WorldWideScience

Sample records for window insulating film

  1. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  2. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  3. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  4. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueping Fang; Eames, P.C.; Hyde, T.J. [University of Ulster, Newtonabbey (United Kingdom). Centre for Sustainable Technologies; Norton, B. [Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5 m by 0.5 m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32 mm diameter pillars spaced 25 mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10 mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  5. Complex multimaterial insulating frames for windows with evacuated glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C.; Hyde, Trevor J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, N. Ireland BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2005-09-01

    The thermal performance of a complex multimaterial frame consisting of an exoskeleton framework and cavities filled with insulant materials enclosing an evacuated glazing was simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model and the results were validated experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. The analysed 0.5m by 0.5m evacuated glazing consisted of two low-emittance film coated glass panes supported by an array of 0.32mm diameter pillars spaced 25mm apart, contiguously sealed by a 10mm wide metal edge seal. Thermal performance of windows employing evacuated glazing set in various complex multimaterial frames were analysed in detail. Very good agreement was found between simulations and experimental measurements of surface temperatures of the evacuated glazing window system. The heat loss from a window with an evacuated glazing and a complex multimaterial frame is about 80% of that for a window comprised of an evacuated glazing set in a single material solid frame. (author)

  6. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...

  7. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  8. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ≤ 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  9. Optical conductivity of topological insulator thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L. L.; Xu, W.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study on the optoelectronic properties of topological insulator thin film (TITFs). The k·p approach is employed to calculate the energy spectra and wave functions for both the bulk and surface states in the TITF. With these obtained results, the optical conductivities induced by different electronic transitions among the bulk and surface states are evaluated using the energy-balance equation derived from the Boltzmann equation. We find that for Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs, three characteristic regimes for the optical absorption can be observed. (i) In the low radiation frequency regime (photon energy ℏω<200 meV), the free-carrier absorption takes place due to intraband electronic transitions. An optical absorption window can be observed. (ii) In the intermediate radiation frequency regime (200<ℏω<300 meV), the optical absorption is induced mainly by interband electronic transitions from surface states in the valance band to surface states in the conduction band and an universal value σ 0 =e 2 /(8ℏ) for the optical conductivity can be obtained. (iii) In the high radiation frequency regime (ℏω>300 meV), the optical absorption can be achieved via interband electronic transitions from bulk and surface states in the valance band to bulk and surface states in the conduction band. A strong absorption peak can be observed. These interesting findings indicate that optical measurements can be applied to identify the energy regimes of bulk and surface states in the TITF

  10. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...

  11. Experiences with sound insulating open windows in traffic noise exposed housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    purposes, including during night, or simply because it’s a good feeling to have windows open to be in contact with the surroundings. High noise exposure can lead to adverse effects on comfort and health, and thus, there is a need for sound insulating open windows to reduce noise exposure in homes, when......Sound insulating windows are widely used in traffic noise exposed residential areas to reduce indoor noise levels to acceptable levels. However, such windows are typically only designed to provide sound insulation in closed position, and many people prefer open windows parts of time for ventilation...... with different solutions has been collected, and additional field experiments have been carried out in a case with transparent external shutters with sound absorbing slits for ventilation along window sides. It is concluded that occupants in general are satisfied with the solutions and further development...

  12. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...... material. Due to the low density, the acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency of piezoelectric transducers. • Waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc.......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  13. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    -free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its...... avoidance. The final aerogel window is optimised with regard to its production and performance in view of the technical, economical and life cycle aspects. The aerogel production process has been optimised and tuned so monolithic silica aerogel sheets are produced with more than 85% crack free sheets per...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  14. Investigating the impact of noise incidence angle on the sound insulation of a supply air window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten B.; Tambo, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound i...... in the receiving room ceiling, have been simulated and show a general improvement of the sound reduction index from 500 Hz and above, and an improvement of ~3-4 dB at 2 kHz, in relation to the noise angle ofindidence.......The Danish Environmental Agency introduced in 2007 a guideline “Noise from roads”, in which noise limits for open windows were introduced. This guideline has led to investigations of open windows with good sound insulation, and among one of these windows are the “Supply Air Window”. Prior sound...... insulation measurements of the Supply Air Window show a difference in the frequency range above 2 kHz, for field measurements carried out according to EN ISO 140-5 and laboratory measurements carried out according to EN ISO 10140-2. It is found that the sound insulation measured in the field setup...

  15. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  16. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  17. Exploring the Solar Window Film: the Making of Landscape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Solar Window film is a 2ply celluloid clear and coloured material used for tinting solid plain surfaced glass(especially for car window glasses) for either decoration as in personal vehicles or as obscurity as in Ambulance vehicles against public viewing. This paper also emphasizes that its use is limited to only flat colour ...

  18. Flexible transparent aerogels as window retrofitting films and optical elements with tunable birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qingkun; Frazier, Allister W.; Zhao, Xinpeng; De La Cruz, Joshua A.; Hess, Andrew J.; Yang, Ronggui; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-06-01

    Experimental realization of optically transparent, mechanically robust and flexible aerogels has been a longstanding challenge, which limits their practical applications in energy-saving devices, such as thermally insulating films for enhancing energy efficiency of windows. The poor transparency precluded even hypothetical consideration of the possibility of birefringent aerogels. We develop birefringent and optically isotropic aerogels that combine properties of thermal super-insulation, mechanical robustness and flexibility, and transparency to visible-spectrum light. This unusual combination of physical properties is achieved by combining liquid crystalline self-organization of cellulose nanofibers with polysiloxane cross-linking and control of the nanoscale porosity to form hybrid organic-inorganic mesostructured aerogels. Potential applications of these inexpensive materials range from single pane window retrofitting to smart fabrics.

  19. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  20. WO/sub 3/ thin films for practical electrochromic windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, R.B.; Wong, K.; Foley, G.; Norton, P.; Wamboldt, L.; Seward, G.; Haas, T.; Chapman, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper shows that practical spectrally-selective transmittance modulation can be achieved with thin (50-100nm) WO/sub 3/ films, and therefore such films should be useful for fabricating electrochromic windows. The transmittance and reflectance modulation results are compared with theoretical predictions. The results indicate an excess intraband absorptance, which is attributed to free electron scattering arising from extended defects

  1. Electrically tunable window based on microwrinkled ZnO/Ag thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Milan; Asundi, Anand; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2017-04-01

    Micro-winkling can turn a transparent thin-film of zinc oxide (ZnO) to be `opaque' that can be reversed by unfolding to restore back to the clear state. This principle was previously used to make a mechanically tunable window device. However, ZnO thin film cannot make a compliant electrode to enable electrical unfolding due to its insulator nature. This paper reports the use of multilayer thin films of 10nm silver (Ag) and 30nm thick ZnO to form a compliant electrode with electrically tunable transmittance. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) with a pair of such compliant Ag/ZnO thin films on both sides of a polyacrylate elastomeric membrane (3M VHB 4910) makes an electrically tunable window device. The DEA without radial compression of the elastomer has wrinkle-free electrode. Hence, it is clear with a 47% in-line transmittance (for 550nm wavelength light). In the wrinkled form, under 10% radial compression, it becomes opaque (with less than 1% transmittance). A voltage induced areal expansion of 10% radial strain enables the electrical unfolding of the initial wrinkles. In addition, this device continues to work after 4000 cycles of unfolding and microwrinkling of Ag/ZnO. The performance of electrically tunable window device is comparable to the existing smart window technologies.

  2. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the

  3. Thermal resistant efficiency of Nb-doped TiO2 thin film based glass window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Manh Quynh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proportional relationship between the infrared (IR transmittance of a transparent material and its IR-induced heat transfer can be explained via a simple model. An agreement between the theory and the experimental work was examined by measuring the temperature rising inside a heat-insulated box with glass windows under IR irradiation, where the material of the glass windows was modified from corning glass (CG to 9 at% Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO fabricated by sputtering deposition. The fabricated TNO thin film was mostly transparent in a visible region and had a low transparency in the IR region, which, in turn, produced the self-cooling effect inside the insulated box. In comparison to the window glass made by CG, the temperature increase inside the box would be 24% less if the window was made by CG coated by TNO (TNO on CG. This suggests the possibility of manufacturing products with desirable features in the energy-cut cooling. The energy-cut was found to decline proportionally to the decrease of the glass window area.

  4. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  5. The influence of the thermo-phono-insulating glazing structure configuration of some PVC profile windows on the airborne sound insulation – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After conducting laboratory acoustic measurements of airborne sound insulation for several windows with the same type of PVC profiles, equipped with different types of phono- and thermal - insulating glazings, the influence of the window’s glazed part (glass structure configuration on airborne sound insulation was analyzed. The configuration of the structure’s glazed part requires its composition of glass sheets with different thicknesses or intermediate layers of air with different thicknesses. This configuration has an important influence on the acoustic response of windows, namely on the index of air noise sound insulation, Rw, and on the behavior of the entire measurement frequency range.

  6. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  7. NON-INTRUSIVE SENSOR FOR GAS FILL VERIFICATION OF INSULATED GLASS WINDOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Freedman; Paul L. Kebabian; Richard R. Romano; James Woodroffe

    2003-10-01

    A sensor capable of measuring the amount of oxygen (an unwanted component that is only present because of improper filling or seal failure) within an argon-filled insulated glass window has been designed, built and successfully tested. It operates by using the optical absorption of oxygen in the atmospheric A-band centered at 762 nm. Light emitted by an argon-filled surface glow discharge lamp is Zeeman-tuned on and off an oxygen absorption line using an AC-modulated electromagnet. In the presence of oxygen, the change in the measured intensity of the lamp, obtained using standard demodulation techniques, is proportional to the oxygen column density. Measurements using an industry-standard insulated glass window indicate that the sensor can measure the amount of oxygen in a nominally argon-filled IG window (with a window gap of 10 mm) with a precision of 0.50% oxygen using a 16 second integration time. This level of precision is well within the limits required by the IG window manufacturing industry for proper monitoring of newly manufactured window units.

  8. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  9. Adhesion characteristics of VO2 ink film sintered by intense pulsed light for smart window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ji Won; Lee, Seok-Jae; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Dae Up

    2018-05-01

    Progress in the development of energy-efficient coatings on glass has led to the research of smart windows that can modulate solar energy in response to an external stimulus like light, heat, or electricity. Thermochromic smart windows have attracted great interest because they provide highly visible transparency and intelligently controllable solar heat. VO2 has been widely used as coating material for thermochromism owing to its reversible metal-to-insulator transition near room temperature. However, unstable crystalline phases and expensive fabrication processes of VO2 films limit their facile application in smart windows. To overcome these restrictions, we manufactured nanoinks based on VO2 nanoparticles and fabricated films using spin coating and intense pulsed light (IPL) sintering on a quartz substrate. We examined adhesion between the VO2 nanoink films and the quartz substrate by varying the applied voltages and the number of pulses. The average adhesion of thin films increased to 83 and 108 N/m as the applied voltage during IPL sintering increased from 1400 to 2000 V. By increasing the number of pulses from 5 to 20, the adhesive strength increased from 83 to 94 N/m at 1400 V, and decreased from 108 to 96 N/m at 2000 V voltage.

  10. Improving the Performance of a Semitransparent BIPV by Using High-Reflectivity Heat Insulation Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, standard semitransparent photovoltaic (PV modules can largely replace architectural glass installed in the windows, skylights, and facade of a building. Their main features are power generation and transparency, as well as possessing a heat insulating effect. Through heat insulation solar glass (HISG encapsulation technology, this study improved the structure of a typical semitransparent PV module and explored the use of three types of high-reflectivity heat insulation films to form the HISG building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV systems. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the influence of HISG structures on the optical, thermal, and power generation performance of the original semitransparent PV module and the degree to which enhanced performance is possible. The experimental results indicated that the heat insulation performance and power generation of HISGs were both improved. Selecting an appropriate heat insulation film so that a larger amount of reflective solar radiation is absorbed by the back side of the HISG can yield greater enhancement of power generation. The numerical results conducted in this study also indicated that HISG BIPV system not only provides the passive energy needed for power loading in a building, but also decreases the energy consumption of the HVAC system in subtropical and temperate regions.

  11. Study of thin insulating films using secondary ion emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilleret, Noel

    1973-01-01

    Secondary ion emission from insulating films was investigated using a CASTAING-SLODZIAN ion analyzer. Various different aspects of the problem were studied: charge flow across a silica film; the mobilization of sodium during ion bombardment; consequences of the introduction of oxygen on the emission of secondary ions from some solids; determination of the various characteristics of secondary ion emission from silica, silicon nitride and silicon. An example of measurements made using this type of operation is presented: profiles (concentration as a function of depth) of boron introduced by diffusion or implantation in thin films of silica on silicon or silicon nitride. Such measurements have applications in microelectronics. The same method of operation was extended to other types of insulating film, and in particular, to the metallurgical study of passivation films formed on the surface of stainless steels. (author) [fr

  12. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters and to tran...... the thermal bridge effect of the rim seal solution is measured to 0.74 W/m2K. The solar energy transmittance is measured to 76% thanks to the use of low-iron glass with an anti reflective coating....

  13. Quantum magnetotransport properties of ultrathin topological insulator films

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-01-30

    We study the quantum magnetotransport in ultrathin topological insulator films in an external magnetic field considering hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the film. We investigate the two possible mechanisms for splitting of Landau levels, Zeeman and hybridization effects, and show that their interplay leads to minima in the collisional and Hall conductivities with a metal-to-insulator phase transition at the charge neutrality point. Hall plateaus arise at unusual multiples of e2/h . Evidence of a quantum phase transition for the zeroth and splitting of the higher Landau levels is found from the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the transport.

  14. Metal-insulator transition in epitaxial vanadium sesquioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allimi, Bamidele S.

    Of all the transition metal oxides which exhibit metal-insulator transitions (MIT), one of the most extensively studied in recent years is the vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3), both from experimental and theoretical point of view. At a transition temperature of about 160 K at an ambient pressure of 1 atm, pure V2O3 transforms from a rhombohedral paramagnetic metallic (PM) to a monoclinic antiferromagnetic insulating (AFI) phase upon cooling, with a jump in the resistivity of about seven orders of magnitude. Experimental studies have focused more on bulk V2O3 and recently there have been significant interest in thin film fabrication of this material due to potential applications as thermal sensors, current limiters, Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) thermistors, and optical switches. This study addresses the deposition, characterization, and properties of high-quality epitaxial V2O3 thin films grown on a-, c-Al2O3 and c-LiTaO 3 substrates by a straightforward method of pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy were used to examine the structural, crystallographic, and surface properties, while four point probe resistivity measurements were used to examine the electrical properties of the films. V2O3 thin films of different thicknesses ranging from 10-450 nm were deposited on c-Al 2O3 and c-LiTaO3 substrates by PLD to understand also the role of epitaxial strains. Resistivity measurements showed that depending on the thicknesses of films, different electrical transitions were exhibited by the samples. While some of the samples displayed the expected metal-insulator transition typical of bulk V2O3, some showed insulating behavior only and others exhibited metallic characteristics only over the whole temperature range. For example, for films on c-LiTaO3 with increasing film thickness, first an insulator-insulator, then a

  15. Fabrication and characterization of Aerogel-Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) Insulation Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yeoung ah; Song, Sinae; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    The building has a large impact on the space heating demand and the indoor environment is affected by climate or daylight. Hence, silica aerogel has generally used as a film to reduce the coefficient of the window in the building. Silica aerogel is a suitable material to apply for insulation material with lower thermal conductivity than that of air to save interior energy. However expensive precursor and drying process were the main issue of the silica aerogel synthesis and practical usage. We attempt to fabricate aerogel insulation film for energy saving through the economic process under ambient pressure. Silica aerogel was synthesized from rice husk ash, which was an agricultural waste to be able to recycle. Taguchi design was used to optimize the parameters (amount of rice husk ash, pH, aging time) controlling the surface area of silica aerogel. The silica aerogel is prepared by sol-gel processing through acidic treatment and aging. The silica aerogel was obtained by modification of silica hydrogel surface and dry at ambient pressure. Finally, aerogel film was respectively fabricated by the different content of aerogel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Silica aerogel obtained 21 – 24nm average particle size was analyzed by SEM and silica aerogel with high surface area (832.26 m2/g), pore size ( 3.30nm ) was characterized by BET. Then silica Aerogel – PDMS insulation film with thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK) was analyzed by thermal wave system. The study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost route toward silica – PDMS insulation film with low thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK).

  16. Topological phases of topological-insulator thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Vekhter, Ilya

    2018-02-01

    We study the properties of a thin film of topological insulator material. We treat the coupling between helical states at opposite surfaces of the film in the properly-adapted tunneling approximation, and show that the tunneling matrix element oscillates as a function of both the film thickness and the momentum in the plane of the film for Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 . As a result, while the magnitude of the matrix element at the center of the surface Brillouin zone gives the gap in the energy spectrum, the sign of the matrix element uniquely determines the topological properties of the film, as demonstrated by explicitly computing the pseudospin textures and the Chern number. We find a sequence of transitions between topological and nontopological phases, separated by semimetallic states, as the film thickness varies. In the topological phase, the edge states of the film always exist but only carry a spin current if the edge potentials break particle-hole symmetry. The edge states decay very slowly away from the boundary in Bi2Se3 , making Bi2Te3 , where this scale is shorter, a more promising candidate for the observation of these states. Our results hold for free-standing films as well as heterostructures with large-gap insulators.

  17. New Fabrication Technique of Conductive Polymer / Insulating Polymer Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yayoi; Mathur, Paramatma Chandra; Bhatnagar, Pramod Kumar; Tada, Kazuya; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    The electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on an ITO (indium-tin oxide) coated glass electrode with an insulating film of poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the ITO electrode. Especially, the solvent with hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method to form electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by using similar technique we have fabricated poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA composite films and investigated their electrochemical basic properties.

  18. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Simple Design Tool for Development of Well Insulated Window Frames and Optimization of the Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    is generated by the program and is used by the finite element simulator to calculate the thermal performance of the frame (the U value). After the initial design is evaluated, the user can quickly modify chosen parameters and generate a new design. This process can then be repeated in multiple iterations...... in order to approach an optimal solution. The program was also used to conduct an optimization process of the frame geometry. A large number of various window frame designs were created and evaluated, based on their insulation properties. The paper presents the investigation process and some of the best...

  20. Unusual metal-insulator transition in disordered ferromagnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.; Wölfle, P.; Misra, R.; Hebard, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical interpretation of recent data on the conductance near and farther away from the metal-insulator transition in thin ferromagnetic Gd films of thickness b≈2-10 nm. For increasing sheet resistances a dimensional crossover takes place from d=2 to d=3 dimensions, since the large phase relaxation rate caused by scattering of quasiparticles off spin wave excitations renders the dephasing length L φ ≲b at strong disorder. The conductivity data in the various regimes obey fractional power-law or logarithmic temperature dependence. One observes weak localization and interaction induced corrections at weaker disorder. At strong disorder, near the metal-insulator transition, the data show scaling and collapse onto two scaling curves for the metallic and insulating regimes. We interpret this unusual behavior as proof of two distinctly different correlation length exponents on both sides of the transition.

  1. Topological Insulator Film Growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa P. Ginley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will review recent progress in the growth of topological insulator (TI thin films by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. The materials we focus on are the V2-VI3 family of TIs. These materials are ideally bulk insulating with surface states housing Dirac excitations which are spin-momentum locked. These surface states are interesting for fundamental physics studies (such as the search for Majorana fermions as well as applications in spintronics and other fields. However, the majority of TI films and bulk crystals exhibit significant bulk conductivity, which obscures these states. In addition, many TI films have a high defect density. This review will discuss progress in reducing the bulk conductivity while increasing the crystal quality. We will describe in detail how growth parameters, substrate choice, and growth technique influence the resulting TI film properties for binary and ternary TIs. We then give an overview of progress in the growth of TI heterostructures. We close by discussing the bright future for TI film growth by MBE.

  2. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  3. Infrared-transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion device with thin-film-transistor-type structure on a glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Katase

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR transmittance tunable metal-insulator conversion was demonstrated on a glass substrate by using thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2 as the active layer in a three-terminal thin-film-transistor-type device with water-infiltrated glass as the gate insulator. Alternative positive/negative gate-voltage applications induce the reversible protonation/deprotonation of a VO2 channel, and two-orders of magnitude modulation of sheet-resistance and 49% modulation of IR-transmittance were simultaneously demonstrated at room temperature by the metal-insulator phase conversion of VO2 in a non-volatile manner. The present device is operable by the room-temperature protonation in an all-solid-state structure, and thus it will provide a new gateway to future energy-saving technology as an advanced smart window.

  4. Strain-enhanced optical absorbance of topological insulator films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brems, Mathias Rosdahl; Paaske, Jens; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Topological insulator films are promising materials for optoelectronics due to a strong optical absorption and a thickness-dependent band gap of the topological surface states. They are superior candidates for photodetector applications in the THz-infrared spectrum, with a potential performance...... higher than graphene. Using a firstprinciples k.p Hamiltonian, incorporating all symmetry-allowed terms to second order in the wave vector k, first order in the strain c, and of order ck, we demonstrate a significantly improved optoelectronic performance due to strain. For Bi2Se3 films of variable...... thickness, the surface-state band gap, and thereby the optical absorption, can be effectively tuned by the application of uniaxial strain epsilon(zz), leading to a divergent band-edge absorbance for epsilon(zz) greater than or similar to 6%. Shear strain breaks the crystal symmetry and leads...

  5. Fundamentals of vanadium dioxide thin films as possible components of intelligent windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, Z. P.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research on the vanadium dioxide thin film, which can be used as intelligent windows, is reviewed, including the basic properties of V2, energy band structure, model of electronic energy and the origin of metal-to-insulator transition (MIT. Finally, the problems existing in the research and the possibility of application for VO2, as an intelligent thermochromic window are briefly discussed.

    En este artículo se revisan las investigaciones realizadas en películas delgadas de dióxido de vanadio que pueden ser usadas en componentes de ventanas inteligentes, incluyendo las propiedades básicas del VO2, tales como su estructura de bandas, modelo energético de tipo electrónico y el origen del fenómeno de la transición: metal-aislador (MIT en la literatura inglesa que constituye la base de las aplicaciones de estas películas. Finalmente, los problemas que hay en la investigación actual de este tipo de películas, así como sus posibles aplicaciones en ventanas inteligentes de tipo termocrómico, se discuten brevemente.

  6. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  7. In situ Raman spectroscopy of topological insulator BiTe films with varying thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, C.; Zhu, X.; Nilsson, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are a new state of quantum matter with a band gap in bulk and conducting surface states. In this work, the Raman spectra of topological insulator Bi2Te3 films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been measured by an in situ ultrahigh vacuum (UHV...

  8. Giant magneto-optical Kerr effect and universal Faraday effect in thin-film topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H

    2010-07-30

    Topological insulators can exhibit strong magneto-electric effects when their time-reversal symmetry is broken. In this Letter we consider the magneto-optical Kerr and Faraday effects of a topological insulator thin film weakly exchange coupled to a ferromagnet. We find that its Faraday rotation has a universal value at low frequencies θF=tan(-1)α, where α is the vacuum fine structure constant, and that it has a giant Kerr rotation θK=π/2. These properties follow from a delicate interplay between thin-film cavity confinement and the surface Hall conductivity of a topological insulator's helical quasiparticles.

  9. Phase coexistence in the metal-insulator transition of a VO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.J.; Koo, C.H.; Yang, J.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, J.S.; Noh, T.W.; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Chae, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) shows a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature, accompanied by an abrupt resistivity change. Since the MIT of VO 2 is known to be a first order phase transition, it is valuable to check metallic and insulating phase segregation during the MIT process. We deposited (100)-oriented epitaxial VO 2 thin films on R-cut sapphire substrates. From the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) spectra, we could distinguish metallic and insulating regions by probing the band gap. Optical spectroscopic analysis also supported the view that the MIT in VO 2 occurs through metal and insulator phase coexistence

  10. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  11. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while

  12. PEDOT/PSS-Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) Hybrid Films: Insulating HNTs Enhance Conductivity of the PEDOT/PSS Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Hu; Zhang, Ping; Li, Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    We have for the first time found that completely insulating Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) significantly enhance electrical conductivity of PEDOT/PSS films by simply mixing. Based on this accident finding we have created highly porous and conductive PEDOT/PSS films hybridized with the HNTs. Through further optimization of the mixing condition we have obtained flexible and conductive hybrid films with high specific surface area. Based on experimental evidences we proposed a plausible mechanism of...

  13. Measurement of full-field deformation induced by a dc electrical field in organic insulator films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudou L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital image correlation method (DIC using the correlation coefficient curve-fitting for full-field surface deformation measurements of organic insulator films is investigated in this work. First the validation of the technique was undertaken. The computer-generated speckle images and the measurement of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE of aluminium are used to evaluate the measurement accuracy of the technique. In a second part the technique is applied to measure the mechanical deformation induced by electrical field application to organic insulators. For that Poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate (PEN thin films were subjected to DC voltage stress and DIC provides the full-field induced deformations of the test films. The obtained results show that the DIC is a practical and robust tool for better comprehension of mechanical behaviour of the organic insulator films under electrical stress.

  14. Degradation of ZnO-based window layers for thin-film CIGS by accelerated stress exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; To, B.; DeHart, C.; Li, X.; Glick, S. H.

    2008-08-01

    The reliability of ZnO-based window layer for CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells was investigated. Samples of RF magnetron-sputtered, single-layer intrinsic and Al-doped ZnO and their combined bilayer on glass substrates were exposed in a weatherometer (WOM) and damp heat (DH) conditions with or without acetic acid vapor. Some preliminary samples of single-layer Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO (ZMO) alloy, a potential replacement for Al:ZnO with a wider bandgap, were also evaluated in the DH. The Al-doped ZnO and ZMO films showed irreversible loss in the conducting properties, free carrier mobility, and characteristic absorption band feature after DH > WOM. The degradation rate was also reduced by higher film thickness, higher deposition substrate temperature, and dry-out intervals. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that the ZnO-based films underwent structural degeneration by losing their highly (002) preferential orientation with possible transformation from hexagonal into cubic and formation of Zn(OH)2. Periodic optical micro-imaging observations suggested a temporal process that involves initial hydrolysis of the oxides at sporadic weak spots, swelling and popping of the hydrolyzed spots due to volume increase, segregation of hydrolyzed regions causing discontinuity of electrical path, hydrolysis of the oxide-glass interface, and finally, formation of insulating oxides/hydroxides with visible delamination over larger areas.

  15. Polysilsesquioxanes for Gate-Insulating Materials of Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Matsukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Printable organic thin-film transistor (O-TFT is one of the most recognized technical issues nowadays. Our recent progress on the formation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films consists of polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ, and its applications for the gate-insulating layer of O-TFTs are introduced in this paper. PMSQ synthesized in toluene solution with formic acid catalyst exhibited the electric resistivity of higher than 1014 Ω cm after thermal treatment at 150°C, and the very low concentration of residual silanol groups in PMSQ was confirmed. The PMSQ film contains no mobile ionic impurities, and this is also important property for the practical use for the gate-insulating materials. In the case of top-contact type TFT using poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT with PMSQ gate-insulating layer, the device properties were comparable with the TFTs having thermally grown SiO2 gate-insulating layer. The feasibility of PMSQ as a gate-insulating material for O-TFTs, which was fabricated on a flexible plastic substrate, has been demonstrated. Moreover, by the modification of PMSQ, further functionalities, such as surface hydrophobicity, high permittivity that allows low driving voltage, and photocurability that allows photolithography, could be appended to the PMSQ gate-insulating layers.

  16. Quantum and classical contributions to linear magnetoresistance in topological insulator thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R. K.; Sarkar, Jit; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Three dimensional topological insulators possess backscattering immune relativistic Dirac fermions on their surface due to nontrivial topology of the bulk band structure. Both metallic and bulk insulating topological insulators exhibit weak-antilocalization in the low magnetic field and linear like magnetoresistance in higher fields. We explore the linear magnetoresistance in bulk insulating topological insulator Bi 2-x Sb x Te 3-y Se y thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition technique. Thin films of Bi 2-x Sb x Te 3-y Se y were found to be insulating in nature, which conclusively establishes the origin of linear magnetoresistance from surface Dirac states. The films were thoroughly characterized for their crystallinity and composition and then subjected to transport measurements. We present a careful analysis taking into considerations all the existing models of linear magnetoresistance. We comprehend that the competition between classical and quantum contributions to magnetoresistance results in linear magnetoresistance in high fields. We observe that the cross-over field decreases with increasing temperature and the physical argument for this behavior is explained.

  17. Topological Insulator State in Thin Bismuth Films Subjected to Plane Tensile Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, E. V.; Grabov, V. M.; Komarov, V. A.; Kablukova, N. S.; Krushel'nitskii, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The results of experimental examination of galvanomagnetic properties of thin bismuth films subjected to plane tensile strain resulting from the difference in thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate material and bismuth are presented. The resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient were studied at temperatures ranging from 5 to 300 K in magnetic fields as strong as 0.65 T. Carrier densities were calculated. A considerable increase in carrier density in films thinner than 30 nm was observed. This suggests that surface states are more prominent in thin bismuth films on mica substrates, while the films themselves may exhibit the properties of a topological insulator.

  18. Metal-insulator phase transition in hydrogenated thin films of V2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. N.; Klimov, V. A.; Kompan, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Temperature dependences of the electrical conductivity of thin vanadium sesquioxide V2O3 films obtained by using the laser sputtering technique have been studied. A significant decrease (by four-five orders of magnitude) in the electrical conductivity has been observed below 150 K as a result of a metal-insulator phase transition. It is shown that hydrogenation of films lowers the temperature of this phase transition.

  19. Linear magnetoresistance and surface to bulk coupling in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sourabh; Gopal, R K; Sarkar, Jit; Pandey, Atul; Patel, Bhavesh G; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-12-20

    We explore the temperature dependent magnetoresistance of bulk insulating topological insulator thin films. Thin films of Bi 2 Se 2 Te and BiSbTeSe 1.6 were grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique and subjected to transport measurements. Magnetotransport measurements indicate a non-saturating linear magnetoresistance (LMR) behavior at high magnetic field values. We present a careful analysis to explain the origin of LMR taking into consideration all the existing models of LMR. Here we consider that the bulk insulating states and the metallic surface states constitute two parallel conduction channels. Invoking this, we were able to explain linear magnetoresistance behavior as a competition between these parallel channels. We observe that the cross-over field, where LMR sets in, decreases with increasing temperature. We propose that this cross-over field can be used phenomenologically to estimate the strength of surface to bulk coupling.

  20. Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2015-08-25

    The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.

  1. Large Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity and Lorenz Number in Topological Insulator Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe; Tian, Jifa; Huang, Shouyuan; Srinivasan, Mithun; Maassen, Jesse; Chen, Yong P; Xu, Xianfan

    2018-02-27

    Topological insulators (TI) have attracted extensive research effort due to their insulating bulk states but conducting surface states. However, investigation and understanding of thermal transport in topological insulators, particularly the effect of surface states, are lacking. In this work, we studied thickness-dependent in-plane thermal and electrical conductivity of Bi 2 Te 2 Se TI thin films. A large enhancement in both thermal and electrical conductivity was observed for films with thicknesses below 20 nm, which is attributed to the surface states and bulk-insulating nature of these films. Moreover, a surface Lorenz number much larger than the Sommerfeld value was found. Systematic transport measurements indicated that the Fermi surface is located near the charge neutrality point (CNP) when the film thickness is below 20 nm. Possible reasons for the large Lorenz number include electrical and thermal current decoupling in the surface state Dirac fluid, and bipolar diffusion transport. A simple computational model indicates that the surface states and bipolar diffusion indeed can lead to enhanced electrical and thermal transport and a large Lorenz number.

  2. Role of geometric parameters in electrical measurements of insulating thin films deposited on a conductive substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Gerhardt, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of film thickness, electrode size and substrate thickness on the impedance parameters of alternating frequency dielectric measurements of insulating thin films deposited on conductive substrates were studied through parametric finite-element simulations. The quasi-static forms of Maxwell's electromagnetic equations in a time harmonic mode were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics® for several types of 2D models (linear and axisymmetric). The full 2D model deals with a configuration in which the impedance is measured between two surface electrodes on top of a film deposited on a conductive substrate. For the simplified 2D models, the conductive substrate is ignored and the two electrodes are placed on the top and bottom of the film. By comparing the full model and the simplified models, approximations and generalizations are deduced. For highly insulating films, such as the case of insulating SiO2 films on a conducting Si substrate, even the simplified models predict accurate capacitance values at all frequencies. However, the edge effects on the capacitance are found to be significant when the film thickness increases and/or the top electrode contact size decreases. The thickness of the substrate affects predominantly the resistive components of the dielectric response while having no significant effect on the capacitive components. Changing the electrode contact size or the film thickness determines the specific values of the measured resistance or capacitance while the material time constant remains the same, and thus this affects the frequency dependence that is able to be detected. This work highlights the importance of keeping in mind the film thickness and electrode contact size for the correct interpretation of the measured dielectric properties of micro/nanoscale structures that are often investigated using nanoscale capacitance measurements.

  3. Impact of Window Films on the Overall Energy Consumption of Existing UK Hotel Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bahadori-Jahromi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, considerable attention has justifiably been directed towards energy savings in buildings as they account for up to 20–40% of total energy consumption in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, studies have revealed that buildings’ CO2 emissions for account for at least 43% of total emissions. Window panels are a major component of the building fabric with considerable influence on the façade energy performance and are accountable for up to 60% of a building’s overall energy loss. Therefore, the thermal performance of glazing materials is an important issue within the built environment. This work evaluates the impact of solar window films on the overall energy consumption of an existing commercial building via the use of a case study U.K. hotel and TAS dynamic simulation software. The study results demonstrated that the impact of window films on the overall energy consumption of the case study hotel is approximately 2%. However, an evaluation of various overall energy consumption components showed that the window films reduce the annual total cooling energy consumption by up to 35% along with a marginal 2% increase in the annual total heating energy consumption. They can also provide overall cost and CO2 emissions savings of up to 3%.

  4. Enhanced superconductivity and superconductor to insulator transition in nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Shilpam; Amaladass, E.P. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sharma, Neha [Surface & Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Harimohan, V. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Amirthapandian, S. [Materials Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mani, Awadhesh, E-mail: mani@igcar.gov.in [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2017-06-01

    Disorder driven superconductor to insulator transition via intermediate metallic regime is reported in nano-crystalline thin films of molybdenum. The nano-structured thin films have been deposited at room temperature using DC magnetron sputtering at different argon pressures. The grain size has been tuned using deposition pressure as the sole control parameter. A variation of particle sizes, room temperature resistivity and superconducting transition has been studied as a function of deposition pressure. The nano-crystalline molybdenum thin films are found to have large carrier concentration but very low mobility and electronic mean free path. Hall and conductivity measurements have been used to understand the effect of disorder on the carrier density and mobilities. Ioffe-Regel parameter is shown to correlate with the continuous metal-insulator transition in our samples. - Highlights: • Thin films of molybdenum using DC sputtering have been deposited on glass. • Argon background pressure during sputtering was used to tune the crystallite sizes of films. • Correlation in deposition pressure, disorder and particle sizes has been observed. • Disorder tuned superconductor to insulator transition along with an intermediate metallic phase has been observed. • Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature and a dome shaped T{sub C} vs. deposition pressure phase diagram has been observed.

  5. Enhanced Metal-Insulator Transition Performance in Scalable Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films Prepared Using a Moisture-Assisted Chemical Solution Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weizheng; Gao, Min; Lu, Chang; Zhang, Zhi; Chan, Cheuk Ho; Zhuge, Lanjian; Dai, Jiyan; Yang, Hao; Chen, Chonglin; Park, Bae Ho; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2018-03-07

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) is a strong-correlated metal-oxide with a sharp metal-insulator transition (MIT) for a range of applications. However, synthesizing epitaxial VO 2 films with desired properties has been a challenge because of the difficulty in controlling the oxygen stoichiometry of VO x , where x can be in the range of 1 < x < 2.5 and V has multiple valence states. Herein, a unique moisture-assisted chemical solution approach has been developed to successfully manipulate the oxygen stoichiometry, to significantly broaden the growth window, and to significantly enhance the MIT performance of VO 2 films. The obvious broadening of the growth window of stoichiometric VO 2 thin films, from 4 to 36 °C, is ascribed to a self-adjusted process for oxygen partial pressure at different temperatures by introducing moisture. A resistance change as large as 4 orders of magnitude has been achieved in VO 2 thin films with a sharp transition width of less than 1 °C. The much enhanced MIT properties can be attributed to the higher and more uniform oxygen stoichiometry. This technique is not only scientifically interesting but also technologically important for fabricating wafer-scaled VO 2 films with uniform properties for practical device applications.

  6. Thermochromic VO/sub 2/ films for energy-efficient windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babulanam, S.M.; Eriksson, T.S.; Niklasson, G.A.; Granqvist, C.G.

    1986-01-01

    VO/sub 2/ films were produced by reactive e-beam evaporation followed by annealing post-treatment. Electrical measurements demonstrated a semiconductor-metal transition at tau/sub c/ -- 60 0 C. Spectrophotometry showed that the near-infrared solar transmittance was reduced when tau/sub c/ was exceeded while the luminous transmittance remained relatively unchanged. This thermochromism may be utilized for regulating the energy throughput of windows. Practical application hinges on improved transmittance and on tau/sub c/-depression. These goals can be accomplished to some extent by dielectric overlayers, as verified by measurements on SiO/sub 2/-coated VO/sub 2/ films

  7. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  8. Electrically induced insulator to metal transition in epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Nikhil, E-mail: nss152@psu.edu; Dasgupta, Sandeepan; Datta, Suman [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Joshi, Toyanath; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We report on the electrically induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) in SmNiO{sub 3} thin films grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition. The behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature suggests that the primary transport mechanism in the SmNiO{sub 3} insulating state is dominated by Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH). Additionally, the magnetic transition in the insulating state of SmNiO{sub 3} modifies the characteristics of the ES-VRH transport. Systematic DC and pulsed current-voltage measurements indicate that current-induced joule heating is the fundamental mechanism driving the electrically induced IMT in SmNiO{sub 3}. These transport properties are explained in context of the IMT in SmNiO{sub 3} being related to the strong electron-lattice coupling.

  9. Correlation-Driven Insulator-Metal Transition in Near-Ideal Vanadium Dioxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A. X.; Jeong, J.; Aetukuri, N. P.; Granitzka, P.; Chen, Z.; Kukreja, R.; Higley, D.; Chase, T.; Reid, A. H.; Ohldag, H.; Marcus, M. A.; Scholl, A.; Young, A. T.; Doran, A.; Jenkins, C. A.; Shafer, P.; Arenholz, E.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Dürr, H. A.

    2016-03-01

    We use polarization- and temperature-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy, in combination with photoelectron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electronic transport measurements, to study the driving force behind the insulator-metal transition in VO2 . We show that both the collapse of the insulating gap and the concomitant change in crystal symmetry in homogeneously strained single-crystalline VO2 films are preceded by the purely electronic softening of Coulomb correlations within V-V singlet dimers. This process starts 7 K (±0.3 K ) below the transition temperature, as conventionally defined by electronic transport and x-ray diffraction measurements, and sets the energy scale for driving the near-room-temperature insulator-metal transition in this technologically promising material.

  10. Magnetic-field induced semimetal in topological crystalline insulator thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    We investigate electromagnetic properties of a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) thin film under external electromagnetic fields. The TCI thin film is a topological insulator indexed by the mirror-Chern number. It is demonstrated that the gap closes together with the emergence of a pair of gapless cones carrying opposite chirarities by applying in-plane magnetic field. A pair of gapless points have opposite vortex numbers. This is a reminiscence of a pair of Weyl cones in 3D Weyl semimetal. We thus present an a magnetic-field induced semimetal–semiconductor transition in 2D material. This is a giant-magnetoresistance, where resistivity is controlled by magnetic field. Perpendicular electric field is found to shift the gapless points and also renormalize the Fermi velocity in the direction of the in-plane magnetic field. - Highlights: • The band structure of topological crystalline insulator thin films can be controlled by applying in-plane magnetic field. • At the gap closing magnetic field, a pair of gapless cones carrying opposite chirarities emerge. • A pair of gapless points have opposite vortex numbers. • This is a reminiscence of a pair of Weyl cones in 3D Weyl semimetal. • A magnetic-field induced semimetal–semiconductor transition occurs in 2D material

  11. Magnetic-field induced semimetal in topological crystalline insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezawa, Motohiko, E-mail: ezawa@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-06-19

    We investigate electromagnetic properties of a topological crystalline insulator (TCI) thin film under external electromagnetic fields. The TCI thin film is a topological insulator indexed by the mirror-Chern number. It is demonstrated that the gap closes together with the emergence of a pair of gapless cones carrying opposite chirarities by applying in-plane magnetic field. A pair of gapless points have opposite vortex numbers. This is a reminiscence of a pair of Weyl cones in 3D Weyl semimetal. We thus present an a magnetic-field induced semimetal–semiconductor transition in 2D material. This is a giant-magnetoresistance, where resistivity is controlled by magnetic field. Perpendicular electric field is found to shift the gapless points and also renormalize the Fermi velocity in the direction of the in-plane magnetic field. - Highlights: • The band structure of topological crystalline insulator thin films can be controlled by applying in-plane magnetic field. • At the gap closing magnetic field, a pair of gapless cones carrying opposite chirarities emerge. • A pair of gapless points have opposite vortex numbers. • This is a reminiscence of a pair of Weyl cones in 3D Weyl semimetal. • A magnetic-field induced semimetal–semiconductor transition occurs in 2D material.

  12. Guar gum benzoate nanoparticle reinforced gelatin films for enhanced thermal insulation, mechanical and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Sonia; Das, Aatrayee; Basu, Aalok; Abdullah, Md Farooque; Mukherjee, Arup

    2017-08-15

    This work relates to guar gum benzoate self assembly nanoparticles synthesis and nano composite films development with gelatin. Guar gum benzoate was synthesized in a Hofmeister cation guided homogeneous phase reaction. Self assembly polysaccharide nanoparticles were prepared in solvent displacement technique. Electron microscopy and DLS study confirmed uniform quasi spherical nanoparticles with ζ-potential - 28.7mV. Nanocomposite films were further developed in gelatin matrix. The film capacity augmenting due to nanoparticles incorporation was noteworthy. Superior barrier properties, reinforcing and thermal insulation effects were observed in films dispersed with 20% w/w nanoparticles. Detailed FTIR studies and thermal analysis confirmed nanoparticles interactions in the film matrix. The nanocomposite film water vapour permeability was at 0.75gmm -1 kPa -1 h -1 , thermal conductivity 0.39Wm -1 K -1 and the tensile strength were recorded at 3.87MPa. The final film expressed excellent antimicrobial properties against water born gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Superconductor-Metal-Insulator transition in two dimensional Ta thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Gyu; Kim, Eunseong

    2013-03-01

    Superconductor-insulator transition has been induced by tuning film thickness or magnetic field. Recent electrical transport measurements of MoGe, Bi, Ta thin films revealed an interesting intermediate metallic phase which intervened superconducting and insulating phases at certain range of magnetic field. Especially, Ta thin films show the characteristic IV behavior at each phase and the disorder tuned intermediate metallic phase [Y. Li, C. L. Vicente, and J. Yoon, Physical Review B 81, 020505 (2010)]. This unexpected metallic phase can be interpreted as a consequence of vortex motion or contribution of fermionic quasiparticles. In this presentation, we report the scaling behavior during the transitions in Ta thin film as well as the transport measurements in various phases. Critical exponents v and z are obtained in samples with wide ranges of disorder. These results reveal new universality class appears when disorder exceeds a critical value. Dynamical exponent z of Superconducting sample is found to be 1, which is consistent with theoretical prediction of unity. z in a metallic sample is suddenly increased to be approximately 2.5. This critical exponent is much larger than the value found in other system and theoretical prediction. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Potentiostatically Electrodeposited Tungsten Oxide Thin Films for Smart Window Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, A. J.; Patil, R. S.; Dalavi, D. S.; Suryawanshi, M. P.; Burungale, V. V.; Kim, J. H.; Patil, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films have been synthesized using electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode and the effect of different deposition potentials on their structural, morphological, optical, and electrochromic (EC) properties investigated. The deposition potential versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was varied from -0.35 V to -0.50 V in steps of -0.05 V for 20 min each. The electrodeposited WO3 thin films were characterized using x-ray diffraction analysis, micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, revealing amorphous nature with nanograins having average size from 40 nm to 60 nm. The EC performance of the WO3 thin films exhibited response times of 1.35 s for bleaching ( t b) and 3.1 s for coloration ( t c) with excellent reversibility of 64.36%. The highest coloration efficiency of the electrodeposited WO3 thin films was found to be 87.95 cm2/C. The electrochemical reversibility and stability of the WO3 thin films obtained in this study make them promising for use in smart window applications.

  15. Direct Fabrication of Inkjet-Printed Dielectric Film for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Cheng-Lin; Kao, Hsuan-ling; Wu, Yung-Hsien; Chang, Li-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an inkjet-printed dielectric film that used a polymer-based SU-8 ink was fabricated for use in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. Thermal treatment of the inkjet-printed SU-8 polymer film affected its surface morphology, chemical structure, and surface wettability. A 20-min soft-bake at 60°C was applied to eliminate inkjet-printed bubbles and ripples. The ultraviolet-exposed SU-8 polymer film was crosslinked at temperatures between 120°C and 220°C and became disordered at 270°C, demonstrated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A maximum SU-8 polymer film hard-bake temperature of 120°C was identified, and a printing process was subsequently employed because the appropriate water contact angle of the printed film was 79°. Under the appropriate inkjet printing conditions, the two-transmission-line method was used to extract the dielectric and electrical properties of the SU-8 polymer film, and the electrical behavior of the fabricated MIM capacitor was also characterized.

  16. Measurement of protection afforded by ultraviolet-absorbing window film using an in vitro model of photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Eric F; Schwartz, Mark; Viehmeyer, Robert; Arocena, Marvin S; Sambuco, Christopher P; Ksenzenko, Sergey M

    2006-04-01

    The effects of chronic sun damage including telangiectasias, solar lentigos, rhytides, enlarged pores, sagging skin, and pre-cancerous and cancerous growths are among the most common presenting complaints in a dermatologist's office. These changes are often worse on the driver's side of the face, emphasizing the role of UVA exposure received while driving in producing these changes. This study was undertaken to measure the ability of car window glass alone and in combination with ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing film to reduce UV-damage as measured using an established in vitro model of photoprotection. STUDY DESIGN MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay with solar simulating radiation (SSR) administered by a xenon arc solar simulator, we measured the photoprotection ability of auto glass, window film that filters UV radiation, and the combination of window film and auto glass. As measured by the 3T3 neutral red uptake photoprotection assay, auto glass reduced cell death from SSR by 29%, while window film reduced it 90%, and the combination of auto glass and film reduced cell death by 93%, when compared to unfiltered SSR. Window film that filters UV radiation results in dramatic reductions in cytotoxicity when measured by the neutral red uptake photoprotection assay. Widespread use of window film provides an ever-present barrier to ultraviolet A (UVA) exposure and could potentially reduce the detrimental effects of UVA, including photoaging, skin cancer, and ocular damage, such as cataracts. In addition, such film is essential for patients suffering from conditions sensitive to UV radiation, such as lupus erythematosis. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Universal conductivity of two-dimensional films at the superconductor-insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Fisher, M.P.A. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (USA)); Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Wallin, M. (Department of Theoretical Physics, Umea University, S-90187 Umea (Sweden)); Young, A.P. (Service de Physique Theorique, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-10-01

    The zero-temperature universal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) films at the supeconductor-insulator transition is studied. The existence of a finite conductivity at {ital T}=0 and the universality class for this transition is discussed. Neglecting disorder as a first approximation, so the transition is from a commensurate Mott-Hubbard insulator to a superconductor, we calculate analytically the universal conductivity for the 2D pure boson Hubbard model up to the first order in a large-{ital N} expansion and numerically by Monte Carlo simulation of the (2+1)-D {ital XY} model. From the Monte Carlo results we find the universal conductivity to be {sigma}{sup *}=(0.285{plus minus}0.02){sigma}{sub {ital Q}}, where {sigma}{sub {ital Q}}{sup {minus}1}=={ital R}{sub {ital Q}}=={ital h}/(2{ital e}){sup 2}{approx}6.45 k{Omega}. An analysis in 1D suggests that in the presence of disorder, the universal conductivity in films might be somewhat smaller than this value. The possible existence of universal dissipation in {sup 4}He films is also discussed briefly.

  18. Density functional study of BiSbTeSe{sub 2} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadpourrad, Zahra; Abolhassani, Mohammadreza [Department of Physics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this work, using density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the band topology of bulk BiSbTeSe{sub 2} and its thin film electronic properties in several thicknesses. It is one member of the quaternary compounds Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}Te{sub 3-y}Se{sub y} (BSTS) with the best intrinsic bulk insulating behavior. Based on our calculations we have found that a band inversion at Γ-point is induced when spin-orbit coupling is turned on, with an energy gap of about 0.318 eV. The film thickness has an effect on the surface states such that a gap opens at Dirac point in 6 quintuple-layers film and with decrease in thickness, the magnitude of the gap increases. The atomic contributions have been mapped out for the first few layers of thin films to demonstrate the surface states. The relative charge density has been calculated layer-wise and the penetration depth of the surface states into the bulk region is found to be about 2.5-3.5 quintuple layers, depending on the termination species of thin films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Quantum capacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in a magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2013-02-12

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum magnetocapacitance of an ultrathin topological insulator film in an external magnetic field. The study is undertaken to investigate the interplay of the Zeeman interaction with the hybridization between the upper and lower surfaces of the thin film. Determining the density of states, we find that the electron-hole symmetry is broken when the Zeeman and hybridization energies are varied relative to each other. This leads to a change in the character of the magnetocapacitance at the charge neutrality point. We further show that in the presence of both Zeeman interaction and hybridization the magnetocapacitance exhibits beating at low and splitting of the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations at high perpendicular magnetic field. In addition, we address the crossover from perpendicular to parallel magnetic field and find consistency with recent experimental data.

  20. Nonlinear optical observation of coherent acoustic Dirac plasmons in thin-film topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2016-09-01

    Low-energy collective electronic excitations exhibiting sound-like linear dispersion have been intensively studied both experimentally and theoretically for a long time. However, coherent acoustic plasmon modes appearing in time-domain measurements are rarely observed due to Landau damping by the single-particle continua. Here we report on the observation of coherent acoustic Dirac plasmon (CADP) modes excited in indirectly (electrostatically) opposite-surface coupled films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Using transient second-harmonic generation, a technique capable of independently monitoring the in-plane and out-of-plane electron dynamics in the films, the GHz-range oscillations were observed without corresponding oscillations in the transient reflectivity. These oscillations were assigned to the transverse magnetic and transverse electric guided CADP modes induced by the evanescent guided Lamb acoustic waves and remained Landau undamped due to fermion tunnelling between the opposite-surface Dirac states.

  1. Ferroelectric domain inversion and its stability in lithium niobate thin film on insulator with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Bai, Yu-hang; Cui, Guo-xin; Li, Chen; Qiu, Xiang-biao; Wu, Di; Lu, Yan-qing, E-mail: yqlu@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Geng, De-qiang [Jinan Jingzheng Electronics Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Ferroelectric domain inversion and its effect on the stability of lithium niobate thin films on insulator (LNOI) are experimentally characterized. Two sets of specimens with different thicknesses varying from submicron to microns are selected. For micron thick samples (∼28 μm), domain structures are achieved by pulsed electric field poling with electrodes patterned via photolithography. No domain structure deterioration has been observed for a month as inspected using polarizing optical microscopy and etching. As for submicron (540 nm) films, large-area domain inversion is realized by scanning a biased conductive tip in a piezoelectric force microscope. A graphic processing method is taken to evaluate the domain retention. A domain life time of 25.0 h is obtained and possible mechanisms are discussed. Our study gives a direct reference for domain structure-related applications of LNOI, including guiding wave nonlinear frequency conversion, nonlinear wavefront tailoring, electro-optic modulation, and piezoelectric devices.

  2. Dynamics of the insulator to metal transition in high quality V2 O3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Elsa; Wang, Siming; Zhang, Jingdi; Geng, Kun; Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Liu, Mengkun; Ramirez, Gabriel; Zhang, Xin; Schuller, Ivan K.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2014-03-01

    Metal-insulator transitions (MITs) are a striking manifestation of the interactions between the various degrees of freedom in complex materials. Vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) is a prototypical MIT material, transitioning from an antiferromagnetic insulator to a paramagnetic metal at Tc=170K. We present a detailed investigation of the insulator-to-metal dynamics in single crystalline thin films of V2O3 following optical and far-infrared excitation, measured using THz time domain spectroscopy. Conductivity dynamics induced below Tc by ultrafast photoexcitation can be quantitatively described by nucleation and growth of the metallic volume fraction, which eventually gives rise to the full metallic state of V2O3 on a timescale of about 50ps. We will discuss our results in the broader context of phase transition dynamics of the vanadates and related strongly correlated electron materials. This work is supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-09ER46643, AFOSR Grants No. FA9550-12-1-0381 and FA9550-09-1-0708 and FCT/Portugal SFRH/BD/47847/2008.

  3. Electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junfeng; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Defa; He, Shaolong; Mou, Daixiang; Li, Fangsen; Tang, Chenjia; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2014-12-30

    In high-temperature cuprate superconductors, it is now generally agreed that superconductivity is realized by doping an antiferromagnetic Mott (charge transfer) insulator. The doping-induced insulator-to-superconductor transition has been widely observed in cuprates, which provides important information for understanding the superconductivity mechanism. In the iron-based superconductors, however, the parent compound is mostly antiferromagnetic bad metal, raising a debate on whether an appropriate starting point should go with an itinerant picture or a localized picture. No evidence of doping-induced insulator-superconductor transition (or crossover) has been reported in the iron-based compounds so far. Here, we report an electronic evidence of an insulator-superconductor crossover observed in the single-layer FeSe film grown on a SrTiO3 substrate. By taking angle-resolved photoemission measurements on the electronic structure and energy gap, we have identified a clear evolution of an insulator to a superconductor with increasing carrier concentration. In particular, the insulator-superconductor crossover in FeSe/SrTiO3 film exhibits similar behaviors to that observed in the cuprate superconductors. Our results suggest that the observed insulator-superconductor crossover may be associated with the two-dimensionality that enhances electron localization or correlation. The reduced dimensionality and the interfacial effect provide a new pathway in searching for new phenomena and novel superconductors with a high transition temperature.

  4. Spin-Orbit Torque-Assisted Switching in Magnetic Insulator Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).

  5. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  6. Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows are able to vary their throughput of visible light and solar energy by the application of an electrical voltage and are able to provide energy efficiency and indoor comfort in buildings. Section 1 explains why this technology is important and timely by first outlining today's precarious situation concerning increasing energy use and associated effects on the world's climate, and this section also underscores the great importance of enhancing the energy efficiency of buildings by letting them function more in harmony with the environment—particularly its varying temperature—than is possible with current mainstream technologies. This same chapter also surveys recent work on the energy savings and other benefits that are possible with EC-based technologies. Section 2 then provides some notes on the history of the EC effect and its applications. Section 3 presents a generic design for the oxide-based EC devices that are most in focus for present-day applications and research. This design includes five superimposed layers with a centrally-positioned electrolyte connecting two oxide films—at least one of which having EC properties—and with transparent electrical conductors surrounding the three-layer structure in the middle. It is emphasized that this construction can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested as optical absorption. Also discussed are six well known hurdles for the implementation of these EC devices, as well as a number of practical constructions of EC-based smart windows. Section 4 is an in-depth discussion of various aspects of EC oxides. It begins with a literature survey for 2007–2013, which updates earlier reviews, and is followed by a general discussion of optical and electronic effects and, specifically, on charge transfer absorption in tungsten oxide. Ionic effects are then treated with foci on the inherent nanoporosity of the important EC oxides and on the

  7. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  8. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Pan, Tao; Zhong, Jia-Lin; Ma, Chun-Lan; Hou, Fang; Wu, Yin-Zhong

    2017-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  9. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xun; Xiang Hao; Tao Pan; Jia-Lin Zhong; Chun-Lan Ma; Fang Hou; Yin-Zhong Wu

    2017-01-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO) film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investiga...

  10. Contact Radius and the Insulator-Metal Transition in Films Comprised of Touching Semiconductor Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Deanna; Thimsen, Elijah

    2016-07-26

    Nanocrystal assemblies are being explored for a number of optoelectronic applications such as transparent conductors, photovoltaic solar cells, and electrochromic windows. Majority carrier transport is important for these applications, yet it remains relatively poorly understood in films comprised of touching nanocrystals. Specifically, the underlying structural parameters expected to determine the transport mechanism have not been fully elucidated. In this report, we demonstrate experimentally that the contact radius, between touching heavily doped ZnO nanocrystals, controls the electron transport mechanism. Spherical nanocrystals are considered, which are connected by a circular area. The radius of this circular area is the contact radius. For nanocrystals that have local majority carrier concentration above the Mott transition, there is a critical contact radius. If the contact radius between nanocrystals is less than the critical value, then the transport mechanism is variable range hopping. If the contact radius is greater than the critical value, the films display behavior consistent with metallic electron transport.

  11. Thermal insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.; Asada, Y.; Matsuo, Y.; Mikoda, M.

    1985-07-16

    A thermal insulator comprises an expanded resin body having embedded therein an evacuated powder insulation portion which consists of fine powder and a container of film-like plastics or a film-like composite of plastics and metal for enclosing the powder. The resin body has been expanded by a Freon gas as a blowing agent. Since a Freon gas has a larger molecular diameter than the constituent gases of air, it is less likely to permeate through the container than air. Thus present invention provides a novel composite insulator which fully utilizes the benefits of vacuum insulation without necessitating a strong and costly material for a vacuum container.

  12. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  13. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H 2 -annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers. (paper)

  14. Optical properties of vanadium dioxide thin film as a windows thermochromic coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu, Z. P.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO2 thin film have been studied for the potential application of intelligent windows. The results show that VO2 film deposited on sapphire substrates exhibits good thermochromic effects, its IR transmittance changes 60% before and after phase transition, and has less thickness dependence than UV transmittance. Doping can significantly reduce transition temperature, such as to 30°C for 1.5% Mo doped VO2.

    Se han investigado las propiedades ópticas del dióxido de vanadio (VO2 aplicado como películas delgadas para posibles aplicaciones en ventanas inteligentes. Cuando el VO2 se deposita sobre sustratos de zafiro da lugar a efectos termocrómicos considerables; así, su transmitancia en el infrarrojo cambia en un 60 % después de la transición de fase del dióxido de vanadio, teniendo una dependencia menor con el espesor que la transmitancia en el ultravioleta. El efecto de aditivos sobre estas películas de dioxido de vanadio da lugar a una disminución de la temperatura de dicha transición responsable del efecto termocrómico, de manera que se produce a 30°C con el 1,5 % de adición de Mo.

  15. Frames, Windows, and Mirrors. Sensing Still Bodies in Films by Manoel de Oliveira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Király Hajnal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of Oliveira’s Doomed Love (Amor de Perdição, 1978 (an adaptation of the homonymous classic Portuguese novel, Bresson’s model theory provides an adequate theoretical model for a melodrama in which characters, ‘hit by fate,’ are following their destinies as if ‘under hypnosis.’ Besides a typically frontal, iconic representation of bodies thoroughly framed by windows, doors, and mirrors, in this and many other films by Oliveira, the intermedial figure of tableau vivant also reveals the movement-stillness mechanisms of the medium of film by turning, under our eyes, the body into a picture. His Abraham’s Valley (Vale Abraão, 1993 is also relevant for a fetishistic representation of (female feet and legs. This visual detail, somewhat reminding of Buñuel’s similar obsession, is not only subversive in terms of representation of socio-cultural taboos, but is also providing a compelling sensual experience of both the body and the medium.

  16. A very thin havar film vacuum window for heavy ions to perform radiobiology studies at the BNL Tandem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger, P.; Abendroth, H.; Alessi, J.; Cannizzo, L.; Carlson, C.; Gustavsson, A.; Minty, M.; Snydstrup, L.

    2011-03-28

    Heavy ion beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators will be made available for radiobiology studies on cell cultures. Beam energy losses need to be minimized both in the vacuum window and in the air in order to achieve the ranges required for the cells to be studied. This is particularly challenging for ions heavier than iron. The design is presented of a 0.4-inch diameter Havar film window that will satisfy these requirements. Films as thin as 80 microinches were successfully pressure tested. The final thickness to be used may be slightly larger to help in achieving pin hole free windows. We discuss design considerations and present pressure and vacuum test results as well as tests with heavy ion beams.

  17. Metal-to-insulator transition in thin-film polymeric AC60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macovez, Roberto; Shan Junjun; Venema, Luc; Rudolf, Petra; Hunt, Michael R C; Goldoni, Andrea; Castellarin-Cudia, Carla; Pichler, Thomas; Pedio, Maddalena; Moras, Paolo; Schiessling, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    We present an electron spectroscopy study of phase-pure AC 60 thin films (A= Rb, Cs) in their monomer (face-centred cubic (fcc)) and polymer phases. A surface electronic reconstruction is observed in polymeric RbC 60 , analogous to that reported for the fcc phase. As for pristine C 60 , the occupied electronic states of AC 60 fullerides are not dramatically affected by polymerization. The energy separation between the leading feature in photoemission and inverse photoemission is similar in both stable AC 60 phases. These observations suggest that electron correlation effects are similar in the two phases, and that their different electronic behaviour is mainly related to the reduction of degeneracy of the polymer frontier states. Photoemission and electron-energy loss spectroscopy data show that the thin-film form of the RbC 60 polymer is metallic at room temperature, and that it undergoes a metal-insulator transition at around 100 K. This transition temperature is much higher than that reported for the corresponding bulk phase and signals a poorer screening of Coulomb interactions at the film surface.

  18. Broadband and wide angle near-unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal thin film stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zheng, G. G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Xu, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    Broadband unity absorption in graphene-insulator-metal (GIM) structures is demonstrated in the visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. The spectral characteristics possess broadband absorption peaks, by simply choosing a stack of GIM, while no nanofabrication steps and patterning are required, and thus can be easily fabricated to cover a large area. The electromagnetic (EM) waves can be entirely trapped and the absorption can be greatly enhanced are verified with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) methods. The position and the number of the absorption peak can be totally controlled by adjusting the thickness of the insulator layer. The proposed absorber maintains high absorption (above 90%) for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations, and for angles of incidence up to 80°. This work opens up a promising approach to realize perfect absorption (PA) with ultra-thin film, which could implicate many potential applications in optical detection and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Modification and structuring of conducting polymer films on insulating substrates by ion beam treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, T.; Wolf, Gerhard K.

    2000-01-01

    Besides the commonly used procedures of UV-, X-ray and electron beam lithography, surface structuring by ion beam processes represents an alternative route to receive patterns in the nanometre-micrometre scale. In this work we focused on changes of surface properties of the polymer materials induced by ion irradiation and on reproducing hexagonal and square patterns in the micrometre scale. To achieve a better understanding of modification and structuring of insulating and conducting polymers by ion beam treatment we investigated effects of 14 keV Ar + bombardment on thin films of doped conducting polyethoxithiophene (PEOT) and polyethylenedioxithiophene (PEDT) on polyethersulfone (PES) as insulating substrate within the fluence range from 10 14 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 . Changes of surface properties like wettability, solubility, topology and electrochemical behaviour have been studied by contact angle technique, AFM/LFM, cyclovoltammetry and electrochemical microelectrode. By irradiation through copper masks structured patterns were achieved. These patterns can be converted by galvanic or electroless copper deposition in structured metal layers

  20. Disorder-dominated linear magnetoresistance in topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Jie; Gao, Kuang Hong; Li, Qiu Lin; Li, Zhi-Qing

    2017-12-01

    The linear magnetoresistance (MR) effect is an interesting topic due to its potential applications. In topological insulator Bi2Se3, this effect has been reported to be dominated by the carrier mobility (μ) and hence has a classical origin. Here, we study the magnetotransport properties of Bi2Se3 thin films and observe the linear MR effect, which cannot be attributed to the quantum model. Unexpectedly, the linear MR does not show the linear dependence on μ, in conflict with the reported results. However, we find that the observed linear MR is dominated by the inverse disorder parameter 1 /kFl , where kF and l are the Fermi wave vector and the mean free path, respectively. This suggests that its origin is also classical and that no μ-dominated linear MR effect is observed which may be due to the very small μ values in our samples.

  1. Thermoelectric Transport by Surface States in Bi2Se3-Based Topological Insulator Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Long-Long; Xu Wen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a tractable theoretical model to investigate the thermoelectric (TE) transport properties of surface states in topological insulator thin films (TITFs) of Bi 2 Se 3 at room temperature. The hybridization between top and bottom surface states in the TITF plays a significant role. With the increasing hybridization-induced surface gap, the electrical conductivity and electron thermal conductivity decrease while the Seebeck coefficient increases. This is due to the metal-semiconductor transition induced by the surface-state hybridization. Based on these TE transport coefficients, the TE figure-of-merit ZT is evaluated. It is shown that ZT can be greatly improved by the surface-state hybridization. Our theoretical results are pertinent to the exploration of the TE transport properties of surface states in TITFs and to the potential application of Bi 2 Se 3 -based TITFs as high-performance TE materials and devices. (paper)

  2. Bismuth oxide film: a promising room-temperature quantum spin Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ping; Li, Sheng-Shi; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Li, Ping; Wang, Pei-Ji

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) bismuth films have attracted extensive attention due to their nontrivial band topology and tunable electronic properties for achieving dissipationless transport devices. The experimental observation of quantum transport properties, however, are rather challenging, limiting their potential application in nanodevices. Here, we predict, based on first-principles calculations, an alternative 2D bismuth oxide, BiO, as an excellent topological insulator (TI), whose intrinsic bulk gap reaches up to 0.28 eV. Its nontrivial topology is confirmed by topological invariant Z 2 and time-reversal symmetry protected helical edge states. The appearance of topological phase is robust against mechanical strain and different levels of oxygen coverage in BiO. Since the BiO is naturally stable against surface oxidization and degradation, these results enrich the topological materials and present an alternative way to design topotronics devices at room temperature.

  3. Oxygen Vacancy Induced Room-Temperature Metal-Insulator Transition in Nickelate Films and Its Potential Application in Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Dash, Sibashisa; Chang, Lei; You, Lu; Feng, Yaqing; He, Xu; Jin, Kui-juan; Zhou, Yang; Ong, Hock Guan; Ren, Peng; Wang, Shiwei; Chen, Lang; Wang, Junling

    2016-04-20

    Oxygen vacancy is intrinsically coupled with magnetic, electronic, and transport properties of transition-metal oxide materials and directly determines their multifunctionality. Here, we demonstrate reversible control of oxygen content by postannealing at temperature lower than 300 °C and realize the reversible metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO₃ films. Importantly, over 6 orders of magnitude in the resistance modulation and a large change in optical bandgap are demonstrated at room temperature without destroying the parent framework and changing the p-type conductive mechanism. Further study revealed that oxygen vacancies stabilized the insulating phase at room temperature is universal for perovskite nickelate films. Acting as electron donors, oxygen vacancies not only stabilize the insulating phase at room temperature, but also induce a large magnetization of ∼50 emu/cm³ due to the formation of strongly correlated Ni²⁺ t(2g)⁶e(g)² states. The bandgap opening is an order of magnitude larger than that of the thermally driven metal-insulator transition and continuously tunable. Potential application of the newly found insulating phase in photovoltaics has been demonstrated in the nickelate-based heterojunctions. Our discovery opens up new possibilities for strongly correlated perovskite nickelates.

  4. Chromium-induced ferromagnetism with perpendicular anisotropy in topological crystalline insulator SnTe (111) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Hongrui; Jiang, Jue; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Yu, Jia; Liu, Wei; Li, Da; Chan, Moses H. W.; Sun, Jirong; Zhang, Zhidong; Chang, Cui-Zu

    2018-03-01

    Topological crystalline insulator is a recently discovered topological phase of matter. It possesses multiple Dirac surface states, which are protected by the crystal symmetry. This is in contrast to the time-reversal symmetry that is operative in the well-known topological insulators. In the presence of a Zeeman field and/or strain, the multiple Dirac surface states are gapped. The high-Chern-number quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state is predicted to emerge if the chemical potential resides in all the Zeeman gaps. Here, we use molecular-beam epitaxy to grow 12 double-layer (DL) pure and Cr-doped SnTe (111) thin film on heat-treated SrTi O3 (111) substrate using a quintuple layer of insulating (Bi0.2Sb0.8 ) 2T e3 topological insulator as a buffer film. The Hall traces of Cr-doped SnTe film at low temperatures display square hysteresis loops indicating long-range ferromagnetic order with perpendicular anisotropy. The Curie temperature of the 12 DL S n0.9C r0.1Te film is ˜110 K. Due to the chemical potential crossing the bulk valence bands, the anomalous Hall resistance of 12 DL S n0.9C r0.1Te film is substantially lower than the predicted quantized value (˜1 /4 h /e2 ). It is possible that with systematic tuning the chemical potential via chemical doping and electrical gating, the high-Chern-number QAH state can be realized in the Cr-doped SnTe (111) thin film.

  5. Thermal Characteristics of Multilayer Insulation Materials for Flexible Thin-Film Solar Cell Array of Stratospheric Airship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible thin-film solar cell is an efficient energy system on the surface of stratospheric airship for utilizing the solar energy. In order to ensure the normal operation of airship platform, the thermal control problem between the flexible thin-film solar cell and the airship envelope should be properly resolved. In this paper, a multilayer insulation material (MLI is developed first, and low temperature environment test is carried out to verify the insulation effect of MLI. Then, a thermal heat transfer model of flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI is proposed, and the equivalent thermal conductivity coefficients of flexible thin-film solar cell and Nomex honeycomb are calculated based on the environment test and the temperature profile of flexible thin-film solar cell versus each layer of MLI. Finally, FLUENT is used for modeling and simulation analysis on the flexible thin-film solar cell and MLI, and the simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which validate the correctness of the proposed heat transfer model of MLI. In some way, our study can provide helpful support for further engineering applications of flexible thin-film solar cell.

  6. Transport measurements on selective area grown Te-based topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, Christian; Schall, Melissa; Kampmeier, Joern; Lanius, Martin; Mussler, Gregor; Schaepers, Thomas; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI- 9) and JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Virtual Institute for Topological Insulators (VITI), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We present magnetotransport measurements on Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films, grown on prepatterned structures atop silicon-on-insulator substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The substrates contain Si mesa fabricated from the 70nm thick Si(111) top layer on a 300nm thick SiO{sub 2} buried oxide layer. Therefore, we were able to utilize the difference in surface configuration between the Si(111) and the amorphous SiO{sub 2}, since only the hexagonal silicon surface supports growth of the tellurides. Using transport we show that films of comparable or even higher quality can be achieved using this method which furthermore evades the need of any additionally ex-situ patterning of the layers. With this, we pave the road to a simple fabrication method for nanometer sized structures that circumvents common problems of conventional methods like ion etching including hardened remains of photo resist and the like.

  7. Atomic-Scale Magnetism of Cr-Doped Bi2Se3 Thin Film Topological Insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenqing; West, Damien; He, Liang; Xu, Yongbing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Kejie; Wang, Yong; van der Laan, Gerrit; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shengbai; Wang, Kang L

    2015-10-27

    Magnetic doping is the most common method for breaking time-reversal-symmetry surface states of topological insulators (TIs) to realize novel physical phenomena and to create beneficial technological applications. Here we present a study of the magnetic coupling of a prototype magnetic TI, that is, Cr-doped Bi2Se3, in its ultrathin limit which is expected to give rise to quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. The high quality Bi2-xCrxSe3 epitaxial thin film was prepared using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), characterized with scanning transimission electron microscopy (STEM), electrical magnetotransport, and X-ray magnetic circularly dichroism (XMCD) techniques, and the results were simulated using density functional theory (DFT) with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We observed a sizable spin moment mspin = (2.05 ± 0.20) μB/Cr and a small and negative orbital moment morb = (-0.05 ± 0.02) μB/Cr of the Bi1.94Cr0.06Se3 thin film at 2.5 K. A remarkable fraction of the (CrBi-CrI)(3+) antiferromagnetic dimer in the Bi2-xCrxSe3 for 0.02 magnetic moments significantly lower than 3 μB/Cr predicted by Hund's rule.

  8. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in NdNiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyani, T.; Shekhada, K. G.; Savaliya, C. R.; Markna, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    The RNiO3 (R is rare earth) perovskites are famous for their metal to insulator transition (MIT). The temperature can be transformed and depends on the nature of the rare earth. The MIT in thin films and heterostructures of RNiO3 propose the chance to control the MIT as a function of thickness via strain using different substrates. We have reported the electrical transport properties of NdNiO3/NdGaO3, and NNO/NGO/STO structures. These structures were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The temperature of the MIT changes from 155K to 195 K. The electrical resistivity of the heterostructures undergoes MIT, depending on the thickness and deposition conditions. Thickness and deposition temperature were found to have a great impact on the electrical transport properties. The shift in TMI changes with thickness and it larger for thinner NdNiO3. The MIT of NNO thin films is responsive to strain and its partial relaxation creates an inhomogeneous strain field that broadens the MIT. This study may be potentially applicable to Mott transistor devices.

  9. Optical characterization of non-annealed CdS:O films for window layers in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Atsushi; Shim, YongGu [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Wakita, Kazuki [Faculty of Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan); Khalilova, Khuraman; Mamedov, Nazim; Bayramov, Ayaz; Huseynov, Emil; Hasanov, Ilham [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku 1143 (Azerbaijan)

    2013-08-15

    Optical constants of CdS:O window layers for solar cells were studied as a function of the oxygen content. The CdS:O thin films were deposited on glass substrates in the presence of oxygen at 0, 2, 3 and 5% values of O/Ar ratio by rf magnetron sputtering. Ellipsometric measurements on CdS:O thin films were carried out over 0.75-6.0 eV photon energies at room temperature. Optical constants were determined by using a the best-fit dispersion model. Broadening of spectral features of the obtained optical constants is found to increase with increasing O/Ar ratio. Besides, the CdS:O films grown at 100 C as compared to those grown at 200 C exhibit increased spectral broadening. In fact, almost complete smearing of band gap spectral feature is observed for CdS:O films deposited at 5% value of O/Ar ratio, resulting in appreciable transparency of the films in a spectral range above the energy gap of CdS. This, in turn, leads to an increased carrier collection in the UV spectral range and allows to considering CdS:O film as a candidate for improved window-layer material for solar cell application. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  11. Memory window engineering of Ta2O5-x oxide-based resistive switches via incorporation of various insulating frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Rahm; Baek, Gwang Ho; Kim, Tae Yoon; Ko, Won Bae; Yang, Seung Mo; Kim, Jongmin; Im, Hyun Sik; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stackable memory frames, including nano-scaled crossbar arrays, are one of the most reliable building blocks to meet the demand of high-density non-volatile memory electronics. However, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing issues related to sneak paths, which can negatively impact device performance. We address the enhancement of complementary resistive switching (CRS) features via the incorporation of insulating frames as a generic approach to extend their use; here, a Pt/Ta2O5-x/Ta/Ta2O5-x/Pt frame is chosen as the basic CRS cell. The incorporation of Ta/Ta2O5-x/Ta or Pt/amorphous TaN/Pt insulting frames into the basic CRS cell ensures the appreciably advanced memory features of CRS cells including higher on/off ratios, improved read margins, and increased selectivity without reliability degradation. Experimental observations identified that a suitable insulating frame is crucial for adjusting the abrupt reset events of the switching element, thereby facilitating the enhanced electrical characteristics of CRS cells that are suitable for practical applications.

  12. Oxidizer partial pressure window for YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thin film formation by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, C. S.; Zhao, J.; Norris, P. E.; Garrison, S. M.; Yau, K.; Li, Y. Q.; Gallois, B. M.; Kear, B. H.

    1992-10-01

    We conducted a systematic study of oxidizer partial pressure effects on both the superconducting transport properties and structural properties of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (YBCO) films grown by conventional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Superconducting YBCO thin films were grown in partial N2O pressures ranging from 0.4 to 45 Torr and at substrate temperatures of 500 and 700 C. We observed a window in oxidizer partial pressure within which YBCO thin films can be formed in the as-deposited state by the MOCVD process. A trend of increasing b-axis orientation as the oxidizer partial pressure increased was revealed by detailed X-ray diffraction. The reduction of superconducting properties for films grown at high oxidizer partial pressure might result from the lack of surface mobility.

  13. Preparation and structural characterization of FeCo epitaxial thin films on insulating single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    FeCo epitaxial films were prepared on MgO(111), SrTiO 3 (111), and Al 2 O 3 (0001) single-crystal substrates by ultrahigh vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The effects of insulating substrate material on the film growth process and the structures were investigated. FeCo(110) bcc films grow on MgO substrates with two type domains, Nishiyama-Wassermann (NW) and Kurdjumov-Sachs (KS) relationships. On the contrary, FeCo films grown on SrTiO 3 and Al 2 O 3 substrates include FeCo(111) bcc crystal in addition to the FeCo(110) bcc crystals with NW and KS relationships. The FeCo(111) bcc crystal consists of two type domains whose orientations are rotated around the film normal by 180 deg. each other. The out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of FeCo(110) bcc and FeCo(111) bcc crystals formed on the insulating substrates are in agreement with those of the bulk Fe 50 Co 50 (at. %) crystal with small errors ranging between +0.2% and +0.4%, showing that the strains in the epitaxial films are very small.

  14. High-mobility BaSnO3 thin-film transistor with HfO2 gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Mo; Park, Chulkwon; Kim, Useong; Ju, Chanjong; Char, Kookrin

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film transistors have been fabricated using La-doped BaSnO3 as n-type channels and (In,Sn)2O3 as source, drain, and gate electrodes. HfO2 was grown as gate insulators by atomic layer deposition. The field-effect mobility, Ion/Ioff ratio, and subthreshold swing of the device are 24.9 cm2 V-1 s-1, 6.0 × 106, and 0.42 V dec-1, respectively. The interface trap density, evaluated to be higher than 1013 cm-2 eV-1, was found to be slightly lower than that of the thin-film transistor with an Al2O3 gate insulator. We attribute the much smaller subthreshold swing values to the higher dielectric constant of HfO2.

  15. Dynamically tracking the joule heating effect on the voltage induced metal-insulator transition in VO2 crystal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Liao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insulator to metal phase transitions driven by external electric field are one of the hottest topics in correlated oxide study. While this electric triggered phenomena always mixes the electric field switching effect and joule thermal effect together, which are difficult to clarify the intrinsic mechanism. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical process of voltage-triggered metal-insulator transition (MIT in a VO2 crystal film and observe the temperature dependence of the threshold voltages and switching delay times, which can be explained quite well based on a straightforward joule thermal model. By conducting the voltage controlled infrared transmittance measurement, the delayed infrared transmission change is also observed, further confirming the homogeneous switching process for a large-size film. All of these results show strong evidences that joule thermal effect plays a dominated role in electric-field-induced switching of VO2 crystal.

  16. Field-tuned superconductor–insulator transitions and Hall resistance in thin polycrystalline MoN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Ichikawa, Fusao; Asano, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2018-02-01

    We report on the superconductor–insulator transitions (SITs) of disordered molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films on (1 0 0) MgO substrates as a function of the film thickness and magnetic fields. The T c of the superconducting MoN films, which exhibit a sharp superconducting transition, monotonically decreases as the normal state R sq increases with a decreasing film thickness. For several films with different thicknesses, we estimate the critical field H c and the product zν  ≃  0.6 of the dynamical exponent z and the correlation length exponent ν using a finite scaling analysis. The value of this product can be explained by the (2  +  1) XY model. We found that the Hall resistance ΔR xy (H) is maximized when the magnetic field satisfies H HP(T) \\propto |1  ‑  T/T C0| in the superconducting state and also in the normal states owning to the superconducting fluctuation corresponding to the ghost critical magnetic field. We measured the Hall conductivity δσ xy (H)  =  σ xy (H)  ‑  σ xyn and fit the Gaussian approximation theory for δσ xy (H) to the experimental data. Agreement between the data and the theory beyond H c suggests the survival of the Cooper pair in the insulating region of the SIT.

  17. Ultraviolet-Patternable Polymer Insulator for Organic Thin-Film Transistors on Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Ming; Su, Shui-Hsiang; Wang, Hong-Tai; Yokoyama, Meiso; Fu, Shen-Li

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we describe the fabrication of pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) on a flexible substrate using a UV-patternable polymer material, mr-UVCur06, as the gate insulator. The device structure is poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/indium-tin oxide (ITO)/mr-UVCur06/pentacene/Au (source/drain). In addition to its solution-processable capability, mr-UVCur06 is directly patternable by UV light in a low-temperature process. The OTFT has an on-off ratio that approaches 105, and its pattern resolution can reach 5 µm. Additionally, UV/ozone post-treatment of the patterned mr-UVCur06 can illuminate the organic contaminants from its surface and significantly improve the performance of OTFTs. Moreover, the effect of UV/ozone post-treatment on the polymer dielectric is confirmed using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Owing to its highly desired characteristics such as photopatternability and low-temperature process, mr-UVCur06 is feasible for low-cost, large-area flexible device applications.

  18. High-Resolution Structural and Electronic Properties of Epitaxial Topological Crystalline Insulator Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Omur; Zhou, Chao; Zou, Ke; Simon, Georg; Albright, Stephen; Mandal, Subhasish; Morales-Acosta, Mayra; Zhu, Xiaodong; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick; Ahn, Charles; Schwarz, Udo; Altman, Eric

    Revealing the local electronic properties of surfaces and their link to structural properties is an important problem for topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in which metallic surface states are protected by crystal symmetry. The microstructure and electronic properties of TCI SnTe film surfaces grown by molecular beam epitaxy were characterized using scanning probe microscopy. These results reveal the influence of various defects on the electronic properties: tilt boundaries leading to dislocation arrays that serve as periodic nucleation sites for pit growth; screw dislocations, and point defects. These features have varying length scale and display variations in the electronic structure of the surface, which are mapped with scanning tunneling microscopy images as standing waves superimposed on atomic scale images of the surface topography that consequently shape the wave patterns. Since the growth process results in symmetry breaking defects that patterns the topological states, we propose that the scanning probe tip can pattern the surface and electronic structure and enable the fabrication of topological devices on the SnTe surface. Financial support from the National Science Foundation through the Yale Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (Grant No. MRSEC DMR-1119826) and FAME.

  19. The effect of precursor aging on optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 thin films for making smart windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abareshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a suitable method for increasing effective surface area of electrodeposited WO3 thin films. This is done because effective surface area improves optical and electrochromic properties in smart windows. Therefore, we investigated precursor aging atperoxytungstate precursor (0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Experiments showed by increasing aging time of the precursor solution, larger aggregates were formed. Their morphology, optical and cyclic voltammogram characterization showed that increasing aging time improves optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 thin films in 1M LiClO4-PC electrolyte. The WO3 films with aging time of 72 h exhibited a noticeable EC performance with variation of transmittance up to 72% at 633nm. The result indicated that using two electrochromic materials with complementary properties could improve the function of the device

  20. Multiple-Color-Generating Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells via Dichroic Film Incorporation for Power-Generating Window Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gang Yeol; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Youngki; Yoon, Hee Chang; Chu, Van Ben; Park, Gi Soon; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Kim, Woong; Min, Byoung Koun; Do, Young Rag

    2017-05-03

    There are four prerequisites when applying all types of thin-film solar cells to power-generating window photovoltaics (PVs): high power-generation efficiency, longevity and high durability, semitransparency or partial-light transmittance, and colorful and aesthetic value. Solid-type thin-film Cu(In,Ga)S 2 (CIGS) or Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGSSe) PVs nearly meet the first two criteria, making them promising candidates for power-generating window applications if they can transmit light to some degree and generate color with good aesthetic value. In this study, the mechanical scribing process removes 10% of the window CIGSSe thin-film solar cell with vacant line patterns to provide a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module to meet the third requirement. The last concept of creating distinct colors could be met by the addition of reflectance colors of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) dichroic film on the black part of a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module. Beautiful violets and blues were created on the cover glass of a black CIGSSe PV module via the addition of 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film to improve the aesthetic value of the outside appearance. As a general result from the low external quantum efficiency (EQE) and absorption of CIGSSe PVs below a wavelength of 400 nm, the harvesting efficiency and short-circuit photocurrent of CIGSSe PVs were reduced by only ∼10% without reducing the open-circuit voltage (V OC ) because of the reduced overlap between the absorption spectrum of CIGSSe PV and the reflectance spectrum of the 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film. The combined technology of partial-vacancy-scribed CIGSSe PV modules and blue 1D PC dichroic film can provide a simple strategy to be applied to violet/blue power-generating window applications, as such a strategy can improve the transparency and aesthetic value without significantly sacrificing the harvesting efficiency of the CIGSSe PV modules.

  1. Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.

  2. Ultra-thin films of polysilsesquioxanes possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as gate insulator for organic field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Yoshio; Kawa, Haruna [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Yoshiki, Jun [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kumei, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Oi, Fumio [Konishi Chemical IND. Co., LTD., 3-4-77 Kozaika, Wakayama 641-0007 (Japan); Yamakado, Hideo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan); Fukuda, Hisashi [Division of Engineering for Composite Functions, Faculty of Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran 050-8585 (Japan); Kimura, Keiichi, E-mail: kkimura@center.wakayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Systems Engineering, Wakayama University, 930 Sakae-dani, Wakayama 640-8510 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups as an organic moiety of the side chain were synthesized by sol-gel condensation copolymerization of the corresponding trialkoxysilanes. The ultra-thin PSQ film with a radical initiator and a cross-linking agent was prepared by a spin-coating method, and the film was cured integrally at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C through two different kinds of polymeric reactions, which were radical polymerization of vinyl groups and sol-gel condensation polymerization of terminated silanol and alkoxy groups. The obtained PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to acetone, which is a good solvent of PSQ before polymerization. It became clear by atomic force microscopy observation that the surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Furthermore, pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with the PSQ film as a gate insulator showed typical p-channel enhancement mode operation characteristics and therefore the ultra-thin PSQ film has the potential to be applicable for solution-processed OFET systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) possessing 3-methacryloxypropyl groups were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ultra-thin PSQ film could be cured at low temperatures of less than 120 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PSQ film showed the almost perfect solubilization resistance to organic solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface of the PSQ film was very smooth at a nano-meter level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pentacene-based organic field-effect transistor with the PSQ film was fabricated.

  3. Study of Ho-doped Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, S. E. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S. L.; Chen, Y. L.; Hesjedal, T., E-mail: Thorsten.Hesjedal@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Baker, A. A. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Figueroa, A. I.; Laan, G. van der [Magnetic Spectroscopy Group, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kellock, A. J.; Pushp, A.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Harris, J. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    Breaking time-reversal symmetry through magnetic doping of topological insulators has been identified as a key strategy for unlocking exotic physical states. Here, we report the growth of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films doped with the highest magnetic moment element Ho. Diffraction studies demonstrate high quality films for up to 21% Ho incorporation. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry reveals paramagnetism down to 2 K with an effective magnetic moment of ∼5 μ{sub B}/Ho. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that the topological surface state remains intact with Ho doping, consistent with the material's paramagnetic state. The large saturation moment achieved makes these films useful for incorporation into heterostructures, whereby magnetic order can be introduced via interfacial coupling.

  4. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  5. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  6. Metal-insulator transition and nonlinear optical responseof sputter-deposited V3O5 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rúa, Armando; Díaz, Ramón D.; Kumar, Nardeep; Lysenko, Sergiy; Fernández, Félix E.

    2017-06-01

    The compound V3O5, a member of the vanadium oxide Magnéli series, exhibits a metal-insulator transition near 430 K, the highest known temperature value among all vanadium oxides. It has been studied before mainly in single-crystal form, and for the very few cases in which thin films have been fabricated before, the procedure has required extensive post-deposition annealing of other oxides or vanadium metal at high temperatures in tightly controlled atmospheres. For the present work, V3O5 films were deposited directly on SiO2 glass substrates, without subsequent annealing, by DC magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction study of the samples evidenced oxygen deficiency, accommodated by oxygen vacancies. Resistivity measurements from 300 to 500 K revealed the metal-insulator transition by Tc ˜ 430 K, with an associated resistivity change by a factor of 20, and no detectable hysteresis in heating-cooling cycles, in agreement with most single-crystal studies. Resistivity values obtained were, however, lower than published results for bulk crystal values, particularly at temperatures below Tc. This was attributed to conduction electrons generated by the oxygen vacancies. Gradual resistivity increase in a very thin sample, through heating in air at temperatures up to 500 K, lends support to this argument. Using a pump-probe scattering technique, the V3O5 films were also probed for ultrafast nonlinear optical response. A reduction in the transient relative scattered light signal was recorded, which reached -10% within ˜800 fs. This observed response, likely related to the photoinduced insulator-to-metal phase transition, should stimulate additional interest in this material.

  7. Influence of oxygen flow rate on metal-insulator transition of vanadium oxide thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xu; Liu, Xinkun; Li, Haizhu; Huang, Mingju [Henan University, Key Lab of Informational Opto-Electronical Materials and Apparatus, School of Physics and Electronics, Kaifeng (China); Zhang, Angran [South China Normal University, Institute of Electronic Paper Displays, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-03-15

    High-quality vanadium oxide (VO{sub 2}) films have been fabricated on Si (111) substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering deposition method. The sheet resistance of VO{sub 2} has a significant change (close to 5 orders of magnitude) in the process of the metal-insulator phase transition (MIT). The field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) results show the grain size of VO{sub 2} thin films is larger with the increase of oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the thin films fabricated at different oxygen flow rates grow along the (011) crystalline orientation. As the oxygen flow rate increases from 3 sccm to 6 sccm, the phase transition temperature of the films reduces from 341 to 320 K, the width of the thermal hysteresis loop decreases from 32 to 9 K. The thin films fabricated in the condition of 5 sccm have a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) -3.455%/K with a small resistivity of 2.795 ρ/Ω cm. (orig.)

  8. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. El-Bashir

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal (RB is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel’s equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows. Keywords: Rose Bengal, Dielectric parameters, Linear/nonlinear optics, Dye/FTO, IR blocking windows

  9. Electroplating of electrical circuitry on optoelectronic windows for thin film solar cells on foil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestad, A.; Rendering, H.; Peter, M.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    In many flexible electronic devices transparent conductive oxide (TCO) window layers are used for current collection. The trade-off between the electrical resistance and optical transmission of TCOs results in power losses. Increasing the electrical conductivity by combining metallic grids with TCOs

  10. Thermal operating window for PEDOT:PSS films and its related thermoelectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepien, Lukas; Roch, Aljoscha; Tkachov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsically conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS is widely used and has found high recognition due to its excellent electrical conductivity. Its potential applications cover many fields, e.g. thermoelectric energy conversion. Therefore we compared the thermoelectric properties ofpristine and DMSO...... treated PEDOT:PSS films at potential operating temperatures. Here we observed the electrical degradation of the film up to complete failure. Further, the thermal aging of PEDOT:PSS still lacks of understanding. It is pointed out that PEDOT:PSS films show a complex degradation mechanism which includes...

  11. Role of laser energy density on growth of highly oriented topological insulator Bi2Se3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Saha, B.; Saha, D.; Ganguly, S.

    2016-05-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are very promising in the field of nanoelectronics due to their exotic properties. Bismuth Selenide, a 3D Topological insulator is considered as reference TI owing to its simple band structure and large bandgap. However, the presence of unintentional doping, which masks the metallic surface states, is still a major concern. In this work, we report the effect of laser energy density on the growth of highly oriented and stoichiometric thin films of Bi2Se3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy confirms the c-axis orientation and good crystallinity of films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows the increase in average grain size and rms roughness (from 3.1 nm to 5.1 nm) with the decrease in laser energy density. Compositional study by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurement is found to be in agreement with AFM results. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirm the desired stoichiometry of the samples.

  12. Formation and dielectric properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers studied by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Klitzing, Regine V; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-03-27

    The formation of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is investigated using a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor which is sensitive to variations of the surface potential. The buildup of the PEMs at the silicon oxide surface of the device can be observed in real time as defined potential shifts. The influence of polymer charge density is studied using the strong polyanion poly(styrene sulfonate), PSS, combined with the statistical copolymer poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride-stat-N-methyl-N-vinylacetamide), P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA), at various degrees of charge (DC). The multilayer formation stops after a few deposition steps for a DC below 75%. We show that the threshold of surface charge compensation corresponds to the threshold of multilayer formation. However, no reversion of the preceding surface charge was observed. Screening of polyelectrolyte charges by mobile ions within the polymer film leads to a decrease of the potential shifts with the number of layers deposited. This decrease is much slower for PEMs consisting of P(DADMAC-stat-NMVA) and PSS as compared to PEMs consisting of poly(allylamine-hydrochloride), PAH, and PSS. From this, significant differences in the dielectric constants of the polyelectrolyte films and in the concentration of mobile ions within the films can be derived.

  13. Electron-beam induced damage in thin insulating films on compound semiconductors. M.S. Thesis, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Dragan M.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphorus rich plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride and silicon dioxide films on n-type indium phosphide (InP) substrates were exposed to electron-beam irradiation in the 5 to 40 keV range for the purpose of characterizing the damage induced in the dielectric. The electron-beam exposure was on the range of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -3) C/sq cm. The damage to the devices was characterized by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors. These results were compared to results obtained for radiation damage of thermal silicon dioxide on silicon (Si) MOS capacitors with similar exposures. The radiation induced damage in the PECVD silicon nitride films on InP was successfully annealed out in an hydrogen/nitrogen (H2/N2) ambient at 400 C for 15 min. The PECVD silicon dioxide films on InP had the least radiation damage, while the thermal silicon dioxide films on Si had the most radiation damage.

  14. Ferromagnetism of magnetically doped topological insulators in CrxBi2-xTe3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Hadimani, R. L.; Tuttle, G.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport properties of Bi2Te3 thin films. CrxBi2-xTe3 thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown epitaxially on mica substrate with low surface roughness (˜0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an electron acceptor in Bi2Te3 and increases the magnetization of CrxBi2-xTe3. When x = 0.14 and 0.29, ferromagnetism appears in CrxBi2-xTe3 thin films, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Curie temperature, coercivity, and remnant Hall resistance of thin films increase with increasing Cr concentration. The Arrott-Noakes plot demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described better with 3D-Heisenberg model than with mean field model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of magnetic topological insulators in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices.

  15. SF6 plastic film insulated outdoor bushing for metalclad switchgear operating at system voltages of 420 kV and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, H.

    1981-10-01

    In replacement of conventional oil-paper bushings, a type of SF6 insulated bushing with polypropylene plastic film dielectricum was developed for outdoor operation of metalclad switchgear. Such bushings have the advantage of the conformity of the insulation with that of the matching switchgear and of the nonflammability of the SF6 gas. The choice of the plastic film, the winding technique, the thermal and dielectrical test program, and the high voltage long-term test program are described. Series production of a 420 kV bushing is under way and research specimens for 525 kV were successfully tested.

  16. Carrier Density Modulation over an Exceptional Voltage Window in BaSnO3 Films via Ion Gel Gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Helin; Walter, Jeff; Ganguly, Koustav; Prakash, Abhinav; Jalan, Bharat; Leighton, Chris

    BaSnO3 has drawn interest recently due to its outstanding room temperature mobility and potential applications in oxide transistors, transparent conductors, etc. Here we report effective control of the electronic transport properties of sputtered oxygen-vacancy-doped BaSnO3 (BaSnO3-δ) films via ion gel gating in electric double layer transistor structures. The electron densities of the starting films is tuned by thickness, from 4 × 1019 cm-3 at 13 nm to much lower densities at lower thickness. The response to gate voltage is found to be notably robust, with largely reversible response (even in vacuum) over an exceptionally wide window from -4 to +4 V, even at 300 K. The data support predominantly electrostatic response, unlike many other oxides, which we ascribe to Sn redox stability. In this manner the sheet resistance of 13-nm-thick BaSnO3 films can be modulated by a factor of 50 at 300 K, increasing to almost 103 at low temperatures. Similar measurements at lower thickness/electron density will also be discussed. Work supported by the NSF MRSEC under DMR-1420013.

  17. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel CdS/CdSe composite windows for CdTe cell were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. • SEM images show that CdS/CdSe composite windows are stacking together as the design. • CdTe cells with CdS/CdSe composite windows improved the blue response. • CdTe cells with composite windows show an obvious red shift in the absorption edge. • The volume proportion of CdSe affects the performance of CdTe solar cell. - Abstract: A novel CdS/CdSe composite window structure was designed and then the corresponding films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an improved window layer for CdTe-based solar cells. Two types of this composite window structure with 5 cycles and 10 cycles CdS/CdSe respectively both combined with CdS layers were prepared at 200 °C compared with pure CdS window layer and finally were applied into CdTe thin film solar cells. The cross section and surface morphology of the two composite window layers were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and the result shows that the pulsed laser deposited composite window layers with good crystallinity are stacking together as the design. The devices based on CdS/CdSe composite window layers have demonstrated the enhanced photocurrent collection from both short and long wavelength regions compared to CdS/CdTe solar cell. The efficiency of the best reference CdS/CdTe solar cell was 10.72%. And the device with 5 cycles CdS/CdSe composite window showed efficiency of 12.61% with V OC of 772.92 mV, J SC of 25.11 mA/cm 2 and FF of 64.95%. In addition, there are some differences which exist within the optical transmittance spectra and QE curves between the two CdS/CdSe composite window samples, indicating that the volume proportion of CdSe may influence the performance of CdTe thin film solar cell.

  18. Preparation and characterization of pulsed laser deposited a novel CdS/CdSe composite window layer for CdTe thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Li, Bing, E-mail: libing70@126.com; Zhang, Jingquan; Li, Wei; Wu, Lili; Feng, Lianghuan

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • Novel CdS/CdSe composite windows for CdTe cell were prepared by pulsed laser deposition. • SEM images show that CdS/CdSe composite windows are stacking together as the design. • CdTe cells with CdS/CdSe composite windows improved the blue response. • CdTe cells with composite windows show an obvious red shift in the absorption edge. • The volume proportion of CdSe affects the performance of CdTe solar cell. - Abstract: A novel CdS/CdSe composite window structure was designed and then the corresponding films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition as an improved window layer for CdTe-based solar cells. Two types of this composite window structure with 5 cycles and 10 cycles CdS/CdSe respectively both combined with CdS layers were prepared at 200 °C compared with pure CdS window layer and finally were applied into CdTe thin film solar cells. The cross section and surface morphology of the two composite window layers were monitored by using scanning electron microscopy and the result shows that the pulsed laser deposited composite window layers with good crystallinity are stacking together as the design. The devices based on CdS/CdSe composite window layers have demonstrated the enhanced photocurrent collection from both short and long wavelength regions compared to CdS/CdTe solar cell. The efficiency of the best reference CdS/CdTe solar cell was 10.72%. And the device with 5 cycles CdS/CdSe composite window showed efficiency of 12.61% with V{sub OC} of 772.92 mV, J{sub SC} of 25.11 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 64.95%. In addition, there are some differences which exist within the optical transmittance spectra and QE curves between the two CdS/CdSe composite window samples, indicating that the volume proportion of CdSe may influence the performance of CdTe thin film solar cell.

  19. Sharpness and intensity modulation of the metal-insulator transition in ultrathin VO2 films by interfacial structure manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Ryan; Goswami, Ankur; Pal, Soupitak; Schofield, Kalvin; Bukhari, Syed Asad Manzoor; Thundat, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic (insulator) to tetragonal (metallic) upon heating above 340 K, accompanied by abrupt changes to its electronic, optical, and mechanical properties. Not only is this transition scientifically intriguing, but there are also numerous applications in sensing, memory, and optoelectronics. Here we investigate the effect different substrates and the processing conditions have on the characteristics metal-insulator transition (MIT), and how the properties can be tuned for specific applications. VO2 thin films were grown on c -plane sapphire (0001) and p-type silicon by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution x-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy reveals textured epitaxial growth on sapphire by domain-matching epitaxy, while the presence of a native oxide layer on silicon prevented any preferential growth resulting in a polycrystalline film. An orientation relationship of (010)VO2|| (0001)Al 2O3 was established for VO2 grown on sapphire, while no such relationship was found for VO2 grown on silicon. Surface-energy minimization is the driving force behind grain growth, as the lowest energy VO2 plane grew on silicon, while on sapphire the desire for epitaxial growth was dominant. Polycrystallinity of films grown on silicon caused a weaker and less prominent MIT than observed on sapphire, whose MIT was higher in magnitude and steeper in slope. The position of the MIT was shown to depend on the competing effects of misfit strain and grain growth. Higher deposition temperatures caused an increase in the MIT, while compressive strain resulted in a decreased MIT.

  20. Improvements in the reliability of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors with triple stacked gate insulator in flexible electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics & Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Tai, Ya-Hsiang [Department of Photonics & Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuan-Fu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liu, Kuan-Hsien [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chao-Kuei [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Chun-Cheng; Tu, Chun-Hao; Liu, Chu-Yu [Advanced Technology Research Center, AU Optronics Corp, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-30

    This study examined the impact of the low-temperature stacking gate insulator on the gate bias instability of a-InGaZnO thin film transistors in flexible electronics applications. Although the quality of SiN{sub x} at low process/deposition temperature is better than that of SiO{sub x} at similarly low process/deposition temperature, there is still a very large positive threshold voltage (V{sub th}) shift of 9.4 V for devices with a single low-temperature SiN{sub x} gate insulator under positive gate bias stress. However, a suitable oxide–nitride–oxide-stacked gate insulator exhibits a V{sub th} shift of only 0.23 V. This improvement results from the larger band offset and suitable gate insulator thickness that can effectively suppress carrier trapping behavior. - Highlights: • The cause of the bias instability for a low-temperature gate insulator is verified. • A triple-stacked gate insulator was fabricated. • A suitable triple stacked gate insulator shows only 0.23 V threshold voltage shift.

  1. Design of Rose Bengal/FTO optical thin film system as a novel nonlinear media for infrared blocking windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bashir, S. M.; Yahia, I. S.; Binhussain, M. A.; AlSalhi, M. S.

    Rose Bengal (RB) is a new organic semiconductor with the highly stable layer, was deposited on highly cleaned conductive glass substrate known as (FTO glass) with different thickness in the range from 80 to 292 nm. XRD showed an entirely amorphous structure of the studied film thicknesses. The observed peaks are the indexed peaks for FTO layer. Spectrophotometric data as transmittance, reflectance, and absorbance were used for the analysis the optical constant of RB/FTO optical thin film system. Refractive index was calculated using Fresnel's equation with the aid of reflectance and absorption index. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dissipation factor were discussed and analyzed according to the applied optical theories. Nonlinear parameters such as third order nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index were calculated based on the linear refractive index of the applications of this material in nonlinear media. The results showed that Rose Bengal is a proving material for wide scale optoelectronic applications such as infrared blocking windows.

  2. Tuning the metal-insulator transition in manganite films through surface exchange coupling with magnetic nanodots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, T Z; Gai, Z; Xu, X Y; Guo, H W; Yin, L F; Shen, J

    2011-04-15

    In strongly correlated electronic systems, the global transport behavior depends sensitively on spin ordering. We show that spin ordering in manganites can be controlled by depositing isolated ferromagnetic nanodots at the surface. The exchange field at the interface is tunable with nanodot density and makes it possible to overcome dimensionality and strain effects in frustrated systems to greatly increasing the metal-insulator transition and magnetoresistance. These findings indicate that electronic phase separation can be controlled by the presence of magnetic nanodots.

  3. Stability Study of Flexible 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynylpentacene Thin-Film Transistors with a Cross-Linked Poly(4-vinylphenol/Yttrium Oxide Nanocomposite Gate Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the electrical and mechanical stability of flexible 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylehtynylpentacene (TIPS-pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs that were fabricated on polyimide (PI substrates using cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol (c-PVP and c-PVP/yttrium oxide (Y2O3 nanocomposite films as gate insulators. Compared with the electrical characteristics of TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP insulators, the TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators exhibited enhancements in the drain current and the threshold voltage due to an increase in the dielectric capacitance. In electrical stability experiments, a gradual decrease in the drain current and a negative shift in the threshold voltage occurred during prolonged bias stress tests, but these characteristic variations were comparable for both types of TFT. On the other hand, the results of mechanical bending tests showed that the characteristic degradation of the TIPS-pentacene TFTs with c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulators was more critical than that of the TFTs with c-PVP insulators. In this study, the detrimental effect of the nanocomposite insulator on the mechanical stability of flexible TIPS-pentacene TFTs was found to be caused by physical adhesion of TIPS-pentacene molecules onto the rough surfaces of the c-PVP/Y2O3 nanocomposite insulator. These results indicate that the dielectric and morphological properties of polymeric nanocomposite insulators are significant when considering practical applications of flexible electronics operated at low voltages.

  4. Thickness dependent quantum oscillations of transport properties in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Budnik, A. V.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Nashchekina, O. N. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute,” 21 Frunze St., Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity, the Hall coefficient, and the Seebeck coefficient on the layer thickness d (d = 18−600 nm) of p-type topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films grown by thermal evaporation in vacuum on glass substrates were obtained at room temperature. In the thickness range of d = 18–100 nm, sustained oscillations with a substantial amplitude were revealed. The observed oscillations are well approximated by a harmonic function with a period Δd = (9.5 ± 0.5) nm. At d > 100 nm, the transport coefficients practically do not change as d is increased. The oscillations of the kinetic properties are attributed to the quantum size effects due to the hole confinement in the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} quantum wells. The results of the theoretical calculations of Δd within the framework of a model of an infinitely deep potential well are in good agreement with the experimental results. It is suggested that the substantial amplitude of the oscillations and their sustained character as a function of d are connected with the topologically protected gapless surface states of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and are inherent to topological insulators.

  5. Optimal Shell Thickness of Metal@Insulator Nanoparticles for Net Enhancement of Photogenerated Polarons in P3HT Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Wei-Peng; Williams, Evan L; Yang, Ren-Bin; Koh, Wee-Shing; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Ooi, Zi-En

    2016-02-03

    Embedding metal nanoparticles in the active layer of organic solar cells has been explored as a route for improving charge carrier generation, with localized field enhancement as a proposed mechanism. However, embedded metal nanoparticles can also act as charge recombination sites. To suppress such recombination, the metal nanoparticles are commonly coated with a thin insulating shell. At the same time, this insulating shell limits the extent that the localized enhanced electric field influences charge generation in the organic medium. It is presumed that there is an optimal thickness which maximizes field enhancement effects while suppressing recombination. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Al2O3 layers of different thicknesses onto silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), in a thin film of P3HT. Photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy was used to study the dependence of the photogenerated P3HT(+) polaron population on the Al2O3 thickness. The optimal thickness was found to be 3-5 nm. This knowledge can be further applied in the design of metal nanoparticle-enhanced solar cells.

  6. Weak antilocalization in a three-dimensional topological insulator based on a high-mobility HgTe film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, M. L.; Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2016-09-01

    The anomalous magnetoresistance (AMR) caused by the weak antilocalization effects in a three-dimensional topological insulator based on a strained mercury telluride film is experimentally studied. It is demonstrated that the obtained results are in a good agreement with the universal theory of Zduniak, Dyakonov, and Knap. It is found that the AMR in the bulk band gap is far below that expected for the system of Dirac fermions. Such a discrepancy can assumingly be related to a nonzero effective mass of Dirac fermions. The filling of energy bands in the bulk is accompanied by a pronounced increase in the AMR. This is a signature of the weak coupling between the surface and bulk charge carriers.

  7. Heteroepitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou You; Ramanathan, Shriram [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010){sub vo{sub 2}} parallel (0001){sub GaN} parallel (0001){sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [100]{sub vo{sub 2}} parallel [1210]{sub GaN} parallel [0110]{sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} from x-ray diffraction. VO{sub 2} heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO{sub 2}. Electrical characterization of VO{sub 2} films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO{sub 2} films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  8. Planar tunneling and Andreev bound state spectroscopy of yttrium barium copper oxide thin films using solution-deposited zirconia insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Patrick Jay

    2004-12-01

    Planar tunnel spectroscopic measurements are performed on YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) thin films at four different crystallographic orientations. Since tunneling is a highly surface-sensitive probe on YBCO, films have been optimized for high surface quality. To fabricate the tunneling insulator, a novel fabrication technique has been developed through solution condensation and hydrolysis of zirconia, which has proven to be gentler to the surface than previous techniques. The result is a clean tunneling interface as shown in scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, that allows us to detect several new features in the tunneling conductance. In addition, we have fabricated tunnel junctions with three different counter-electrode deposition techniques. In doing so, various behaviors of the tunneling conductance and its dependence on magnetic field, temperature, and injected current as a function of these counter-electrode deposition techniques has been observed. Modeling of the tunneling conductance has provided insight into the various behaviors. It has been shown that by varying the value of the tunneling cone, surface faceting and quasiparticle lifetime, in agreement with the observations, splitting vs. non-splitting of the zero-bias conductance peak can be understood.

  9. Critical Mechanism of Magnetic Doped CrxBi2-xTe3 Topological Insulator Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Yan; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David; Nlebedim, Cajetan

    2015-03-01

    Introducing magnetic dopants into topological insulators can lead to the opening of the surface band gap which can induce interesting phenomena such as the quantized anomalous Hall effect (QAH) and magnetoelectric effect. However, the critical properties of ferromagnetism in magnetic doped TIs are not well studied. In this work, we investigated the effect of magnetic doping on magnetic and transport response in Bi2Te3 thin films. CrxBi2-xTe3 thin films with x = 0.03, 0.14, and 0.29 were grown with low surface roughness (~ 0.4 nm). It is found that Cr is an n-type doping element, which reduces the carrier density of p-type Bi2Te3. Moreover, doping Cr induces long range ferromagnetism when x =0.14 and 0.29, where anomalous Hall effect and weak localization of magnetoconductance were observed. The Arrott-Noakes plot for CrxBi2-xTe3 demonstrates that the critical mechanism of the ferromagnetism can be described well with 3D-Heisenberg model. Our work may benefit for the practical applications of ferromagnetic TIs with opened surface band gap in spintronics and magnetoelectric devices. Authors would like to thank the financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation under the Award No. 1201883.

  10. A Study of Electrostatic Charge on Insulating Film by Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikunaga, K; Toosaka, K; Kamohara, T; Sakai, K; Nonaka, K

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic charge properties on polypropylene film have been characterized by atomic force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy. The measurements have been carried out after the polypropylene film was electrified by contact and separation process in an atmosphere of controlled humidity. The negative and positive charge in concave surface has been observed. The correlation between concave surface and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charges could be caused by localized contact. On the other hand, positive charge on a flat surface has been observed. The absence of a relationship between surface profile and charge position suggests that the electrostatic charge should be caused by discharge during the separation process. The spatial migration of other positive charges through surface roughness has been observed. The results suggest that there could be some electron traps on the surface roughness and some potentials on the polypropylene film.

  11. High performance inkjet-printed metal oxide thin film transistors via addition of insulating polymer with proper molecular weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Chen, Cihai; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Xiaomin; Chen, Huipeng; Guo, Tailiang

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of metal oxide thin film transistor (MOTFT) arrays using the inkjet printing process has caused tremendous interest for low-cost and large-area flexible electronic devices. However, the inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays usually exhibited a non-uniform geometry due to the coffee ring effect, which restricted their commercial application. Therefore, in this work, a strategy is reported to control the geometry and enhance device performance of inkjet-printed MOTFT arrays by the addition of an insulating polymer to the precursor solution prior to film deposition. Moreover, the impact of the polymer molecular weight (MW) on the geometry, chemical constitution, crystallization, and MOTFT properties of inkjet-printed metal oxide depositions was investigated. The results demonstrated that with an increase of MW of polystyrene (PS) from 2000 to 200 000, the coffee ring was gradually faded and the coffee ring effect was completely eliminated when MW reached 200 000, which is associated with the enhanced viscosity with the insulating polymer, providing a high resistance to the outward capillary flow, which facilitated the depinning of the contact line, leading to the elimination of the coffee ring. More importantly, the carrier mobility increased significantly from 4.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 up to 13.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 as PS MW increased from 2000 to 200 000, which was about 3 times that of the pristine In2O3 TFTs. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that PS doping of In2O3 films not only frustrated crystallization but also altered chemical constitution by enhancing the formation of the M-O structure, both of which facilitated the carrier transport. These results demonstrated that the simple polymer additive process provides a promising method that can efficiently control the geometry of MO arrays during inkjet printing and maximize the device performance of MOTFT arrays, which showed great potential for the application in next

  12. On the carrier transport in metal-insulator-metal structures for CdTe thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.W.; Choi, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    According to the energy band model for the Al-CdTe-Ag sandwich structure, we have investigate to the mechanism of the current limited transport(CLT). As the bias voltage applied to the Alsup(+) and Agsup(+) electrode, the potential barrier difference for this structure was found 0.2eV. From what this results, we conclude that the mechanism of the current limited transport due to the potential barrier of the contact limited current. Not only this phenomena but also the annealing effect of thin film was shown that the distingushable for virgin film. (Author)

  13. Poly(4-vinylphenol gate insulator with cross-linking using a rapid low-power microwave induction heating scheme for organic thin-film-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme is proposed for the poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP gate insulator cross-linking process to replace the traditional oven heating cross-linking process. The cross-linking time is significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min by heating the metal below the PVP layer using microwave irradiation. The necessary microwave power was substantially reduced to about 50 W by decreasing the chamber pressure. The MIH scheme is a good candidate to replace traditional thermal heating for cross-linking of PVP as the gate insulator for organic thin-film-transistors.

  14. Study and application of alumina films for the realization of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieu, Eric

    1970-01-01

    Alumina used in thin films on silicon substrate (MIS structures) or deposited on silica SiO 2 as second dielectric for MIIS structures is actually investigated. In a theoretical part concerning MIS structure properties all the defects of the C(V) curves have been extensively checked off. After a description of the deposition method used, the experimental results are reviewed. With the deposition method used, we realize amorphous alumina films at low temperatures (T∼150 deg. C). The treatment of the surface before deposition is important for the reproducibility of the films and the properties of the interface. Al 2 O 3 -Si. The films have good electrical characteristics and a heat treatment at 500 deg. C with argon as atmosphere is helpful. Alumina contains negative charges and we establish a surface inversion of the silicon type (V FB >0). The density of surface states N SS is approximately 10 11 e-bar/cm 2 . The deposition method investigated has a direct application for integrated circuits technology; it may be used for multilayers structures, the obtention of reduced MOST threshold voltages and memory elements MIIS. (author) [fr

  15. Growth of Bi2Se3 topological insulator thin film on Ge(1 1 1) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangsoo; Woo, Jeongseok; Lee, Geunseop

    2018-02-01

    Atomically smooth, single crystalline Bi2Se3 thin films were grown on a Ge(1 1 1) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. Crystallinities of both the surface and the bulk as well as the stoichiometry of the grown film were characterized by using low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopies. Hexagonal atomic structures, quintuple layer steps observed in STM images confirmed that the Bi2Se3 film with a (0 0 0 1) surface was grown. Diffraction peak positions as well as the chemical composition determined from the core-level photoelectron spectra coincide well with those expected for the Bi2Se3 crystal. The surface state with a Dirac cone was observed in the valence photoelectron spectra, which also support that a high-quality Bi2Se3 film was grown on the Ge(1 1 1) substrate. The interface between Ge(1 1 1) and Bi2Se3(0 0 0 1) is expected to be abrupt due to the small lattice between them.

  16. Crossover of angular dependent magnetoresistance with the metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistive manganite films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Sun, J.R.; Zhao, T.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependence of angular dependent magnetoresistance (AMR) along two orthogonal directions ([100] and [01]) was investigated in a charge-orbital-ordered Sm0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (SCMO) film grown on (011)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. A dramatic decrease of AMR magnitude in both...

  17. Surface antiferromagnetism and incipient metal-insulator transition in strained manganite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cossu, Fabrizio

    2013-06-21

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the (001) surface of the ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under an epitaxial compressive strain favors antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the surface layers, coexisting with ferromagnetic (FM) bulk order. Surface antiferromagnetism is accompanied by a very marked surface-related spectral pseudogap, signaling an incomplete metal-insulator transition at the surface. The different relaxation and rumpling of the MnO2 and LaO surface planes in the two competing magnetic phases cause distinct work-function changes, which are of potential diagnostic use. The AF phase is recognized as an extreme surface-assisted case of the combination of in-plane AF super-exchange and vertical FM double-exchange couplings that rules magnetism in manganites under in-plane compression.

  18. Enhancement of Electrical Conductance for Pentacene Thin Film Transistor by Controlling an Initial Layer-by-Layer Growth Mode Directly on SiO2 Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qiong; Jiang, Yeping; Yu, Aifang; Qiu, Xiaohui; Jiang, Chao

    2009-04-01

    Initial nucleation and growth of pentacene films on various pre-cleaning treated SiO2 gate insulators were systematically examined by atomic force microscope. The performance of fabricated pentacene thin film transistor devices was found to be highly related to the initial film growth modes. In contrast to the film in the three-dimensional island-like growth mode on SiO2 under an organic cleaning process, a layer-by-layer initial growth mode occurred on the SiO2 insulator cleaned with ammonia solution which has shown much improved electrical properties of the thin film transistors. Field effect mobility of the thin film transistor devices could be achieved as high as 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 on the bared SiO2/Si substrate and the on/off ratio was over 106. The enhanced electrical conductance was further confirmed by an electrostatic force microscopic observation of quantized electrical potentials via charge-injection to the submonolayer pentacene islands with layer-by-layer growth mode.

  19. Thickness oscillations of the transport properties in n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E.I., E-mail: rogacheva@kpi.kharkov.ua [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Street, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Budnik, A.V.; Sipatov, A.Yu.; Nashchekina, O.N. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Street, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Fedorov, A.G. [Institute for Single Crystals of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Prospect, Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Tang, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and Hall coefficient on the thickness (d = 20–155 nm) of the n-type thin films grown on the glass substrates by the thermal evaporation in vacuum of the n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator crystals have been measured. It has been established that these dependences have an oscillatory character with a substantial amplitude. The obtained results are interpreted in terms of quantum size effects, taking into account the peculiar properties of the surface layers of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films connected with the topological insulator nature of the bismuth telluride. - Highlights: • The thickness dependences of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films kinetic coefficients were obtained. • The dependences have oscillatory character with a substantial undamped amplitude. • The oscillation period increases with decreasing film thickness. • The oscillations are attributed to electron confinement in the film growth direction. • It is suggested that topological surface layer affects quantum processes in films.

  20. Reflectance study on the metal-insulator transition driven by crystallinity change in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Shinuk; Park, Sungheum; Lee, Kwanghee

    2005-01-01

    We report optical reflectance, R(ω), studies on free-standing films of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxy thiophene)/poly(style ne sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) measured over a range from 0.02 - 5.0 eV. When the PEDOT-PSS films were prepared at an elevated temperature of 60 .deg. C, the films exhibit an increased dc-conductivity (σ dc ∼ 104 S/cm) and an optical conductivity, σ(ω), in the intraband transitions below 1.0 eV as compared with the films prepared at room temperature (σ dc ∼ 47 S/cm). Detailed analysis of σ(ω) in terms of the 'localization-modified Drude (LMD) model' demonstrated that the heat-treated PEDOT-PSS was a disordered metal near the metal-insulator transition (MIT) while the as-grown films could be better described as a Fermi glass on the insulating side of MIT. The heat-annealing process increased the degree of crystallinity of the films, thereby inducing a MIT near the critical limit.

  1. Investigation of oxygen distribution in HTSC-insulator in film structures on light ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.M.; Grekhov, I.V.; Eremin, V.K.; Konnikov, S.G.; Linijchuk, I.A.; Razumov, S.V.; Semchinova, O.K.; Strokan, N.B.; Dyumin, A.N.; Lebedev, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    Use of nuclear reaction method on accelerated ions for profiling of oxygen concentration in thin-film HTSC structures is considered. Reaction on 16 O(d, α) 14 N deuterons, in course of which ∼ 2.6 MeV α-particles are generated, is used. Detected in experiment 2.0-2.6 MeV α-particle spectrum permits to recognstruct oxygen concentration profile in sample depth. Results obtained on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Y 2 BaCuO 5 film om MgO sunstrates, relating to the case of both uniform and nonuniform oxygen distribution, are presented. Resolution in the depth ∼ 200 A and accuracy of concentration measurement (relatively MgO substrate) of several percents are attained during oxygen profiling

  2. Some physical properties of Cd{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}S films used as window layer in heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Tuelay [Anadolu University, Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey); Koese, Salih [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    CdS has been proved to be an ideal material for use as the window layer for heterojunction solar cells especially with n-CdS/p-CdTe. CdS, Cd{sub 0.9}Sn{sub 0.1}S and Cd{sub 0.8}Sn{sub 0.2}S films were deposited onto glass substrates at 300 C substrate temperature by using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique (USP). The effect of Sn concentration on some structural, optical and electrical properties of the films was presented. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. XRD patterns showed that films have polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal structure. The grain size of the films decreased with increasing x values. The optical band gap values were obtained from optical absorption spectra of the films. The optical band gap values of the films were found to be between 2.44 and 2.45 eV. The variations of conductivity of Cd{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}S (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.2) films have been investigated depending on applied voltage in dark and under illumination. The resistivity significantly decreased with increasing tin concentration and under illumination. (author)

  3. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  4. Quantum Hall effect on top and bottom surface states of topological insulator (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, R; Tsukazaki, A; Kozuka, Y; Falson, J; Takahashi, K S; Checkelsky, J G; Nagaosa, N; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y

    2015-04-14

    The three-dimensional topological insulator is a novel state of matter characterized by two-dimensional metallic Dirac states on its surface. To verify the topological nature of the surface states, Bi-based chalcogenides such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and their combined/mixed compounds have been intensively studied. Here, we report the realization of the quantum Hall effect on the surface Dirac states in (Bi1-xSbx)2Te3 films. With electrostatic gate-tuning of the Fermi level in the bulk band gap under magnetic fields, the quantum Hall states with filling factor ±1 are resolved. Furthermore, the appearance of a quantum Hall plateau at filling factor zero reflects a pseudo-spin Hall insulator state when the Fermi level is tuned in between the energy levels of the non-degenerate top and bottom surface Dirac points. The observation of the quantum Hall effect in three-dimensional topological insulator films may pave a way toward topological insulator-based electronics.

  5. SF6/plastic-film insulated outdoor bushing for metalclad switchgear using system voltages of Um = 420 kV and above

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, H.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the work has been the development of SF/sub 2//plastic-film insulated outdoor bushings for metalclad switchgear using system voltages of Um = 420 kV and above. With the conclusion of the dielectric tests on prototypes for Um = 420 kV, an outdoor bushing suitable for series production is now available. For the system voltages of Um = 525 kV and Um = 765 kV, research specimen have been successfully tested.

  6. Topotactic Metal-Insulator Transition in Epitaxial SrFeOx Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Amit; Shin, Dongwon; Yoo, Tae Sup; Kim, Minu; Kang, Tae Dong; Lee, Jaekwang; Roh, Seulki; Jung, In-Ho; Hwang, Jungseek; Kim, Sung Wng; Noh, Tae Won; Ohta, Hiromichi; Choi, Woo Seok

    2017-10-01

    Topotactic phase transformation enables structural transition without losing the crystalline symmetry of the parental phase and provides an effective platform for elucidating the redox reaction and oxygen diffusion within transition metal oxides. In addition, it enables tuning of the emergent physical properties of complex oxides, through strong interaction between the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom. In this communication, the electronic structure evolution of SrFeO x epitaxial thin films is identified in real-time, during the progress of reversible topotactic phase transformation. Using real-time optical spectroscopy, the phase transition between the two structurally distinct phases (i.e., brownmillerite and perovskite) is quantitatively monitored, and a pressure-temperature phase diagram of the topotactic transformation is constructed for the first time. The transformation at relatively low temperatures is attributed to a markedly small difference in Gibbs free energy compared to the known similar class of materials to date. This study highlights the phase stability and reversibility of SrFeO x thin films, which is highly relevant for energy and environmental applications exploiting the redox reactions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Label-free electrical determination of trypsin activity by a silicon-on-insulator based thin film resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Petra A; Serr, Andreas; Wunderlich, Bernhard K; Bausch, Andreas R

    2007-10-08

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based thin film resistor is employed for the label-free determination of enzymatic activity. We demonstrate that enzymes, which cleave biological polyelectrolyte substrates, can be detected by the sensor. As an application, we consider the serine endopeptidase trypsin, which cleaves poly-L-lysine (PLL). We show that PLL adsorbs quasi-irreversibly to the sensor and is digested by trypsin directly at the sensor surface. The created PLL fragments are released into the bulk solution due to kinetic reasons. This results in a measurable change of the surface potential allowing for the determination of trypsin concentrations down to 50 ng mL(-1). Chymotrypsin is a similar endopeptidase with a different specificity, which cleaves PLL with a lower efficiency as compared to trypsin. The activity of trypsin is analyzed quantitatively employing a kinetic model for enzyme-catalyzed surface reactions. Moreover, we have demonstrated the specific inactivation of trypsin by a serine protease inhibitor, which covalently binds to the active site of the enzyme.

  8. Temperature and electric field induced metal-insulator transition in atomic layer deposited VO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadjer, Marko J.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Downey, Brian P.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Meyer, David J.; Eddy, Charles R.; Kub, Fritz J.

    2017-10-01

    Amorphous vanadium oxide (VO2) films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were crystallized with an ex situ anneal at 660-670 °C for 1-2 h under a low oxygen pressure (10-4 to 10-5 Torr). Under these conditions the crystalline VO2 phase was maintained, while formation of the V2O5 phase was suppressed. Electrical transition from the insulator to the metallic phase was observed in the 37-60 °C range, with an ROFF/RON ratio of up to about 750 and ΔTC ≅ 7-10 °C. Lateral electric field applied across two-terminal device structures induced a reversible phase change, with a room temperature transition field of about 25 kV/cm in the VO2 sample processed with the 2 h long O2 anneal. Both the width and slope of the field induced MIT I-V hysteresis were dependent upon the VO2 crystalline quality.

  9. Temperature and electric field stabilities of dielectric and insulating properties for c-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Junichi; Takuwa, Itaru; Matsushima, Masaaki; Yasui, Shintaro; Yamada, Tomoaki; Funakubo, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    Temperature and electric field dependencies of the dielectric and insulating properties of (001)-oriented epitaxial CaBi4Ti4O15 films grown on (100)cSrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates were investigated and compared with those of conventional (100)-oriented epitaxial (Ba0.3Sr0.7)TiO3 and SrTiO3 films. All films showed negative temperature dependency of the capacitance from 25 to 500 °C, and their changes were -18%, -83%, and -58% for CaBi4Ti4O15, (Ba0.3Sr0.7)TiO3, and SrTiO3 films, respectively. Smaller change of the capacitance against dc electric field was also observed for CaBi4Ti4O15 films. Moreover, the maximum leakage current density of CaBi4Ti4O15 films measured at ±100 kV/cm was below 10-3 A/cm2 up to 500 °C, which was smaller than those of (Ba0.3Sr0.7)TiO3 and SrTiO3 films. These results indicate that (001)-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films are a useful candidate as the capacitor material applicable for the high temperature use because of its high stability against temperature and an electric field as well as the good insulating characteristics.

  10. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  11. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory NAVFAC Naval Facilities Engineering Command NPV net present value PET polyethylene terephthalate PSA...polyethylene terephthalate [ PET ]) substrate and coated with a pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) on the backside. The microstructures are designed to...lasting furnishings within the building and contributes towards overall reduced cost of ownership , and occupant health and comfort improvement

  12. Plasmonics in Topological Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ping Lai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With strong spin-orbit coupling, topological insulators have an insulating bulk state, characterized by a band gap, and a conducting surface state, characterized by a Dirac cone. Plasmons in topological insulators show high frequency-tunability in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectral regions with transverse spin oscillations, also called “spin-plasmons”. This paper presents a discussion and review of the developments in this field from the fundamental theory of plasmons in bulk, thin-film, and surface-magnetized topological insulators to the techniques of plasmon excitation and future applications.

  13. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    form the weakest part of the thermal envelope with respect to heat loss coefficient, but on the other hand also play an important role for passive solar energy utilisation. For window orientations other than south, the net energy balance will be close to or below zero. However, the properties......Monolithic silica aerogel offers the possibility of combining super insulation and high solar energy transmittance, which has been the background for a previous and a current EU project on research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows. Generally, windows...... of aerogel glazing will allow for a positive net energy gain even for north facing vertical windows in a Danish climate during the heating season. This means that high quality daylight can be obtained even with additional energy gain. On behalf of the partners of the two EU projects, results related...

  14. Thickness-dependent evolution of structure, electronic structure, and metal-insulator transition in ultrathin V2O3(0001) films on Ag(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2017-05-01

    Epitaxial hexagonal V2O3(0001) films were grown on cubic Ag(001) substrate for coverages ranging from 1-20 monolayers equivalent (MLE) and have studied their structure, electronic structure and the metal-insulator transition (MIT) using Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) techniques. Detailed LEED and XPS study reveal that, for the lower film coverages (∼1 MLE), a complex (coexisting phase of) vanadium oxide is formed while from 3 MLE coverage onwards, three-dimensional crystallites of V2O3 grows epitaxially. Our LEED results also show that the hexagonal surface of V2O3(0001) is stabilizing on top of square symmetry substrate by the formation of twin-domain structure, where each domain is rotated by 90o. Our photoemission results show that the surface of V2O3 is more insulating than its bulk, similar to the case of many strongly correlated oxide surfaces which is discussed based on the valence band electronic structure with varying probing depth. Evolution of the surface electronic structure was also studied as a function of the film thickness. Further, the effect of lattice strain, film thickness and the domain formation on the metal-insulator transition (MIT) are discussed. The change in the orbital occupancy of (a1 g, egπ) and (egπ, egπ) orbitals of V 3 d, a vanishing of quasiparticle (QP) peak and opening an energy gap at the Fermi level is observed below a critical temperature as a consequence of the MIT.

  15. Estimation of carrier mobility and charge behaviors of organic semiconductor films in metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes consisting of high-k oxide/organic semiconductor double layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosei, Naoya; Itoh, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    We have comparatively studied the charge behaviors of organic semiconductor films based on charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage in a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diode structure (MIS-CELIV) and by classical capacitance-voltage measurement. The MIS-CELIV technique allows the selective measurement of electron and hole mobilities of n- and p-type organic films with thicknesses representative of those of actual devices. We used an anodic oxidized sputtered Ta or Hf electrode as a high-k layer, and it effectively blocked holes at the insulator/semiconductor interface. We estimated the hole mobilities of the polythiophene derivatives regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3,3‧‧‧-didodecylquarterthiophene) (PQT-12) before and after heat treatment in the ITO/high-k/(thin polymer insulator)/semiconductor/MoO3/Ag device structure. The hole mobility of PQT-12 was improved from 1.1 × 10-5 to 2.1 × 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 by the heat treatment of the device at 100 °C for 30 min. An almost two orders of magnitude higher mobility was obtained in MIS diodes with P3HT as the p-type layer. We also determined the capacitance from the displacement current in MIS diodes at a relatively low-voltage sweep, and it corresponded well to the classical capacitance-voltage and frequency measurement results.

  16. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  17. Plasmon-enhanced electron-phonon coupling in Dirac surface states of the thin-film topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Raman measurements of a Fano-type surface phonon mode associated with Dirac surface states (SS) in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator thin films allowed an unambiguous determination of the electron-phonon coupling strength in Dirac SS as a function of film thickness ranging from 2 to 40 nm. A non-monotonic enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling strength with maximum for the 8–10 nm thick films was observed. The non-monotonicity is suggested to originate from plasmon-phonon coupling which enhances electron-phonon coupling when free carrier density in Dirac SS increases with decreasing film thickness and becomes suppressed for thinnest films when anharmonic coupling between in-plane and out-of-plane phonon modes occurs. The observed about four-fold enhancement of electron-phonon coupling in Dirac SS of the 8–10 nm thick Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films with respect to the bulk samples may provide new insights into the origin of superconductivity in this-type materials and their applications.

  18. Proximity effects at the interface of a superconductor and a topological insulator in NbN-Bi2Se3 thin film bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, Gad

    2015-01-01

    In a search for a simple proximity system of a topological insulator and a superconductor for studying the role of surface versus bulk effects by gating, we report here on a first step toward this goal, namely the choice of such a system and its characterization. We chose to work with thin film bilayers of grainy 5 nm thick NbN films as the superconductor, overlayed with 20 nm thick topological layer of Bi 2 Se 3 and compare the transport results to those obtained on a 5 nm thick reference NbN film on the same wafer. Bilayers with ex situ and in situ prepared NbN-Bi 2 Se 3 interfaces were studied and two kinds of proximity effects were found. At high temperatures just below the superconducting transition, all bilayers showed a conventional proximity effect where the topological Bi 2 Se 3 suppresses the onset or mid-transition T c of the superconducting NbN films by about 1 K. At low temperatures, a cross-over of the resistance versus temperature curves of the bilayer and reference NbN film occurs, where the bilayers show enhancement of T c (R=0), I c (the supercurrent) and the Andreev conductance, as compared to the bare NbN films. This indicates that superconductivity is induced in the Bi 2 Se 3 layer at the interface region in between the NbN grains. Thus an inverse proximity effect in the topological material is demonstrated. (paper)

  19. Magnetotransport in MBE-grown topological insulator (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, Christian; Merzenich, Tobias; Mussler, Gregor; Kampmeier, Joern; Arango, Yulieth; Gruetzmacher, Detlev [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Batov, Igor E. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, 142432, Moscow Distr. (Russian Federation); Schaepers, Thomas [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We report on the magnetotransport study of topological insulator (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films. The films were grown on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate with a Si(111)-layer on top by molecular beam epitaxy. In Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} samples, we observed a positive magnetoresistance at low magnetic fields with a cusplike minimum at B=0 (weak antilocalization) as well as positive magnetoresistance in the entire magnetic field range (up to 12 T). The weak antilocalization effect disappears when an in-plane field is applied, showing the anisotropy between the transport parallel and perpendicular to the quintuple-layers. The estimated phase coherent lengths up to 250 nm at low temperatures are comparable to those previously obtained for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The magnetotransport measurements were also performed on MBE-grown films of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (p-doped) as well as on the ternary compound (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}Te{sub 3} (0

  20. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  1. Theory of strain-controlled magnetotransport and stabilization of the ferromagnetic insulating phase in manganite thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anamitra; Cole, William S; Woodward, Patrick; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2013-04-12

    We show that applying strain on half-doped manganites makes it possible to tune the system to the proximity of a metal-insulator transition and thereby generate a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) response. This phase competition not only allows control of CMR in ferromagnetic metallic manganites but can be used to generate CMR response in otherwise robust insulators at half-doping. Further, from our realistic microscopic model of strain and magnetotransport calculations within the Kubo formalism, we demonstrate a striking result of strain engineering that, under tensile strain, a ferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator, previously inaccessible to experiments, becomes stable.

  2. Deposition of SiC x H y O z thin film on epoxy resin by nanosecond pulsed APPJ for improving the surface insulating performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, XIE; Haofan, LIN; Shuai, ZHANG; Ruixue, WANG; Fei, KONG; Tao, SHAO

    2018-02-01

    Non-thermal plasma surface modification for epoxy resin (EP) to improve the insulation properties has wide application prospects in gas insulated switchgear and gas insulated transmission line. In this paper, a pulsed Ar dual dielectrics atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for SiC x H y O z thin film deposition on EP samples. The film deposition was optimized by varying the treatment time while other parameters were kept at constants (treatment distance: 10 mm, precursor flow rate: 0.6 l min-1, maximum instantaneous power: 3.08 kW and single pulse energy: 0.18 mJ). It was found that the maximum value of flashover voltages for negative and positive voltage were improved by 18% and 13% when the deposition time was 3 min, respectively. The flashover voltage reduced as treatment time increased. Moreover, all the surface conductivity, surface charge dissipation rate and surface trap level distribution reached an optimal value when thin film deposition time was 3 min. Other measurements, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscope for EP surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for EP surface compositions, optical emission spectra for APPJ deposition process were carried out to better understand the deposition processes and mechanisms. The results indicated that the original organic groups (C-H, C-C, C=O, C=C) were gradually replaced by the Si containing inorganic groups (Si-O-Si and Si-OH). The reduction of C=O in ester group and C=C in p-substituted benzene of the EP samples might be responsible for shallowing the trap level and then enhancing the flashover voltage. However, when the plasma treatment time was longer than 3 min, the significant increase of the surface roughness might increase the trap level depth and then deteriorate the flashover performance.

  3. The change of electric field and of some other insulating properties during isochronal annealing in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Q.M.; Poumellec, B.; Braga, D.

    2005-01-01

    The secondary electron emission contrast between poled and unpoled regions in thermally poled Ge-doped silica films were measured according to different annealing temperatures and electron doses with electron acceleration energy of 5 keV. It is used for measuring the change on annealing of poling...... induced electric field and other insulating properties like electron traps population and conductivity in high field. Concerning the change of the contrast at low dose arising from the poling electric field, we show that this field begins to disappear at around 450 degrees C and is erased completely...

  4. Unusual terahertz spectral weight and conductivity dynamics of the insulator-metal transition in Pr0.5Nd0.5NiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh Kumar, K.; Das, Sarmistha; Eswara Phanindra, V.; Rana, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The metal-insulator transition (MIT) in correlated systems is a central phenomenon that possesses potential for several emerging technologies. We investigate the kinetics of such MIT in perovskite nickelates by studying the terahertz (THz) low-energy charge dynamics in orthorhombic and tetragonal symmetries of Pr0.5Nd0.5NiO3 thin films. The THz conductivity of the orthorhombic thin film is dominated by Drude behavior in the entire temperature range, albeit a dominant anomaly at and around the MIT region. The tetragonal thin film exhibits different overall THz conductivity dynamics though, i.e. of a Drude–Smith (DS) type in the entire temperature range, the DS coefficient signifying dominant backscattering peaks in the MIT region. While the overall THz dynamics profile is different for the two films, a unique yet similar sensitivity of the I–M transition regions of both films to THz frequencies underlines the fundamental origin of the bi-critical phase around MIT of the nickelates. The peculiar behavior around the I–M transition, as evaluated in the framework of a percolative path approximation based Dyre expression, emphasizes the importance of critical metallic volume fraction (f c) for the percolation conduction, as an f c of ~0.645 obtained for the present case, along with evidence for the absence of super-heating.

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of polyimide film for cable and ground insulation of the LHC superconducting magnets

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of up to 79 tonnes of polyimide film, of three different types, for cable and ground insulation of the LHC superconducting magnets. A call for tenders (IT-2679/LHC/LHC) was sent on 21 September 1999 to two firms in Japan and one firm in the USA. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm KANEKA (JP), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 79 tonnes of polyimide film of three different types for an amount of 5 425 541 USD (8 123 284 Swiss francs) for the polyimide film produced in the USA, not subject to revision, and 725 726 546 Japanese yen (10 109 020 Swiss francs) for the polyimide film produced in Japan, not subject to revision, with an option for the supply of up to 20% additional polyimide film of each type, for an amount of 1 085 108 USD (1 624 657 Swiss francs) and 145 145 309 Japanese yen (2 021 804 Swiss francs) respectively, not subject to r...

  6. Sticky windows: chemical and biological characteristics of the organic film derived from particulate and gas-phase air contaminants found on an urban impervious surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, E M; Diamond, M L; McCarry, B E; Stern, G A; Harper, P A

    2003-05-01

    A novel environmentally derived mixture that integrates exposure to atmospherically derived gas- and particle-phase compounds in urban areas-namely, the organic film that develops as a thin layer on urban impervious surfaces-was investigated for its ability to induce gene expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The organic film on window glass from 21 sites in downtown Toronto (Ontario, Canada) was found to contain a complex mixture of environmental contaminants typical of urban environments, notably PAHs, n-alkanes, PCBs, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polar constituents. Using a stably transfected reporter cell line, we found that the crude extract of organic film induces AhR-dependent gene expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Three subfractions of the crude extract induced significant luciferase expression: nonpolar aromatic > polar aromatic > nonpolar aliphatic. Recombination of the fractions did not lead to recovery of the full activity of the crude extract, which may indicate that some of the compounds lost during fractionation were significant contributors to the induction observed with the crude extract. The interactions between a tonic dose of B[ a]P (10(-7) M) and each of the aromatic fractions were determined to be antagonistic following analysis by the method of isoboles. Our results suggest that organic film makes up a diverse array of compounds active at the AhR and that these compounds may not interact in a strictly additive manner.

  7. Effect of carrier recombination on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Transient reflectivity (TR) from thin films (6–40 nm thick) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed ultrafast carrier dynamics, which suggest the existence of both radiative and non-radiative recombination between electrons residing in the upper cone of initially unoccupied high energy Dirac surface states (SS) and holes residing in the lower cone of occupied low energy Dirac SS. The modeling of measured TR traces allowed us to conclude that recombination is induced by the depletion of bulk electrons in films below ∼20 nm thick due to the charge captured on the surface defects. We predict that such recombination processes can be observed using time-resolved photoluminescence techniques.

  8. Structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of GdTiO{sub 3} Mott insulator thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisolia, M. N.; Bruno, F. Y.; Sando, D.; Jacquet, E.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M., E-mail: manuel.bibes@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, Campus de l' Ecole Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Zhao, H. J. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, X. M. [Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Bellaiche, L. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the optimization process to synthesize epitaxial thin films of GdTiO{sub 3} on SrLaGaO{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Optimized films are free of impurity phases and are fully strained. They possess a magnetic Curie temperature T{sub C} = 31.8 K with a saturation magnetization of 4.2 μ{sub B} per formula unit at 10 K. Transport measurements reveal an insulating response, as expected. Optical spectroscopy indicates a band gap of ∼0.7 eV, comparable to the bulk value. Our work adds ferrimagnetic orthotitanates to the palette of perovskite materials for the design of emergent strongly correlated states at oxide interfaces using a versatile growth technique such as pulsed laser deposition.

  9. Thermatically sealed double window panes with distended plastic film between them. Termoruder med lag af plastfilm udspaendt mellem glassene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund Nielsen, B.

    1988-05-15

    On the basis of a literary study this report examines improved methods of calculating the U-value and the solar factor for double glazings with plastic films suspended vertically in the air gap. The methods take into account that plastic film is capable of transmitting infrared radiation. Annex 1 includes copies of computer programs developed during the project. The programs calculate the U-value and the solar factor of glazings according to the above improved methods. The report further includes sections about the coating of glass and plastics and of the aging of plastic film. (author) 13 refs.

  10. Role of laser energy density on growth of highly oriented topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, P., E-mail: pragati@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai – 400076 (India); Saha, B.; Saha, D.; Ganguly, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai – 400076 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Topological insulators (TIs) are very promising in the field of nanoelectronics due to their exotic properties. Bismuth Selenide, a 3D Topological insulator is considered as reference TI owing to its simple band structure and large bandgap. However, the presence of unintentional doping, which masks the metallic surface states, is still a major concern. In this work, we report the effect of laser energy density on the growth of highly oriented and stoichiometric thin films of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy confirms the c-axis orientation and good crystallinity of films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study shows the increase in average grain size and rms roughness (from 3.1 nm to 5.1 nm) with the decrease in laser energy density. Compositional study by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) measurement is found to be in agreement with AFM results. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirm the desired stoichiometry of the samples.

  11. Chromium–niobium co-doped vanadium dioxide films: Large temperature coefficient of resistance and practically no thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Miyazaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of chromium (Cr and niobium (Nb co-doping on the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR and the thermal hysteresis of the metal–insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2 films. We determined the TCR and thermal-hysteresis-width diagram of the V1−x−yCrxNbyO2 films by electrical-transport measurements and we found that the doping conditions x ≳ y and x + y ≥ 0.1 are appropriate for simultaneously realizing a large TCR value and an absence of thermal hysteresis in the films. By using these findings, we developed a V0.90Cr0.06Nb0.04O2 film grown on a TiO2-buffered SiO2/Si substrate that showed practically no thermal hysteresis while retaining a large TCR of 11.9%/K. This study has potential applications in the development of VO2-based uncooled bolometers.

  12. Topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe thin films on SrTiO3 (001 with tunable Fermi levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report a systematic study of topological crystalline insulator PbxSn1-xTe (0 < x < 1 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on SrTiO3(001. Two domains of PbxSn1-xTe thin films with intersecting angle of α ≈ 45° were confirmed by reflection high energy diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES. ARPES study of PbxSn1-xTe thin films demonstrated that the Fermi level of PbTe could be tuned by altering the temperature of substrate whereas SnTe cannot. An M-shaped valance band structure was observed only in SnTe but PbTe is in a topological trivial state with a large gap. In addition, co-evaporation of SnTe and PbTe results in an equivalent variation of Pb concentration as well as the Fermi level of PbxSn1-xTe thin films.

  13. Unexpected metal-insulator transition in thick Ca1-xSrxVO3 film on SrTiO3 (100) single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Namiki, Wataru; Ueda, Shigenori; Minohara, Makoto; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Terabe, Kazuya; Higuchi, Tohru

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial Ca1-xSrxVO3 (0 ≦ x ≦ 1) thin films were grown on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. In contrast to the previous report that metal-insulator transition (MIT) in Ca1-xSrxVO3 (CSVO) was achieved only for extremely thin films (several nm thick), MIT was observed at 39, 72, and 113 K for films with a thickness of 50 nm. The electronic structure was investigated by hard and soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES and SX-PES). The difference between these PES results was significant due to the variation in an escape depth of photoelectrons of PES. While HX-PES showed that the V 2p3/2 spectra consisted of four peaks (V5+, V4+, V3+, and V2+/1+), SX-PES showed only three peaks (V5+, V4+, and V3+). This difference can be caused by a strain from the substrate, which leads to the chemical disorder (V5+, V4+, V3+, and V2+/1+). The thin film near the substrate is affected by the strain. The positive magnetoresistance is attributed to the effect of electron-electron interactions in the disorder system. Therefore, the emergence of MIT can be explained by the electron-electron interactions from the chemical disorder due to the strain.

  14. The Dynamics of the Electric Field Distribution in the Surface of Insulating Film Irradiated by Air Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julionas KALADE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on a surface, electric charge usually accumulates near the tips of surface irregularities, from where it can be transferred to nearby objects due to ionization of ambient air. The amount of transferred charge, the rate of charge transfer, the size of the charged spot (e.g., on the surface of an insulator and its tendency to spread will depend on properties of air during electric discharge, on the magnitude of charge accumulated at the tip of an object, on possibilities for replenishing that charge, on the time spent for charge transfer from the tip onto the insulating layer, on properties of the insulating layer, etc. Those properties are discussed in this work by comparing the results of measurements and theoretical analysis.

  15. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  16. Resonance-type thickness dependence of optical second-harmonic generation in thin films of the topological insulator B i2S e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David

    2015-05-01

    Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) has been measured in a reflection from the nanometer-thick films (6 to 40 nm) of the topological insulator B i2S e3 using 1.51 eV (820 nm) Ti:Sapphire laser photons and revealed a strong dependence of the integral SHG intensity on the film thickness. The integral SHG intensity was determined by area integration of the SHG rotational anisotropy patterns measured for different input-output light polarization geometries. A ˜100-fold enhancement of the integral SHG intensity with decreasing film thickness has been suggested to result from the dc-electric-field-induced SHG (EFISHG) effects. Two sources of dynamically created dc electric field were proposed: (i) the capacitor-type dc electric field that gradually increases with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 6 nm due to a dynamical imbalance of photoexcited long-lived carriers between the opposite-surface Dirac surface states and (ii) a dc electric field associated with a nonlinearly excited Dirac plasmon, which is responsible for the resonant enhancement of the integral SHG intensity for the 10 nm thick film with a Lorentz-shaped resonance of ˜1.6 nm full width at half maximum. In addition to the general SHG enhancement trends with decreasing film thickness, a relative decrease of the out-of-plane contribution with respect to the in-plane contribution was observed. Using a theoretical treatment of the measured SHG rotational anisotropy patterns, this effect has been suggested to result from the joint contributions of the linear and quadratic dc electric field effects to the EFISHG response.

  17. Metal-Insulator Phase Transition in thin VO2 films: A Look from the Far Infrared Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Fischer, B. M.; Thoman, A.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) displays a well-known metal-insulator (MI) transition at atemperature of 68oC. The MI transition in VO2 has been studied extensively by a widerange of optical, electrical, structural, and magnetic measurements. In spite of this there isstill some controversy about the nature...

  18. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  19. Inkjet printing of TIPS-PEN on soluble polymer insulating films: a route to high-performance thin-film transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjellander, B.K.C.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Anthony, J.E.; Gelinck, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to inkjet print high-performance organic transistors by printing the organic semiconductor ink on a thin, continuous, and solvent-absorbing layer of insulating material. The ink spreading is effectively controlled by local dissolution of the layer, and during drying the

  20. Spatially Uniform Thin-Film Formation of Polymeric Organic Semiconductors on Lyophobic Gate Insulator Surfaces by Self-Assisted Flow-Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarevich, Kirill; Sakamoto, Kenji; Minari, Takeo; Yasuda, Takeshi; Miki, Kazushi

    2017-02-22

    Surface hydrophobization by self-assembled monolayer formation is a powerful technique for improving the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). However, organic thin-film formation on such a surface by solution processing often fails due to the repellent property of the surface against common organic solvents. Here, a scalable unidirectional coating technique that can solve this problem, named self-assisted flow-coating, is reported. Producing a specially designed lyophobic-lyophilic pattern on the lyophobic surface enables organic thin-film formation in the lyophobic surface areas by flow-coating. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technique, OFET arrays with an active layer of poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophene-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) are fabricated. The ideal transfer curves without hysteresis behavior are obtained for all OFETs. The average field-effect hole mobility in the saturation regime is 0.273 and 0.221 cm 2 ·V -1 ·s -1 for the OFETs with the channels parallel and perpendicular to the flow-coating direction, respectively, and the device-to-device variation is less than 3% for each OFET set. Very small device-to-device variation is also obtained for the on-state current, threshold voltage, and subthreshold swing. These results indicate that the self-assisted flow-coating is a promising coating technique to form spatially uniform thin films of polymeric organic semiconductors on lyophobic gate insulator surfaces.

  1. Photoinduced coherent acoustic phonon dynamics inside Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 films observed by femtosecond X-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Bing; Liu, Jian; Wei, Xu; Sun, Da-Rui; Jia, Quan-Jie; Li, Yuelin; Tao, Ye

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the transient photoexcited lattice dynamics in a layered perovskite Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 film by femtosecond X-ray diffraction using a laser plasma-based X-ray source. The ultrafast structural dynamics of Sr2IrO4 thin films are determined by observing the shift and broadening of (0012) Bragg diffraction after excitation by 1.5 eV and 3.0 eV pump photons for films with different thicknesses. The observed transient lattice response can be well interpreted as a distinct three-step dynamics due to the propagation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by photoinduced quasiparticles (QPs). Employing a normalized phonon propagation model, we found that the photoinduced angular shifts of the Bragg peak collapse into a universal curve after introducing normalized coordinates to account for different thicknesses and pump photon energies, pinpointing the origin of the lattice distortion and its early evolution. In addition, a transient photocurrent measurement indicates that the photoinduced QPs are charge neutral excitons. Mapping the phonon propagation and correlating its dynamics with the QP by ultrafast X-ray diffraction (UXRD) establish a powerful way to study electron-phonon coupling and uncover the exotic physics in strongly correlated systems under nonequilibrium conditions.

  2. An integrated optic ethanol vapor sensor based on a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator coated with a porous ZnO film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebo, Nebiyu A; Lommens, Petra; Hens, Zeger; Baets, Roel

    2010-05-24

    Optical structures fabricated on silicon-on-insulator technology provide a convenient platform for the implementation of highly compact, versatile and low cost devices. In this work, we demonstrate the promise of this technology for integrated low power and low cost optical gas sensing. A room temperature ethanol vapor sensor is demonstrated using a ZnO nanoparticle film as a coating on an SOI micro-ring resonator of 5 microm in radius. The local coating on the ring resonators is prepared from colloidal suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles of around 3 nm diameter. The porous nature of the coating provides a large surface area for gas adsorption. The ZnO refractive index change upon vapor adsorption shifts the microring resonance through evanescent field interaction. Ethanol vapor concentrations down to 100 ppm are detected with this sensing configuration and a detection limit below 25 ppm is estimated.

  3. New fabrication technique of conductive polymer/insulating polymer composite films and evaluation of biocompatibility in neuron cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Abe, Yayoi; Tada, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to those of polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion rate of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, a solvent with a hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method of forming an electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using the conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by applying a similar technique, we fabricated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA, composite films and investigated their basic electrochemical properties. Moreover, in this study, in order to develop a novel cell-culture system which makes it possible to communicate with cultured cells, fibroblasts were cultured on PPy- and PEDOT-coated ITO conductive glass plates for 7 days. The result reveals that the PPy and PEDOT films support the secretory functions of the cells cultured on its surface. The PPy- and PEDOT-coated electrodes may be useful to culture the cells on.

  4. New fabrication technique of conductive polymer/insulating polymer composite films and evaluation of biocompatibility in neuron cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi, E-mail: onoda@eng.u-hyogo.ac.j [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himwji Shosha Campus, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Abe, Yayoi; Tada, Kazuya [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himwji Shosha Campus, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, produces a flexible composite polymer film with electrical, optical and electrochemical properties very similar to those of polypyrrole (PPy). The rate of electrochemical polymerization depends on the diffusion rate of the electrolyte across the PVA film to the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. In particular, a solvent with a hydrophilic nature easily penetrates into the PVA film. By applying this new process, we demonstrate a unique method of forming an electrically conductive pattern in PVA film. It will be possible to develop electrodes for electrical stimulation of the nervous system using the conducting polymer, PPy. Then, by applying a similar technique, we fabricated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT/PVA, composite films and investigated their basic electrochemical properties. Moreover, in this study, in order to develop a novel cell-culture system which makes it possible to communicate with cultured cells, fibroblasts were cultured on PPy- and PEDOT-coated ITO conductive glass plates for 7 days. The result reveals that the PPy and PEDOT films support the secretory functions of the cells cultured on its surface. The PPy- and PEDOT-coated electrodes may be useful to culture the cells on.

  5. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  6. Comparative study on the roles of anisotropic epitaxial strain and chemical doping in inducing the antiferromagnetic insulator phase in manganite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Feng, Qiyuan; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Wang, Lingfei; Gao, Guanyin; Xu, Haoran; Chen, Binbin; Chen, Feng; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2017-11-01

    Epitaxial strain and chemical doping are two different methods that are commonly used to tune the physical properties of epitaxial perovskite oxide films, but their cooperative effects are less addressed. Here we try to tune the phase separation (PS) in (La1-xP rx) 2 /3C a1 /3Mn O3 (0 ≤x ≤0.4 , LPCMO) films via cooperatively controlling the anisotropic epitaxial strain (AES) and the Pr doping. These films are grown simultaneously on NdGa O3(110 ) ,(LaAlO3) 0.3(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3 ) 0.7(001 ) , and NdGa O3(001 ) substrates with progressively increased in-plane AES, and probed by x-ray diffraction, magnetotransport, and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Although it is known that for x =0 the AES can enhance the orthorhombicity of the films yielding a phase diagram with the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered insulator (AF-COI) state induced, which is quite different from the bulk one, we illustrate that the Pr doping can further drive the films towards a more robust COI state. This cooperative effect is reflected by the increasing magnetic fields needed to melt the COI phase as a function of AES and the doping level. More strikingly, by directly imaging the phase competition morphology of the LPCMO /NdGa O3(001 ) films via MFM, we find that during COI melting the PS domain structure is subject to both AES and the quenched disorder. However, in the reverse process, as the magnetic field is decreased, the COI phase reappears and the AES dominates leaving a crystalline-orientation determined self-organized microstructure. This finding suggests that the PS states and the domain configurations can be selectively controlled by the AES and/or the quenched disorder, which may shed some light on the engineering of PS domains for device fabrications.

  7. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  8. Insulator-metal transition in substrate-independent VO2 thin film for phase-change devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohammad; Walia, Sumeet; Ahmed, Taimur; Headland, Daniel; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Sriram, Sharath; Bhaskaran, Madhu

    2017-12-20

    Vanadium has 11 oxide phases, with the binary VO 2 presenting stimuli-dependent phase transitions that manifest as switchable electronic and optical features. An elevated temperature induces an insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) as the crystal reorients from a monoclinic state (insulator) to a tetragonal arrangement (metallic). This transition is accompanied by a simultaneous change in optical properties making VO 2 a versatile optoelectronic material. However, its deployment in scalable devices suffers because of the requirement of specialised substrates to retain the functionality of the material. Sensitivity to oxygen concentration and larger-scale VO 2 synthesis have also been standing issues in VO 2 fabrication. Here, we address these major challenges in harnessing the functionality in VO 2 by demonstrating an approach that enables crystalline, switchable VO 2 on any substrate. Glass, silicon, and quartz are used as model platforms to show the effectiveness of the process. Temperature-dependent electrical and optical characterisation is used demonstrating three to four orders of magnitude in resistive switching, >60% chromic discrimination at infrared wavelengths, and terahertz property extraction. This capability will significantly broaden the horizon of applications that have been envisioned but remained unrealised due to the lack of ability to realise VO 2 on any substrate, thereby exploiting its untapped potential.

  9. Azobenzene-functionalized gold nanoparticles as hybrid double-floating-gate in pentacene thin-film transistors/memories with enhanced response, retention, and memory windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Ding-Chi; Tao, Yu-Tai

    2013-10-09

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) with surfaces covered with a self-assembled monolayer of azobenzene derivatives were prepared at the interface of dielectric insulator SiO2 and pentacene thin film. Transistors constructed with these composite channel materials exhibited electric bistability upon different gate biases, with the monolayer serving as a barrier layer, a work function modulator, as well as additional charge trapping sites at the Au-NPs/semiconductor interface at the same time. In comparison with simple alkanethiol monolayer-covered Au-NPs, the CH3-substituted azobenzene-functionalized Au-NPs result in a transistor memory device with about 70% more charges trapped, much faster response time as well as higher retention time. Besides, depending on the substituent on the azobenzene moieties (CH3, H, or CF3) and the tethering alkyl chain length, the speed at which the carriers are trapped (affecting switching response) and the stability of the carriers that are trapped (affecting memory retention) can be modulated to improve the device performance. The structural characterization and electronic characteristics of these devices will be detailed.

  10. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  11. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  12. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  13. Metal-electrode-free Window-like Organic Solar Cells with p-Doped Carbon Nanotube Thin-film Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Il; Delacou, Clement; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Maruyama, Shigeo; Matsuo, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells are flexible and inexpensive, and expected to have a wide range of applications. Many transparent organic solar cells have been reported and their success hinges on full transparency and high power conversion efficiency. Recently, carbon nanotubes and graphene, which meet these criteria, have been used in transparent conductive electrodes. However, their use in top electrodes has been limited by mechanical difficulties in fabrication and doping. Here, expensive metal top electrodes were replaced with high-performance, easy-to-transfer, aerosol-synthesized carbon nanotubes to produce transparent organic solar cells. The carbon nanotubes were p-doped by two new methods: HNO3 doping via ‘sandwich transfer’, and MoOx thermal doping via ‘bridge transfer’. Although both of the doping methods improved the performance of the carbon nanotubes and the photovoltaic performance of devices, sandwich transfer, which gave a 4.1% power conversion efficiency, was slightly more effective than bridge transfer, which produced a power conversion efficiency of 3.4%. Applying a thinner carbon nanotube film with 90% transparency decreased the efficiency to 3.7%, which was still high. Overall, the transparent solar cells had an efficiency of around 50% that of non-transparent metal-based solar cells (7.8%).

  14. Deposition of High-Quality SiO2 Insulating Films at Low Temperatures by means of Remote PECVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, A.; Roesthuis, R.; Brunets, I.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Holleman, J.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2008-01-01

    Silicon dioxide films were deposited by means of remote inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICPECVD) in Ar-N2O-SiH4 plasma at 150 °C and pressures between 1 and 6 Pa. The gas phase contained 0.08% of SiH4 and 18% of N2O. We observed that, at a total pressure of 1 Pa, the

  15. Cellulose Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

  16. Investigation of Rapid Low-Power Microwave-Induction Heating Scheme on the Cross-Linking Process of the Poly(4-vinylphenol for the Gate Insulator of Pentacene-Based Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Fan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a proposed Microwave-Induction Heating (MIH scheme has been systematically studied to acquire suitable MIH parameters including chamber pressure, microwave power and heating time. The proposed MIH means that the thin indium tin oxide (ITO metal below the Poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP film is heated rapidly by microwave irradiation and the heated ITO metal gate can heat the PVP gate insulator, resulting in PVP cross-linking. It is found that the attenuation of the microwave energy decreases with the decreasing chamber pressure. The optimal conditions are a power of 50 W, a heating time of 5 min, and a chamber pressure of 20 mTorr. When suitable MIH parameters were used, the effect of PVP cross-linking and the device performance were similar to those obtained using traditional oven heating, even though the cross-linking time was significantly decreased from 1 h to 5 min. Besides the gate leakage current, the interface trap state density (Nit was also calculated to describe the interface status between the gate insulator and the active layer. The lowest interface trap state density can be found in the device with the PVP gate insulator cross-linked by using the optimal MIH condition. Therefore, it is believed that the MIH scheme is a good candidate to cross-link the PVP gate insulator for organic thin-film transistor applications as a result of its features of rapid heating (5 min and low-power microwave-irradiation (50 W.

  17. Thermal insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  18. For progress in natural science: Materials international investigations of structural phase transformation and THz properties across metal–insulator transition in VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 epitaxial thin films on (0001-oriented Al2O3 substrates were prepared using radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering techniques. To study the metal-insulator-transition (MIT mechanism and extend the applications of VO2 epitaxial films at terahertz (THz band, temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (XRD and THz time domain spectroscopy of the VO2 epitaxial films were performed. Both the lattice constants and THz transmission exhibited a similar and sharp transition that was similar to that observed for the electrical resistance. Consequently, the MIT of the VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial films should be co-triggered by the structural phase transition and electronic transition. Moreover, the very large resistance change (on the order of ~103 and THz response (with a transmission modulation ratio of ~87% in the VO2/Al2O3 epitaxial heterostructures are promising for electrical switch and electro-optical device applications.

  19. Spin-orbit torque in a thin film of the topological insulator Bi2Se3: Crossover from the ballistic to diffusive regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.

  20. Metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chu-Hsuan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2010-01-01

    The major radiation of the sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  1. Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Hsuan Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The major radiation of the Sun can be roughly divided into three regions: ultraviolet, visible, and infrared light. Detection in these three regions is important to human beings. The metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetector, with a simpler process than the pn-junction photodetector and a lower dark current than the MSM photodetector, has been developed for light detection in these three regions. Ideal UV photodetectors with high UV-to-visible rejection ratio could be demonstrated with III-V metal-insulator-semiconductor UV photodetectors. The visible-light detection and near-infrared optical communications have been implemented with Si and Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor photodetectors. For mid- and long-wavelength infrared detection, metal-insulator-semiconductor SiGe/Si quantum dot infrared photodetectors have been developed, and the detection spectrum covers atmospheric transmission windows.

  2. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  3. Photo-induced insulator-metal transition in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Effect of thickness dependent structural and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovaara, Tomi; Huhtinen, Hannu; Majumdar, Sayani; Paturi, Petriina

    2016-09-01

    We report photo-induced colossal magnetoresistive insulator-metal transition (IMT) in Pr0.6Ca0.4MnO3 thin films under much reduced applied magnetic field. The colossal effect was studied as a function of film thickness and thus with variable structural properties. Thorough structural, magnetic and magnetotransport characterization under light shows that the highest effect on the transition field can be obtained in the thinnest film (38 nm). However, due to the substrate induced strain of this film the required magnetic field for IMT is quite high. The best crystalline properties of the 110 nm film lead to the lowest IMT field under light and 109% change in resistance at 10 K. With increasing thickness, the film properties start to move more toward the bulk material and, hence, IMT is no more observed under the applied field of 9 T. Our results indicate that for obtaining large photo-induced CMR, the best epitaxial quality of thin films is essential.

  4. Investigation of electron beam lithography effects on metal–insulator transition behavior of vanadium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, H.; Alaboz, H.; Demirhan, Y.; Ozdemir, M.; Ozyuzer, L.; Aygun, G.

    2017-11-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) shows metal–insulator phase transition at nearly 68 °C. This metal–insulator transition (MIT) in VO2 leads to a significant change in near-infrared transmittance and an abrupt change in the resistivity of VO2. Due to these characteristics, VO2 plays an important role on optic and electronic devices, such as thermochromic windows, meta-materials with tunable frequency, uncooled bolometers and switching devices. In this work, VO2 thin films were fabricated by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering in O2/Ar atmosphere on sapphire substrates without any further post annealing processes. The effect of sputtering parameters on optical characteristics and structural properties of grown thin films was investigated by SEM, XRD, Raman and UV/VIS spectrophotometer measurements. Patterning process of VO2 thin films was realized by e-beam lithography technique to monitor the temperature dependent electrical characterization. Electrical properties of VO2 samples were characterized using microprobe station in a vacuum system. MIT with hysteresis behavior was observed for the unpatterned square samples at around 68 °C. By four orders of magnitude of resistivity change was measured for the deposited VO2 thin films at transition temperature. After e-beam lithography process, substantial results in patterned VO2 thin films were observed. In this stage, for patterned VO2 thin films as stripes, the change in resistivity of VO2 was reduced by a factor of 10. As a consequence of electrical resistivity measurements, MIT temperature was shifted from 68 °C to 50 °C. The influence of e-beam process on the properties of VO2 thin films and the mechanism of the effects are discussed. The presented results contribute to the achievement of VO2 based thermochromic windows and bolometer applications.

  5. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  6. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  7. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  8. Topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Topological Insulators, volume six in the Contemporary Concepts of Condensed Matter Series, describes the recent revolution in condensed matter physics that occurred in our understanding of crystalline solids. The book chronicles the work done worldwide that led to these discoveries and provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field. Starting in 2004, theorists began to explore the effect of topology on the physics of band insulators, a field previously considered well understood. However, the inclusion of topology brings key new elements into this old field. Whereas it was

  9. Thermal insulation of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrovcak, P.; Pec, V.; Pitonak, J.

    1978-01-01

    The claim of the invention concerns thermal insulation of fuel elements heated for measurement of uranium fuel physical properties. For this, layers of aluminium film and of glass fibre are wound onto the inner tube of the element cladding. The space between the inner and the outer tubes is evacuated and the tubes are spaced using spacer wires. (M.S.)

  10. PREFACE: INERA Workshop: Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films-functional Layers in "Smart windows" and Water Splitting Devices. Parallel session of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Special issue presents the papers for the INERA Workshop entitled "Transition Metal Oxides as Functional Layers in Smart windows and Water Splitting Devices", which was held in Varna, St. Konstantin and Elena, Bulgaria, from the 4th-6th September 2014. The Workshop is organized within the context of the INERA "Research and Innovation Capacity Strengthening of ISSP-BAS in Multifunctional Nanostructures", FP7 Project REGPOT 316309 program, European project of the Institute of Solid State Physics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. There were 42 participants at the workshop, 16 from Sweden, Germany, Romania and Hungary, 11 invited lecturers, and 28 young participants. There were researchers present from prestigious European laboratories which are leaders in the field of transition metal oxide thin film technologies. The event contributed to training young researchers in innovative thin film technologies, as well as thin films characterization techniques. The topics of the Workshop cover the field of technology and investigation of thin oxide films as functional layers in "Smart windows" and "Water splitting" devices. The topics are related to the application of novel technologies for the preparation of transition metal oxide films and the modification of chromogenic properties towards the improvement of electrochromic and termochromic device parameters for possible industrial deployment. The Workshop addressed the following topics: Metal oxide films-functional layers in energy efficient devices; Photocatalysts and chemical sensing; Novel thin film technologies and applications; Methods of thin films characterizations; From the 37 abstracts sent, 21 manuscripts were written and later refereed. We appreciate the comments from all the referees, and we are grateful for their valuable contributions. Guest Editors: Assoc. Prof. Dr.Tatyana Ivanova Prof. DSc Kostadinka Gesheva Prof. DSc Hassan Chamatti Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgi Popkirov Workshop Organizing Committee Prof

  11. Translucent Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1998-01-01

    Two new types of translucent materials are presented. One is translucent fiber insulation and the other type is a new type of hony-comb made of Celulose-acetat. Data for the materials and calculations of energy savings when using the materials in building envelopes are presented....

  12. Recovery of the metal-insulator transition in electron-doped La{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} films by photoexcitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiessen, Andreas; Beyreuther, Elke; Grafstroem, Stefan; Eng, Lukas M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, TechnischeUniversitaet Dresden (Germany); Doerr, Kathrin [Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, IFW Dresden (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The question whether electron-doped mixed-valence manganites, such as La{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}, can be synthesized as single-phase compounds has been under debate for a decade. Meanwhile it has become clear that electron doping can indeed be achieved in epitaxial thin films. However, as-prepared films often suffer from overoxygenation and concomitant hole doping, which can be overcome by deoxygenation through a post-deposition annealing procedure. Disappointingly, those reduced samples do not exhibit the typical metal-insulator transition (MIT) any longer. In the present work, we show that the MIT of La{sub 0.7}Ce{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3-{delta}} films can be recovered by exposition to visible light. Our films turn out to be highly photoconductive: Laser illumination at 514 nm with a power of 400 mW gave rise to a dramatic resistance drop of around seven orders of magnitude at 100 K as compared to the dark state, while illumination had no impact on the conductivity of an as-prepared reference film.

  13. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  14. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  15. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Thermo-Chromic Properties of EVA/VO2 Laminate Films for Smart Window Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onruthai Srirodpai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic films based on vanadium dioxide (VO2/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA composite were developed. The monoclinic VO2 particles was firstly prepared via hydrothermal and calcination processes. The effects of hydrothermal time and tungsten doping agent on crystal structure and morphology of the calcined metal oxides were reported. After that, 1 wt % of the prepared VO2 powder was mixed with EVA compound, using two different mixing processes. It was found that mechanical properties of the EVA/VO2 films prepared by the melt process were superior to those of which prepared by the solution process. On the other hand, percentage visible light transmittance of the solution casted EVA/VO2 film was greater than that of the melt processed composite film. This was related to the different gel content of EVA rubber and state of dispersion and distribution of VO2 within the polymer matrix phase. Thermochromic behaviors and heat reflectance of the EVA/VO2 film were also verified. In overall, this study demonstrated that it was possible to develop a thermochromic film using the polymer composite approach. In this regard, the mixing condition was found to be one of the most important factors affecting morphology and thermo-mechanical properties of the films.

  17. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO2 thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shu-Yi; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO 2 films with atom ratios z ≡ Mg/(Mg + V) of 0 ≤ z  lum and solar transmittance modulation ΔT sol compared to undoped VO 2 films, and both of these parameters could be further enhanced by anti-reflection. VO 2 -containing nanocomposites had much larger values of T lum and ΔT sol than VO 2 -based films. Mg-doping was found to erode the properties of the nanocomposites. Approximate performance limits are given on T lum and ΔT sol for thermochromic VO 2 films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO 2 -containing dilute nanocomposites

  18. Large modification in insulator-metal transition of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) by high energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azhan, Nurul Hanis; Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: okifn@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Shin-ichi [Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2016-02-07

    High energy ion irradiation in biased reactive sputtering enabled significant modification of insulator-metal transition (IMT) properties of VO{sub 2} films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001). Even at a high biasing voltage with mean ion energy of around 325 eV induced by the rf substrate biasing power of 40 W, VO{sub 2} film revealed low IMT temperature (T{sub IMT}) at 309 K (36 °C) together with nearly two orders magnitude of resistance change. Raman measurements from −193 °C evidenced that the monoclinic VO{sub 2} lattice begins to transform to rutile-tetragonal lattice near room temperature. Raman spectra showed the in-plane compressive stress in biased VO{sub 2} films, which results in shortening of V–V distance along a-axis of monoclinic structure, a{sub M}-axis (c{sub R}-axis) and thus lowering the T{sub IMT}. In respect to that matter, significant effects in shortening the in-plane axis were observed through transmission electron microscopy observations. V2p{sub 3/2} spectra from XPS measurements suggested that high energy ion irradiation also induced oxygen vacancies and resulted for an early transition onset and rather broader transition properties. Earlier band gap closing against the temperature in VO{sub 2} film with higher biasing power was also probed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Present results with significant modification of IMT behavior of films deposited at high-energy ion irradiation with T{sub IMT} near the room temperature could be a newly and effective approach to both exploring mechanisms of IMT and further applications of this material, due to the fixed deposition conditions and rather thicker VO{sub 2} films.

  19. Development of nano structured diamond windows for application in synchrotron beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.A.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Corat, E.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Bagnato, O.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincroton (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Moro, J.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Synchrotron light sources are important tools in the scientific field. In essence, they are rather like enormous super-microscopes capable of studying biological, chemical and material samples at very high resolution, down to the atomic and molecular level, by using synchrotron light. The intense synchrotron light is electromagnetic radiation produced by high-energy electrons in a particle accelerator. The configuration of the beamlines uses windows of material transparent to radiation. Beryllium (Be) is the standard material. In general, these windows serve both, as filters to absorb the photons of low energy and, as insulating barrier between the storage ring and the environment. The justification for the use of beryllium windows at synchrotron beamlines is that elements with low atomic number - (4) transmit more electromagnetic radiation. Besides all the qualities, beryllium has some drawbacks such as deterioration of spatial coherence due to surface roughness and defects. Another problem observed is the appearance of Fresnel diffraction due to manufacturing defects of the windows. In this paper, we propose the use of windows made of nano structured diamond with average roughness of 20nm, without the need to polish, with maximum thickness of around 3 {mu}m. Diamond also has a low atomic number - (6). Another quality of nano structured diamond films is its mechanical properties. It needs only 5-6% of the thickness of beryllium to withstand the same pressure gradient. The film morphology was characterized with the help of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-FEG). Diamond's quality was determined by Raman Spectroscopy

  20. Effect of Coercive Voltage and Charge Injection on Performance of a Ferroelectric-Gate Thin-Film Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Tue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We adopted a lanthanum oxide capping layer between semiconducting channel and insulator layers for fabrication of a ferroelectric-gate thin-film transistor memory (FGT which uses solution-processed indium-tin-oxide (ITO and lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT film as a channel layer and a gate insulator, respectively. Good transistor characteristics such as a high “on/off” current ratio, high channel mobility, and a large memory window of 108, 15.0 cm2 V−1 s−1, and 3.5 V were obtained, respectively. Further, a correlation between effective coercive voltage, charge injection effect, and FGT’s memory window was investigated. It is found that the charge injection from the channel to the insulator layer, which occurs at a high electric field, dramatically influences the memory window. The memory window’s enhancement can be explained by a dual effect of the capping layer: (1 a reduction of the charge injection and (2 an increase of effective coercive voltage dropped on the insulator.

  1. Large-scale and patternable graphene: direct transformation of amorphous carbon film into graphene/graphite on insulators via Cu mediation engineering and its application to all-carbon based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ze; Medina, Henry; Lin, Hung-Chiao; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Su, Teng-Yu; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-02-07

    Chemical vapour deposition of graphene was the preferred way to synthesize graphene for multiple applications. However, several problems related to transfer processes, such as wrinkles, cleanness and scratches, have limited its application at the industrial scale. Intense research was triggered into developing alternative synthesis methods to directly deposit graphene on insulators at low cost with high uniformity and large area. In this work, we demonstrate a new concept to directly achieve growth of graphene on non-metal substrates. By exposing an amorphous carbon (a-C) film in Cu gaseous molecules after annealing at 850 °C, the carbon (a-C) film surprisingly undergoes a noticeable transformation to crystalline graphene. Furthermore, the thickness of graphene could be controlled, depending on the thickness of the pre-deposited a-C film. The transformation mechanism was investigated and explained in detail. This approach enables development of a one-step process to fabricate electrical devices made of all carbon material, highlighting the uniqueness of the novel approach for developing graphene electronic devices. Interestingly, the carbon electrodes made directly on the graphene layer by our approach offer a good ohmic contact compared with the Schottky barriers usually observed on graphene devices using metals as electrodes.

  2. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    This book looks at the movie industry and at the labour intensive but fascinating process of making a feature film. It examines each stage in the production of a film, from initial idea through to the final cut and screening, and highlights the main activities that take place along the way. The book not only looks at the work of prominent people in the film world, such as directors and actors, but also describes the equally important but less high profile contributions of the gaffer, best boy...

  3. Multipurpose Thermal Insulation Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multi-purpose thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials, or other components. The test apparatus is a fluid boil-off calorimeter system for calibrated measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) of a specimen material at a fixed vacuum level. The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a fluid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the inner vessel and thermal guards, is suspended from the top of the vacuum chamber. Handling tools attach to the cold mass assembly for convenient manipulation of the assembly and for the installation or wrapping of insulation test materials. Liquid nitrogen is typically supplied to the inner vessel using a fill tube with funnel. A single port through the top of the vacuum chamber facilitates both filling and venting. Aerogel composite stacks with reflective films are fastened to the top and the bottom of the inner vessel as thermal guards. The comparative k-value of the insulation material is determined by measuring the boil-off flow rate of gas, the temperature differential across the insulation thickness, and the dimensions (length and diameters) of the test specimen.

  4. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Bould, M.

    2014-01-01

    A critical overview of critical-theoretical understandings of sf film, especially those promulgated by critics devoted to sf as a prose fiction form. It also considers adaptation, spectacle and special effects.

  5. Electrically Tunable Magnetism in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-07-14

    The external controllability of the magnetic properties in topological insulators would be important both for fundamental and practical interests. Here we predict the electric-field control of ferromagnetism in a thin film of insulating magnetic topological insulators. The decrease of band inversion by the application of electric fields results in a reduction of magnetic susceptibility, and hence in the modification of magnetism. Remarkably, the electric field could even induce the magnetic quantum phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. We further propose a transistor device in which the dissipationless charge transport of chiral edge states is controlled by an electric field. In particular, the field-controlled ferromagnetism in a magnetic topological insulator can be used for voltage based writing of magnetic random access memories in magnetic tunnel junctions. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and chiral edge transport in such devices may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for topological insulators.

  6. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  7. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Freeman, J.; Powell, F.

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Ferroelectric/Dielectric Double Gate Insulator Spin-Coated Using Barium Titanate Nanocrystals for an Indium Oxide Nanocrystal-Based Thin-Film Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hien Thu; Yang, Jin Ho; Lee, Don-Sung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2016-03-23

    Barium titanate nanocrystals (BT NCs) were prepared under solvothermal conditions at 200 °C for 24 h. The shape of the BT NCs was tuned from nanodot to nanocube upon changing the polarity of the alcohol solvent, varying the nanosize in the range of 14-22 nm. Oleic acid-passivated NCs showed good solubility in a nonpolar solvent. The effect of size and shape of the BT NCs on the ferroelectric properties was also studied. The maximum polarization value of 7.2 μC/cm(2) was obtained for the BT-5 NC thin film. Dielectric measurements of the films showed comparable dielectric constant values of BT NCs over 1-100 kHz without significant loss. Furthermore, the bottom gate In2O3 NC thin film transistors exhibited outstanding device performance with a field-effect mobility of 11.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at a low applied gate voltage with BT-5 NC/SiO2 as the gate dielectric. The low-density trapped state was observed at the interface between the In2O3 NC semiconductor and the BT-5 NCs/SiO2 dielectric film. Furthermore, compensation of the applied gate field by an electric dipole-induced dipole field within the BT-5 NC film was also observed.

  10. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  11. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  12. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  13. Compact gas-insulated transformer. Fourteenth quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Objective is to develop a compact, more efficient, quieter transformer which does not rely on mineral oil insulation. Compressed SF/sub 6/ is used as the external insulation and polymer film as the insulation between turns. A separate liquid cooling system is also provided. This document reports progress made in design, mechanical, dielectric, short circuit, thermal, materials, prototype, accessories, commercialization, and system studies. (DLC)

  14. Fabrication and characterization of metal-ferroelectric (PbZr0.6Ti0.4O3)-insulator (La2O3)-semiconductor capacitors for nonvolatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Trevor Pi-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Shih, Wen-Chieh; Yang, Chin-Chieh; Lee, Joseph Ya-Min; Shye, Der-Chi; Lu, Jong-Hong

    2009-03-01

    Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor thin-film capacitors with Pb(Zr0.6,Ti0.4)O3 (PZT) ferroelectric layer and high-k lanthanum oxide (La2O3) insulator layer were fabricated. The outdiffusion of atoms between La2O3 and silicon was examined by the secondary-ion-mass spectroscopy. The size of memory window as a function of PZT annealing temperature was discussed. The maximum memory window saturated to 0.7 V, which is close to the theoretical memory window ΔW ≈2dfEc≈0.8 V with higher annealing temperatures above 700 °C. The memory window starts to decrease due to charge injection when the sweep voltage is higher than 5 V at 600 °C-annealed samples. The C-V flatband voltage shift (ΔVFB) as a function of charge injection was characterized in this work. An energy band diagram of the Al/PZT//La2O3/p-Si system was proposed to explain the memory window and the flatband voltage shift.

  15. Highly conducting and preferred <220> oriented boron doped nc–Si films for window layers in nc–Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Growth and optimization of the boron dopednanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films have been studied by varyingthe gaspressure applied to the hydrogendiluted silane plasma in RF (13.56 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) as the dopant gas. High magnitudeof electrical conductivity (~10{sup 2} S cm{sup −1}) and<220>orientedcrystallographic lattice planes have been obtained with high crystalline volume fraction (~86 %) at an optimum pressure of 2.5 Torr. XRD and Raman studies reveal good crystallinity with preferred orientation, suitable for applications in stacked layer devices, particularly in nc–Si solar cells.

  16. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  17. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  18. Improvement of electron mobility in La:BaSnO3 thin films by insertion of an atomically flat insulating (Sr,Ba)SnO3 buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiogai, Junichi; Nishihara, Kazuki; Sato, Kazuhisa; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    One perovskite oxide, ASnO3 (A = Sr, Ba), is a candidate for use as a transparent conductive oxide with high electron mobility in single crystalline form. However, the electron mobility of films grown on SrTiO3 substrates does not reach the bulk value, probably because of dislocation scattering that originates from the large lattice mismatch. This study investigates the effect of insertion of bilayer BaSnO3 / (Sr,Ba)SnO3 for buffering this large lattice mismatch between La:BaSnO3 and SrTiO3 substrate. The insertion of 200-nm-thick BaSnO3 on (Sr,Ba)SnO3 bilayer buffer structures reduces the number of dislocations and improves surface smoothness of the films after annealing as proved respectively by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A systematic investigation of BaSnO3 buffer layer thickness dependence on Hall mobility of the electron transport in La:BaSnO3 shows that the highest obtained value of mobility is 78 cm2V-1s-1 because of its fewer dislocations. High electron mobility films based on perovskite BaSnO3 can provide a good platform for transparent-conducting-oxide electronic devices and for creation of fascinating perovskite heterostructures.

  19. Improvement of electron mobility in La:BaSnO3 thin films by insertion of an atomically flat insulating (Sr,BaSnO3 buffer layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Shiogai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One perovskite oxide, ASnO3 (A = Sr, Ba, is a candidate for use as a transparent conductive oxide with high electron mobility in single crystalline form. However, the electron mobility of films grown on SrTiO3 substrates does not reach the bulk value, probably because of dislocation scattering that originates from the large lattice mismatch. This study investigates the effect of insertion of bilayer BaSnO3 / (Sr,BaSnO3 for buffering this large lattice mismatch between La:BaSnO3 and SrTiO3 substrate. The insertion of 200-nm-thick BaSnO3 on (Sr,BaSnO3 bilayer buffer structures reduces the number of dislocations and improves surface smoothness of the films after annealing as proved respectively by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. A systematic investigation of BaSnO3 buffer layer thickness dependence on Hall mobility of the electron transport in La:BaSnO3 shows that the highest obtained value of mobility is 78 cm2V−1s−1 because of its fewer dislocations. High electron mobility films based on perovskite BaSnO3 can provide a good platform for transparent-conducting-oxide electronic devices and for creation of fascinating perovskite heterostructures.

  20. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  1. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  2. Film

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Ruth; Dolgopolov, Greg

    2008-01-01

    From the beginning of the twentieth century, Sydney defined cosmopolitanism and modernity in the national imagination, and central to this image was the cinema: its technology, its architecture, its stars, its marketing and the stories it circulated to its audiences about Australia and the world. Though it is difficult to define a genre of Sydney film, Sydney provided the backdrop for a host of ideas about the city, and later suburbia. Sydney came to be seen as a ‘tinsel town’ of cultural ban...

  3. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  4. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  5. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  6. Pulse number controlled laser annealing for GeSn on insulator structure with high substitutional Sn concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moto, Kenta; Sadoh, Taizoh; Miyao, Masanobu, E-mail: miyao@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Ryo [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JSPS, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Department of Gigaphoton Next GLP, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-06-27

    Crystalline GeSn-on-insulator structures with high Sn concentration (>8%), which exceeds thermal equilibrium solid-solubility (∼2%) of Sn in Ge, are essential to achieve high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices. We investigate non-thermal equilibrium growth of Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) on quartz substrates by using pulsed laser annealing (PLA). The window of laser fluence enabling complete crystallization without film ablation is drastically expanded (∼5 times) by Sn doping above 5% into Ge. Substitutional Sn concentration in grown layers is found to be increased with decreasing irradiation pulse number. This phenomenon can be explained on the basis of significant thermal non-equilibrium growth achieved by higher cooling rate after PLA with a lower pulse number. As a result, GeSn crystals with substitutional Sn concentration of ∼12% are realized at pulse irradiation of single shot for the samples with the initial Sn concentration of 15%. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy measurements reveal the high quality of the grown layer. This technique will be useful to fabricate high-speed thin film transistors and high-efficiency optical devices on insulating substrates.

  7. Spin to Charge Conversion at Room Temperature by Spin Pumping into a New Type of Topological Insulator: α-Sn Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sánchez, J-C; Oyarzún, S; Fu, Y; Marty, A; Vergnaud, C; Gambarelli, S; Vila, L; Jamet, M; Ohtsubo, Y; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A; Le Fèvre, P; Bertran, F; Reyren, N; George, J-M; Fert, A

    2016-03-04

    We present results on spin to charge current conversion in experiments of resonant spin pumping into the Dirac cone with helical spin polarization of the elemental topological insulator (TI) α-Sn. By angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), we first check that the Dirac cone (DC) at the α-Sn (0 0 1) surface subsists after covering Sn with Ag. Then we show that resonant spin pumping at room temperature from Fe through Ag into α-Sn layers induces a lateral charge current that can be ascribed to the inverse Edelstein effect by the DC states. Our observation of an inverse Edelstein effect length much longer than those generally found for Rashba interfaces demonstrates the potential of TIs for the conversion between spin and charge in spintronic devices. By comparing our results with data on the relaxation time of TI free surface states from time-resolved ARPES, we can anticipate the ultimate potential of the TI for spin to charge conversion and the conditions to reach it.

  8. Metal-Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  9. Metal - Insulator Transition Driven by Vacancy Ordering in GeSbTe Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Zhang, Wei; Mio, Antonio Massimiliano; Zallo, Eugenio; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Cecchi, Stefano; Boschker, Jos Emiel; Riechert, Henning; Privitera, Stefania; Rimini, Emanuele; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-04-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are unique compounds employed in non-volatile random access memory thanks to the rapid and reversible transformation between the amorphous and crystalline state that display large differences in electrical and optical properties. In addition to the amorphous-to-crystalline transition, experimental results on polycrystalline GeSbTe alloys (GST) films evidenced a Metal-Insulator Transition (MIT) attributed to disorder in the crystalline phase. Here we report on a fundamental advance in the fabrication of GST with out-of-plane stacking of ordered vacancy layers by means of three distinct methods: Molecular Beam Epitaxy, thermal annealing and application of femtosecond laser pulses. We assess the degree of vacancy ordering and explicitly correlate it with the MIT. We further tune the ordering in a controlled fashion attaining a large range of resistivity. Employing ordered GST might allow the realization of cells with larger programming windows.

  10. Insulating nanoparticles on YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films revealed by comparison of atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R.E.; Moreland, J.; Missert, N.; Rudman, D.A.; Sanders, S.C.; Cole, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    The surface topography of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films has been studied with both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The AFM images reveal a high density of small distinct nanoparticles, 10--50 nm across and 5--20 nm high, which do not appear in STM images of the same samples. In addition, we have shown that scanning the STM tip across the surface breaks off these particles and moves them to the edge of the scanned area, where they can later be imaged with the AFM

  11. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  12. Anomalous diffusion of Ga and As from semi-insulating GaAs substrate into MOCVD grown ZnO films as a function of annealing temperature and its effect on charge compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pranab; Banerji, P., E-mail: pallab@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Halder, Nripendra N. [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Kundu, Souvik [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Corvallis, OR 97331–5501 (United States); Shripathi, T.; Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 001 (India)

    2014-05-15

    The diffusion behavior of arsenic (As) and gallium (Ga) atoms from semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs) into ZnO films upon post-growth annealing vis-à-vis the resulting charge compensation was investigated with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films, annealed at 600 ºC and 700 ºC showed p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 1.1 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and 2.8 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} respectively, whereas those annealed at 800 ºC showed n-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 6.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. It is observed that at lower temperatures, large fraction of As atoms diffused from the SI-GaAs substrates into ZnO and formed acceptor related complex, (As{sub Zn}–2V{sub Zn}), by substituting Zn atoms (As{sub Zn}) and thereby creating two zinc vacancies (V{sub Zn}). Thus as-grown ZnO which was supposed to be n-type due to nonstoichiometric nature showed p-type behavior. On further increasing the annealing temperature to 800 ºC, Ga atoms diffused more than As atoms and substitute Zn atoms thereby forming shallow donor complex, Ga{sub Zn}. Electrons from donor levels then compensate the p-type carriers and the material reverts back to n-type. Thus the conversion of carrier type took place due to charge compensation between the donors and acceptors in ZnO and this compensation is the possible origin of anomalous conduction in wide band gap materials.

  13. Anomalous diffusion of Ga and As from semi-insulating GaAs substrate into MOCVD grown ZnO films as a function of annealing temperature and its effect on charge compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion behavior of arsenic (As and gallium (Ga atoms from semi-insulating GaAs (SI-GaAs into ZnO films upon post-growth annealing vis-à-vis the resulting charge compensation was investigated with the help of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The films, annealed at 600 ºC and 700 ºC showed p-type conductivity with a hole concentration of 1.1 × 1018 cm−3 and 2.8 × 1019 cm−3 respectively, whereas those annealed at 800 ºC showed n-type conductivity with a carrier concentration of 6.5 × 1016 cm−3. It is observed that at lower temperatures, large fraction of As atoms diffused from the SI-GaAs substrates into ZnO and formed acceptor related complex, (AsZn–2VZn, by substituting Zn atoms (AsZn and thereby creating two zinc vacancies (VZn. Thus as-grown ZnO which was supposed to be n-type due to nonstoichiometric nature showed p-type behavior. On further increasing the annealing temperature to 800 ºC, Ga atoms diffused more than As atoms and substitute Zn atoms thereby forming shallow donor complex, GaZn. Electrons from donor levels then compensate the p-type carriers and the material reverts back to n-type. Thus the conversion of carrier type took place due to charge compensation between the donors and acceptors in ZnO and this compensation is the possible origin of anomalous conduction in wide band gap materials.

  14. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  15. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  16. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  17. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  18. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  19. Electron field emission from sp 2-induced insulating to metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 33; Issue 3. Electron field emission from 2-induced insulating to metallic behaviour of amorphous carbon (-C) films. Pitamber Mahanandia P N Viswakarma Prasad Vishnu Bhotla S V Subramanyam Karuna Kar Nanda. Thin Films and Nanomatter Volume 33 Issue 3 ...

  20. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  1. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  2. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  4. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  5. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  6. 1T1R Nonvolatile Memory with Al/TiO₂/Au and Sol-Gel-Processed Insulator for Barium Zirconate Nickelate Gate in Pentacene Thin Film Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ke-Jing; Chang, Yu-Chi; Lee, Cheng-Jung; Wang, Li-Wen; Wang, Yeong-Her

    2017-12-09

    A one-transistor and one-resistor (1T1R) architecture with a resistive random access memory (RRAM) cell connected to an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) device is successfully demonstrated to avoid the cross-talk issues of only one RRAM cell. The OTFT device, which uses barium zirconate nickelate (BZN) as a dielectric layer, exhibits favorable electrical properties, such as a high field-effect mobility of 5 cm²/Vs, low threshold voltage of -1.1 V, and low leakage current of 10 -12 A, for a driver in the 1T1R operation scheme. The 1T1R architecture with a TiO₂-based RRAM cell connected with a BZN OTFT device indicates a low operation current (10 μA) and reliable data retention (over ten years). This favorable performance of the 1T1R device can be attributed to the additional barrier heights introduced by using Ni (II) acetylacetone as a substitute for acetylacetone, and the relatively low leakage current of a BZN dielectric layer. The proposed 1T1R device with low leakage current OTFT and excellent uniform resistance distribution of RRAM exhibits a good potential for use in practical low-power electronic applications.

  7. The role of implantation damage in the production of silicon-on-insulator films by co-implantation of He+ and H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venezia, V.C.; Agarwal, A.; Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ; Haynes, T.E.; Holland, O.W.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Weldon, M.K.; Chabal, Y.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the process of silicon thin film separation by hydrogen implantation, as well as the more basic phenomenon of surface blistering, can occur at a much lower total dose when H and He are co-implanted than when H is implanted alone. Building on that work, this paper investigates the role of implantation damage in this process by separating the contributions of gas pressure from those of damage. Three different experiments using co-implantation were designed. In the first of these experiments, H and He implants were spatially separated thereby separating the damage from each implant. The second experiment involved co-implantation of H and He at a temperature of 77 K to retain a larger amount of damage for the same gas dose. In the third experiment, Li was co-implanted with H, to create additional damage without introducing additional gas. These experiments together show that increasing the implantation damage itself hampers the formation of surface blisters, and that the increased efficiency observed for He co-implantation with H is due to the supplementary source of gas provided by the He

  8. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  9. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  10. Exploring Homeowners’ Insulation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Friege, J; Holtz, G; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Insulating existing buildings offers great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and meeting Germany’s climate protection targets. Previous research suggests that, since homeowners’ decision-making processes are inadequately understood as yet, today’s incentives aiming at increasing insulation activity lead to unsatisfactory results. We developed an agent-based model to foster the understanding of homeowners’ decision-making processes regarding insulation and to explore how situatio...

  11. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  12. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  13. Role of defects in the carrier-tunable topological-insulator (Bi1 -xSbx )2Te3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipioni, Kane L.; Wang, Zhenyu; Maximenko, Yulia; Katmis, Ferhat; Steiner, Charlie; Madhavan, Vidya

    2018-03-01

    Alloys of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3[(Bi1-xSbx) 2Te3] have played an essential role in the exploration of topological surface states, allowing us to study phenomena that would otherwise be obscured by bulk contributions to conductivity. Despite intensive transport and angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) studies, important questions about this system remain unanswered. For example, previous studies reported the chemical tuning of the Fermi level to the Dirac point by controlling the Sb:Bi composition ratio, but the optimum ratio varies widely across various studies. Moreover, it is unclear how the quasiparticle lifetime is affected by the disorder resulting from Sb/Bi alloying. In this work, we use scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to study the electronic structure of epitaxially grown (Bi,Sb) 2Te3 thin films at the nanoscale. We study Landau levels (LLs) to determine the effect of disorder on the quasiparticle lifetime as well as the position of the Dirac point with respect to the Fermi energy. A plot of the LL peak widths shows that despite the intrinsic disorder, the quasiparticle lifetime is not significantly degraded. We further determine that the ideal Sb concentration to place the Fermi energy to within a few meV of the Dirac point is x ˜0.7 , but that postannealing temperatures can have a significant effect on the crystallinity and Fermi level position. Specifically, high postgrowth annealing temperature can result in better crystallinity and surface roughness, but also produces a larger Te defect density which adds n -type carriers. Finally, in combination with quasiparticle interference imaging, the dispersion is revealed over a large energy range above the Fermi energy, in a regime inaccessible to ARPES. Interestingly, the surface state dispersion for the x ˜0.7 sample shows great similarity to pristine Bi2Te3 . This work provides microscopic information on the role of disorder and composition in determining carrier concentration, surface state

  14. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to transfer the results from lab- to mid- and finally to large-scale making of 60 by 60 cm2 in a pre-industrial plant. The large samples forms the basis for assembly of evacuated aerogel glazings optimised with respect to thermal and optical properties. The production process development and transfer to pre...... invention of several technical solutions related to moulding and handling of the large gels. Despite the efforts only aerogels with a thickness up to 15 mm have been produced with a good reproducibility. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.015 W/mK at atmospheric pressure and 0.010 W/mK at 10 h......Pa. The optical properties have been improved compared to previous aerogels thanks to the process and the smooth surfaces obtained and a heat treatment of the dried aerogel. A rim seal solution that offers the required air and moisture tightness without leading to severe thermal bridge effects has been developed...

  15. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Park, Sang-Hee Ko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al 2 O 3 , were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV th ) was 0 V even after a PBS time (t stress ) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (V G ) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔV th value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔV th values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (N T ) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher N T resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of N T near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  16. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  17. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  18. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  19. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  20. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  1. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  2. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  5. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  6. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  7. Window materials for high power gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afsar, M.N.; Chi, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The room temperature application of sapphire as window material at higher frequencies is not feasible since its absorption coefficient increases almost linearly with increasing frequency in the millimeter wavelength region. At cryogenic temperature the absorption coefficient value decreases only by a few factors (factor of 2 to 3) in the 90-200 GHz region. The earlier reported temperature squared dependence (decrease) in the absorption coefficient or the loss tangent value is totally absent in the broad band continuous wave data the authors are reporting here (at 6.5 K, 35K, 77K and 300K) and one they reported at conferences earlier. These results are verified by another technique. The authors utilize their precision millimeter wave dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopic techniques at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. The extra high resistivity single crystal compensated silicon is no doubt the lowest loss material available at room temperature in the entire millimeter wavelength region. At higher millimeter wave frequencies an extra high resistivity silicon window or a window made with extra high resistivity silicon coated with diamond film would certainly make a better candidate in the future. A single free standing synthetic diamond window seems to have higher absorption coefficient values at millimeter wavelength region at this time although it is claimed that it possesses good mechanical strength and higher thermal conductivity characteristics. It certainly does not rule out the use of diamond film on a single crystal high resistivity silicon to improve its mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  8. Thermal insulation blanket material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  9. Translucent insulating building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Jens Eg

    1997-01-01

    A new type of translucent insulating material has been tested. This material is made of Celulose-Acetat and have a honey-comb structure. The material has a high solar transmittance and is highly insulating. The material is relatively cheap to produce. Danish Title: Translucent isolerende klimaskærm....

  10. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  11. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  12. Development and Measurement of Strain Free RF Photoinjector Vacuum Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, Sandra G

    2004-01-01

    RF photoinjectors produce the highest brightness electron bunches only under nearly ideal illumination by a drive laser. The vacuum window used to introduce the laser beam is an essential element that may potentially degrade any distribution, making it difficult or impossible to know the actual uniformity achieved at the cathode. Because of the necessity to obtain ultrahigh vacuum near the photoinjector, some restrictions are imposed on the fabrication technology available to manufacture distortion-free windows. At the UV wavelengths commonly used for photoinjectors, it is challenging to measure and eliminate degradation caused by vacuum windows. Here, we discuss the initial laser-based measurements of a strain-free, coated, UHV window manufactured by Insulator Seal in collaboration with members of Brookhaven and Argonne National Laboratories.

  13. Inkjet-Printed Organic Transistors Based on Organic Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Yeong Don; Lee, Wi Hyoung

    2016-08-02

    Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors. Representative studies using soluble acene/insulating polymer blends as an inkjet-printed active layer in OFETs are introduced with special attention paid to the phase separation characteristics of such blended films. In addition, inkjet-printed semiconducting/insulating polymer blends for fabricating high performance printed OFETs are reviewed.

  14. Inkjet-Printed Organic Transistors Based on Organic Semiconductor/Insulating Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Jung Kwon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in inkjet-printed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs based on organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are reviewed in this article. Organic semiconductor/insulating polymer blends are attractive ink candidates for enhancing the jetting properties, inducing uniform film morphologies, and/or controlling crystallization behaviors of organic semiconductors. Representative studies using soluble acene/insulating polymer blends as an inkjet-printed active layer in OFETs are introduced with special attention paid to the phase separation characteristics of such blended films. In addition, inkjet-printed semiconducting/insulating polymer blends for fabricating high performance printed OFETs are reviewed.

  15. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  16. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  17. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  18. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  19. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  20. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  1. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  2. Gas insulated substations

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview on the particular development steps of gas insulated high-voltage switchgear, and is based on the information given with the editor's tutorial. The theory is kept low only as much as it is needed to understand gas insulated technology, with the main focus of the book being on delivering practical application knowledge. It discusses some introductory and advanced aspects in the meaning of applications. The start of the book presents the theory of Gas Insulated Technology, and outlines reliability, design, safety, grounding and bonding, and factors for choosing GIS. The third chapter presents the technology, covering the following in detail: manufacturing, specification, instrument transformers, Gas Insulated Bus, and the assembly process. Next, the book goes into control and monitoring, which covers local control cabinet, bay controller, control schemes, and digital communication. Testing is explained in the middle of the book before installation and energization. Importantly, ...

  3. Vacuum foil insulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John P.; Sabolcik, Rudolph E.; Svedberg, Robert C.

    1976-11-16

    In a multifoil thermal insulation package having a plurality of concentric cylindrical cups, means are provided for reducing heat loss from the penetration region which extends through the cups. At least one cup includes an integral skirt extending from one end of the cup to intersection with the penetration means. Assembly of the insulation package with the skirted cup is facilitated by splitting the cup to allow it to be opened up and fitted around the other cups during assembly.

  4. Photonic Floquet topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Zeuner, Julia M.; Plotnik, Yonatan; Lumer, Yaakov; Podolsky, Daniel; Dreisow, Felix; Nolte, Stefan; Segev, Mordechai; Szameit, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on the surface. In two dimensions, surface electrons in topological insulators do not scatter despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wideranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Recently, large theoretical efforts were directed towards achieving topological insulation for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional, and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. However, since magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatterfree edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism - one that is free of magnetic fields. Recently, a number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward. Specifically, one suggested temporally modulating a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, where temporal variations in solidstate systems induce topological edge states. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the first external field-free photonic topological insulator with scatter-free edge transport: a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrödinger equation where the propagation coordinate acts as `time'. Thus the waveguides

  5. Improved Sprayable Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. F.; Sharpe, M. H.; Lester, C. N.; Echols, Sherman; Simpson, W. G.; Lambert, J. D.; Norton, W. F.; Mclemore, J. P.; Patel, A. K.; Patel, S. V.; hide

    1992-01-01

    MSA-2 and MSA-2A, two similar improved versions of Marshall sprayable ablator, insulating material developed at Marshall Space Flight Center to replace both sheets of cork and MSA-1. Suitable for use on large vehicles and structures exposed to fire or other sources of heat by design or accident. Ablative insulation turns into strong char when exposed to high temperature; highly desireable property in original spacecraft application and possibly in some terrestrial applications.

  6. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  7. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  8. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  9. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  10. The vacuum window - a minimal concept with maximum effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredsdorff, M.; Moltke, I.; Bezzel, E.

    1997-12-01

    The projects primary aim was to develop a production technology in order to produce evacuated panes at a competitive price. Insulating using vacuum is not a new concept. It has been described in patents for over a century. The field of usage of this concept is immense, and the potentials even greater. The general principle of the vacuum window is to have nothing, namely vacuum, in-between two low radiant surfaces, thus obtaining very low heat transmission technique for highly insulating evacuated windows has most certainly been reached. To obtain the mentioned vast improvements in thermal performance of the new generation of glazing there were several technical issues to be dealt with. They have been divided up into 6 tasks: Low emission glass, spacers, tempering, edge seal, evacuation and framing. The target center U-value of the vacuum window was set to be 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K, an ambitious target requiring several previously unsolved details to be solved. The center U-value of 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K has been reached and documented through this project. The production costs compares to that of existing glazing with the same insulating capabilities. (EHS) EFP-93; EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96; EU-BRITE-DURAM; 13 refs.

  11. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  12. Surface electrical resistivity of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senn, B. C.; Liesegang, J.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented here for measuring surface charge decay, and theory has been developed so as to produce determinations of resistivity in the surface region of insulator films or wafers. This method incorporates the use of a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement and an electrometer interfaced to a PC. The charge transport theory given here is based on Mott-Gurney diffusion, and allows easy interpretation of the experimental data, especially for the initial phase of surface charge decay. Resistivity measurements are presented for glass, mica, perspex and polyethylene, covering a range of 10 9 to 10 18 Ωm, as an illustration of the useful range of the instrument for static and antistatic materials, particularly in film or sheet form. Values for the surface charge diffusion constants of the materials are also presented. The charge transport theory has also been extended to allow the experimental and computational theoretical comparison of surface charge decay not only over the initial phase of charge decay, but also over longer times. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with experiment using the values for the diffusion constants referred to above

  13. Improved cable insulation for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anerella, M.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kelly, E.; Schmalzle, J.; Willen, E.; Fraivillig, J.; Ochsner, J.; Parish, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago, Brookhaven joined with DuPont in a cooperative effort to develop improved cable insulation for SSC superconducting dipole magnets. The effort was supported by the SSC Central Design Group and later the SSC Laboratory. It was undertaken because turn-to-turn and midplane shorts were routinely being experienced during the assembly of magnets with coils made of the existing Kapton/Fiberglass (K/FG) system of Kapton film overwrapped with epoxy-impregnated fiberglass tape. Dissection of failed magnets showed that insulation disruption and punch-through was occurring near the inner edges of turns close to the magnet midplane. Coil pressures of greater than 17 kpsi were sufficient to disrupt the insulation at local high spots where wires in neighboring turns crossed one another and where the cable had been strongly compacted in the keystoning operation during cable manufacture. In the joint development program, numerous combinations of polyimide films manufactured by DuPont with varying configurations and properties (including thickness) were subjected to tests at Brookhaven. Early tests were bench trials using wrapped cable samples. The most promising candidates were used in coils and many of these assembled and tested as magnets in both the SSC and RHIC magnet programs currently underway. The Kapton CI (CI) system that has been adopted represents a suitable compromise of numerous competing factors. It exhibits improved performance in the critical parameter of compressive punch-through resistance as well as other advantages over the K/FG system

  14. Tetradymites as thermoelectrics and topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Cava, Robert J.; Samarth, Nitin

    2017-10-01

    Tetradymites are M2X3 compounds — in which M is a group V metal, usually Bi or Sb, and X is a group VI anion, Te, Se or S — that crystallize in a rhombohedral structure. Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 are archetypical tetradymites. Other mixtures of M and X elements produce common variants, such as Bi2Te2Se. Because tetradymites are based on heavy p-block elements, strong spin-orbit coupling greatly influences their electronic properties, both on the surface and in the bulk. Their surface electronic states are a cornerstone of frontier work on topological insulators. The bulk energy bands are characterized by small energy gaps, high group velocities, small effective masses and band inversion near the centre of the Brillouin zone. These properties are favourable for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials but make it difficult to obtain an electrically insulating bulk, which is a requirement of topological insulators. This Review outlines recent progress made in bulk and thin-film tetradymite materials for the optimization of their properties both as thermoelectrics and as topological insulators.

  15. The control of magnetism near metal-to-insulator transitions of VO2 nano-belts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, SS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic properties of paramagnetic/weakly ferromagnetic films are strongly affected by the proximity to materials that undergo a metal to insulator phase transition. Here, we show that under the deposition conditions associated with structural...

  16. Integrated MLI: Advanced Thermal Insulation Using Micro-Molding Technology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current Multilayer Insulation (MLI) technology is over 50 years old, and is typically comprised of 10 to 120 layers of metalized polymer films separated by polyester...

  17. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-07

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.

  18. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  19. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  20. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  1. Insulators for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    Design studies for fusion devices and reactors have become more detailed in recent years and with this has come a better understanding of requirements and operating conditions for insulators in these machines. Ceramic and organic insulators are widely used for many components of fusion devices and reactors namely: radio frequency (RF) energy injection systems (BeO, Al 2 O 3 , Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 3 N 4 ); electrical insulation for the torus structure (SiC, Al 2 O 3 , MgO, Mg Al 2 O 4 , Si 4 Al 2 O 2 N 6 , Si 3 N 4 , Y 2 O 3 ); lightly-shielded magnetic coils (MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 ); the toroidal field coil (epoxies, polyimides), neutron shield (B 4 C, TiH 2 ); high efficiency electrical generation; as well as the generation of very high temperatures for high efficiency hydrogen production processes (ZrO 2 and Al 2 O 3 - mat, graphite and carbon - felt). Timely development of insulators for fusion applications is clearly necessary. Those materials to be used in fusion machines should show high resistance to radiation damage and maintain their structural integrity. Now the need is urgent for a variety of radiation resistant materials, but much effort in these areas is required for insulators to be considered seriously by the design community. This document contains 14 papers from an IAEA meeting. It was the objective of this meeting to identify existing problems in analysing various situations of applications and requirements of electrical insulators and ceramics in fusion and to recommend strategies and different stages of implementation. This meeting was endorsed by the International Fusion Research Council

  2. Electrically tuned magnetic order and magnetoresistance in a topological insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Guo, Minghua; Li, Kang; Zhang, Jinsong; Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Wang, Lili; Chen, Xi; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Wang, Yayu

    2014-09-15

    The interplay between topological protection and broken time reversal symmetry in topological insulators may lead to highly unconventional magnetoresistance behaviour that can find unique applications in magnetic sensing and data storage. However, the magnetoresistance of topological insulators with spontaneously broken time reversal symmetry is still poorly understood. In this work, we investigate the transport properties of a ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film fabricated into a field effect transistor device. We observe a complex evolution of gate-tuned magnetoresistance, which is positive when the Fermi level lies close to the Dirac point but becomes negative at higher energies. This trend is opposite to that expected from the Berry phase picture, but is intimately correlated with the gate-tuned magnetic order. The underlying physics is the competition between the topology-induced weak antilocalization and magnetism-induced negative magnetoresistance. The simultaneous electrical control of magnetic order and magnetoresistance facilitates future topological insulator based spintronic devices.

  3. Condensation in insulated homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, R A

    1978-05-28

    A research proposal on condensation in insulated homes is presented. Information is provided on: justification for condensation control; previous work and present outlook (good vapor barrier, condensation and retrofit insulation, vapor barrier decreases condensation, brick-veneer walls, condensation in stress-skin panels, air-conditioned buildings, retrofitting for conservation, study on mobile homes, high indoor relative humidity, report on various homes); and procedure (after funding has been secured). Measures are briefly described on opening walls, testing measures, and retrofitting procedures. An extensive bibliography and additional informative citations are included. (MCW)

  4. Structural and Electrical Characteristics of Metal-Ferroelectric Pb1.1(Zr0.40Ti0.60O3-Insulator (ZnO-Silicon Capacitors for Nonvolatile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Krishnamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS thin-film structures using Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 (PZT as the ferroelectric layer and zinc oxide (ZnO as the insulator layer were fabricated on n-type (100 Si substrate. Pb1.1Zr0.40Ti0.60O3 and ZnO thin films were prepared on Si by the sol-gel route and thermal deposition method, respectively. On the optimized PZT (140 nm and ZnO (40 nm films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM. From AFM data the root mean square (r.m.s. roughness of the film surface is 13.11 nm. The leakage current density of ZnO/n-Si (MIS structure was as low as 1.8 × 10−8 A/cm2 at 2.5 V. The capacitance versus voltage (C-V characteristics of the annealed ZnO/Si (MIS diode indicated the good interface properties and no hysteresis was observed. Au/PZT (140 nm/ZnO (40 nm/Si (100 leakage-current density was about 5.7 × 10−8 A/cm2 at positive bias voltage of 3 V. The large memory window width in C-V (capacitance-voltage curve of Au/PZT/ZnO/Si capacitor was about 2.9 V under ±12 V which thus possibly enables nonvolatile applications. The memory window as a function of temperature was also discussed.

  5. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  6. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  7. ERRATUM Electron field emission from sp -induced insulating to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Electron field emission from sp. 2. -induced insulating to metallic behaviour of amorphous carbon (a-C) films. Pitamber Mahanandia, P N Viswakarma, Prasad Vishnu Bhotla, S V Subramanyam and Karuna Kar Nanda. 2010 Bull. Mater. Sci. 33 pp 215–220. The MS received date should be read as “MS received 20 October ...

  8. Electron field emission from sp 2-induced insulating to metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of concentration and size of 2 cluster on the transport properties and electron field emissions of amorphous carbon films have been investigated. The observed insulating to metallic behaviour from reduced activation energy derived from transport measurement and threshold field for electron emission of ...

  9. Absorbed Dose Distributions in Irradiated Plastic Tubing and Wire Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Plastic tubing and wire insulation were simulated by radiochromic dye dosimeter films having electron absorbing properties similar to the materials of interest (polyethylene and PVC). A 400-keV electron accelerator was used to irradiate from 1, 2, 3 and 4 sides simulating possible industrial...

  10. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  11. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  12. Insulation Reformulation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cynthia; Bray, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The current Space Launch System (SLS) internal solid rocket motor insulation, polybenzimidazole acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (PBI-NBR), is a new insulation that replaced asbestos-based insulations found in Space Shuttle heritage solid rocket boosters. PBI-NBR has some outstanding characteristics such as an excellent thermal erosion resistance, low thermal conductivity, and low density. PBI-NBR also has some significant challenges associated with its use: Air entrainment/entrapment during manufacture and lay-up/cure and low mechanical properties such as tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. This technology development attempted to overcome these challenges by testing various reformulated versions of booster insulation. The results suggest the SLS program should continue to investigate material alternatives for potential block upgrades or use an entirely new, more advanced booster. The experimental design was composed of a logic path that performs iterative formulation and testing in order to maximize the effort. A lab mixing baseline was developed and documented for the Rubber Laboratory in Bldg. 4602/Room 1178.

  13. Exploring Homeowners’ Insulation Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friege, J; Holtz, G; Chappin, E.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Insulating existing buildings offers great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and meeting Germany’s climate protection targets. Previous research suggests that, since homeowners’ decision-making processes are inadequately understood as yet, today’s incentives aiming at increasing

  14. Conducting and insulating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotinha, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Conducting materials may be classified into three groups: conductors, semiconductors and imperfect insulators. This section will cover only conductors. In general, metals and alloys are conductors of electricity. The most common metals used in electricity are copper, aluminium and their alloys. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  15. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...

  16. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  17. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  18. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  19. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  20. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  1. The cost efficiency of improved roof windows in two well-lit nearly zero-energy houses in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarning, Gunnlaug Cecilie Jensen; Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Roof windows are efficient and flexible daylight sources that are essential in certain types of houses if theyare to achieve sufficient daylighting throughout. Previous studies have indicated that, for such buildingsto meet nearly zero-energy targets in an easy and robust way without compromising.......The aim of this study was to quantify the scope for investing in improved roof window solutions inbuildings insulated to consume nearly zero-energy. Based on two single-family houses in Copenhagenwith typical roof windows and adequate daylighting, the study identified the prices at which various typesof...... roof window improvements would have to be made available to achieve the same cost efficiency asimproved insulation. If the improvements can be made available for less than these prices, the installationof improved roof windows would make it cheaper to construct well-lit and comfortable nearly zero...

  2. Fractional Chern Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Regnault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chern insulators are band insulators exhibiting a nonzero Hall conductance but preserving the lattice translational symmetry. We conclusively show that a partially filled Chern insulator at 1/3 filling exhibits a fractional quantum Hall effect and rule out charge-density-wave states that have not been ruled out by previous studies. By diagonalizing the Hubbard interaction in the flat-band limit of these insulators, we show the following: The system is incompressible and has a 3-fold degenerate ground state whose momenta can be computed by postulating an generalized Pauli principle with no more than 1 particle in 3 consecutive orbitals. The ground-state density is constant, and equal to 1/3 in momentum space. Excitations of the system are fractional-statistics particles whose total counting matches that of quasiholes in the Laughlin state based on the same generalized Pauli principle. The entanglement spectrum of the state has a clear entanglement gap which seems to remain finite in the thermodynamic limit. The levels below the gap exhibit counting identical to that of Laughlin 1/3 quasiholes. Both the 3 ground states and excited states exhibit spectral flow upon flux insertion. All the properties above disappear in the trivial state of the insulator—both the many-body energy gap and the entanglement gap close at the phase transition when the single-particle Hamiltonian goes from topologically nontrivial to topologically trivial. These facts clearly show that fractional many-body states are possible in topological insulators.

  3. Conductance of perovskite oxide thin films and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubeen Dildar, Ishrat

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of doped perovskite manganites in the form of thin films, and with interfaces between insulating perovskites. The first question we investigate has to do with the strong reduction of the metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature when the films are strained.In

  4. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  6. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  8. Metal-insulator transition in SrIrO3 with strong spin-orbit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei-Xiang; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, L Y; Chen, Y B; Zhang, Shan-Tao; Gu, Zheng-Bin; Yao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2013-03-27

    The thickness-dependent metal-insulator transition is observed in meta-stable orthorhombic SrIrO3 thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. SrIrO3 films with thicknesses less than 3 nm demonstrate insulating behaviour, whereas those thicker than 4 nm exhibit metallic conductivity at high temperature, and insulating-like behaviour at low temperature. Weak/Anderson localization is mainly responsible for the observed thickness-dependent metal-insulator transition in SrIrO3 films. Temperature-dependent resistance fitting shows that electrical-conductivity carriers are mainly scattered by the electron-boson interaction rather than the electron-electron interaction. Analysis of the magneto-conductance proves that the spin-orbit interaction plays a crucial role in the magneto-conductance property of SrIrO3.

  9. Strain-induced high-temperature perovskite ferromagnetic insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dechao; Guo, Hongli; Cui, Zhangzhang; Ma, Chao; Zhao, Jin; Lu, Jiangbo; Xu, Hui; Wang, Zhicheng; Hu, Xiang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Guo, Jinghua; Zhai, Xiaofang; Brown, Gail J; Knize, Randy; Lu, Yalin

    2018-03-20

    Ferromagnetic insulators are required for many new magnetic devices, such as dissipationless quantum-spintronic devices, magnetic tunneling junctions, etc. Ferromagnetic insulators with a high Curie temperature and a high-symmetry structure are critical integration with common single-crystalline oxide films or substrates. So far, the commonly used ferromagnetic insulators mostly possess low-symmetry structures associated with a poor growth quality and widespread properties. The few known high-symmetry materials either have extremely low Curie temperatures (≤16 K), or require chemical doping of an otherwise antiferromagnetic matrix. Here we present compelling evidence that the LaCoO 3 single-crystalline thin film under tensile strain is a rare undoped perovskite ferromagnetic insulator with a remarkably high T C of up to 90 K. Both experiments and first-principles calculations demonstrate tensile-strain-induced ferromagnetism which does not exist in bulk LaCoO 3 The ferromagnetism is strongest within a nearly stoichiometric structure, disappearing when the Co 2+ defect concentration reaches about 10%. Significant impact of the research includes demonstration of a strain-induced high-temperature ferromagnetic insulator, successful elevation of the transition over the liquid-nitrogen temperature, and high potential for integration into large-area device fabrication processes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Advances in Thermal Insulation. Vacuum Insulation Panels and Thermal Efficiency to Reduce Energy Usage in Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsell, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We are coming to realize that there is an urgent need to reduce energy usage in buildings and it has to be done in a sustainable way. This thesis focuses on the performance of the building envelope; more precisely thermal performance of walls and super insulation material in the form of vacuum insulation. However, the building envelope is just one part of the whole building system, and super insulators have one major flaw: they are easily adversely affected by other problems in the built environment. Vacuum Insulation Panels are one fresh addition to the arsenal of insulation materials available to the building industry. They are composite material with a core and an enclosure which, as a composite, can reach thermal conductivities as low as 0.004 W/(mK). However, the exceptional performance relies on the barrier material preventing gas permeation, maintaining a near vacuum into the core and a minimized thermal bridge effect from the wrapping of barrier material round the edge of a panel. A serpentine edge is proposed to decrease the heat loss at the edge. Modeling and testing shows a reduction of 60 % if a reasonable serpentine edge is used. A diffusion model of permeation through multilayered barrier films with metallization coatings was developed to predict ultimate service life. The model combines numerical calculations with analytical field theory allowing for more precise determination than current models. The results using the proposed model indicate that it is possible to manufacture panels with lifetimes exceeding 50 years with existing manufacturing. Switching from the component scale to the building scale; an approach of integrated testing and modeling is proposed. Four wall types have been tested in a large range of environments with the aim to assess the hydrothermal nature and significance of thermal bridges and air leakages. The test procedure was also examined as a means for a more representative performance indicator than R-value (in USA). The

  11. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  12. Beyond insulation and isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice are insul......Most research on the acoustic environment in the modern Western hospital identifies raised noise levels as the main causal explanation for ranking noise as a critical stressor for patients, relatives and staff. Therefore, the most widely used strategies to tackle the problem in practice...... are insulation and isolation strategies to reduce measurable and perceptual noise levels. However, these strategies do not actively support the need to feel like an integral part of the shared hospital environment, which is a key element in creating healing environments, according to the paradigm of Evidence...

  13. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  14. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  16. Witten effect in a crystalline topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, G.; Franz, M.

    2010-01-01

    It has been noted a long time ago that a term of the form θ(e 2 /2πh)B·E may be added to the standard Maxwell Lagrangian without modifying the familiar laws of electricity and magnetism. θ is known to particle physicists as the 'axion' field and whether or not it has a nonzero expectation value in vacuum remains a fundamental open question of the standard model. A key manifestation of the axion term is the Witten effect: a unit magnetic monopole placed inside a medium with θ≠0 is predicted to bind a (generally fractional) electric charge -e(θ/2π+n) with n integer. Here we conduct a test of the Witten effect based on the recently established fact that the axion term with θ=π emerges naturally in the description of the electromagnetic response of a class of crystalline solids called topological insulators--materials distinguished by strong spin-orbit coupling and nontrivial band structures. Using a simple physical model for a topological insulator we demonstrate the existence of a fractional charge bound to a monopole by an explicit numerical calculation. We also propose a scheme for generating an ''artificial'' magnetic monopole in a topological insulator film that may be used to facilitate an experimental test of Witten's prediction.

  17. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  18. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  19. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  20. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  1. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  2. Harnessing the metal-insulator transition for tunable metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charipar, Nicholas A.; Charipar, Kristin M.; Kim, Heungsoo; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Suess, Ryan J.; Mathews, Scott A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2017-08-01

    The control of light-matter interaction through the use of subwavelength structures known as metamaterials has facilitated the ability to control electromagnetic radiation in ways not previously achievable. A plethora of passive metamaterials as well as examples of active or tunable metamaterials have been realized in recent years. However, the development of tunable metamaterials is still met with challenges due to lack of materials choices. To this end, materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition are being explored as the active element for future metamaterials because of their characteristic abrupt change in electrical conductivity across their phase transition. The fast switching times (▵t properties associated with thin film metal-insulator transition materials are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. For this work, we have studied how growth conditions (such as gas partial pressure) influence the metalinsulator transition in VO2 thin films made by pulsed laser deposition. In addition, strain engineering during the growth process has been investigated as a method to tune the metal-insulator transition temperature. Examples of both the optical and electrical transient dynamics facilitating the metal-insulator transition will be presented together with specific examples of thin film metamaterial devices.

  3. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  4. Self Healing Coating/Film Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Burton; Thompson, Karen; Zeitlin, Nancy; Mullenix, Pamela; Calle, Luz; Williams, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been developing self healing materials and technologies. This project seeks to further develop self healing functionality in thin films for applications such as corrosion protective coatings, inflatable structures, space suit materials, and electrical wire insulation.

  5. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  6. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  7. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  8. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  9. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  10. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  11. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  12. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  13. Tunnel Magneto Resistance of Fe/Insulator/Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Dennis; Seifu, Dereje

    Tri-layer thin films of Fe/Insulator/Fe were synthesized using magnetron DC/ RF sputtering with MgO insulator and Bi2Te3 topological insulators as middle buffer layer. The multi-layered samples thus produced were studied using in-house built magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) instrument, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), torque magnetometer (TMM), AFM, MFM, and magneto-resistance (MR). This system, that is Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100) substrate, is a well-known tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) structure often used in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. TMR effect is a method by which MTJs are used in developing magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM), magnetic sensors, and novel logic devices. The main purpose behind this research is to measure the magnetic anisotropy of Fe/Insulator /Fe structure and correlate it to magneto-resistance. In this presentation, we will present results from MOKE, VSM, TMM, AFM, MFM, and MR studies of Fe/Insulator/Fe on MgO(100). We would like to acknowledge support by NSF-MRI-DMR-1337339.

  14. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  15. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  16. Energy saving potential of heat insulation solar glass: Key results from laboratory and in-situ testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert; Young, Chin-Huai

    2016-01-01

    HISG (heat insulation solar glass) is a recently developed multi-functional glazing technology to mitigate energy consumption of buildings. HISG can generate electricity similar to conventional PV (photovoltaic) glazing products when exposed to sunlight, however it differs from them by having some extraordinary characteristic features such as thermal insulation, which is competitive with Argon filled triple glazed windows, acoustic comfort, remarkable energy saving potential and self-cleaning ability owing to TiO 2 nano coating. Within the scope of this research, latest results from laboratory and in-situ testing of HISG are presented in terms of its key role in mitigating heating and cooling demand of buildings as well as clean energy generation. Lighting and thermal comfort related parameters such as shading coefficient, UV, IR and visible light intensity are also investigated through the tests conducted in real operating conditions. It is achieved from the results that instant electricity generation of HISG is 16% higher than that of standard PV glazing owing to its nano layer reflective film. Shading coefficient of HISG is only 0.136, which provides almost 80% reduction in solar heat gain compared to ordinary glazing. Indoor air temperature measured from HISG test house in summer time is very close to the ambient temperature, whereas it is found to be 14.7 °C higher in ordinary glass test house due to greenhouse effect. Annual heating and cooling demand tests indicate that HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season, respectively. - Highlights: • Nano layer reflective film of HISG enables 16% more power generation. • 80% of undesired outdoor thermal radiation is prevented by HISG. • HISG has a 100% UV blocking rate. • The shading coefficient of HISG is 0.136. • HISG provides 38 and 48% energy saving in heating and cooling season.

  17. Interactive floating windows: a new technique for stereoscopic video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerebecki, Chris; Stanfield, Brodie; Tawadrous, Mina; Buckstein, Daniel; Hogue, Andrew; Kapralos, Bill

    2012-03-01

    The film industry has a long history of creating compelling experiences in stereoscopic 3D. Recently, the video game as an artistic medium has matured into an effective way to tell engaging and immersive stories. Given the current push to bring stereoscopic 3D technology into the consumer market there is considerable interest to develop stereoscopic 3D video games. Game developers have largely ignored the need to design their games specifically for stereoscopic 3D and have thus relied on automatic conversion and driver technology. Game developers need to evaluate solutions used in other media, such as film, to correct perceptual problems such as window violations, and modify or create new solutions to work within an interactive framework. In this paper we extend the dynamic floating window technique into the interactive domain enabling the player to position a virtual window in space. Interactively changing the position, size, and the 3D rotation of the virtual window, objects can be made to 'break the mask' dramatically enhancing the stereoscopic effect. By demonstrating that solutions from the film industry can be extended into the interactive space, it is our hope that this initiates further discussion in the game development community to strengthen their story-telling mechanisms in stereoscopic 3D games.

  18. Energy-efficient and preservable windows. Measurements and calculations; Energieffektive bevaringsverdige vinduer. Maalinger og beregninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homb, Anders; Uvsloekk, Sivert

    2012-11-01

    SINTEF has carried out a project for Cultural Heritage and Enova to document specific qualities of energy-efficient and preservable windows. The work has been based on an older type two-rams window with simple frames and one glass divided into three squares of horizontal crossbars. There were produced two kinds of commodity window, respectively, with single glazing with Insulating. Measurements and calculations have been performed with two different distances from the outer glass to the last frame. The project had the following contents: Measurements of the U-value, Calculation of U-value of accurate and simplified method, Measurements of air density and drying ability, Measurement and evaluation of sound insulation, Estimation of the heat balance (eb)

  19. Rapid thermally annealed plasma deposited SiNx:H thin films: Application to metal-insulator-semiconductor structures with Si, In0.53Ga0.47As, and InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martil, I.; Prado, A. del; San Andres, E.; Gonzalez Diaz, G.; Martinez, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in this article a comprehensive study of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) effects on the physical properties of SiN x :H thin films deposited by the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method. Films of different as-deposited compositions (defined in this article as the nitrogen to silicon ratio, x=N/Si) were analyzed: from Si-rich (x=0.97) to N-rich (x=1.6) films. The evolution of the composition, bonding configuration, and paramagnetic defects with the annealing temperature are explained by means of different network bond reactions that take place depending on the as-deposited film composition. All the analyzed films release hydrogen, while Si-rich and near-stoichiometric (x=1.43) ones also lose nitrogen upon annealing. These films were used to make Al/SiN x :H/semiconductor devices with Si, In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As, and InP. After RTA treatments, the electrical properties of the three different SiN x :H/semiconductor interfaces can be explained, noting the microstructural modifications that SiN x :H experiences upon annealing

  20. Optical Characterization and Energy Simulation of Glazing for High-Performance Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one important component of the energy system - the window. Windows are installed in buildings mainly to create visual contact with the surroundings and to let in daylight, and should also be heat and sound insulating. This thesis covers four important aspects of windows: antireflection and switchable coatings, energy simulations and optical measurements. Energy simulations have been used to compare different windows and also to estimate the performance of smart or switchable windows, whose transmittance can be regulated. The results from this thesis show the potential of the emerging technology of smart windows, not only from a daylight and an energy perspective, but also for comfort and well-being. The importance of a well functioning control system for such windows, is pointed out. To fulfill all requirements of modern windows, they often have two or more panes. Each glass surface leads to reflection of light and therefore less daylight is transmitted. It is therefore of interest to find ways to increase the transmittance. In this thesis antireflection coatings, similar to those found on eye-glasses and LCD screens, have been investigated. For large area applications such as windows, it is necessary to use techniques which can easily be adapted to large scale manufacturing at low cost. Such a technique is dip-coating in a sol-gel of porous silica. Antireflection coatings have been deposited on glass and plastic materials to study both visual and energy performance and it has been shown that antireflection coatings increase the transmittance of windows without negatively affecting the thermal insulation and the energy efficiency. Optical measurements are important for quantifying product properties for comparisons and evaluations. It is important that new measurement routines are simple and applicable to standard commercial instruments. Different systematic error sources for optical measurements of patterned light diffusing samples using

  1. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  2. Thermoresistive transitions in V/sub 2/O/sub 3+x/ thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, C.B.; Singleton, D.E.

    1987-12-01

    A transition has been observed in the resistance-temperature slope of polycrystalline, vanadium sesquioxide thin films as a result of successive post-reductions in H/sub 2/. It is present in the absence of intentional doping and is not accompanied by a measurable change in crystallinity. It is very likely dependent on deviations in stoichiometry. Others have reported on sample-to-sample discrepancies in the slope above room temperature for single crystals, associated with a narrow range of nonstoichiometry. Results with these films are consistent with those reports. However results with Cr/sup 3+/-doped V/sub 2/O/sub 3+x/ films are inconsistent with literature about single crystals. The reversible metal-insulator transition near room temperature, associated with doping at 1% atomic, has not been observed in films. This was explored over a range of reducing conditions believed to control the vanadium-oxygen stoichiometry. It was done with the hope, now unrealized, of identifying a new thermochromic thin films candidate for solar control in windows.

  3. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  4. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  5. Effects of Ion Beam Irradiation on Nanoscale InOx Cooper-Pair Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Milosavljević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of irradiating indium oxide films of nanoscale thickness by ion beams, when these films are in the Cooper-pair insulator state. Radiation effects are predicted on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of ion transport. Results of numerical experiments are interpreted within the theoretical model of a Cooper-pair insulator. The study suggests that radiation-induced changes in InOx films exposed to ion beams could significantly alter their current-voltage characteristics and that a transition to a metallic state is possible, due to radiation-induced perturbation of the fine-tuned granular structure. Furthermore, incident and displaced ions can break up enough Cooper pairs in InOx films to cause dissolution of this specific insulating state.

  6. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Deba Kumar; Laskar, Shakuntala

    Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  7. Electrical insulating liquid: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba Kumar Mahanta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulating liquid plays an important role for the life span of the transformer. Petroleum-based mineral oil has become dominant insulating liquid of transformer for more than a century for its excellent dielectric and cooling properties. However, the usage of petroleum-based mineral oil, derived from a nonrenewable energy source, has affected the environment for its nonbiodegradability property. Therefore, researchers direct their attention to renewable and biodegradable alternatives. Palm fatty acid ester, coconut oil, sunflower oil, etc. are considered as alternatives to replace mineral oil as transformer insulation liquid. This paper gives an extensive review of different liquid insulating materials used in a transformer. Characterization of different liquids as an insulating material has been discussed. An attempt has been made to classify different insulating liquids-based on different properties.

  8. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  9. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  10. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  12. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  13. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  14. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  15. Low Permeability Polyimide Insulation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resodyn Technologies proposes a new technology that enables the application of polyimide based cryogenic insulation with low hydrogen permeability. This effort...

  16. Insulators: estructura y funciones

    OpenAIRE

    Fresán Salvo, Ujué

    2016-01-01

    [spa] Los insulators son complejos de DNA y proteínas, cuya función no solo consiste en impedir la comunicación enhancer-promotor y/o bloquear la expansión del silenciamiento de la heterocromatina como clásicamente se habían descrito. Median interacciones intra e intercromosomales, cuyo objetivo fmal es la organización del genoma en diferentes dominios, regulando por consiguiente las funciones del DNA. Uno de los objetivos de esta tesis fue la búsqueda de nuevas funciones de proteínas insulat...

  17. Chiral topological excitons in a Chern band insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Shindou, Ryuichi

    2017-10-01

    A family of semiconductors called Chern band insulators are shown to host exciton bands with nonzero topological Chern integers and chiral exciton edge modes. Using a prototypical two-band Chern insulator model, we calculate a cross-correlation function to obtain the exciton bands and their Chern integers. The lowest exciton band acquires Chern integers such as ±1 and ±2 in the electronic Chern insulator phase. The nontrivial topology can be experimentally observed both by a nonlocal optoelectronic response of exciton edge modes and by a phase shift in the cross-correlation response due to the bulk mode. Our result suggests that magnetically doped HgTe, InAs/GaSb quantum wells, and (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films are promising candidates for a platform of topological excitonics.

  18. Thermal aging effect of vanadyl acetylacetonate precursor for deposition of VO{sub 2} thin films with thermochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung-Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Hun [Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyeon Jin; Ro, Yu Hyeon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yong Tae [YOUNG DO Glass Industry Co., Ltd., Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Jin-Hyo, E-mail: jhboo@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • 7 day aged VO(acac){sub 2} sol shows enhanced adhesivity on the SiO{sub 2} compared with non-aged sol. • The aging process has significantly affected the morphologies of VO{sub 2} films. • From the FT-IR spectra, thermal aging process provides the deformation of precursor. • The metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency (ΔT{sub at2000} {sub nm}) reached a maximum value of 51% at 7 day aging. • Thermal aging process could shorten the aging time of sol solution. - Abstract: Thermochromic properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) have been studied extensively due to their IR reflection applications in energy smart windows. In this paper, we studied the optical switching property of VO{sub 2} thin film, depending on the thermal aging time of the vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac){sub 2}) precursor. We found the alteration of the IR spectra of the precursor by tuning the aging time as well as heat treatments of the precursor. An aging effect of vanadium precursor directly affects the morphologies, optical switching property and crystallinity of VO{sub 2} films. The optimum condition was achieved at the 7 day aging time with metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency of 50%.

  19. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  20. Oxide ultrathin films science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information in one accessible book. Written by international experts from multidisciplinary fields, this in-depth exploration of oxide ultrathin films covers all aspects of these systems, starting with preparation and characterization, and going on to geometrical and electronic structure, as well as applications in current and future systems and devices. From the Contents: Synthesis and Preparation of Oxide Ultrathin Films Characterization Tools of Oxide Ultrathin Films Ordered Oxide Nanostructures on Metal Surfaces Unusual Properties of Oxides and Other Insulators in the Ultrathin Limit Silica and High-K Dielectrics Thin Films in Microelectronics Oxide Passive Films and Corrosion Protection Oxide Films as Catalytic Materials and as Models of Real Catalysts Oxide Films in Spintronics Oxide Ultrathin Films in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Transparent Conducting and Chromogenic Oxide Films as Solar Energy Materials Oxide Ultrathin Films in Sensor Applications Ferroelectricity in Ultrathin Film Capacitors T...

  1. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  2. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  3. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  4. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  5. Holography through optically active windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  6. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  7. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  8. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  9. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  10. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  11. Characterization of insulated-gate bipolar transistor temperature on insulating, heat-spreading polycrystalline diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shin-ichi; Kato, Yukako; Mokuno, Yoshiaki; Seki, Akinori; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Bessho, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been utilized as direct bonding aluminum (DBA) substrates to improve cooling efficiency. A diamond film with a high quality factor was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and showed a high thermal conductivity of more than 1800 W m-1 K-1 and a low leakage current, even at an applied bias of 3 kV, because of the suppression of electrical conduction through the grain boundaries. The operating temperatures of Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) on diamond DBAs were 20-28% lower than those on AlN DBAs. The thermal resistivity of the diamond DBA module was 0.32 °C/W. The uniformity of the temperature distribution on a diamond DBA was excellent.

  12. Integration of the Ferromagnetic Insulator EuO onto Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Swartz, Adrian G.; Odenthal, Patrick M.; Hao, Yufeng; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Kawakami, Roland K.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated the deposition of EuO films on graphene by reactive molecular beam epitaxy in a special adsorption-controlled and oxygen-limited regime, which is a critical advance toward the realization of the exchange proximity interaction (EPI). It has been predicted that when the ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) EuO is brought into contact with graphene, an overlap of electronic wavefunctions at the FMI/graphene interface can induce a large spin splitting inside the graphene. Experiment...

  13. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  14. Polyisocyanurate systems for insulating and sandwich elements; Polyisocyanurat-Systeme fuer Daemm- und Sandwichelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malotki, P. von [Elastogran GmbH, Lemfoerde (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    PUR rigid foam plates are laminated with flexible Al films, paper or glass non-wovens, or may be processed into sandwich elements with metallic top-layers via coil-coating. Dependence of heat insulation efficiency, dimensional stability and fire behavior of the foam on chemical composition and the blowing agents is considered and compared with polyisocyanurate foams. Recipes for the production of PIR heat insulation elements and sandwich elements are given.

  15. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  16. Observation of the Quantum-Anomalous-Hall Insulator to Anderson Insulator Quantum Phase Transition in Magnetic Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhao, Wei-Wei; Li, Jian; Jain, J. K.; Liu, Chaoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Chan, Moses H. W.

    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect can be considered as the quantum Hall (QH) effect without external magnetic field, which can be realized by time reversal symmetry breaking in a topologically non-trivial system, and in thin films of magnetically-doped TI. A QAH system carries spin-polarized dissipationless chiral edge transport channels without the need for external energy input, hence may have huge impact on future electronic and spintronic device applications for ultralow-power consumption. The observation of QAH effect has opened up exciting new physics and thus understanding the physical nature of this novel topological quantum state, can lead to a rapid development of this field. In this talk, we will report our recent progress about the experimental observation of a quantum phase transition from a quantum-anomalous-Hall (QAH) insulator to an Anderson insulator by tuning the chemical potential, and finally discuss the existence of scaling behavior for this quantum phase transition. Work Supported by funding from NSF (DMR-1207469), NSF (DMR-0819762) (MIT MRSEC), ONR (N00014-13-1-0301), and the STC Center for Integrated Quantum Materials under NSF Grant DMR-1231319.

  17. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  18. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films.

  19. High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) is an important n-type semiconductor widely used as a window layer in thin film photovoltaics Copper Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Gallium (di)Selenide, Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Cadmium Sulphide has been deposited using a number of techniques but these techniques can be slow (chemical bath deposition and Radio Frequency sputtering) or the uniformity and the control of thickness can be relatively difficult (close space sublimation). In this paper we report on the development of a process using pulsed Direct Current magnetron sputtering which allows nanometre control of thin film thickness using time only. The CdS thin films deposited in this process are highly uniform and smooth. They exhibit the preferred hexagonal structure at room temperature deposition and they have excellent optical properties. Importantly, the process is highly stable despite the use of a semi-insulating magnetron target. Moreover, the process is very fast. The deposition rate using 1.5 kW of power to a 6-inch circular magnetron was measured to be greater than 8 nm/s. This makes the process suitable for industrial deployment. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of CdS • High deposition rate deposition • Uniform, pinhole free films

  20. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  1. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  2. Effect of surface hybridization on RKKY coupling in ferromagnet/topological insulator/ferromagnet trilayer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Son Ho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the RKKY exchange coupling between two ferromagnets (FM separated by a thin topological insulator film (TI. We find an unusual dependence of the RKKY exchange coupling Φex on the TI thickness (tTI. First, when tTI decreases, the coupling amplitude increases at first and reaches its maximum value at some critical thickness, below which the amplitude turns to diminish. This trend is attributed to the hybridization between surfaces of the TI film, which opens a gap below critical thickness and thus turns the surfaces into insulating state from semi-metal state. In insulating phase, diamagnetism induced by the gap-opening compensates paramagnetism of Dirac state, resulting in a diminishing magnetic susceptibility and RKKY coupling. For typical parameters, the critical thickness in Bi2Se3 thin film is estimated to be in the range of 3-5 nm.

  3. Magnon-polaron transport in magnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flebus, Benedetta; Shen, Ka; Kikkawa, Takashi; Uchida, Ken-ichi; Qiu, Zhiyong; Saitoh, Eiji; Duine, Rembert A.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically study the effects of strong magnetoelastic coupling on the transport properties of magnetic insulators. We develop a Boltzmann transport theory for the mixed magnon-phonon modes ("magnon polarons") and determine transport coefficients and the spin diffusion length. Magnon-polaron formation causes anomalous features in the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the spin Seebeck effect when the disorder scattering in the magnetic and elastic subsystems is sufficiently different. Experimental data by Kikkawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 207203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.207203] on yttrium iron garnet films can be explained by an acoustic quality that is much better than the magnetic quality of the material. We predict similar anomalous features in the spin and heat conductivity and nonlocal spin transport experiments.

  4. Fabrication of solution processed carbon nanotube embedded polyvinyl alcohol composite film for non-volatile memory device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, S Chandra; Pandurangan, A

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition using nickel coated stainless steel prepared by electrophoretic deposition. CNTs were embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which acts as an organic insulator to fabricate Si/PVA/CNT/PVA/Al Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor type memory devices. The effect of CNT content in the charge storage capacity of PVA-CNT composite film was investigated. The hysteresis obtained from the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement resulted in a memory window of 1.9 V with 3% CNT loading with the gate voltage sweep of +/- 6 V at 1 MHz under room temperature. The memory window of the devices was due to electron injection into the CNT charge storage elements from the top electrode through PVA. The extensive pi-conjugation along the CNT axis traps the electrons in the CNT network. The ON/OFF state current ratio of Si/Al/PVA-CNT/AI device with 3% CNT in PVA demonstrated significantly a lower turn-on voltage of -1 V and a higher ON/OFF state current ratio of 10(7). The non-volatile and reprogrammable switching behavior of the device demonstrated the characteristic of a rewritable memory.

  5. Synthesis of optically clear polymeric materials for high temperature windows. [preparation of phenolphthalein polycarbonate resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C. E.; Magner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A polymer has been developed that has excellent potential for use as windows in spacecraft as well as conventional aircraft. This polymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, has outstanding thermal properties, e.g., in place of melting or burning, it produces an insulating charred foam that closes off transmission of radiant heat through the window. This fact, coupled with an oxygen index of 0.43 and a 177 C tensile strength of 58 mega Newtons/sq m, makes this polymer a prime candidate for further development. Pilot plant preparation in a 20 gallon Pfaudler kettle was accomplished and large test specimens were prepared for evaluations.

  6. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  7. 16 CFR 460.18 - Insulation ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.18 Insulation ads. (a) If your ad gives an R-value, you must give the type of insulation and... your ad gives a price, you must give the type of insulation, the R-value at a specific thickness, the...

  8. Thermal/acoustical insulation foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. Y.; Struzik, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Lightweight low-density substance can be used as fire resistant insulation in aircraft. Material density can be controlled over range from 0.6-1.2 pounds per cubic foot and has good thermal and acoustic properties.

  9. Evaluation of thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbers, O. J.; Conti, J. C.; Mcgee, J. V.; Mcpherson, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Data was obtained on silicone-bonded fiberglass, isocyanurate foam, and two dozen other insulators. Materials were selected to withstand heat sterilization, outer space, and the Martian atmosphere. Significant environmental parameters were vibration, landing shock, and launch venting.

  10. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  11. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  12. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  13. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  14. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  15. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  16. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  17. Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator

    KAUST Repository

    Mellnik, A. R.

    2014-07-23

    Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  19. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  20. Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.

  1. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  2. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  3. Advanced Control of Electrochromic Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Zarkadis, Nikos; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In our research we use the technology of electrochromic (EC) glazing to maximize the use of daylight and minimize the energy consumption in buildings while preserving visual and thermal comfort of the users. We propose an advanced automatic control of EC windows coupled with an anidolic daylighting system (ADS), blinds and dimmable fluorescent lights. EC windows with a visible transmittance range (Tv) of 0.15 – 0.50 were installed on the southern façade of an office room of the LESO experimen...

  4. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  5. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  6. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  7. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  8. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  9. Thin film plasma coatings from dielectric free-flowing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, L.A.; Katrich, S.A.; Solntsev, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film plasma coatings from insulating free-flowing materials is considered. Molybdenum-tart ammonium coating of 3...5 μ thickness deposited on glassy carbon, aluminium, silicon, nickel, cast iron and steel substrates in 'Bulat-ZT' machine using insulating free-flowing materials cathod was found to form due to adsorption, absorption and dissuasion processes. The use of insulating free-flowing materials coatings allow to exclude pure metals cathods in plasma-plating process

  10. Coupling of an applied field magnetically insulated ion diode to a high power magnetically insulated transmission line system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenchen, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling of energy from a high power pulsed accelerator through a long triplate magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) in vacuum to an annular applied magnetic field insulated extraction ion diode is examined. The narrow power transport window and the wave front erosion of the MITL set stringent impedance history conditions on the diode load. A new ion diode design developed to satisfy these criteria with marginal electron insulation is presented. The LION accelerator is used to provide a positive polarity 1.5 MV, 350 kA, 40 ns FWHM pulse with a 30 kA/ns current rate from a triplate MITL source. A transition converts the triplate into a cylindrical cross section which flares into the ion diode load. Extensive current and voltage measurements performed along this structure and on the extracted ion beam provide conclusive evidence that the self insulation condition of the MITL is maintained in the transition by current loss alone. The ion diode utilizes a radial magnetic field between a grounded cathode annular emission tip and a disk anode. A 50 cm 2 dielectric/metal anode area serves as the ion plasma source subject to direct electron bombardment from the opposing cathode tip under marginal magnetic insulation conditions. The ions extracted cross the radial magnetic field and exit the diode volume as an annular cross section beam of peak current about 100 kA. The diode current gradually converts from the initial electron flow to nearly 100% ion current after 30 ns, coupling 60% of the diode energy into ions

  11. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  12. Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althammer, Matthias Klaus

    2012-07-19

    Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet

  13. Single-crystal metal growth on amorphous insulating substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Pitner, Xue Bai; Yang, Rui; Nix, William D; Plummer, James D; Fan, Jonathan A

    2018-01-23

    Metal structures on insulators are essential components in advanced electronic and nanooptical systems. Their electronic and optical properties are closely tied to their crystal quality, due to the strong dependence of carrier transport and band structure on defects and grain boundaries. Here we report a method for creating patterned single-crystal metal microstructures on amorphous insulating substrates, using liquid phase epitaxy. In this process, the patterned metal microstructures are encapsulated in an insulating crucible, together with a small seed of a differing material. The system is heated to temperatures above the metal melting point, followed by cooling and metal crystallization. During the heating process, the metal and seed form a high-melting-point solid solution, which directs liquid epitaxial metal growth. High yield of single-crystal metal with different sizes is confirmed with electron backscatter diffraction images, after removing the insulating crucible. Unexpectedly, the metal microstructures crystallize with the [Formula: see text] direction normal to the plane of the film. This platform technology will enable the large-scale integration of high-performance plasmonic and electronic nanosystems.

  14. A Parametric Study of Thermal Performance of an Exterior Wall Insulated with Vacuum Insulation Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Ciobanu, Adrian-Alexandru; Iacob, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The requirements regarding thermal insulation of the new buildings and thermal rehabilitation of the existing buildings tend to reach a threshold of insulation which allows to fulfill the necessary requirements for a low-energy building. To achieve this level of thermal insulation involves using either thick layers of conventional insulation (polystyrene, mineral wool, etc.) or high thermal performance materials. Vacuum insulation panels are high performance thermal insulation characteri...

  15. On diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray windows are often used on the front end of synchrotron beamlines to isolate the ultra high vacuum of the storage ring from the downstream environment. The windows are usually made of low atomic number materials, such as beryllium, for maximum x-ray transmission, and they must survive and remain vacuum tight during repeated thermal cycles. The intense x-ray beams generated by the wigglers and undulators at high energy storage rings can deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the (actively cooled) windows leading to high temperatures, and vacuum or structural failure. Thermal filters upstream of the windows can be used to reduce the radiation absorbed in the windows. This solution has limitations, however, since a small amount of filtering may still leave an unacceptable amount of heat to be absorbed in the windows, while substantial filtering will absorb a large amount of the useful photons. Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology has made available thin, free-standing polycrystalline diamond films that can be used as the window material on high heat load synchrotron x-ray beamlines. Diamond windows have many advantages that stem from the exceptional thermal, structural, and physical properties of diamond. Numerical simulation indicates that diamond windows offer an attractive alternative to beryllium windows for use on the third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, and analytical results are presented to provide a basis for design and testing of such windows

  16. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    be quite tedious, and therefore a method to generate and optimize solutions has been developed and implemented in a program that also takes into account the effects of different types of thermal bridges, i.e. roof windows, insulation fasteners, roof/wall joints etc. This paper describes a new method...

  17. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  18. 1T1R Nonvolatile Memory with Al/TiO2/Au and Sol-Gel-Processed Insulator for Barium Zirconate Nickelate Gate in Pentacene Thin Film Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jing Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A one-transistor and one-resistor (1T1R architecture with a resistive random access memory (RRAM cell connected to an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT device is successfully demonstrated to avoid the cross-talk issues of only one RRAM cell. The OTFT device, which uses barium zirconate nickelate (BZN as a dielectric layer, exhibits favorable electrical properties, such as a high field-effect mobility of 2.5 cm2/Vs, low threshold voltage of −2.8 V, and low leakage current of 10−12 A, for a driver in the 1T1R operation scheme. The 1T1R architecture with a TiO2-based RRAM cell connected with a BZN OTFT device indicates a low operation current (10 μA and reliable data retention (over ten years. This favorable performance of the 1T1R device can be attributed to the additional barrier heights introduced by using Ni (II acetylacetone as a substitute for acetylacetone, and the relatively low leakage current of a BZN dielectric layer. The proposed 1T1R device with low leakage current OTFT and excellent uniform resistance distribution of RRAM exhibits a good potential for use in practical low-power electronic applications.

  19. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  20. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  1. Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Barbara; Piquerez, André; Habermacher, Manuel; Ragettli, Martina; Röösli, Martin; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Vienneau, Danielle; Foraster, Maria; Müller, Uwe; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-18

    Noise exposure prediction models for health effect studies normally estimate free field exposure levels outside. However, to assess the noise exposure inside dwellings, an estimate of indoor sound levels is necessary. To date, little field data is available about the difference between indoor and outdoor noise levels and factors affecting the damping of outside noise. This is a major cause of uncertainty in indoor noise exposure prediction and may lead to exposure misclassification in health assessments. This study aims to determine sound level differences between the indoors and the outdoors for different window positions and how this sound damping is related to building characteristics. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at home in a sample of 102 Swiss residents exposed to road traffic noise. Sound pressure level recordings were performed outdoors and indoors, in the living room and in the bedroom. Three scenarios-of open, tilted, and closed windows-were recorded for three minutes each. For each situation, data on additional parameters such as the orientation towards the source, floor, and room, as well as sound insulation characteristics were collected. On that basis, linear regression models were established. The median outdoor-indoor sound level differences were of 10 dB(A) for open, 16 dB(A) for tilted, and 28 dB(A) for closed windows. For open and tilted windows, the most relevant parameters affecting the outdoor-indoor differences were the position of the window, the type and volume of the room, and the age of the building. For closed windows, the relevant parameters were the sound level outside, the material of the window frame, the existence of window gaskets, and the number of windows.

  2. Topological insulators and topological superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bernevig, Andrei B

    2013-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topolo...

  3. Floquet topological insulators for sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Romain; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Alù, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The unique conduction properties of condensed matter systems with topological order have recently inspired a quest for the similar effects in classical wave phenomena. Acoustic topological insulators, in particular, hold the promise to revolutionize our ability to control sound, allowing for large isolation in the bulk and broadband one-way transport along their edges, with topological immunity against structural defects and disorder. So far, these fascinating properties have been obtained relying on moving media, which may introduce noise and absorption losses, hindering the practical potential of topological acoustics. Here we overcome these limitations by modulating in time the acoustic properties of a lattice of resonators, introducing the concept of acoustic Floquet topological insulators. We show that acoustic waves provide a fertile ground to apply the anomalous physics of Floquet topological insulators, and demonstrate their relevance for a wide range of acoustic applications, including broadband acoustic isolation and topologically protected, nonreciprocal acoustic emitters.

  4. Nanometric holograms based on a topological insulator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zengji; Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Gu, Min

    2017-05-01

    Holography has extremely extensive applications in conventional optical instruments spanning optical microscopy and imaging, three-dimensional displays and metrology. To integrate holography with modern low-dimensional electronic devices, holograms need to be thinned to a nanometric scale. However, to keep a pronounced phase shift modulation, the thickness of holograms has been generally limited to the optical wavelength scale, which hinders their integration with ultrathin electronic devices. Here, we break this limit and achieve 60 nm holograms using a topological insulator material. We discover that nanometric topological insulator thin films act as an intrinsic optical resonant cavity due to the unequal refractive indices in their metallic surfaces and bulk. The resonant cavity leads to enhancement of phase shifts and thus the holographic imaging. Our work paves a way towards integrating holography with flat electronic devices for optical imaging, data storage and information security.

  5. VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows.

  6. Determination of Insulator-to-Semiconductor Transition in Sol-Gel Oxide Semiconductors Using Derivative Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woobin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a derivative spectroscopic method for determining insulator-to-semiconductor transition during sol-gel metal-oxide semiconductor formation. When an as-spun sol-gel precursor film is photochemically activated and changes to semiconducting state, the light absorption characteristics of the metal-oxide film is considerable changed particularly in the ultraviolet region. As a result, a peak is generated in the first-order derivatives of light absorption (A′ vs. wavelength (λ plots, and by tracing the peak center shift and peak intensity, transition from insulating-to-semiconducting state of the film can be monitored. The peak generation and peak center shift are described based on photon-energy-dependent absorption coefficient of metal-oxide films. We discuss detailed analysis method for metal-oxide semiconductor films and its application in thin-film transistor fabrication. We believe this derivative spectroscopy based determination can be beneficial for a non-destructive and a rapid monitoring of the insulator-to-semiconductor transition in sol-gel oxide semiconductor formation.

  7. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  8. First principles description of the insulator-metal transition in europium monoxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2012-02-01

    Europium monoxide, EuO, is a ferromagnetic insulator. Its electronic structure under pressure and doping is investigated by means of density functional theory. We employ spin polarized electronic structure calculations including onsite electron-electron interaction for the localized Eu 4f and 5d electrons. Our results show that under pressure the ferromagnetism is stable, both for hydrostatic and uniaxial pressure, while the compound undergoes an insulator-metal transition. The insulator-metal transition in O deficient and Gd doped EuO is reproduced for an impurity concentration of 6.25%. A 10 monolayer thick EuO(1 0 0) thin film is predicted to be an insulator with a narrow band gap of 0.08 eV. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Solution-Doped Polymer Semiconductor:Insulator Blend for Thermoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, David; Yu, Liyang; Fransson, Erik; Gómez, Andrés; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Amassian, Aram; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Müller, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix polymer for the solution-doped conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene). The polarity of the insulator combined with carefully chosen processing conditions permits the fabrication of tens of micrometer-thick films that feature a fine distribution of the F4TCNQ dopant:semiconductor complex. Changes in electrical conductivity from 0.1 to 0.3 S cm -1 and Seebeck coefficient from 100 to 60 μV K -1 upon addition of the insulator correlate with an increase in doping efficiency from 20% to 40% for heavily doped ternary blends. An invariant bulk thermal conductivity of about 0.3 W m -1 K -1 gives rise to a thermoelectric Figure of merit ZT ∼ 10 -4 that remains unaltered for an insulator content of more than 60 wt%. Free-standing, mechanically robust tapes illustrate the versatility of the developed dopant:semiconductor:insulator ternary blends.

  10. Direct observation of quantum superconducting fluctuations across the 2D superconductor-insulator transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, N.P.; Crane, R.W.; Sambandamurthy, G.; Johansson, A.; Shahar, D.; Zaretskey, V.; Gruener, G.

    2008-01-01

    We review our recent measurements of the complex AC conductivity of thin InO x films studied as a function of magnetic field through the nominal 2D superconductor-insulator transition. These measurements-the first to probe anything other than the ω=0 response of these archetypical systems-reveal a significant finite frequency superfluid stiffness well into the insulating regime. Unlike conventional fluctuation superconductivity in which thermal fluctuations can give a superconducting response in regions of parameter space that do not exhibit long range order, these fluctuations are temperature independent as T→0 and are exhibited in samples where the resistance is large (greater than 10 6 Ω/□) and strongly diverging. We interpret this as the first direct observation of quantum superconducting fluctuations around an insulating ground state. This system serves as a prototype for other insulating states of matter that derive from superconductors

  11. A Solution-Doped Polymer Semiconductor:Insulator Blend for Thermoelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Kiefer, David

    2016-09-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix polymer for the solution-doped conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene). The polarity of the insulator combined with carefully chosen processing conditions permits the fabrication of tens of micrometer-thick films that feature a fine distribution of the F4TCNQ dopant:semiconductor complex. Changes in electrical conductivity from 0.1 to 0.3 S cm−1 and Seebeck coefficient from 100 to 60 μV K−1 upon addition of the insulator correlate with an increase in doping efficiency from 20% to 40% for heavily doped ternary blends. An invariant bulk thermal conductivity of about 0.3 W m−1 K−1 gives rise to a thermoelectric Figure of merit ZT ∼ 10−4 that remains unaltered for an insulator content of more than 60 wt%. Free-standing, mechanically robust tapes illustrate the versatility of the developed dopant:semiconductor:insulator ternary blends.

  12. Topological insulators fundamentals and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Ortmann, Frank; Valenzuela, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic

  13. Better and cheaper extra insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian

    1998-01-01

    of buildings. The thermal performance of the systems is compared to an ideal situation, showing that there is still a potential of further savings by improving the design of the insulation systems.To improve the thermal performance of the systems a number of product developments are proposed.......In the current energy plan, focus in placed on further savings of heat in buildings. If the target of the energy plan should be achieved, there is a need for saving heat both in new and existing buildings.The article investigate and compare the properties of several systems for external insulation...

  14. Aerogels Insulate Against Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, NASA started to pursue the development of aerogel for cryogenic insulation. Kennedy Space Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to Aspen Systems Inc., of Marlborough, Massachusetts, that resulted in a new manufacturing process and a new flexible, durable, easy-to-use form of aerogel. Aspen Systems formed Aspen Aerogels Inc., in Northborough, Massachusetts, to market the product, and by 2009, the company had become the leading provider of aerogel in the United States, producing nearly 20 million square feet per year. With an array of commercial applications, the NASA-derived aerogel has most recently been applied to protect and insulate people s hands and feet.

  15. Development and Investigation of Evacuated Windows Based on Monolithic Silica Xerogel Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    with the low thermal conductivity offers good possibilities for production of energy efficient windows. For the xerogel window system it is necessary to have the xerogel sufficiently dried, if not hydrophobic xerogels are used, because residual water vapour adsorbed in the material will cause condensation...... to shortage of large xerogel samples. Within the xerogel project a thermally improved wooden frame has been developed which has been used for measurements on aerogel windows to evaluate the effect on total heat loss coefficients. The calculated centre U-value of a xerogel glazing (xerogel density = 250 kg/m3...... will be approximately 0.013 W/(m K) which is approximately 33% of the value for commonly used insulation materials, e.g. mineral wool. Monolithic silica xerogel is a highly porous material (pore volume up to 90%) with a solar transmittance of 50% (thickness = 20 mm). However, if the silica xerogel is not made...

  16. Development of Enhanced Window layers for CIGS Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. Nicholas

    One of the most promising thin film devices right now is the Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) solar cell with maximum reported power conversion efficiency of 22.3%. The Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) which is the top layer of the CIGS device also known as the window layer, is responsible for collecting the electrons generated in the CIGS device and conducting them to the circuit. Development of a very low resistivity film with a high optical transmission is crucial for optimal performance of devices as well as the ability to be deployed without changes to their properties for several decades. Current TCOs such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) are met with limitations with either using large amounts of expensive materials such as indium, often requiring and anneal step to obtain good conductivity, or have shown poor long term reliability. This thesis is focused on development of InZnO and zirconium doped InZnO as a potential replacement TCO to obtain high conductivity and high transmission like the leading TCOs without needing heated depositions, post deposition annealing, and maintain a good film reliability. Zirconium doping was employed to farther enhance both the optical and electrical properties through enhancement of the films high frequency permittivity of InZnO while providing improved reliability to the film. The films were grown through a mix of DC and RF co-sputtering. InZnO films were deposited at varying indium concentration ( 10-30%) and samples were able to achieve low resistivity ( 7x10-4 O-cm), high mobility (>30 cm2/v.s), high carrier concentration (>10 20 cm-3), while maintaining high transmission (> 80%) in the visible and near-infrared region. After zirconium was incorporated into the InZnO films by replacement of the ZnO target with a ZrO2/ZnO (5:95) target, films of Zr:InZnO were deposit through the same method to achieve films that maintained very similar electrical and optical properties. The little

  17. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  18. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of Advanced Polymer Composite Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub

    Even though the window frames cover a relatively small fraction of the entire building envelope, they are responsible for a major amount of heat loss, due to their poor insulation properties compared to the other envelope elements. With the current trends to reduce energy use in buildings...... radiation. These, and several other solutions, are investigated in the first part of the study. Simulations on simple geometries are conducted to evaluate the potential of different solutions. The results show that by applying different modifications the thermal transmittance of a frame can be significantly...... reduced, but only to a certain extent. To reach further improvement, more drastic changes need to be done. Therefore, an extensive study is done on how to optimize the frame geometry on a broader level. Contemporary frames can be crafted into various shapes, giving the engineers a large freedom of design...

  19. Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering processing of dielectric layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET), characterization of dielectric property, pentacene film morphology and OTFT characterization. Here, we present the ...

  20. Processing and performance of organic insulators as a gate layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fabrication of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) on flexible substrates is a challenge, because of its low softening temperature, high roughness and flexible nature. Although several organic dielectrics have been used as gate insulator, it is difficult to choose one in absence of a comparative study covering ...