms and the effect of wing flexibility on the clap-and-fling movement in particular. An experimental setup is designed and realized in a water tank by use of a

  2. 14 CFR 23.302 - Canard or tandem wing configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canard or tandem wing configurations. 23.302 Section 23.302 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.302 Canard or tandem wing...

  3. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Overall wing size was analysed here using centroid size. (defined as the square root of the sum .... For those isochromosomal lines that were common to both experimental temperatures .... subobscura reared at 18ºC. CS refers to centroid size (values in pixels2; 1 mm = 144 pixels), and WS to wing shape (all values ×. 104).

  4. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  5. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  6. New aeroelastic studies for a morphing wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mihaela BOTEZ*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the upper surface of a rectangular finite aspect ratio wing, with a laminar airfoil cross-section, was made of a carbon-Kevlar composite material flexible skin. This flexible skin was morphed by use of Shape Memory Alloy actuators for 35 test cases characterized by combinations of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The Mach numbers varied from 0.2 to 0.3 and the angles of attack ranged between -1° and 2°. The optimized airfoils were determined by use of the CFD XFoil code. The purpose of this aeroelastic study was to determine the flutter conditions to be avoided during wind tunnel tests. These studies show that aeroelastic instabilities for the morphing configurations considered appeared at Mach number 0.55, which was higher than the wind tunnel Mach number limit speed of 0.3. The wind tunnel tests could thus be performed safely in the 6’×9’ wind tunnel at the Institute for Aerospace Research at the National Research Council Canada (IAR/NRC, where the new aeroelastic studies, applied on morphing wings, were validated.

  7. A flight investigation of oscillating air forces: Equipment and technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. H., III

    1975-01-01

    The equipment and techniques are described which are to be used in a project aimed at measuring oscillating air forces and dynamic aeroelastic response of a swept wing airplane at high subsonic speeds. Electro-hydraulic inertia type shakers installed in the wing tips will excite various elastic airplane modes while the related oscillating chordwise pressures at two spanwise wing stations and the wing mode shapes are recorded on magnetic tape. The data reduction technique, following the principle of a wattmeter harmonic analyzer employed by Bratt, Wight, and Tilly, utilizes magnetic tape and high speed electronic multipliers to record directly the real and imaginary components of oscillatory data signals relative to a simple harmonic reference signal. Through an extension of this technique an automatic flight-flutter-test data analyzer is suggested in which vector plots of mechanical admittance or impedance would be plotted during the flight test.

  8. COMPARISON OF A FIXED-WING AND MULTI-ROTOR UAV FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The advent and evolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and photogrammetric techniques has provided the possibility for on-demand high-resolution environmental mapping. Orthoimages and three dimensional products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs are derived from the UAV imagery which is amongst the most important spatial information tools for environmental planning. The two main types of UAVs in the commercial market are fixed-wing and multi-rotor. Both have their advantages and disadvantages including their suitability for certain applications. Fixed-wing UAVs normally have longer flight endurance capabilities while multi-rotors can provide for stable image capturing and easy vertical take-off and landing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the performance of a fixed-wing versus a multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications by conducting a specific case study. The aerial mapping of the Cors-Air model aircraft field which includes a wetland ecosystem was undertaken on the same day with a Skywalker fixed-wing UAV and a Raven X8 multi-rotor UAV equipped with similar sensor specifications (digital RGB camera under the same weather conditions. We compared the derived datasets by applying the DTMs for basic environmental mapping purposes such as slope and contour mapping including utilising the orthoimages for identification of anthropogenic disturbances. The ground spatial resolution obtained was slightly higher for the multi-rotor probably due to a slower flight speed and more images. The results in terms of the overall precision of the data was noticeably less accurate for the fixed-wing. In contrast, orthoimages derived from the two systems showed small variations. The multi-rotor imagery provided better representation of vegetation although the fixed-wing data was sufficient for the identification of environmental factors such as anthropogenic disturbances. Differences were observed utilising the respective DTMs

  9. Comparison of a Fixed-Wing and Multi-Rotor Uav for Environmental Mapping Applications: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Drijfhout, A. P.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The advent and evolution of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and photogrammetric techniques has provided the possibility for on-demand high-resolution environmental mapping. Orthoimages and three dimensional products such as Digital Surface Models (DSMs) are derived from the UAV imagery which is amongst the most important spatial information tools for environmental planning. The two main types of UAVs in the commercial market are fixed-wing and multi-rotor. Both have their advantages and disadvantages including their suitability for certain applications. Fixed-wing UAVs normally have longer flight endurance capabilities while multi-rotors can provide for stable image capturing and easy vertical take-off and landing. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the performance of a fixed-wing versus a multi-rotor UAV for environmental mapping applications by conducting a specific case study. The aerial mapping of the Cors-Air model aircraft field which includes a wetland ecosystem was undertaken on the same day with a Skywalker fixed-wing UAV and a Raven X8 multi-rotor UAV equipped with similar sensor specifications (digital RGB camera) under the same weather conditions. We compared the derived datasets by applying the DTMs for basic environmental mapping purposes such as slope and contour mapping including utilising the orthoimages for identification of anthropogenic disturbances. The ground spatial resolution obtained was slightly higher for the multi-rotor probably due to a slower flight speed and more images. The results in terms of the overall precision of the data was noticeably less accurate for the fixed-wing. In contrast, orthoimages derived from the two systems showed small variations. The multi-rotor imagery provided better representation of vegetation although the fixed-wing data was sufficient for the identification of environmental factors such as anthropogenic disturbances. Differences were observed utilising the respective DTMs for the mapping

  10. Effects of Wing-Cuff on NACA 23015 Aerodynamic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah S.M.A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 23015 airfoil by using wing cuff. This last is a leading edge modification done to the wing. The modification consists of a slight extension of the chord on the outboard section of the wings. Different numerical cases are considered for the baseline and modified airfoil NACA 23015 according at different angle of incidence. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model. The results of this numerical investigation showed several benefits of the wing cuff compared with a conventional airfoil and an agreement is observed between the experimental data and the present study. The most intriguing result of this research is the capability for wing cuff to perform short take-offs and landings.

  11. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobassher Tofa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  12. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1986-01-01

    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  13. Experimental investigation of a wing-in-ground effect craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofa, M Mobassher; Maimun, Adi; Ahmed, Yasser M; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  14. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofa, M. Mobassher; Ahmed, Yasser M.; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. PMID:24701170

  15. A Short History of The Air University, Maxwell AFB, and the 42nd Air Base Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    bombers in 1956. Operated out of Ramey AFB, Puerto Rico (bombers), and Goose AB, Labrador (tankers), while runway repairs were made at Loring, 10 Jul–5...November 2011. In 2006-2007, AU’s structure and program effectiveness underwent an in-depth review that led to major changes in AU’s structure. In... hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans, Maxwell-Gunter served as an evacuation center for over 1,000 displaced evacuees from the Gulf coast and as a

  16. Fluid drag reduction and efficient self-cleaning with rice leaf and butterfly wing bioinspired surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-08-01

    Researchers are continually inspired by living nature to solve complex challenges. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we present an overview of rice leaf and butterfly wing fluid drag and self-cleaning studies. In addition, we examine two other promising aquatic surfaces in nature known for such properties, including fish scales and shark skin. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Liquid repellent coatings are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Discussion is provided along with conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  17. Towards the automated identification of Chrysomya blow flies from wing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, N; Hall, M J R; Wardhana, A H

    2018-04-15

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an important agent of traumatic myiasis and, as such, a major human and animal health problem. In the implementation of OWSF control operations, it is important to determine the geographical origins of such disease-causing species in order to establish whether they derive from endemic or invading populations. Gross morphological and molecular studies have demonstrated the existence of two distinct lineages of this species, one African and the other Asian. Wing morphometry is known to be of substantial assistance in identifying the geographical origin of individuals because it provides diagnostic markers that complement molecular diagnostics. However, placement of the landmarks used in traditional geometric morphometric analysis can be time-consuming and subject to error caused by operator subjectivity. Here we report results of an image-based approach to geometric morphometric analysis for delivering wing-based identifications. Our results indicate that this approach can produce identifications that are practically indistinguishable from more traditional landmark-based results. In addition, we demonstrate that the direct analysis of digital wing images can be used to discriminate between three Chrysomya species of veterinary and forensic importance and between C. bezziana genders. © 2018 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2018 Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2012-02-22

    Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements.

  19. Micro- and Nano-Air Vehicles: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Petricca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nano air vehicles are defined as “extremely small and ultra-lightweight air vehicle systems” with a maximum wingspan length of 15 cm and a weight less than 20 grams. Here, we provide a review of the current state of the art and identify the challenges of design and fabrication. Different configurations are evaluated, such as fixed wings, rotary wings, and flapping wings. The main advantages and drawbacks for each typology are identified and discussed. Special attention is given to rotary-wing vehicles (helicopter concept; including a review of their main structures, such as the airframe, energy storage, controls, and communications systems. In addition, a review of relevant sensors is also included. Examples of existing and future systems are also included. Micro- and nano-vehicles with rotary wings and rechargeable batteries are dominating. The flight times of current systems are typically around 1 hour or less due to the limited energy storage capabilities of the used rechargeable batteries. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are promising alternative energy supply technologies for the future. Technology improvements, mainly based on micro- and nanotechnologies, are expected to continue in an evolutionary way to improve the capabilities of future micro- and nano air vehicles, giving improved flight times and payload capabilities.

  20. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Being Prepared for Stress Loads Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A technician adjusts the Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove before a loads-test at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. For the test, technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. PHYSX was launched aboard a Pegasus rocket on October 22, 1998. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and

  1. Digital Morphing Wing: Active Wing Shaping Concept Using Composite Lattice-Based Cellular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Calisch, Sam; Cellucci, Daniel; Cramer, Nick; Gershenfeld, Neil; Swei, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    We describe an approach for the discrete and reversible assembly of tunable and actively deformable structures using modular building block parts for robotic applications. The primary technical challenge addressed by this work is the use of this method to design and fabricate low density, highly compliant robotic structures with spatially tuned stiffness. This approach offers a number of potential advantages over more conventional methods for constructing compliant robots. The discrete assembly reduces manufacturing complexity, as relatively simple parts can be batch-produced and joined to make complex structures. Global mechanical properties can be tuned based on sub-part ordering and geometry, because local stiffness and density can be independently set to a wide range of values and varied spatially. The structure's intrinsic modularity can significantly simplify analysis and simulation. Simple analytical models for the behavior of each building block type can be calibrated with empirical testing and synthesized into a highly accurate and computationally efficient model of the full compliant system. As a case study, we describe a modular and reversibly assembled wing that performs continuous span-wise twist deformation. It exhibits high performance aerodynamic characteristics, is lightweight and simple to fabricate and repair. The wing is constructed from discrete lattice elements, wherein the geometric and mechanical attributes of the building blocks determine the global mechanical properties of the wing. We describe the mechanical design and structural performance of the digital morphing wing, including their relationship to wind tunnel tests that suggest the ability to increase roll efficiency compared to a conventional rigid aileron system. We focus here on describing the approach to design, modeling, and construction as a generalizable approach for robotics that require very lightweight, tunable, and actively deformable structures.

  2. Control Power Optimization using Artificial Intelligence for Forward Swept Wing and Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbindin, Moustaine Kolawole Agnide

    2017-01-01

    Many futuristic aircraft such as the Hybrid Wing Body have numerous control surfaces that can result in large hinge moments, high actuation power demands, and large actuator forces/moments. Also, there is no unique relationship between control inputs and the aircraft response. Distinct sets of control surface deflections may result in the same aircraft response, but with large differences in actuation power. An Artificial Neural Network and a Genetic Algorithm were used here for the control a...

  3. Environmental health and safety issues related to the use of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) at hospitals and medical research institutions and compliance determination with the Clean Air Act standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, R.; Kanchan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Currently, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has standards for procedures, performance activities and technical specifications on storage of Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) under 10 CFR Part 20. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing environmental standards for the management, storage and disposal of LLRW. The proposed standards, which will become 40 CFR part 193 when finalized, limits the committed effective dose to members of the public from the management and storage of LLRW, committed effective doses resulting from LLRW disposal and levels of radiological contamination of underground sources of drinking water as a result of the activities subject to management, storage and disposal of LLRW. Further, under Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments, radionuclides are required to be inventoried for all generators. For hospitals and medical research institutions, quantities of LLRW are often below the concentrations required under reporting and record keeping requirements of 10 CFR 20. However, in many instances, the facility may require NRC permits and compliance with air quality dispersion modeling requirements. This paper presents the typical radionuclides used in hospitals and medical research institutions, and strategies to evaluate their usage and steps to achieve compliance. Air quality dispersion modeling by use of the COMPLY model is demonstrated to evaluate the fate of radionuclides released from on-site incineration of LLRW. The paper concludes that no significant threat is posed from the incineration of LLRW

  4. Prediction of Wing Downwash Using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed MAHDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing downwash study and estimation of downwash effect on the tail plane is an important task during the aircraft design process, although a lot of papers and works has been done, but the experimental work is the most important, the progress in CFD simulation has reached to the point it is able to reduce the number of runs in the wind tunnel. In this work CFD has been utilized to calculate the downwash angle and downwash gradient with respect to the angle of attack over a high aspect ratio of a typical UAV. The results of the simulation shall be used in the estimation and calculation of the longitudinal static stability analysis of the UAV.

  5. Static Aeroelastic Effects of Formation Flight for Slender Unswept Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curtis E.

    2009-01-01

    The static aeroelastic equilibrium equations for slender, straight wings are modified to incorporate the effects of aerodynamically-coupled formation flight. A system of equations is developed by applying trim constraints and is solved for component lift distribution, trim angle-of-attack, and trim aileron deflection. The trim values are then used to calculate the elastic twist distribution of the wing box. This system of equations is applied to a formation of two gliders in trimmed flight. Structural and aerodynamic properties are assumed for the gliders, and solutions are calculated for flexible and rigid wings in solo and formation flight. It is shown for a sample application of two gliders in formation flight, that formation disturbances produce greater twist in the wingtip immersed in the vortex than for either the opposing wingtip or the wings of a similar airplane in solo flight. Changes in the lift distribution, resulting from wing twist, increase the performance benefits of formation flight. A flexible wing in formation flight will require greater aileron deflection to achieve roll trim than a rigid wing.

  6. Antibiotics, primary symbionts and wing polyphenism in three aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Jim; Leckstein, Peter

    2007-08-01

    The possible role of the primary Buchnera symbionts in wing polyphenism is examined in three aphid species. Presumptive winged aphids were fed on antibiotic-treated beans to destroy these symbionts. As previously reported, this leads to inhibited growth and low/zero fecundity. When such treatment is applied to the short-day-induced gynoparae (the winged autumn migrant) of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, it also causes many insects to develop as wingless or winged/wingless intermediate adult forms (apterisation). However, whilst antibiotic treatment of crowd-induced, long-day winged forms of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (a green and a pink clone) and the vetch aphid, Megoura viciae has similar effects on size and fecundity, it does not affect wing development. Food deprivation also promotes apterisation in A. fabae gynoparae but not in the crowd-induced winged morphs of the other two species. Thus, it appears that apterisation in A. fabae is not a direct effect of antibiotic treatment or a novel role for symbionts but is most likely related to impaired nutrition induced by the loss of the symbiont population.

  7. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  8. Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Natsu; Abbott, Jessica K; Kjærandsen, Jostein; Takahashi, Yuma; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-10-21

    Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light environments display vivid and stable structural color patterns, called "wing interference patterns" (WIPs). Such WIPs were hypothesized to function in sexual selection among small insects with wing displays, but this has not been experimentally verified. Here, to our knowledge we present the first experimental evidence that WIPs in males of Drosophila melanogaster are targets of mate choice from females, and that two different color traits--saturation and hue--experience directional and stabilizing sexual selection, respectively. Using isogenic lines from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, we compare attractiveness of different male WIPs against black and white visual backgrounds. We show that males with more vivid wings are more attractive to females than are males with dull wings. Wings with a large magenta area (i.e., intermediate trait values) were also preferred over those with a large blue or yellow area. These experimental results add a visual element to the Drosophila mating array, integrating sexual selection with elements of genetics and evo-devo, potentially applicable to a wide array of small insects with hyaline wings. Our results further underscore that the mode of sexual selection on such visual signals can differ profoundly between different color components, in this case hue and saturation.

  9. The design and testing of subscale smart aircraft wing bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugampore, J M V; Bemont, C

    2012-01-01

    Presently costly periodic inspection is vital in guaranteeing the structural integrity of aircraft. This investigation assesses the potential for significantly reducing aircraft maintenance costs without modification of aircraft structures by implementing smart wing bolts, manufactured from TRIP steel, which can be monitored for damage in situ. TRIP steels undergo a transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite during deformation. Subscale smart aircraft wing bolts were manufactured from hot rolled TRIP steel. These wing bolts were used to demonstrate that washers incorporating embedded inductance coils can be utilized to measure the martensitic transformation occurring in the TRIP steel during bolt deformation. Early in situ warning of a critical bolt stress level was thereby facilitated, potentially reducing the costly requirement for periodic wing bolt removal and inspection. The hot rolled TRIP steels that were utilized in these subscale bolts do not however exhibit the mechanical properties required of wing bolt material. Thus warm rolled TRIP steel alloys were also investigated. The mechanical properties of the best warm rolled TRIP steel alloy tested almost matched those of AISI 4340. The warm rolled alloys were also shown to exhibit transformation before yield, allowing for earlier warning when overload occurs. Further work will be required relating to fatigue crack detection, environmental temperature fluctuation and more thorough material characterization. However, present results show that in situ early detection of wing bolt overload is feasible via the use of high alloy warm rolled TRIP steel wing bolts in combination with inductive sensor embedded washers. (paper)

  10. NASA Innovation Fund 2010 Project Elastically Shaped Future Air Vehicle Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a study conducted in 2010 under the NASA Innovation Fund Award to develop innovative future air vehicle concepts. Aerodynamic optimization was performed to produce three different aircraft configuration concepts for low drag, namely drooped wing, inflected wing, and squashed fuselage. A novel wing shaping control concept is introduced. This concept describes a new capability of actively controlling wing shape in-flight to minimize drag. In addition, a novel flight control effector concept is developed to enable wing shaping control. This concept is called a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap that can reduce drag by as much as 50% over a conventional flap. In totality, the potential benefits of fuel savings offered by these concepts can be significant.

  11. X-38 on B-52 Wing Pylon - View from Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A unique, close-up view of the X-38 under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership prior to launch of the lifting-body research vehicle. The photo was taken from the observation window of the B-52 bomber as it banked in flight. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In

  12. Free vibration analysis of dragonfly wings using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Darvizeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, investigations on the microstructure and mechanicalproperties of the dragonfly wing are carried out and numerical modelingbased on Finite Element Method (FEM is developed to predict Flightcharacteristics of dragonfly wings. Vibrational behavior of wings typestructures is immensely important in analysis, design and manufacturing ofsimilar engineering structures. For this purpose natural frequencies andmode shapes are calculated. In addition, the kind of deformation in eachmode shape evaluated and the ratio between numerical natural frequencyand experimental natural frequency presented as damping ratio. Theresults obtain from present method are in good agreement with sameexperimental methods.

  13. A Video-Based Experimental Investigation of Wing Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    maintained a negative damping in roll (Fig. 6b). Ross concluded that wing tanks act like an aerodynamic fence, controlling flow separation over the wing...to Ross that wing rock was initiated by a nonlinear yawing moment due to sideslip, which caused a divergent Dutch roll oscillation to grow into the...20 30 40 50 e) (p (D EG) * Fig. 128 Continued S * 158 (Fig. 128a) and cycle B (Fig. 128b ) both occurred early in the 0 build-up and consisted of

  14. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  15. Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transport Wings Including Transonic Flutter Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2015-01-01

    Several minimum-mass optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic stress and panel buckling constraints are imposed across several trimmed static maneuver loads, in addition to a transonic flutter margin constraint, captured with aerodynamic influence coefficient-based tools. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, balanced or unbalanced composite laminates, curvilinear tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  16. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  17. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: flight service and inspection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizer, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  19. Waiting in the wings: what can we learn about gene co-option from the diversification of butterfly wing patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggins, Chris D; Wallbank, Richard W R; Hanly, Joseph J

    2017-02-05

    A major challenge is to understand how conserved gene regulatory networks control the wonderful diversity of form that we see among animals and plants. Butterfly wing patterns are an excellent example of this diversity. Butterfly wings form as imaginal discs in the caterpillar and are constructed by a gene regulatory network, much of which is conserved across the holometabolous insects. Recent work in Heliconius butterflies takes advantage of genomic approaches and offers insights into how the diversification of wing patterns is overlaid onto this conserved network. WntA is a patterning morphogen that alters spatial information in the wing. Optix is a transcription factor that acts later in development to paint specific wing regions red. Both of these loci fit the paradigm of conserved protein-coding loci with diverse regulatory elements and developmental roles that have taken on novel derived functions in patterning wings. These discoveries offer insights into the 'Nymphalid Ground Plan', which offers a unifying hypothesis for pattern formation across nymphalid butterflies. These loci also represent 'hotspots' for morphological change that have been targeted repeatedly during evolution. Both convergent and divergent evolution of a great diversity of patterns is controlled by complex alleles at just a few genes. We suggest that evolutionary change has become focused on one or a few genetic loci for two reasons. First, pre-existing complex cis-regulatory loci that already interact with potentially relevant transcription factors are more likely to acquire novel functions in wing patterning. Second, the shape of wing regulatory networks may constrain evolutionary change to one or a few loci. Overall, genomic approaches that have identified wing patterning loci in these butterflies offer broad insight into how gene regulatory networks evolve to produce diversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological

  20. Manufacturing and Evaluation of a Biologically Inspired Engineered MAV Wing Compared to the Manduca Sexta Wing Under Simulated Flapping Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    thorax to the wings will continue for a short period of time, preserving the integrity of these wings. This small window was considered in order to...PromasterTM Digital XR EDO Aspherical LD (IF) 17-50 mm 1:2.8 Macro φ 67. Photomodeler provides the means to calibrate a camera via subroutine within...36. 20. DeLeón, N., O’Hara, R., and Palazotto, A., “Manufacturing of Engineering Bio- logically Inspired Flapping Wings,” 25th Annual US- Japan

  1. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  2. Toward Wing Aerostructural Optimization Using Simultaneous Analysis and Design Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elham, A.; van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The application and computational efficiency of wing aerostructural optimization us- ing simultaneous analysis and design (SAND) strategy is investigated. A coupled adjoint aerostructural analysis method based on quasi-three-dimensional aerodynamic analysis is used for this research. Two different

  3. Supercritical Wing Technology: A Progress Report on Flight Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The papers in this compilation were presented at the NASA Symposium on "Supercritical Wing Technology: A Progress Report on Flight Evaluation" held at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., on February 29, 1972. The purpose of the symposium was to present timely information on flight results obtained with the F-8 and T-2C supercritical wing configurations, discuss comparisons with wind-tunnel predictions, and project [ ] flight programs planned for the F-8 and F-III (TACT) airplanes.

  4. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  5. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity (AMSARA) 2014, Annual Report, and four Supplemental Applicants and Accessions Tables for: Army, Air Force, Marine, and Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    Asthma 877 8.1 81 6.4 Depressive disorder, not elsewhere class 906 8.4 44 3.5 Shoulder pain , disease, injury (current) 260 2.4 43 3.4 Hearing...eighteenth year of providing the Department of Defense (DoD) with evidence-based evaluations of accession medical standards. AMSARA evaluates medical...Disability evaluation is infrequent among new enlistees, with less than one percent of enlistees being considered for such a discharge within the

  6. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  7. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  8. Unsteady flow over flexible wings at different low Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genç Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, unsteady flow around flexible membrane wing which had aspect ratio of 1 (AR=1 was investigated experimentally at various Reynolds numbers (Re = 25000 and Re = 50000. Smoke-wire technique for flow visualization over the flexible membrane wing was utilized in the experiments. Digital Image Correlation system (DIC was used for measuring deformation of AR = 1 flexible membrane wing. Instantaneous deformation measurements of membrane wing were combined with the flow field measurements. In low aspect ratio flexible membrane wings, unsteadiness includes tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices. In these types of wings, complex unsteady deformations occurred due to vortex shedding. The results showed that the increasing angle of attack results in increase of membrane deformation. Moreover, it was concluded that analysis of the instantaneous deformation revealed chordwise and spanwise, modes which were due to the shedding of leading-edge vortices as well as tip vortices. Consequently, vibrational mode decreased and maximum standard deviation location approached to the trailing edge by reason of increasing angle of attack.

  9. Effect of flexibility on flapping wing characteristics under forward flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianyang; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chaoying; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Through two-dimensional numerical simulation and by solving the unsteady incompressible Navier–Stokes (NS) equations, coupled with the structural dynamic equation for the motion of the wing, the effect of flexibility on flapping wing characteristics during forward flight is systematically studied. The flapping wing is considered as a cantilever, which performs the translational and rotational motion at its leading edge, and the other part is passively deformed by the aerodynamic force. The frequency ratio ω* and mass ratio m* are defined and used to characterize the flexibility of the flapping wing. It has been found that an optimal range of the frequency ratio exists in which the flexible wing possesses both a larger propulsive efficiency and lifting efficiency than their rigid counterpart. Also, the flexible wing with the smaller mass ratio may be of benefit to generate thrust, while the larger mass ratio may be of benefit to generate lift. In addition, a stronger leading edge vortex and reattachment vortex are observed around the appropriate flexibility wing’s surface, which therefore leads to better aerodynamic characteristics. (paper)

  10. Flow structure on a rotating wing undergoing deceleration to rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudball Smith, Daniel; Rockwell, Donald; Sheridan, John

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the behavior of small biological flyers and micro aerial Vehicles, this study experimentally addresses the flow structure on a low aspect ratio rotating wing at low Reynolds number. The study focuses on a wing decelerating to rest after rotating at constant velocity. The wing was set to a constant 45° angle of attack and, during the initial phase of the motion, accelerated to a constant velocity at its radius of gyration, which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1400 based on the chord length. Stereoscopic PIV was used to construct phase-averaged three-dimensional (volumetric) velocity fields that develop and relax throughout the deceleration and cessation of the wing motion. During gradual deceleration, the flow structure is maintained when normalised by the instantaneous velocity; the distinguishing feature is shedding of a trailing edge vortex that develops due to the deceleration. At higher deceleration rates to rest, the flow structure quickly degrades. Induced flow in the upstream direction along the surface of the wing causes detachment of the previously stable leading edge vortex; simultaneously, a trailing-edge vortex and the reoriented tip vortex form a co-rotating vortex pair, drawing flow downward away from the wing.

  11. Structure design of an innovative adaptive variable camber wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao An-Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an innovative double rib sheet structure is proposed, which can replace the traditional rigid hinge joint with the surface contact. On the one hand, the variable camber wing structural design not only can improve the capacity to sustain more load but also will not increase the overall weight of the wing. On the other hand, it is a simple mechanical structure design to achieve the total wing camber change. Then the numerical simulation results show that the maximum stress at the connect of the wing rib is 88.2MPa, and the double ribs sheet engineering design meet the structural strength requirements. In addition, to make a fair comparison, the parameters of variable camber are fully referenced to the Talon Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The results reveal that the total variable camber wing can further enhance aircraft flight efficiency by 29.4%. The design of the whole variable camber wing structure proposed in this paper has high engineering value and feasibility.

  12. Flying Wings. A New Paradigm for Civil Aviation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Martinez-Val

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 50 years, commercial aviation has been mainly based what is currently called the conventional layout, characterized by a slender fuselage mated to a high aspect ratio wing, with aft-tail planes and pod-mounted engines under the wing. However, it seems that this primary configuration is approaching an asymptote in its productivity and performance characteristics. One of the most promising configurations for the future is the flying wing in its distinct arrangements: blended-wing-body, C-wing, tail-less aircraft, etc. These layouts might provide significant fuel savings and, hence, a decrease in pollution. This configuration would also reduce noise in take-off and landing. All this explains the great deal of activity carried out by the aircraft industry and by numerous investigators to perform feasibility and conceptual design studies of this aircraft layout to gain better knowledge of its main characteristics: productivity, airport compatibility, passenger acceptance, internal architecture, emergency evacuation, etc. The present paper discusses the main features of flying wings, their advantages over conventional competitors, and some key operational issues, such as evacuation and vortex wake intensity. 

  13. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-19

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint.

  14. Wing-pitching mechanism of hovering Ruby-throated hummingbirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    In hovering flight, hummingbirds reverse the angle of attack of their wings through pitch reversal in order to generate aerodynamic lift during both downstroke and upstroke. In addition, the wings may pitch during translation to further enhance lift production. It is not yet clear whether these pitching motions are caused by the wing inertia or actuated through the musculoskeletal system. Here we perform a computational analysis of the pitching dynamics by incorporating the realistic wing kinematics to determine the inertial effects. The aerodynamic effect is also included using the pressure data from a previous three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of a hovering hummingbird. The results show that like many insects, pitch reversal of the hummingbird is, to a large degree, caused by the wing inertia. However, actuation power input at the root is needed in the beginning of pronation to initiate a fast pitch reversal and also in mid-downstroke to enable a nose-up pitching motion for lift enhancement. The muscles on the wing may not necessarily be activated for pitching of the distal section. Finally, power analysis of the flapping motion shows that there is no requirement for substantial elastic energy storage or energy absorption at the shoulder joint. (paper)

  15. Reassessment of the wing feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica suggests no robust evidence for the presence of elongated dorsal wing coverts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L Nudds

    Full Text Available Recently it was proposed that the primary feathers of Archaeopteryx lithographica (HMN1880 were overlaid by long covert feathers, and that a multilayered feathered wing was a feature of early fossils with feathered forelimbs. The proposed long covert feathers of Archaeopteryx were previously interpreted as dorsally displaced remiges or a second set of impressions made by the wing. The following study shows that the qualitative arguments forwarded in support of the elongated covert hypothesis are neither robust nor supported quantitatively. The idea that the extant bird wing with its single layer of overlapping primaries evolved from an earlier multilayered heavily coveted feathered forelimb as seen in Anchiornis huxleyi is reasonable. At this juncture, however, it is premature to conclude unequivocally that the wing of Archaeopteryx consisted of primary feathers overlaid with elongated coverts.

  16. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility Corridors at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Air Force Base, California Figure 3-6 Los Angeles County Significant Ecological Areas 76 Environmental Assessment for Proposed Utility... Ecological Areas designated by Los Angeles County (refer to Section 3.7.2);  Potential wildlife movement corridors; and 81 Environmental Assessment...412th Test Wing Civil Engineer Group Environmental Management Division Edwards Air Force Base, California ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR PROPOSED

  17. The Secret Air War Over France USAAF Special Operations Units in the French Campaign of 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Alfred H. Paddock, Jr. US Army Special Warfare (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1982), 118- 129. 161. Charles A. Ravenstein ...1954. Ravenstein , Charles A. Air Force Combat Wings. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1984. Rositzke, Harry The CIA�s Secret

  18. Conceptual Design Tool for Fuel-Cell Powered Micro Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    fsID=10469&page=1, accessed 11 Jan 10, Nov 09. 39 Stewart, K., Wagener , J., Abate, G., and Salichon, M., ―Design of the Air Force Research... Wagener , J., Czabaranek, J., and Abate, G., ―Development and Initial Flight Tests of a Single-Jointed Articulated-Wing Micro Air Vehicle,‖ AIAA 2008-6708

  19. Quantification of hood effectiveness and entrained subsurface air in a Seattle Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1994-05-01

    An underground 3-story wing of a hospital having problems with sewer air odors was tested with perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to quantify the performance of the mechanical ventilation system and determine the extent of sewer air entrainment and chemical hood effectiveness.

  20. UNDERGRADUATE AIR BATTLE MANAGER TRAINING: PREPARED TO ACHIEVE COMBAT MISSION READY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    weapons directing practice with MU-2 and F-15C aircraft.”xxii The MU-2 aircraft is a high wing, turbo -prop aircraft that was used to provide air-to-air...most dynamic AWO position on the jet , more live training was required. The second most dynamic position on the crew was Tanker AWO, or more commonly

  1. Fuzzy Model-based Pitch Stabilization and Wing Vibration Suppression of Flexible Wing Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Mohammad A.; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy nonlinear controller to regulate the longitudinal dynamics of an aircraft and suppress the bending and torsional vibrations of its flexible wings. The fuzzy controller utilizes full-state feedback with input constraint. First, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy linear model is developed which approximates the coupled aeroelastic aircraft model. Then, based on the fuzzy linear model, a fuzzy controller is developed to utilize a full-state feedback and stabilize the system while it satisfies the control input constraint. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are employed to solve the fuzzy control problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM).

  2. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  3. Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Sun, Mao

    2012-05-07

    We investigated the aerodynamic effects of wing deformation and corrugation of a three-dimensional model hoverfly wing at a hovering condition by solving the Navier-Stokes equations on a dynamically deforming grid. Various corrugated wing models were tested. Insight into whether or not there existed significant aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation (camber and twist) and wing corrugation was obtained by comparing aerodynamic forces of four cases: a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid flat-plate wing in flapping motion); a smooth-plate wing in flapping motion with deformation; a corrugated wing in flapping motion without deformation (i.e. a rigid corrugated wing in flapping motion); a corrugated wing in flapping motion with deformation. There was little aerodynamic coupling between wing deformation and corrugation: the aerodynamic effect of wing deformation and corrugation acting together was approximately a superposition of those of deformation and corrugation acting separately. When acting alone, the effect of wing deformation was to increase the lift by 9.7% and decrease the torque (or aerodynamic power) by 5.2%, and that of wing corrugation was to decrease the lift by 6.5% and increase the torque by 2.2%. But when acting together, the wing deformation and corrugation only increased the lift by ~3% and decreased the torque by ~3%. That is, the combined aerodynamic effect of deformation and corrugation is rather small. Thus, wing corrugation is mainly for structural, not aerodynamic, purpose, and in computing or measuring the aerodynamic forces, using a rigid flat-plate wing to model the corrugated deforming wing at hovering condition can be a good approximation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Butterfly wing colors : glass scales of Graphium sarpedon cause polarized iridescence and enhance blue/green pigment coloration of the wing membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Giraldo, Marco A.; Leertouwer, Hein L.

    2010-01-01

    The wings of the swordtail butterfly Graphium sarpedon nipponum contain the bile pigment sarpedobilin, which causes blue/green colored wing patches. Locally the bile pigment is combined with the strongly blue-absorbing carotenoid lutein, resulting in green wing patches and thus improving camouflage.

  5. Observations and Measurements of Wing Parameters of the Selected Beetle Species and the Design of a Mechanism Structure Implementing a Complex Wing Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, T.

    2016-12-01

    Beetle wings perform a flapping movement, consisting of the rotation relative to the two axes. This paper presents the results of observations and measurements of wings operating parameters in different planes of some beetle species. High speed photos and videos were used. The concept of the mechanism performing a complex wing movement was proposed and developed.

  6. Observations and Measurements of Wing Parameters of the Selected Beetle Species and the Design of a Mechanism Structure Implementing a Complex Wing Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetle wings perform a flapping movement, consisting of the rotation relative to the two axes. This paper presents the results of observations and measurements of wings operating parameters in different planes of some beetle species. High speed photos and videos were used. The concept of the mechanism performing a complex wing movement was proposed and developed.

  7. Real-time in vivo imaging of butterfly wing development: revealing the cellular dynamics of the pupal wing tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Iwata

    Full Text Available Butterfly wings are covered with regularly arranged single-colored scales that are formed at the pupal stage. Understanding pupal wing development is therefore crucial to understand wing color pattern formation. Here, we successfully employed real-time in vivo imaging techniques to observe pupal hindwing development over time in the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. A transparent sheet of epithelial cells that were not yet regularly arranged was observed immediately after pupation. Bright-field imaging and autofluorescent imaging revealed free-moving hemocytes and tracheal branches of a crinoid-like structure underneath the epithelium. The wing tissue gradually became gray-white, epithelial cells were arranged regularly, and hemocytes disappeared, except in the bordering lacuna, after which scales grew. The dynamics of the epithelial cells and scale growth were also confirmed by fluorescent imaging. Fluorescent in vivo staining further revealed that these cells harbored many mitochondria at the surface of the epithelium. Organizing centers for the border symmetry system were apparent immediately after pupation, exhibiting a relatively dark optical character following treatment with fluorescent dyes, as well as in autofluorescent images. The wing tissue exhibited slow and low-frequency contraction pulses with a cycle of approximately 10 to 20 minutes, mainly occurring at 2 to 3 days postpupation. The pulses gradually became slower and weaker and eventually stopped. The wing tissue area became larger after contraction, which also coincided with an increase in the autofluorescence intensity that might have been caused by scale growth. Examination of the pattern of color development revealed that the black pigment was first deposited in patches in the central areas of an eyespot black ring and a parafocal element. These results of live in vivo imaging that covered wide wing area for a long time can serve as a foundation for studying the

  8. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klu, G.Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M.; Dinku, E.; Dikumwin, E.

    1989-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M 2 a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M 3 , mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected

  9. Vortex Lattice Simulations of Attached and Separated Flows around Flapping Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lambert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production. In this work, the unsteady vortex lattice method is used in conjunction with three load estimation techniques in order to predict the aerodynamic lift and drag time histories produced by flapping rectangular wings. The load estimation approaches are the Katz, Joukowski and simplified Leishman–Beddoes techniques. The simulations’ predictions are compared to experimental measurements from wind tunnel tests of a flapping and pitching wing. Three types of kinematics are investigated, pitch-leading, pure flapping and pitch lagging. It is found that pitch-leading tests can be simulated quite accurately using either the Katz or Joukowski approaches as no measurable flow separation occurs. For the pure flapping tests, the Katz and Joukowski techniques are accurate as long as the static pitch angle is greater than zero. For zero or negative static pitch angles, these methods underestimate the amplitude of the drag. The Leishman–Beddoes approach yields better drag amplitudes, but can introduce a constant negative drag offset. Finally, for the pitch-lagging tests the Leishman–Beddoes technique is again more representative of the experimental results, as long as flow separation is not too extensive. Considering the complexity of the phenomena involved, in the vast majority of cases, the lift time history is predicted with reasonable accuracy. The drag (or thrust time history is more challenging.

  10. Experiments on a low aspect ratio wing at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel R.

    At the start of the 21st century much of the focus of aircraft design has been turned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which generally operate at much lower speeds in higher risk areas than manned aircraft. One subset of UAVs are Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which usually are no larger than 20cm and rely on non-traditional shapes to generate lift at very low velocities. This purpose of this work is to describe, in detail with experimental methods, the flow field around a low aspect ratio wing operating at low Reynolds numbers and at high angles of attack. Quantitative measurements are obtained by Three Component Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (3C TR PIV) which describe the mean and turbulent flow field. This research focuses on the leading edge separation zone and the vortex shedding process which occurs at the leading edge. Streamwise wing tip vortices which dominate the lift characteristics are described with flow visualization and 3C TR PIV measurements. Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is described at the leading edge over several angles of attack. Turbulent Reynolds stresses in all three directions are described over the wing span and several Reynolds numbers. Two primary cyclic processes are observed within the flow field; one low frequency oscillation in the separated region and one high frequency event associated with leading edge vortex formation and convection. Two length scales are proposed and are shown to match well with each other, one based on leading edge vortex shedding frequency and convective velocity and the other based on mean vortex separation distance. A new method of rendering velocity frequency content over large data sets is proposed and used to illustrate the different frequencies observed at the leading edge.

  11. A new technique for investigating the induced and profile drag coefficients of a smooth wing and a tubercled wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolzon Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The induced and profile drag coefficients of a wing are typically determined through a complex experimental technique, such as wake surveying. Such a technique requires measurement of all three orthogonal components of the downstream velocity to find the components of drag, which results in the necessary usage of a sophisticated and costly measurement device, such as multi-hole pressure probe. However, in this paper data is presented which demonstrate that the relative changes in the induced and profile drag coefficients can largely be determined through the sole measurement of the downstream, streamwise velocity. To demonstrate this, the induced and profile drags of two NACA 0021 wings, one with a smooth leading edge and the other wing a tubercled leading edge for comparison, are determined through the measurement of the three orthogonal velocities. The downstream, streamwise velocity distribution of each wing is then constructed and relationships can be determined. The wings were surveyed at 3°, 9°, and 12°. It has been found that the relative magnitude of the profile drag coefficient can be found for all considered angles of attack, while the relative magnitude of the induced drag coefficient can be found at 9° and 12°. These findings produce an innovative, simpler, and more cost effective experimental technique in determining the components of drag of a wing, and reduces the burdensome requirement of a sophisticated measurement device for such an experiment. Further investigation is required to determine the induced drag at 3°.

  12. Assessing genotoxicity of diuron on Drosophila melanogaster by the wing-spot test and the wing imaginal disk comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Vega, Ricardo I; Castañeda-Sortibrán, América N; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of the herbicide diuron in the wing-spot test and a novel wing imaginal disk comet assay in Drosophila melanogaster. The wing-spot test was performed with standard (ST) and high-bioactivation (HB) crosses after providing chronic 48 h treatment to third instar larvae. A positive dose-response effect was observed in both crosses, but statistically reduced spot frequencies were registered for the HB cross compared with the ST. This latter finding suggests that metabolism differences play an important role in the genotoxic effect of diuron. To verify diuron's ability to produce DNA damage, a wing imaginal disk comet assay was performed after providing 24 h diuron treatment to ST and HB third instar larvae. DNA damage induced by the herbicide had a significantly positive dose-response effect even at very low concentrations in both strains. However, as noted for the wing-spot test, a significant difference between strains was not observed that could be related to the duration of exposure between both assays. A positive correlation between the comet assay and the wing-spot test was found with regard to diuron genotoxicity.

  13. MicroRNAs of the mesothorax in Qinlingacris elaeodes, an alpine grasshopper showing a wing polymorphism with unilateral wing form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R; Jiang, G F; Ren, Q P; Wang, Y T; Zhou, X M; Zhou, C F; Qin, D Z

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key post-transcriptional regulators in regulation of phenotypic diversity. Qinlingacris elaeodes is a species of the alpine grasshopper, which is endemic to China. Adult individuals have three wing forms: wingless, unilateral-winged and short-winged. This is an ideal species to investigate the phenotypic plasticity, development and evolution of insect wings because of its case of unilateral wing form in both the sexes. We sequenced a small RNA library prepared from mesothoraxes of the adult grasshoppers using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. Approximately 12,792,458 raw reads were generated, of which the 854,580 high-quality reads were used only for miRNA identification. In this study, we identified 49 conserved miRNAs belonging to 41 families and 69 species-specific miRNAs. Moreover, seven miRNA*s were detected both for conserved miRNAs and species-specific miRNAs, which were supported by hairpin forming precursors based on polymerase chain reaction. This is the first description of miRNAs in alpine grasshoppers. The results provide a useful resource for further studies on molecular regulation and evolution of miRNAs in grasshoppers. These findings not only enrich the miRNAs for insects but also lay the groundwork for the study of post-transcriptional regulation of wing forms.

  14. Physiological trade-off between cellular immunity and flight capability in the wing-dimorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand cricket, Gryllus firmus, is a wing-dimorphic species with long-wing (LW) and short wing (LW) morphs. The LW forms have very well developed wings and flight muscles and their SW counterparts have reduced wings and flight muscles, coupled with greater resource allocations to reproduction. Thi...

  15. Investigation of asymmetry of vortex flow over slender delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbaz, Ghasem

    Vortex flow, a major area of interest in fluid mechanics, is widespread in nature and in many man-made fluid mechanical devices. It can create havoc as cyclones or tornadoes or have significant implications in the performance of turbo-fluid machines or supersonic vehicles and so forth. Asymmetric vortices can cause a loss of lift and increase in rolling moment which can significantly affect wing stability and control. Up until the early nineties, it was generally believed that vortex asymmetry was the result of vortex interactions due to the close proximity of vortices over slender delta wings. However, some recent studies have thrown considerable doubt on the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a series of nine delta wing planforms with sharp and round leading edges to examine the occurrence of vortex asymmetry at different angles of attack and sideslip. The study included surface oil and laser light sheet flow visualization in addition to surface pressure and hot-wire velocity measurements under static conditions. The effects of incidence, sideslip and sweep angles as well as Reynolds number variations were investigated. In this study, it was found that the effect of apex and leading edge shape played an important role in vortex asymmetry generation at high angle of attack. Vortex asymmetry was not observed over slender sharp leading edge delta wings due to the separation point being fixed at the sharp leading edge. Experimental results for these wings showed that the vortices do not impinge on one another because they do not get any closer beyond a certain value of angle of attack. Thus vortex asymmetry was not generated. However, significant vortex asymmetry was observed for round leading-edged delta wings. Asymmetric separation positions over the round leading edge was the result of laminar/turbulent transition which caused vortex asymmetry on these delta wing configurations. Sideslip angle and vortex

  16. Study of Passive Flow Control for Ship Air Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    and Kestrel , a Department of Defense CFD code. Simulations have been performed for various wind over deck velocities and starboard crosswind angles...Burks, J.S., “Comparison of Experimental and Computational Ship Air Wakes for YP Class Patrol Craft,” American Society of Naval Engineers...and Investigation of Ship Air Wake Impact on Rotary Wing Aircraft,” American Society of Naval Engineers Launch and Recovery Symposium, Linthicum, MD

  17. Performance Assessment in a Heat Exchanger Tube with Opposite/Parallel Wing Twisted Tapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eiamsa-ard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermohydraulic performance in a tube containing a modified twisted tape with alternate-axes and wing arrangements is reported. This work aims to investigate the effects of wing arrangements (opposite (O and parallel (P wings at different wing shapes (triangle (Tri, rectangular (Rec, and trapezoidal (Tra wings and on the thermohydraulic performance characteristics. The obtained results show that wing twisted tapes with all wing shape arrangements (O-Tri/O-Rec/O-Tra/P-Tri/P-Rec/P-Tra give superior thermohydraulic performance and heat transfer rate to the typical twisted tape. In addition, the tapes with opposite wing arrangement of O-Tra, O-Rec, and O-Tri give superior thermohydraulic performances to those with parallel wing arrangement of P-Tra, P-Rec, and P-Tri around 2.7%, 3.5%, and 3.2%, respectively.

  18. Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  19. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  20. Effects of flexibility and aspect ratio on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Junjiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shyy, Wei; Qiu, Huihe

    2018-01-26

    In the current study, we experimentally investigated the flexibility effects on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings and the correlation with aspect ratio at angle of attack α = 45o. The Reynolds number based on the chord length and the wing tip velocity is maintained at Re = 5.3x103. Our result for compliant wings with an aspect ratio of 4 shows that wing flexibility can offer improved aerodynamic performance compared to that of a rigid wing. Flexible wings are found to offer higher lift-to-drag ratios; in particular, there is significant reduction in drag with little compromise in lift. The mechanism of the flexibility effects on the aerodynamic performance is addressed by quantifying the aerodynamic lift and drag forces, the transverse displacement on the wings and the flow field around the wings. The regime of the effective stiffness that offers improved aerodynamic performance is quantified in a range of about 0.5~10 and it matches the stiffness of insect wings with similar aspect ratios. Furthermore, we find that the aspect ratio of the wing is the predominant parameter determining the flexibility effects of compliant wings. Compliant wings with an aspect ratio of two do not demonstrate improved performance compared to their rigid counterparts throughout the entire stiffness regime investigated. The correlation between wing flexibility effects and the aspect ratio is supported by the stiffness of real insect wings. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.