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Sample records for window detasheet high

  1. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  2. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  3. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1977-12-01

    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  4. Window materials for high power gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afsar, M.N.; Chi, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The room temperature application of sapphire as window material at higher frequencies is not feasible since its absorption coefficient increases almost linearly with increasing frequency in the millimeter wavelength region. At cryogenic temperature the absorption coefficient value decreases only by a few factors (factor of 2 to 3) in the 90-200 GHz region. The earlier reported temperature squared dependence (decrease) in the absorption coefficient or the loss tangent value is totally absent in the broad band continuous wave data the authors are reporting here (at 6.5 K, 35K, 77K and 300K) and one they reported at conferences earlier. These results are verified by another technique. The authors utilize their precision millimeter wave dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopic techniques at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures. The extra high resistivity single crystal compensated silicon is no doubt the lowest loss material available at room temperature in the entire millimeter wavelength region. At higher millimeter wave frequencies an extra high resistivity silicon window or a window made with extra high resistivity silicon coated with diamond film would certainly make a better candidate in the future. A single free standing synthetic diamond window seems to have higher absorption coefficient values at millimeter wavelength region at this time although it is claimed that it possesses good mechanical strength and higher thermal conductivity characteristics. It certainly does not rule out the use of diamond film on a single crystal high resistivity silicon to improve its mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  5. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  6. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  7. Diamond Windows for High Powered Microwave Transmission. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, R.

    2011-01-01

    This phase II SBIR developed technology for manufacturing diamond windows for use in high energy density photon transmission e.g. microwave or laser light photons. Microwave sources used in fusion research require microwave extraction windows with high thermal conductivity, low microwave absorption, and low resistance to thermal cracking. Newly developed, man made diamond windows have all three of these properties, but these windows are prohibitively expensive. This limits the natural progress of these important technologies to higher powers and slows the development of additional applications. This project developed a lower cost process for manufacturing diamond windows using microwave plasma. Diamond windows were deposited. A grinding process was used to provide optical smoothness for 2 cm diameter diamond windows that met the parallelism specifications for fusion beam windows. The microwave transmission performance (loss tangent) of one of the windows was measured at 95GHz to be less than 10-4, meeting specifications for utilization in the ITER tokamak.

  8. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the development, execution outcomes and lessons learned of the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase (WVP) Program carried out over a three-year period from 2009 through 2012. The primary goals of the program were met: 1) reduce the incremental cost of highly insulating windows compared to ENERGY STAR windows; and 2) raise the public and potential buyers’ awareness of highly insulating windows and their benefits. A key outcome of the program is that the 2013 ENERGY STAR Most Efficient criteria for primary residential windows were adopted from the technical specifications set forth in the WVP program.

  9. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  10. A transparent vacuum window for high-intensity pulsed beams

    CERN Document Server

    Monteil, M; Veness, R

    2011-01-01

    The HiRadMat (High-Radiation to Materials) facility Ill will allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, under the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. To reach this intensity range, the beam will be focused on a focal point where the target to be tested is located. A 60 mm aperture vacuum window will separate the vacuum of the beam line which is kept under high vacuum 10(-8) mbar, from the test area which is at atmospheric pressure. This window has to resist collapse due to beam passage. The high-intensity of the beam means that typical materials used for standard vacuum windows (such as stainless steel, aluminium and titanium alloy) cannot endure the energy deposition induced by the beam passage. Therefore, a vacuum window has been designed to maintain the differential pressure whilst resisting collapse due to the beam impact on the window. In this paper, we will present calculations of the energy transfer from beam to window, the design of the ...

  11. Highly Flexible, Multipixelated Thermosensitive Smart Windows Made of Tough Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Thanh-Giang; Li, Xinda; Kumar, Amit; Fu, Yiyang; Yang, Shu; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2017-09-27

    In a cold night, a clear window that will become opaque while retaining the indoor heat is highly desirable for both privacy and energy efficiency. A thermally responsive material that controls both the transmittance of solar radiance (predominantly in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths) and blackbody radiation (mainly in the mid-infrared) can realize such windows with minimal energy consumption. Here, we report a smart coating made from polyampholyte hydrogel (PAH) that transforms from a transparency state to opacity to visible radiation and strengthens opacity to mid-infrared when lowering the temperature as a result of phase separation between the water-rich and polymer-rich phases. To match a typical temperature fluctuation during the day, we fine-tune the phase transition temperature between 25 and 55 °C by introducing a small amount of relatively hydrophobic monomers (0.1 to 0.5 wt % to PAH). To further demonstrate an actively controlled, highly flexible, and high-contrast smart window, we build in an array of electric heaters made of printed elastomeric composite. The multipixelated window offers rapid switching, ∼70 s per cycle, whereas the device can withstand high strain (up to 80%) during operations.

  12. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2017-07-04

    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  13. Vacuum Window Design for High-Power Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Shaftan, T V

    2005-01-01

    One of the problems in the high-power lasers design is in outcoupling of a powerful laser beam out of a vacuum volume into atmosphere. Usually the laser device is located inside a vacuum tank. The laser radiation is transported to the outside world through the transparent vacuum window. While considered transparent, some of the light passing through the glass is absorbed and converted to heat. For most applications, these properties are academic curiosities; however, in multi-kilowatt lasers, the heat becomes significant and can lead to a failure. The absorbed power can result in thermal stress, reduction of light transmission and, consequently, window damage. Modern optical technology has developed different types of glass (Silica, BK7, diamond, etc.) that have high thermal conductivity and damage threshold. However, for kilo- and megawatt lasers the issue still remains open. In this paper we present a solution that may relieve the heat load on the output window. We discuss advantages and issues of this part...

  14. High-power RF window and coupler development for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Fant, K.; Hodgson, J.; Judkins, J.; Schwarz, H.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and testing of the RF windows designed to transmit power to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. Design choices to maximize the reliability of the window are discussed. Fabrication technologies for the window are described and finite-element analysis of the assembly process is presented. Conditioning and high-power testing of the window are discussed. Design of the coupler assembly including the integration of the window and other components is reported

  15. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ≤ 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  16. Development of vacuum barrier windows for high power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Problems in the realization of vacuum barrier windows for 1MW CW gyrotrons are reviewed from the viewpoint of removing heat generation in the window materials. The merits and demerits of various window structures currently in use or under proposal are explained in detail. The design of a multiple disk window, including RF design and thermal stress analysis, is also described. As an example of a recent successful window structure, the experimental results of a forced gas-cooled single disk window with low loss silicon nitride composite are presented. By this window structure, 130kW CW (8kW/cm 2 ) transmission was achieved with an effective diameter of only 88.9 mm. (author)

  17. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...

  18. High-Reliability Waveguide Vacuum/Pressure Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanson, Theodore R.; Long, Ezra M.; Montanez, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) uses commercial waveguide windows on the output waveguide of Ka-band (32 GHz) low-noise amplifiers. Mechanical failure of these windows resulted in an unacceptable loss in tracking time. To address this issue, a new Ka-band WR-28 waveguide window has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The window uses a slab of low-loss, low-dielectric constant foam that is bonded into a 1/2-wave-thick waveguide/flange. The foam is a commercially available, rigid, closed-cell polymethacrylimide. It has excellent electrical properties with a dielectric constant of 1.04, and a loss tangent of 0.01. It is relatively strong with a tensile strength of 1 MPa. The material is virtually impermeable to helium. The finished window exhibits a leak rate of less than 3x10(exp -3)cu cm/s with helium. The material is also chemically resistant and can be cleaned with acetone. The window is constructed by fabricating a window body by brazing a short length of WR-28 copper waveguide into a standard rectangular flange, and machining the resulting part to a thickness of 4.6 mm. The foam is machined to a rectangular shape with a dimension of 7.06x3.53 mm. The foam is bonded into the body with a two-part epoxy. After curing, the excess glue and foam are knife-trimmed by hand. The finished window has a loss of less than 0.08 dB (2%) and a return loss of greater than 25 dB at 32 GHz. This meets the requirements for the DSN application. The window is usable for most applications over the entire 26-to-40-GHz waveguide band. The window return loss can be tuned to a required frequency by var y in g the thickness of the window slightly. Most standard waveguide windows use a thin membrane of material bonded into a recess in a waveguide flange, or sandwiched between two flanges with a polymer seal. Designs using the recessed window are prone to mechanical failure over time due to constraints on the dimensions of the recess that allow the bond to fail. Designs using the

  19. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The HILIT AEROGEL WINDOW project with participants from Denmark (coordinator), France, Germany, Norway and Sweden, was formulated in order to develop a safe and clean production of monolithic silica aerogel based on supercritical CO2 drying of the gels, to study the process parameters and to tran...... the thermal bridge effect of the rim seal solution is measured to 0.74 W/m2K. The solar energy transmittance is measured to 76% thanks to the use of low-iron glass with an anti reflective coating....

  20. Thermal, structural, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Phillips, W.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology have made it possible to produce thin free-standing diamond foils that can be used as the window material in high heat load, synchrotron beamlines. Numerical simulations suggest that these windows can offer an attractive and at times the only altemative to beryllium windows for use in third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, as are the microstructure characteristics bearing on diamond's performance in this role. Analytic and numerical results are also presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  1. Feasibility study of a cryogenically cooled window for high-power gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haste, G.R.; Kimrey, H.D.; Prosise, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    Single-crystal sapphire is currently in use as the material for output windows in high-power microwave tubes, particularly gyrotrons. These windows are currently being cooled by fluorocarbon fluids at near-room temperatures. There are, however, several advantages in operating the window at very low temperatures: less absorption and consequent heating of the window, greater material strength, improved resistance to crack formation, greater thermal conductivity, and reduced thermal expansion. Operation at cryogenic temperatures is shown to be feasible. The output power, which is currently limited by window constraints, could be increased by an order of magnitude or more

  2. Development of windows based on highly insulating aerogel glazings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2004-01-01

    Within a finished and a current EU project, research and development of monolithic silica aerogel as transparent insulation in windows are being carried out. On behalf of the partners of the two projects, results related to the window application will be presented here. At the thermal envelope...... of buildings, the window area is the weakest part with respect to the heat loss, but at the same time, it also provides e.g. solar energy gain. Glazing prototypes have been made of aerogel tiles of about 55 cm sq. (elaborated within the projects). Those tiles are quickly evacuated and easily sealed between two...... of approx. 15 mm, a centre heat loss coefficient of below 0.7 W/m² K and a solar transmittance of 76% have been obtained. The research is funded in part by the European Commission within the frameworks of the Non-Nuclear Energy Programme – JOULE III and the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development...

  3. On diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray windows are often used on the front end of synchrotron beamlines to isolate the ultra high vacuum of the storage ring from the downstream environment. The windows are usually made of low atomic number materials, such as beryllium, for maximum x-ray transmission, and they must survive and remain vacuum tight during repeated thermal cycles. The intense x-ray beams generated by the wigglers and undulators at high energy storage rings can deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the (actively cooled) windows leading to high temperatures, and vacuum or structural failure. Thermal filters upstream of the windows can be used to reduce the radiation absorbed in the windows. This solution has limitations, however, since a small amount of filtering may still leave an unacceptable amount of heat to be absorbed in the windows, while substantial filtering will absorb a large amount of the useful photons. Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology has made available thin, free-standing polycrystalline diamond films that can be used as the window material on high heat load synchrotron x-ray beamlines. Diamond windows have many advantages that stem from the exceptional thermal, structural, and physical properties of diamond. Numerical simulation indicates that diamond windows offer an attractive alternative to beryllium windows for use on the third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, and analytical results are presented to provide a basis for design and testing of such windows

  4. On diamond windows for high power synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology has made available thin, free-standing polycrystalline diamond foils that can be used as the window material on high heat load synchrotron x-ray beamlines. Diamond windows have many advantages that stem from the exceptionally attractive thermal, structural, and physical properties of diamond. Numerical simulations indicate that diamond windows can offer an attractive and at times the only alternative to beryllium windows for use on the third generation x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines. Utilization, design, and fabrication aspects of diamond windows for high heat load x-ray beamlines are discussed, and analytical and numerical results are presented to provide a basis for the design and testing of such windows

  5. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  6. Calculation of PVC windows for wind loads in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Aleksandr; Lambias Ratnayake, Maya

    2018-03-01

    In the following article we examine problems faced when designing PVC windows for high-rise buildings, which are usually not considered when constructing objects for massive sites, using a high-rise residential complex as an example. We address the matters related to wind loads on windows & statistical calculation of the impact of wind loads on them. We have presented variants of installing load-bearing elements of PVC windows which accept wind loads. We conducted a laboratory experiment by simulating wind loads on the window design, which is actually used for glazing the examined high-rise building. In the course of the experiment we determined additional factors which need to be considered when constructing PVC window structures for glazing high-rise buildings. We can determine that the following calculation method for the impact of wind load on PVC windows gives higher values of the desired statistical characteristics of load-bearing elements of a window compared to the results of laboratory experiments. We provide prerequisites to improve the analytical method of calculating impact of wind loads on load-bearing elements of PVC windows.

  7. Development of an S-band high-power pillbox-type RF window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, A.; Matsumoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the development of RF windows used to handle a high transmission power up to 110 MW for the Japan Linear Collider. A detailed simulation on multipactoring has been carried out. The results were compared with cathode-luminescence on the surface of alumina RF windows experimentally observed with power transmission up to 200 MW. (Author) 10 refs., 9 figs

  8. [Prediction of round window visibility in cochlear implantation with temporal bone high resolution computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S P; Lu, W; Lei, Y B; Men, X M; Zuo, B; Ding, S G

    2017-08-07

    Objective: To discuss the prediction of round window(RW) visibility in cochlear implantation(CI) with temporal bone high resolution computed tomography(HRCT). Methods: From January 2013 to January 2017, 130 cases underwent both HRCT and CI in our hospital were analyzed. The distance from facial nerve to posterior canal wall(FWD), the angle between facial nerve and inner margin of round window(FRA), and the angle between facial nerve and tympanic anulus to inner margin of round window(FRAA) were detected at the level of round window on axial temporal bone HRCT. A line parallel to the posterior wall of ear canal was drawn from the anterior wall of facial nerve at the level of round window on axial temporal bone HRCT and its relationship with round window was detected (facial-round window line, FRL): type0-posterior to the round window, type1-between the round window, type2-anterior to the round window. Their(FWD, FRA, FRAA, FRL) relationships with intra-operative round window visibility were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. Results: FWD( F =18.76, P =0.00), FRA( F =34.57, P =0.00), FRAA ( F =14.24, P =0.00) could affect the intra-operative RW visibility significantly. RW could be exposed completely during CI when preoperative HRCT showing type0 FRL. RW might be partly exposed and not exposed when preoperative HRCT showing type1 and type2 FRL respectively. Conclusion: FWD, FRA, FRAA and FRL of temporal bone HRCT can predict intra-operative round window visibility effectively in CI surgery.

  9. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  10. Windows open for highly tunable magnetostructural phase transitions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Y.

    2016-07-18

    An attempt was made to tailor the magnetostructural transitions over a wide temperature range under the principle of isostructural alloying. A series of wide Curie-temperature windows (CTWs) with a maximal width of 377 K between 69 and 446 K were established in the Mn1− yCoyNiGe1− xSix system. Throughout the CTWs, the magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic behavior and giant magnetocaloric effects are obtained. The (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) system shows great potential as multifunctional phase-transition materials that work in a wide range covering liquid-nitrogen and above water-boiling temperatures. Moreover, general understanding of isostructural alloying and CTWs constructed in (Mn,Co)Ni(Ge,Si) as well as (Mn,Fe)Ni(Ge,Si) is provided.

  11. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly

  12. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The

  13. Why high-capacity manipulators and lead glass windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Monitor remote-handling system was developed to maintain the main experimental beam line at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The technology and operating experience developed at LAMPF can be applied to other areas where handling of radioactive, hazardous, or toxic materials is required. These could include radiological incidents similar to Three Mile Island and toxic material spills, such as chlorine tank car derailments, where no provision for remote-handling exists. The technology can also be applied to routine radioactive remote-handling operations now conducted in conventional hot cells. These operations are normally done using mechanical master-slave manipulators with viewing through lead glass windows. The conventional facility can be replaced by a plain shielded box with an equivalent of the front end of Monitor inside. Master-slave manipulators of the future should be of 10-kg capacity with a force-reflection threshold of 0.2, minimum size, and provision for total sealing

  14. Research on the honeycomb restrain layer application to the high power microwave dielectric window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Shao, Hao; Huang, Wenhua; Guo, Letian

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric window breakdown is an important problem of high power microwave radiation. A honeycomb layer can suppress the multipactor in two directions to restrain dielectric window breakdown. This paper studies the effect of the honeycomb restrain layer on improving the dielectric window power capability. It also studies the multipactor suppression mechanism by using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell software, gives the design method, and accomplishes the test experiment. The experimental results indicated that the honeycomb restrain layer can effectively improve the power capability twice.

  15. Design and fabrication of high power microwave window for 4 MeV LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syunry, T.S.; Bhide, S.S.; Madan, R.S.; Das, S.; D'Sa, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    One of the critical components in the design and fabrication of 4 MeV LINAC is the R.F. window, through which 2 MW pulse R.F. power at 3 GHZ passes from the high pressure side to the chain of cavities under very high vacuum. Readymade windows, which can be incorporated in the LINAC are not easily available. These windows were fabricated inhouse, based upon some standard designs available in literature. However, the fabrication technique proved to be very difficult. The windows have been made successfully and tested for microwave performance. They were also rigorously thermally cycled and pressure tested. Fabrication details, test procedures and data are reported in this paper. (author). 5 figs., 2 tables

  16. Low-Cost In-Fill Installation for High-Energy-Saving, Dynamic Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    FINAL REPORT Demonstration Program for Low-Cost, High- Energy -Saving Dynamic Windows ESTCP Project EW-201252 JULY 2017 Brandon...cooling, heating and lighting2, all of which are directly impacted by windows. The thermal envelope impacts about 56% of total commercial energy ...without risk. SCOPE OF THE DEMONSTRATION The purpose of this demonstration project was to demonstrate the energy and capital savings enabled by View

  17. A robust smart window: reversibly switching from high transparency to angle-independent structural color display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dengteng; Lee, Elaine; Yang, Lili; Cho, Yigil; Li, Min; Gianola, Daniel S; Yang, Shu

    2015-04-17

    A smart window is fabricated from a composite consisting of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedded with a thin layer of quasi-amorphous silica nanoparticles. The smart window can be switched from the initial highly transparent state to opaqueness and displays angle-independent structural color via mechanical stretching. The switchable optical property can be fully recovered after 1000 stretching/releasing cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh P.E., Dariush; Uvslokk, Sivert; Talev, Goce; Petter Jelle Ph.D., Bjorn

    2010-06-17

    While window frames typically represent 20-30percent of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows which incorporate very low conductance glazings. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. The Passivhaus Institute in Germany states that windows (glazing and frames, combined) should have U-values not exceeding 0.80 W/(m??K). This has created a niche market for highly insulating frames, with frame U-values typically around 0.7-1.0 W/(m2 cdot K). The U-values reported are often based on numerical simulations according to international simulation standards. It is prudent to check the accuracy of these calculation standards, especially for high performance products before more manufacturers begin to use them to improve other product offerings. In this paper the thermal transmittance of five highly insulating window frames (three wooden frames, one aluminum frame and one PVC frame), found from numerical simulations and experiments, are compared. Hot box calorimeter results are compared with numerical simulations according to ISO 10077-2 and ISO 15099. In addition CFD simulations have been carried out, in order to use the most accurate tool available to investigate the convection and radiation effects inside the frame cavities. Our results show that available tools commonly used to evaluate window performance, based on ISO standards, give good overall agreement, but specific areas need improvement.

  19. Development of high power windows for ECH(and)CD launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland Heidinger, R.; Danilov, I.; Meier, A.

    2006-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH(and)CD) systems are a major part of nuclear fusion technology as localised and steerable deposition of high power mm-waves contributes essentially to plasma start-up, plasma heating, shaping of current profiles, and plasma stabilisation. At ITER, the first tritium confinement in the mm-wave launchers will be formed by CVD diamond windows. Based on large area CVD diamond disks and their unparalleled combination of ultralow mm-wave absorption and outstanding thermal conductivity, the window design for front steering (FS) and remote steering (RS) launchers was worked out for a transmission capability of 2 MW at the fixed frequency of 170 GHz. In addition, a torus window was designed for a step-tuneable Electron Cyclotron wave system for ASDEX Upgrade for transmission of up to 1 MW mm-wave power at 4 selected frequencies between 105 - 140 GHz. The designs for the torus windows for the three different launcher concepts account for the specific transmission requirements. For single-frequency operation, a single disk configuration was established. The disk thickness is adapted to provide sufficient safety margin towards pressure rise in the vacuum vessel (0.2 MPa) for the required window aperture. For the RS launcher, the remote steering unit placed in the back-end of the launcher requires a large window aperture (95 mm) to avoid beam vignetting at the extreme steering angles of ±12 o . For the FS launcher with the steering mechanism placed in the front shield of the launcher, the disk size is reduced as the window aperture can be identical to the waveguide inner diameter (63.5 mm). This allows to consider indirect cooling instead of edge cooling and thus to eliminate the risk of tritium contact to the cooling water in case of crack formation in the diamond disk. For the multi-frequency torus window at ASDEX-Upgrade a double disk configuration with the disk separation of 5 mm, fine tuneable over ± 1 mm, is realised. The

  20. Atmospheric Transmission Windows for High Energy Short Pulse Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The US Navy is exploring the feasibility of using a high energy laser weapon as a ship-borne self-defense system against sea-skimming cruise missile...appropriate wavelengths becomes critical for a laser weapon to be effective. A high energy free electron laser (FEL) is suitable for employment in the

  1. Mechanical reliability of ceramic windows in high frequency microwave heating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, P.F.; Ferber, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical reliability was evaluated for the specific alumina and beryllia ceramics now used as microwave windows in the high-power (>= 200 kW) high-frequency (>= 60 GHz) gyrotron tubes being developed for plasma heating in fusion systems. Previous analysis of the stresses generated in the various window configurations and tube operating conditions indicated that significant tensile stresses are generated in the ceramic window by dielectric heating. As a result, we characterized both the static fatigue behaviour in the fluorocarbon fluid used to cool gyrotron windows and the inert strength distributions for these two ceramics. These data were then analysed in order to construct reliability diagrams for these two materials. Such diagrams revealed that the use of these specific ceramic materials will be limited by their time to failure at the tensile stresses imposed on them under the gyrotron operating conditions. The fatigue behaviour and inert strengths of both materials could be improved by increasing their density and employing a uniform fine grain size. Such material improvements would permit significant increases in the mechanical reliability of the gyrotron microwave window. (author)

  2. Cryo-cooled high-power window for high-frequency plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.; Bojarsky, E.; Reiser, H.; Haefner, H.E.

    1991-09-01

    Within the framework of gyrotron window development, IMF pursues the concept of a single-disk window with edge cooling. Compared to a double-disk window with surface cooling, this concept offers a number of advantages in terms of safety, reliability, and ease of design and fabrication. The coolants which can be used for this purpose are liquid nitrogen and helium at very low temperature. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiological diagnosis of round and oval window niches with high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Akio; Ishida, Osamu

    1988-01-01

    Air and/or soft tissues in the oval and round window niches were diagnosed by high resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm at intervals of 1.0 mm. The window level was fitted to +100, and a window width of 4000 HFU was used. The results of 61 ears (29 male ears, 32 female ears) were compared with the surgical findings. It was possible to diagnose air and/or soft tissue in the round window niche with an 80 % chance of being correct and in the oval window niche with a 70 % chance of being correct. (author)

  4. High-power RF window design for the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.; Hodgson, J.; Ng, C.; Schwarz, H.; Skarpaas, K.; Kroll, N.; Rimmer, R.

    1994-06-01

    We describe the design of RF windows to transmit up to 500 kW CW to the PEP-II 476 MHz cavities. RF analysis of the windows using high-frequency simulation codes are described. These provide information about the power loss distribution in the ceramic and tim matching properties of the structure. Finite-element analyses of the resulting temperature distribution and thermal stresses are presented. Fabrication methods including a proposed scheme to compensate for thermal expansion s are discussed and hardware tests to validate this approach are described. The effects of surface coatings (intentional and otherwise) and the application of air cooling are considered

  5. High-throughput gated photon counter with two detection windows programmable down to 70 ps width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.tosi@polimi.it; Zappa, Franco [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mora, Alberto Dalla [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    We present the design and characterization of a high-throughput gated photon counter able to count electrical pulses occurring within two well-defined and programmable detection windows. We extensively characterized and validated this instrument up to 100 Mcounts/s and with detection window width down to 70 ps. This instrument is suitable for many applications and proves to be a cost-effective and compact alternative to time-correlated single-photon counting equipment, thanks to its easy configurability, user-friendly interface, and fully adjustable settings via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) link to a remote computer.

  6. Studies on the viability of perspex as a window material in high radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1998-01-01

    Hot cells meant for handling high radioactivity essentially require proper transparent material in front of lead viewing windows. Inherent demerits of glass like frigility and radiation induced darkening has prompted us to evaluate the viability of commercially available perspex sheets glass. The study of optical absorbance, impact and tensile strengths as a function of absorbed dose indicates its viability. (author)

  7. Design and characterization of a durable and highly efficient energy-harvesting electrochromic window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasawa, Eri

    With the growing global energy demands, electrochromic window (ECW) technology has attracted great attention for its ability to reversibly change the transmittance of incoming light through applied moderate potential. While ECW has a great potential to conserve energy from lighting and air conditioning in buildings, ECW still consumes energy; ECW should be self-powered for further energy conservation. In this study, a new design of energy-harvesting electrochromic window (EH-ECW) based on fusion of two technologies, organic electrochromic window and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is presented. Unlike other self-powered smart windows such as photoelectrochromic device that only contains two states (i.e. closed circuit colored state and open circuit bleaching state), EH-ECW allows active tuning of transmittance through varying applied potential and function as a photovoltaic cell based on DSSC. The resulting device demonstrates fast switching rate of 1 second in both bleaching and coloring process through the use of electrochromic polymer as a counter electrode layer. In order to increase the transmittance of the device, cobalt redox couple and light colored yet efficient organic dye are employed. The organic dye utilized contains polymeric structure, which contributes to high cyclic stability. The device exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.5 % under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW/cm2), change in transmittance (Delta T = Tmax - Tmin) of 34 % upon applied potential, and shows only 3 % degradation in PCE after 5000 cycles.

  8. The Plasma Window: A Windowless High Pressure-Vacuum Interface for Various Accelerator Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A. I.; Johnson, E. D.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of ∼ 10 -6 Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, is discussed

  9. New design for photonic temporal integration with combined high processing speed and long operation time window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad H; Park, Yongwoo; Azaña, José

    2011-01-17

    We propose and experimentally prove a novel design for implementing photonic temporal integrators simultaneously offering a high processing bandwidth and a long operation time window, namely a large time-bandwidth product. The proposed scheme is based on concatenating in series a time-limited ultrafast photonic temporal integrator, e.g. implemented using a fiber Bragg grating (FBG), with a discrete-time (bandwidth limited) optical integrator, e.g. implemented using an optical resonant cavity. This design combines the advantages of these two previously demonstrated photonic integrator solutions, providing a processing speed as high as that of the time-limited ultrafast integrator and an operation time window fixed by the discrete-time integrator. Proof-of-concept experiments are reported using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (as the original time-limited integrator) connected in series with a bulk-optics coherent interferometers' system (as a passive 4-points discrete-time photonic temporal integrator). Using this setup, we demonstrate accurate temporal integration of complex-field optical signals with time-features as fast as ~6 ps, only limited by the processing bandwidth of the FBG integrator, over time durations as long as ~200 ps, which represents a 4-fold improvement over the operation time window (~50 ps) of the original FBG integrator.

  10. High Power Testing Results of the X-band Mixed-mode RF Windows for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Roderick J

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the high power testing results of the X-band mixed-mode RF windows at KEK and SLAC for linear colliders. The main feature of these windows is that the combination of modes on the surface of the ceramic significantly decreases the electric and magnetic fields in the junction between the ceramic and the metal. So far two types of high power windows (with the diameter of 53 mm and 64 mm) have been fabricated. A high power model of the smaller type window was fabricated and tested in a resonant ring at KEK. A maximum circulating power of 81 MW with 300 ns duration or 66 MW with 700 ns duration was achieved. Light emission was observed for a power level of over 10 MW. Later, both windows were shipped to SLAC for even higher power testing using combined power from two klystrons. The first window (53 mm diameter) achieved a transmitted power of 80 MW with 1.5 microsec duration at 30 Hz repetition. It was not destroyed during the testing. The testing of the second window was carried out next to the small type and achieved 62 MW with 1.5 microsec duration with 10 Hz repetition. The final results of both windows are presented in this report

  11. Thermal/structural/optical integrated design for optical window of a high-speed aerial optical camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaopeng; Yang, Hongtao; Mei, Chao; Shi, Kui; Wu, Dengshan; Qiao, Mingrui

    2015-10-01

    In order to obtain high quality image of the aero optical remote sensor, it is important to analysis its thermal-optical performance on the condition of high speed and high altitude. Especially for the key imaging assembly, such as optical window, the temperature variation and temperature gradient can result in defocus and aberrations in optical system, which will lead to the poor quality image. In order to improve the optical performance of a high speed aerial camera optical window, the thermal/structural/optical integrated design method is developed. Firstly, the flight environment of optical window is analyzed. Based on the theory of aerodynamics and heat transfer, the convection heat transfer coefficient is calculated. The temperature distributing of optical window is simulated by the finite element analysis software. The maximum difference in temperature of the inside and outside of optical window is obtained. Then the deformation of optical window under the boundary condition of the maximum difference in temperature is calculated. The optical window surface deformation is fitted in Zernike polynomial as the interface, the calculated Zernike fitting coefficients is brought in and analyzed by CodeV Optical Software. At last, the transfer function diagrams of the optical system on temperature field are comparatively analyzed. By comparing and analyzing the result, it can be obtained that the optical path difference caused by thermal deformation of the optical window is 149.6 nm, which is under PV <=1 4λ .The simulation result meets the requirements of optical design very well. The above study can be used as an important reference for other optical window designs.

  12. Preoperative evaluation of cochlear implantation through the round window membrane in the facial recess using high-resolution computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li-Hong; Tang, Jie; Miao, Wen-Jie; Tang, Xiang-Long; Li, Heng; Tang, An-Zhou

    2018-01-16

    We evaluated the risk of cochlear implantation through the round window membrane in the facial recess through a preoperative analysis of the angle between the facial nerve-round window and the cranial midline using high-resolution temporal bone CT. Temporal bone CT films of 176 patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss at our hospital from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. The preoperative temporal bone CT scans of the patients were retrospectively analysed. The vertical distance (d value) from the leading edge of the facial nerve to the posterior wall of the external auditory canal and the angle (α value) between the line from the leading edge of the facial nerve to the midpoint of the round window membrane and the median sagittal line on the round window membrane plane were measured. Based on intraoperative observation, the round window membrane was divided into complete round window membrane exposure (group A), partial exposure (group B), and unexposed (group C) groups, and statistical analysis was performed. The α value could be effectively measured for all 176 patients (62.60 ± 7.12), and the d value could be effectively measured for 95 cases (5.53 ± 1.00). An analysis of the correlation between the α and d values of these 95 cases found a negative correlation. Of the 176 cases, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the differences among the groups were significant [P = 0.000 (window and the median sagittal line measured in preoperative CT scans was associated with the difficulty of intraoperatively exposing the round window membrane. When the α value was larger than a certain degree, the difficulty of exposing the round window membrane was increased. In such cases, the surgeon should fully expose the round window membrane during surgery, which could result decrease the likelihood of complications.

  13. Filter and window assemblies for high power insertion device synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Viccaro, P.J.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The powerful beams of x-ray radiation generated by insertion devices at high power synchrotron facilities deposit substantial amounts of localized heat in the front end and optical components that they intercept. X-ray beams from undulator sources, in particular, are confined to very narrow solid angles and therefore impose very high absorbed heat fluxes. This paper is devoted to a detailed study of the design of windows for the Advanced Photon Source undulators and wigglers, emphasizing alternative design concepts, material considerations, and cooling techniques necessary for handling the high heat load of the insertion devices. Various designs are thermally and structurally analyzed by numerically simulating full-power operating conditions. This analysis also has relevance to the design and development of other beam line components which are subjected to the high heat loads of insertion devices

  14. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  15. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  16. Development of new S-band RF window for stable high-power operation in linear accelerator RF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Youngdo; Lee, Byung-Joon; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kong, Hyung-Sup; Hwang, Woonha; Roh, Sungjoo; Ryu, Jiwan

    2017-09-01

    For stable high-power operation, a new RF window is developed in the S-band linear accelerator (Linac) RF systems of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) and the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL). The new RF window is designed to mitigate the strength of the electric field at the ceramic disk and also at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure of the conventional RF window. By replacing the pill-box type cavity in the conventional RF window with an overmoded cavity, the electric field component perpendicular to the ceramic disk that caused most of the multipacting breakdowns in the ceramic disk was reduced by an order of magnitude. The reduced electric field at the ceramic disk eliminated the Ti-N coating process on the ceramic surface in the fabrication procedure of the new RF window, preventing the incomplete coating from spoiling the RF transmission and lowering the fabrication cost. The overmoded cavity was coupled with input and output waveguides through dual side-wall coupling irises to reduce the electric field strength at the waveguide-cavity coupling structure and the possibility of mode competitions in the overmoded cavity. A prototype of the new RF window was fabricated and fully tested with the Klystron peak input power, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate of 75 MW, 4.5 μs and 10 Hz, respectively, at the high-power test stand. The first mass-produced new RF window installed in the PLS-II Linac is running in normal operation mode. No fault is reported to date. Plans are being made to install the new RF window to all S-band accelerator RF modules of the PLS-II and PAL-XFEL Linacs. This new RF window may be applied to the output windows of S-band power sources like Klystron as wells as the waveguide windows of accelerator facilities which operate in S-band.

  17. High-brightness water-window electron-impact liquid-jet microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, P.; Lundstroem, U.; Vogt, U.; Hertz, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate stable high-brightness operation of an electron-impact water-jet-anode soft x-ray source. A 30 kV, 7.8 W electron beam is focused onto a 20 μm diameter jet resulting in water-window oxygen line emission at 525 eV/2.36 nm with a brightness of 3.0x10 9 ph/(sxμm 2 xsrxline). Monte Carlo-based modeling shows good quantitative agreement with the experiments. The source has potential to increase the x-ray power and brightness by another 1-2 orders of magnitude and fluid-dynamical jet instabilities is determined to be the most important limiting factor. The source properties make it an attractive alternative for table-top x-ray microscopy.

  18. Optical Characterization and Energy Simulation of Glazing for High-Performance Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one important component of the energy system - the window. Windows are installed in buildings mainly to create visual contact with the surroundings and to let in daylight, and should also be heat and sound insulating. This thesis covers four important aspects of windows: antireflection and switchable coatings, energy simulations and optical measurements. Energy simulations have been used to compare different windows and also to estimate the performance of smart or switchable windows, whose transmittance can be regulated. The results from this thesis show the potential of the emerging technology of smart windows, not only from a daylight and an energy perspective, but also for comfort and well-being. The importance of a well functioning control system for such windows, is pointed out. To fulfill all requirements of modern windows, they often have two or more panes. Each glass surface leads to reflection of light and therefore less daylight is transmitted. It is therefore of interest to find ways to increase the transmittance. In this thesis antireflection coatings, similar to those found on eye-glasses and LCD screens, have been investigated. For large area applications such as windows, it is necessary to use techniques which can easily be adapted to large scale manufacturing at low cost. Such a technique is dip-coating in a sol-gel of porous silica. Antireflection coatings have been deposited on glass and plastic materials to study both visual and energy performance and it has been shown that antireflection coatings increase the transmittance of windows without negatively affecting the thermal insulation and the energy efficiency. Optical measurements are important for quantifying product properties for comparisons and evaluations. It is important that new measurement routines are simple and applicable to standard commercial instruments. Different systematic error sources for optical measurements of patterned light diffusing samples using

  19. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  20. Improvement of a high pressure cell with diamond windows for solution X-ray scattering of proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Nishikawa, Y; Inoko, Y; Moritoki, M

    2001-01-01

    An improved high pressure (up to 500 MPa) cell with diamond windows was developed for small-angle X-ray scattering of protein solutions. When the diamond window was subjected to high pressure, many streaks of parasitic scattering appeared. By changing the wavelength and performing simulations, it was concluded that they are Kossel lines. In order to obtain quantitative scattering data, it is essential that Kossel lines do not interfere with the beamstop. The performance of the improved cell was tested by using Apo-ferritin solutions.

  1. Mechanical reliability of ceramic windows in high frequency microwave heating devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, M.K.; Kimrey, H.D.; Becher, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature and stress distributions generated in ceramic window materials currently employed in microwave gyrotron tubes were determined for a variety of operating conditions. Face-cooled windows of both polycrystalline BeO and polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 were considered. The actual analysis involved three steps. First, a computer program was used to determine the electric field distribution within the window at a given power level and frequency. This program was capable of describing both the radial and axial dependence of the electric field. Second, the field distribution was used to derive an expression for the heat generated per unit volume per unit time within the window due to dielectric losses. A generalized heat conduction computer code was then used to compute the temperature distribution based on the heat generation function. Finally, the stresses were determined from the temperature profiles using a finite-element computer program. Primary emphasis was given to determining the effect of frequency upon the resulting thermal stress distribution. In addition, the effects of increasing window diameter and enhancing heat removal from the windows were considered. (author)

  2. High power RF window and waveguide component development and testing above 100 MW at X-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Callin, R.S.; Vlieks, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is developing an X-band source capable of producing 100 MW, 1 μsec pulses to power the next linear collider. The likelihood of high peak power RF breakdown in X-band components and especially RF windows increases as the RF pulse length becomes longer. Testing components at peak power levels is essential in a development program. This paper describes the results of tests on traveling wave resonators, RF windows and other components under development. 4 refs., 5 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Coherent Water Window X Ray by Phase-Matched High-Order Harmonic Generation in Neutral Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Eiji J.; Kanai, Tsuneto; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of a coherent water window x ray by extending the plateau region of high-order harmonics under a neutral-medium condition. The maximum harmonic photon energies attained are 300 and 450 eV in Ne and He, respectively. Our proposed generation scheme, combining a 1.6 μm laser driver and a neutral Ne gas medium, is efficient and scalable in output yields of the water window x ray. Thus, the precept of the design parameter for a single-shot live-cell imaging by contact microscopy is presented

  4. Development and performance test of a new high power RF window in S-band PLS-II LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Woon-Ha; Joo, Young-Do; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Jae-Young; Noh, Sung-Ju; Ryu, Ji-Wan; Cho, Young-Ki

    2017-12-01

    A prototype of RF window was developed in collaboration with the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) and domestic companies. High power performance tests of the single RF window were conducted at PAL to verify the operational characteristics for its application in the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II) linear accelerator (Linac). The tests were performed in the in-situ facility consisting of a modulator, klystron, waveguide network, vacuum system, cooling system, and RF analyzing equipment. The test results with Stanford linear accelerator energy doubler (SLED) have shown no breakdown up to 75 MW peak power with 4.5 μs RF pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The test results with the current operation level of PLS-II Linac confirm that the RF window well satisfies the criteria for PLS-II Linac operation.

  5. Semi-physical simulation of aerodynamic effect on quartz optical window in the high-altitude and high-speed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Da; Ming, Xing; Liu, Xinyue; Wang, Guoming; Guo, Wenji

    2017-04-01

    Under the semi-physical simulation model, the aerodynamic pressure, aerodynamic heat effect taking place on the outer surface of optical window in the high-altitude and high-speed environment are analyzed. The first step, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, combining CFD simulation technology, aerodynamic pressure and aerodynamic heat loading on optical window were computed in different flying situation. Then, based on the calculated pressure and temperature data caused by aerodynamic effect on the optical window, experiments on aerodynamic effect simulation equipment were conducted. Theoretical and practical simulation results showed that the imaging performance of optical system was not affected by the deformation of Fused quartz glass under the aerodynamic circumstance. The semi-physical simulation model makes advices for the optical window design work and the detection of aviation spectral camera imaging performance.

  6. Synthesis of optically clear polymeric materials for high temperature windows. [preparation of phenolphthalein polycarbonate resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, C. E.; Magner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A polymer has been developed that has excellent potential for use as windows in spacecraft as well as conventional aircraft. This polymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, has outstanding thermal properties, e.g., in place of melting or burning, it produces an insulating charred foam that closes off transmission of radiant heat through the window. This fact, coupled with an oxygen index of 0.43 and a 177 C tensile strength of 58 mega Newtons/sq m, makes this polymer a prime candidate for further development. Pilot plant preparation in a 20 gallon Pfaudler kettle was accomplished and large test specimens were prepared for evaluations.

  7. Low-cost, highly transparent flexible low-e coating film to enable electrochromic windows with increased energy savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berland, Brian [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States); Hollingsworth, Russell [ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Five Quads of energy are lost through windows annually in the U.S. Low-e coatings are increasingly employed to reduce the wasted energy. Most commonly, the low-e coating is an oxide material applied directly to the glass at high temperature. With over 100,000,000 existing homes, a retrofit product is crucial to achieve widespread energy savings. Low-e films, i.e. coatings on polymeric substrates, are now also available to meet this need. However, the traditional oxide materials and process is incompatible with low temperature plastics. Alternate high performing low-e films typically incorporate materials that limit visible transmission to 35% or less. Further, the cost is high. The objective of this award was to develop a retrofit, integrated low-e/electrochromic window film to dramatically reduce energy lost through windows. While field testing of state-of-the-art electrochromic (EC) windows show the energy savings are maximized if a low-e coating is used in conjunction with the EC, available low-e films have a low visible transmission (~70% or less) that limits the achievable clear state and therefore, appearance and energy savings potential. Comprehensive energy savings models were completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). A parametric approach was used to project energy usage for windows with a large range of low-e properties across all U.S. climate zones, without limiting the study to materials that had already been produced commercially or made in a lab. The model enables projection of energy savings for low-e films as well as integrated low-e/EC products. This project developed a novel low-e film, optimized for compatibility with EC windows, using low temperature, high deposition rate processes for the growth of low-e coatings on plastic films by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Silica films with good density and optical properties were demonstrated at deposition rates as high as 130Å/sec. A simple bi-layer low-e stack of

  8. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  9. High Momentum Particle Identification Detector The Study of Cesium Iodide Quantum Efficiency Dependency on Substrate Material, Temperature and Quartz Window

    CERN Document Server

    Wisna, Gde Bimananda M

    2014-01-01

    The Cesium Iodide (CsI) is used as a material for detecting Cherenkov radiation produced by high momentum particle in High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (HMPID) at ALICE Experiment at CERN. This work provides investigation and analysis of The Quantum Efficiency (QE) result of CsI which is deposited on five samples substrates such as copper passivated red, copper passivated yellow, aluminium, copper coated with nickel and copper coated with nickel then coated with gold. The measurement of five samples is held under temperature $60^{0}$ C and $25^{0}$ C (room temperature) and also with optical quartz window which can be adjusted to limit the wavelength range which reach the CsI. The result shows there are dependency of substrate, temperature due to enhancement effect and also quartz windows usage on QE of CsI. The results of five samples is then compared and analyzed.

  10. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  11. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while

  12. Efficient 'water window' soft x-ray high-Z plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, T; Otsuka, T; Jiang, W; Endo, A; Li, B; Dunne, P; O'Sullivan, G

    2013-01-01

    Unresolved transition array (UTA) is scalable to shorter wavelengths, and we demonstrate a table-top broadband emission 'water window' soft x-ray source based on laser-produced plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense UTAs in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth (Bi) plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics

  13. TableButler – a Windows based tool for processing large data tables generated with high-throughput methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Amir

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput "omics" based data analysis play emerging roles in life sciences and molecular diagnostics. This emphasizes the urgent need for user-friendly windows-based software interfaces that could process the diversity of large tab-delimited raw data files generated by these methods. Depending on the study, dozens to hundreds of these data tables are generated. Before the actual statistical or cluster analysis, these data tables have to be combined and merged to expression matrices (e.g., in case of gene expression analysis. Gene annotations as well as information concerning the samples analyzed may be appended, renewed or extended. Often additional data values shall be computed or certain features must be filtered out. Results In order to perform these tasks, we have developed a Microsoft Windows based application, "TableButler", which allows biologists or clinicians without substantial bioinformatics background to perform a plethora of data processing tasks required to analyze the large-scale data. Conclusion TableButler is a monolithic Windows application. It is implemented to handle, join and preprocess large tab delimited ASCII data files. The intuitive user interface enables scientists (e.g. biologists, clinicians or others to setup workflows for their specific problems by simple drag-and drop like operations. For more details about TableButler, visit http://www.OncoExpress.org/software/tablebutler.

  14. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  15. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    2005-01-01

    -free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its...... avoidance. The final aerogel window is optimised with regard to its production and performance in view of the technical, economical and life cycle aspects. The aerogel production process has been optimised and tuned so monolithic silica aerogel sheets are produced with more than 85% crack free sheets per...... insulation purposes. The edge seal solution shows only a very limited thermal bridge effect. The final glazing has a total solar energy transmittance above 85% and a U-value of 0.7 W/m2 K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m2K...

  16. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel Glazing for Super Insulating Windows (HILIT+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev

    2005-01-01

    The first main objective deals with “aerogel process optimisation”. The general goal was to demonstrate that the elaboration process, developed during the recent HILIT project, permitted to obtain a significant amount of light transmitting, insulating and transparent 15-20 mm monolithic and crack...... material. Due to the low density, the acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency of piezoelectric transducers. • Waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc.......-free nano-structured aerogel materials through a reasonably fast and reproducible process. The applicative part of this project aimed at elaborating, studying and optimising “state-of-the-art” (0.5 W/m2 K) aerogel glazings for windows. An important issue was the risk of outside condensation and rime and its....... No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. The annual energy savings compared to triple low energy glazing is in the range of 10 – 20% depending on type of building. Beside the application in glazing production the HILIT+ aerogel material...

  17. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  18. CRDS with a VECSEL for broad-band high sensitivity spectroscopy in the 2.3 μm window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čermák, P., E-mail: cermak@fmph.uniba.sk [University Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, UMR 5588, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská Dolina, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Chomet, B. [IES, CNRS, UMR5214, University Montpellier, F-34000 Montpellier (France); Innoptics, Institut d’Optique d’Aquitaine Rue François Mitterrand, 33400 Talence (France); Ferrieres, L.; Denet, S.; Lecocq, V. [Innoptics, Institut d’Optique d’Aquitaine Rue François Mitterrand, 33400 Talence (France); Vasilchenko, S. [University Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, UMR 5588, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Laboratory of Molecular Spectroscopy, V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB Russian Academy of Science, 1 Academician Zuev Square, 634021 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A. [University Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, UMR 5588, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Myara, M.; Cerutti, L.; Garnache, A. [IES, CNRS, UMR5214, University Montpellier, F-34000 Montpellier (France)

    2016-08-15

    The integration of an industry ready packaged Sb-based Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting-Laser (VECSEL) into a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) is presented. The instrument operates in the important 2.3 μm atmospheric transparency window and provides a high sensitivity (minimum detectable absorption of 9 × 10{sup −11} cm{sup −1}) over a wide spectra range. The VECSEL performances combine a large continuous tunability over 120 cm{sup −1} around 4300 cm{sup −1} together with a powerful (∼5 mW) TEM{sub 00} diffraction limited beam and linewidth at MHz level (for 1 ms of integration time). The achieved performances are illustrated by high sensitivity recordings of the very weak absorption spectrum of water vapor in the region. The developed method gives potential access to the 2-2.7 μm range for CRDS.

  19. High-reflectance magnetron-sputtered scandium-based x-ray multilayer mirrors for the water window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcklen, C; de Rossi, S; Meltchakov, E; Dennetière, D; Capitanio, B; Polack, F; Delmotte, F

    2017-05-15

    We present an experimental comparison of several Sc-based short period multilayer mirrors including Cr/Sc with B4C barrier layers and CrNx/Sc, and we propose a new material combination that provides high reflectance in the water window domain. Multilayer samples with period thickness in the range 1.5-1.7 nm have been deposited by magnetron sputtering and characterized by x-ray reflectometry with a Cu-Kα source and with synchrotron radiation near the Sc-L2,3 edge. Best results are achieved by combining the nitridation of Cr layers and the addition of B4C barrier layers. Near normal incidence reflectance as high as 23% has been measured at photon energy of 397 eV. A simulation model of the multilayer structure is proposed and it predicts that reflectance higher than 32% is achievable with CrNx/B4C/Sc mirrors.

  20. Sibling Death after Being Thrown from Window by Brother with Autism: Defenestration, an Emerging High-Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window. Shared similarities of all defenestration cases indicate a pattern of high-risk behavior threatening the survival of minors. We recommend precautions against this high-risk behavior in children with ASD.

  1. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  2. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  3. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  4. Disruptions, disruptivity and safer operating windows in the high-β spherical torus NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gates, D.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Tritz, K.; Yuh, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses disruption rates, disruption causes and disruptivity statistics in the high-β N National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557). While the overall disruption rate is rather high, configurations with high β N , moderate q * , strong boundary shaping, sufficient rotation and broad pressure and current profiles are found to have the lowest disruptivity; active n = 1 control further reduces the disruptivity. The disruptivity increases rapidly for q * min > 1.25 is generally acceptable for avoiding the onset of core rotating n = 1 kink/tearing modes; when EPM and ELM disturbances are present, the required q min for avoiding those modes is raised to ∼1.5. The current ramp and early flat-top phase of the discharges are prone to n = 1 core rotating modes locking to the wall, leading to a disruption. Small changes to the discharge fuelling during this phase can often mitigate the rotation damping associated with these modes and eliminate the disruption. The largest stored-energy disruptions are those that occur at high current when a plasma current ramp-down is initiated incorrectly. (paper)

  5. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  6. High transmittance contrast in amorphous to hexagonal phase of Ge2Sb2Te5: Reversible NIR-window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Palwinder; Singh, A. P.; Kanda, Neetu; Mishra, Monu; Gupta, Govind; Thakur, Anup

    2017-12-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is one of the best phase change materials because of its splendid set of properties, viz., high thermal stability, fast crystallization speed, good endurance, scalability, and reliability. Phase transition [amorphous → face centered cubic (fcc) → hexagonal close packed (hcp)] of GST thin films with annealing was studied using X-ray diffraction. Thin films in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases are highly, medium, and negligible transparent in the near infra-red region, respectively. The optical transmission in amorphous, fcc, and hcp phases is ˜92%, ˜46%, and ˜2%, respectively, at the wavelength of 2740 nm. At 2740 nm, a high transmission contrast (˜90%) is observed with phase transition from the amorphous to hcp phase. By utilizing large transmission contrast, it is demonstrated that GST can be availed as a potential candidate for reversible near infra-red-window. The sharp change in optical transmission with phase transition can be understood from the change in density of states in the valence band.

  7. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Purification of Zinc Bromide Solution used as shield in hot cells windows for handling of highly radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta-Leon, C.E.

    1989-10-01

    After some time of use zinc bromide solutions get a yellowish colour and form brownish precipitate, sticking on the walls of the windows that seem to be dirty caused by the effect of the solution penetrating into the packing and epoxy layer of the windows; all these effects cause the corrosive attack over the metallic parts of the window's frame and the same time the clarity and visibility inside the windows become defective. The aim and purpose of the present work was to set up a method intended for the recovery of all the solutions avoiding the use of a new one, the deviation of the original properties was corrected, and the recovered solutions could be used immediately; the experiments were done in the laboratory using a pyrex glass vacuum evaporator flash type, and the results were successful. The sample volume was 1500 1, and the time employed to 100 days. (Author)

  9. High-pressure high-temperature experiments: Windows to the Universe; Experimentos a alta presion y alta temperatura: Ventanas al universo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santaria-Perez, D.

    2011-07-01

    From Earth compositional arguments suggested by indirect methods, such as the propagation of seismic waves, is possible to generate in the laboratory pressure and temperature conditions similar to those of the Earth or other planet interiors and to study how these conditions affect to a certain metal or mineral. These experiments are, therefore, windows to the Universe. The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the huge power of the experimental high-pressure high-temperature techniques and give a global overview of their application to different geophysical fields. Finally, we will introduce the MALTA Consolider Team, which gather most of the Spanish high-pressure community, and present their available high-pressure facilities. (Author) 28 refs.

  10. Unresolved transition array based water window soft x-ray source by laser-produced high-Z plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2 to 4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. At power densities available from 'table-top' solid-state lasers, comparison of emission from a number of targets has shown that 3d-4f UTA in zirconium plasmas have highest overall brightness and in an imaging system based on reflective multilayer mirrors, may, depending on bandwidth, have superior performance than either line or broader-band sources. (author)

  11. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaşar, Yalçın; Kalfa, Sibel Maçka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  12. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  13. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  14. Development and application of a process window for achieving high-quality coating in a fluidized bed coating process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F.L.; Hartman Kok, P.J.A.; Vromans, H.; Frijlink, H.W.; Van Der Voort Maarschalk, K.

    Next to the coating formulation, process conditions play important roles in determining coating quality. This study aims to develop an operational window that separates layering from agglomeration regimes and, furthermore, the one that leads to the best coating quality in a fluidized bed coater. The

  15. Direct arylation of benzene with aryl bromides using high-temperature/high-pressure process windows: expanding the scope of C-H activation chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Cantillo, David; Kappe, C Oliver

    2012-04-16

    A detailed investigation on the direct arylation of benzene with aryl bromides by using first-row transition metals under high-temperature/high-pressure (high-T/p) conditions is described. By employing a parallel reactor platform for rapid reaction screening and discovery at elevated temperatures, various metal/ligand/base combinations were evaluated for their ability to enable biaryl formation through C-H activation. The combination of cobalt(III) acetylacetonate and lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide was subjected to further process intensification at 200 °C (15 bar), allowing a significant reduction of the catalyst/base loading and a dramatic increase in catalytic efficiency (turnover frequency) by a factor of 1000 compared to traditional protocols. The high-throughput screening additionally identified novel nickel- and copper-based metal/ligand combinations that favored an amination pathway competing with C-H activation, with the addition of ligands, such as 1,10-phenanthroline, having a profound influence on the selectivity. In addition to metal-based catalysts, high-T/p process windows were also successfully applied to transition-metal-free systems, utilizing 1,10-phenanthroline as organocatalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  17. Assessing the performance of windowed 1H CRAMPS methods, on biological solids, at high-field and MAS up to 35 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Luís; Coelho, Cristina; Siegel, Renée; Rocha, João

    2009-03-01

    The performance of various high-resolution 1D 1H CRAMPS pulse schemes at moderate and high static magnetic fields (400 MHz and 800 1H Larmor frequencies) and spinning rates up to 35 kHz, using state-of-the-art electronics is compared. The performance of the 1H windowed acquisition decoupling schemes, wDUMBO, wPMLG3 and wSAM3 is investigated using their effective z-rotation variants on glycine and other small biological molecules, tripeptide reduced glutathione and nucleoside uridine. 1H CRAMPS spectra, recorded with windowed 1H- 1H decoupling methods and fast MAS (35 kHz) and high-field are reported for the first time. 1H spectra exhibiting outstanding resolution and completely free from any artifact are also shown. The effect on spectra quality of the decoupling rf cycle and rotor periods ratio ( τC/τR) and the power requirements needed for each windowed 1H CRAMPS methods are discussed.

  18. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  19. Supercontinuum generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Jia, S. J.; Wang, F.; Wang, S. B.; Zhao, Z. P.; Liao, M. S.; Qin, G. S.; Hu, L. L.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    Enormous efforts have been made to realize supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the entire transmission window of fiber materials for their wide applications in many fields. Here we demonstrate ultra-broadband SC generation from 400 to 5140 nm in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture (NA) all-solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1560 nm mode-locked fiber laser. The fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3- and TeO2-modified fluoroaluminate glasses, respectively, which have large refractive index contrast and similar thermal expansion coefficients and softening temperatures. The NA at 3200 nm of the fluorotellurite fiber is about 1.11. Furthermore, tapered fluorotellurite fibers are prepared using an elongation machine. SC generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window is achieved in a tapered fluorotellurite fiber for a pumping peak power of ~10.5 kW through synergetic control of dispersion, nonlinearity, confinement loss and other unexpected effects (e.g. the attachment of dust or water to the surface of the fiber core) of the fiber. Our results show that tapered ultra-high NA all-solid soft glass fibers have a potential for generating SC light covering their entire transmission window.

  20. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  1. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  2. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  3. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  4. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  5. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  6. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  7. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  8. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270 °C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270 °C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2} + Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270 °C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270 °C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  9. Suppressing the Coffee-Ring Effect in Semitransparent MnO2 Film for a High-Performance Solar-Powered Energy Storage Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huanyu; Qian, Jiasheng; Zhou, Limin; Yuan, Jikang; Huang, Haitao; Wang, Yu; Tang, Wing Man; Chan, Helen Lai Wa

    2016-04-13

    We introduce a simple and effective method to deposit a highly uniform and semitransparent MnO2 film without coffee-ring effect (CRE) by adding ethanol into MnO2 ink for transparent capacitive energy storage devices. By carefully controlling the amount of ethanol added in the MnO2 droplet, we could significantly reduce the CRE and thus improve the film uniformity. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor (SC) devices using semitransparent MnO2 film electrodes with or without CRE were measured and compared. The SC device without CRE shows a superior capacitance, high rate capability, and lower contact resistance. The CRE-free device could achieve a considerable volumetric capacitance of 112.2 F cm(-3), resulting in a high volumetric energy density and power density of 10 mWh cm(-3) and 8.6 W cm(-3), respectively. For practical consideration, both flexible SC and large-area rigid SC devices were fabricated to demonstrate their potential for flexible transparent electronic application and capacitive energy-storage window application. Moreover, a solar-powered energy storage window which consists of a commercial solar cell and our studied semitransparent MnO2-film-based SCs was assembled. These SCs could be charged by the solar cell and light up a light emitting diode (LED), demonstrating their potential for self-powered systems and energy-efficient buildings.

  10. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  11. Estimation of the pathological invasive size of pulmonary adenocarcinoma using high-resolution computed tomography of the chest: A consideration based on lung and mediastinal window settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Noriaki; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Sakao, Yukinori

    2016-05-01

    Since the proposal of the new classification of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PADC), the size of pathological invasion has become more important. We aimed to determine whether high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) could be used to preoperatively evaluate PADC invasive size. We investigated 360 complete resected cT1a-1b-2aN0 PADCs. We examined the correlation of pathological invasive size with three HRCT parameters [whole tumor dimension in the lung window (LD), consolidation dimension in the lung window (CD), and tumor dimension in the mediastinal window (MD)]. HRCT prediction of an invasive size of ≤5 mm was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Pathological invasive size correlated well with both CD (r(2)=0.710) and MD (r(2)=0.743) comparably, and moderately with LD (r(2)=0.514). CD and MD tended to be slightly larger and smaller, respectively, than the actual invasive size. Invasive size roughly approximated to MD+3mm, and an invasive size of ≤5 mm was best predicted by MD, followed by CD. MD of ≤2 mm and 0mm predicted an invasive size of ≤5 mm with 64.1% and 47.4% sensitivity and 96.5% and 98.9% specificity, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion was best predicted by MD followed by CD. Pleural invasion and lymph node metastasis was predicted well by both MD and CD. Preoperative estimation of the invasive size of PADC and evaluation of other parameters of invasiveness were possible using MD. This approach using HRCT may play a complementary role in more thorough clinical staging of PADC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CFD Simulation of Spread Risks of Infectious Disease due to Interactive Wind and Ventilation Airflows via Window Openings in High-Rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J. L.; Gao, N. P.

    2010-05-01

    One of the concerns is that there may exist multiple infectious disease transmission routes across households in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. This study presents the modeling of this cascade effect using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. It is found that the presence of the pollutants generated in the lower floor is generally lower in the immediate upper floor by two orders of magnitude, but the risk of infection calculated by the Wells-Riley equation is only around one order of magnitude lower. It is found that, with single-side open-window conditions, wind blowing perpendicularly to the building may either reinforce or suppress the upward transport, depending on the wind speed. High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control.

  13. Process Window for Direct Recycling of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and High-Impact Polystyrene from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess recycling process window of ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) and HIPS (High impact Polystyrene) from WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment) through a final properties/structure screening study on their blends. Main motivation is to evaluate which amount of one plastic WEEE can be included into the other at least keeping their properties. In this sense, a wider margin of error during sorting could be admitted to obtain recycling materials with similar technological application of recycled ABS and HIPS by themselves. Results are discussed in terms of final blend structure, focusing in the interaction, within blends, of copolymers phases and fillers presents in WEEE. The comparative analysis of mechanical performance and morphology of HIPS/ABS blends indicates that the addition of 50wt% HIPS to ABS even improves 50% the elongation at break maintaining the strength. On the opposite, HIPS maintains its properties with 20wt% of ABS added. This study allows enlarging composition process window of recycling plastic WEEE for similar applications. This could be a sustainable way to improve benefit of e-scrap with low costs and easy processability. In consequence, social interest in the recycling of this kind of plastic scrap could be encourage from either ecological or economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  15. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  16. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  17. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  18. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  19. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  20. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...

  1. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  2. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  3. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  5. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  6. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  7. Generating high-brightness and coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based on the coherent harmonic generation (CHG and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate a coherent signal at ultrahigh harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of a realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultrashort (∼20  fs coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using a 1.6 GeV electron beam based on the proposed technique.

  8. Windows on the Human Body ? in Vivo High-Field Magnetic Resonance Research and Applications in Medicine and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, G?nther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, an...

  9. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  10. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  11. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Boss, M [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Berman, K [School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  12. Windows on the human body--in vivo high-field magnetic resonance research and applications in medicine and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in "medical sensor-systems", i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given.

  13. The GAMMA Ray Sky as Seen by Fermi: Opening a New Window on the High Energy Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    de Physique des Particules (IN2P3) in France; the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucle- are (INFN), and the...Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisicia (INAF) in Italy; the Ministry of Education , Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the High Energy

  14. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  15. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  16. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  17. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  18. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  19. Windows on the Human Body – in Vivo High-Field Magnetic Resonance Research and Applications in Medicine and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684

  20. Conceptual design of proton beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Syuichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    In a MW-scale neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator, a proton beam window is installed as the boundary between a high vacuum region of the proton beam transport line and a helium environment around the target assembly working as a neutron source. The window is cooled by water so as to remove high volumetric heat generated by the proton beam. A concept of the flat-type proton beam window consisting of two plates of 3 mm thick was proposed, which was found to be feasible under the proton beam power of 5 MW through thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses. (authors)

  1. Thin windows for gaseous and liquid targets: an optimization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Gray, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require cryogenic or high-pressure gas targets with thin windows. To obtain the best data, that is, to reduce background signals, a target window would ideally have zero thickness and zero deflextion. Since this is not possible a trade-off is made among target geometry, window geometry, window material, and window thickness. Measurements of deflexions of a variety of window materials and geometries were performed at room temperature and in liquid nitrogen to aid window design in the future. A simple graphical method for predicting the rupture pressure for several typical window materials is described. The results of the deflexion measurements are compared to a finite element computer programme Membran which predicts window deflexion and material stresses for a uniform applied pressure. (author)

  2. Sphere-cone-polynomial special window with good aberration characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Zhang Xin; Qu He-Meng; Wang Ling-Jie; Wang Yu

    2013-01-01

    Optical windows with external surfaces shaped to satisfy operational environment needs are known as special windows. A novel special window, a sphere-cone-polynomial (SCP) window, is proposed. The formulas of this window shape are given. An SCP MgF 2 window with a fineness ratio of 1.33 is designed as an example. The field-of-regard (FOR) angle is ±75°. From the window system simulation results obtained with the calculated fluid dynamics (CFD) and optical design software, we find that compared to the conventional window forms, the SCP shape can not only introduce relatively less drag in the airflow, but also have the minimal effect on imaging. So the SCP window optical system can achieve a high image quality across a super wide FOR without adding extra aberration correctors. The tolerance analysis results show that the optical performance can be maintained with a reasonable fabricating tolerance to manufacturing errors

  3. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  4. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  5. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  6. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  7. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  8. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  9. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  10. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  12. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Freeman, J.; Powell, F.

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. High-Performance CuInS 2 Quantum Dot Laminated Glass Luminescent Solar Concentrators for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Matthew R. [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Makarov, Nikolay S. [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Ramasamy, Karthik [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Jackson, Aaron [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States; Guglielmetti, Rob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; McDaniel, Hunter [UbiQD, Inc., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544, United States

    2018-01-30

    Building-integrated sunlight harvesting utilizing laminated glass luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) is proposed. By incorporating high quantum yield (>90%), NIR-emitting CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots into the polymer interlayer between two sheets of low-iron float glass, a record optical efficiency of 8.1% is demonstrated for a 10 cm x 10 cm device that transmits ~44% visible light. After completing prototypes by attaching silicon solar cells along the perimeter of the device, the electrical power conversion efficiency was certified at 2.2% with a black background and at 2.9% using a reflective substrate. This 'drop-in' LSC solution is particularly attractive because it fits within the existing glazing industry value chain with only modest changes to typical glazing products. Performance modeling predicts >1 GWh annual electricity production for a typical urban skyscraper in most major U.S. cities, enabling significant energy cost savings and potentially 'net-zero' buildings.

  14. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  15. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 2.2 μm transparency window: High sensitivity measurements and spectroscopic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Vasilchenko, S.; Reynaud, C.; Béguier, S.; Čermák, P.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.

    2017-01-01

    The weak absorption spectrum of water vapor in the important 2.2 μm transparency window is investigated with very high sensitivity. Overall, about 400 absorption lines were measured by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) in five spectral intervals: 4248.2–4257.3, 4298.4–4302.6, 4336.8.5-4367.5, 4422.4-4441.2 and 4514.6-4533.7 cm −1 . The achieved sensitivity of the recordings (noise equivalent absorption, α min , on the order of 2×10 −10 cm −1 ) allowed detecting transitions with intensity values down to 1×10 −28 cm/molecule, more than one order of magnitude better than previous studies by Fourier Transform spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignment was performed on the basis of variational calculations and of previously determined empirical energy values. Most of the newly assigned lines correspond to transitions of the ν 1 , ν 3 and 3ν 2 bands of H 2 17 O in natural isotopic abundance. Fourteen energy levels of H 2 17 O, H 2 18 O and HD 18 O are newly determined. An accurate and complete spectroscopic database is constructed for natural water in the 4190–4550 cm −1 region (2.39–2.20 µm). The list includes about 4500 transitions with intensity greater than 1×10 −29 cm/molecule, for the six most abundant isotopologues in natural isotopic abundance. Line positions were obtained by difference of empirical energy values determined from literature data and complemented with the present CRDS results. The list is made mostly complete by including weak transitions not yet detected, with positions calculated from empirical levels and variational intensities. The variational intensities computed by a collaboration between the University College London and the Institute of Applied Physics in Nizhny Novgorod are found to improve significantly previous results by Schwenke and Partridge. Examples of comparison of the constructed line list to CRDS spectra and to simulations based on

  16. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  17. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  18. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  19. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  20. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  1. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  2. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  3. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  4. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  5. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  6. The flexibility window in zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartbaeva, Asel; Wells, Stephen A; Treacy, M M J; Thorpe, M F

    2006-12-01

    Today synthetic zeolites are the most important catalysts in petrochemical refineries because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-sieving properties. There have been considerable efforts to synthesize new zeolites with specific pore geometries, to add to the 167 available at present. Millions of hypothetical structures have been generated on the basis of energy minimization, and there is an ongoing search for criteria capable of predicting new zeolite structures. Here we show, by geometric simulation, that all realizable zeolite framework structures show a flexibility window over a range of densities. We conjecture that this flexibility window is a necessary structural feature that enables zeolite synthesis, and therefore provides a valuable selection criterion when evaluating hypothetical zeolite framework structures as potential synthetic targets. We show that it is a general feature that experimental densities of silica zeolites lie at the low-density edge of this window--as the pores are driven to their maximum volume by Coulomb inflation. This is in contrast to most solids, which have the highest density consistent with the local chemical and geometrical constraints.

  7. Assessment of Energy Impact of Window Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Selkowitz, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Yazdanian, Mehry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2009-10-01

    Windows play a significant role in commercial buildings targeting the goal of net zero energy. This report summarizes research methodology and findings in evaluating the energy impact of windows technologies for commercial buildings. The large office prototypical building, chosen from the DOE commercial building benchmarks, was used as the baseline model which met the prescriptive requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The building simulations were performed with EnergyPlus and TMY3 weather data for five typical US climates to calculate the energy savings potentials of six windows technologies when compared with the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 baseline windows. The six windows cover existing, new, and emerging technologies, including ASHRAE 189.1 baseline windows, triple pane low-e windows, clear and tinted double pane highly insulating low-e windows, electrochromic (EC) windows, and highly insulating EC windows representing the hypothetically feasible optimum windows. The existing stocks based on average commercial windows sales are included in the analysis for benchmarking purposes.

  8. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  9. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  10. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  11. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  12. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  13. High sensitivity CRDS of CO2 in the 1.74 μm transparency window. A validation test for the spectroscopic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, P.; Karlovets, E. V.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Perevalov, V. I.; Campargue, A.

    2018-03-01

    The very weak absorption spectrum of natural CO2 near 1.74 μm (5702-5879 cm-1) is studied at high sensitivity. The investigated region corresponds to a transparency window of very weak opacity which is of particular interest for Venus. Very weak lines with intensity value as low as 10-30 cm/molecule at 296 K are detected by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, 1135 lines of six carbon dioxide isotopologues - 12C16O2, 13C16O2, 16O12C18O, 16O12C17O, 16O13C18O and 16O13C17O - were rovibrationnally assigned to 26 bands. The accurate spectroscopic parameters of 16 bands are determined from standard band-by-band analysis (typical rms deviations of the line positions are 8 × 10-4 cm-1). These newly observed bands include perturbed bands, weak hot bands and bands of minor isotopologues (in particular 16O12C18O in natural abundance) and provide critical validation tests for the most recent spectroscopic databases. The comparison to the Carbon Dioxide Spectroscopic Databank (CDSD), HITRAN2016 database and recent ab initio line lists is presented. Deficiencies are evidenced for some weak perpendicular bands of the HITRAN2016 list and identified as due to inaccurate CDSD intensities which were preferred to ab initio intensities. While Ames and UCL ab initio intensities are believed to be accurate within a few % for the strong unperturbed bands, the reported measurements allow testing important (>50%) differences between ab initio values of some weak perturbed bands.

  14. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  15. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  16. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  17. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  18. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  19. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  20. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  1. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  2. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  3. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  4. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  5. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  6. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  8. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of ITER diagnostic window assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquet, Ph.; Walker, C.I.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Encheva, A.; Pitcher, C.S.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Udintsev, V.S.; Walsh, M.J.; Watts, C.; Patel, K.M.; Giacomin, T.; Hughes, Shaun; Taylor, Neill; Pearce, Robert; Okayama, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The concepts chosen for ITER Diagnostic Windows are given. • The description of the main components of the window assemblies is presented. • An overview of the R and D related to the window assemblies is given. • The process for their development is briefly explained. -- Abstract: Most of ITER's diagnostics will be provided with viewing lines (optical, microwave, spectroscopic) for the monitoring of key characteristics of the plasma or for the achievement of physical measurements inside the vacuum vessel. For many of them the nature of the physical signal transmitted through the viewing lines requires the implementation of window assemblies incorporating either Glass/Ceramic or Beryllium window. The main requirements of the Diagnostic Window Assemblies are the transmission of the signals without attenuation or disturbances, the containment of vacuum, the confinement of in-vessel radioactive materials. Although they are generally not in direct viewing of the plasma, they are exposed to severe environmental conditions in normal and accidental conditions. The concept chosen for ITER Diagnostic Window Assemblies is based on a system of two windows with a monitored interspace, largely inspired from previous large machine solutions. Such a system is able to satisfy the transmission and vacuum requirements. Although this capability has previously proven a high reliability level, ITER conditions, which are more stringent, impose the requirement for improvement of existing designs and even the development of novel solutions, in particular to assure the radioactive material confinement function, which must be met in all circumstances including all off-normal conditions. Moreover the qualification of these concepts shall meet the nuclear safety requirements, although non metallic and beryllium components are not covered by existing codes and standards. This paper presents designs of window assemblies for different diagnostics. It gives an update of the

  10. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  11. Design considerations for foil windows for PET radioisotope targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.; Welch, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study performed at SRL to develop analytical and computational techniques for optimizing the design of conduction-cooled foil windows for PET targets. Single foil conduction cooled windows have been found to be good target entrance windows for both low energy accelerators and medium energy cyclotrons. Detailed thermal analysis has given an approximate analytical expression for the maximum temperature reached in a foil window under conditions of realistic ion beam bombardment. The effects of 'hot spots' in the beam density profile were investigated. It was shown that a factor of two safety margin in window design should be adequate to compensate for any possible beam hot spots. In addition, the reduction of foil stress by slack mounting was verified by experiments. The properties of conventional and novel foil materials were investigated for use in conduction cooled windows. Novel foil materials include two-component Al/Ti and Al/Havar foil. Results on the testing of candidate foil materials for thermal conductivity and mechanical strength at elevated temperature were presented. Two optimum foil window geometries were analyzed: a high aspect ratio window and a multiply slotted window. The multiply slotted window combines the advantages of a high aspect ratio foil window with a circular beam strike and is a promising window design for both TCA and cyclotron targets. A multiply slotted window for a N 2 gas target for 15 O production was designed using the methodologies discussed above. This prototype target was successfully tested using the TCA beam at SRL. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  12. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells with an Oxygenated Amorphous CdS (a-CdS:O) Window Layer: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X.; Dhere, R. G.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; DeHart, C.; Duda, A.; Perkins, C.; To, B.

    2002-05-01

    In the conventional CdS/CdTe device structure, the poly-CdS window layer has a bandgap of {approx}2.4 eV, which causes absorption in the short-wavelength region. Higher short-circuit current densities (Jsc) can be achieved by reducing the CdS thickness, but this can adversely impact device open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). Also, poly-CdS film has about 10% lattice mismatch related to the CdTe film, which limits the improvement of device Voc and FF. In this paper, we report a novel window material: oxygenated amorphous CdS film (a-CdS:O) prepared at room temperature by rf sputtering. The a-CdS:O film has a higher optical bandgap (2.5-3.1 eV) than the poly-CdS film and an amorphous structure. The preliminary device results have demonstrated that Jsc of the CdTe device can be greatly improved while maintaining higher Voc and FF. We have fabricated a CdTe cell demonstrating an NREL-confirmed Jsc of 25.85 mA/cm2 and a total-area efficiency of 15.4%.

  13. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  14. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn't been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  15. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  16. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  17. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  18. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  19. Design of traveling wave windows for the PEP-II RF coupling network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Ng, C.K.; Judkins, J.; Neubauer, M.

    1995-05-01

    The waveguide windows in the PEP-II RF coupling network have to withstand high power of 500 kW. Traveling wave windows have lower power dissipation than conventional self-matched windows, thus rendering the possibility of less stringent mechanical design. The traveling wave behavior is achieved by providing a reflecting iris on each side of the window, and depending on the configuration of the irises, traveling wave windows are characterized as inductive or capacitive types. A numerical design procedure using MAFIA has been developed for traveling wave windows. The relative advantages of inductive and capacitive windows are discussed. Furthermore, the issues of bandwidth and multipactoring are also addressed

  20. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing β-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  1. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  2. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  3. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  4. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  5. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  6. Reduced field TE01 X-Band traveling wave window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Callin, R.S.; Tantawi, S.G.; Wright, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The RF electric field is reduced by more than a factor of two using a pair of symmetrically located irises in a new type of klystron window operating in the TE 01 mode at X-Band. The advantages of this window over the usual TE 01 half-wave resonant window are discussed as well as theory and operating results. Ultra high purity alumina formed by the HIP process is used. This window has been successfully tested at 100 MW with a 1.5 microsecond RF pulse width and is being used on the XL series klystrons

  7. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  8. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented

  9. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  10. The new null testing method for the special optical window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun

    2009-07-01

    The high speed, high precision and wide range specifications are requirement for the modern aircraft, which the traditional hemispherical dome can't achieve now, and the novel conformal window instead can enhance the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft obviously. To reduce the aerodynamic drag and radar cross-section, the window geometry is generally aspheric in shape. As a result, the involved fabrication and testing processes are much more challenging than that of conventional optics and must be mastered before these windows and systems can be implemented at an acceptable cost and risk. Metrology is one of the critical areas required to advance the conformal window technology. But as the surface of these conformal windows is not the traditional sphere lens, the measurement method for it is infeasible with the conventional optics measurement processes. This paper we express the development of testing technology for the special conformal windows in brief, and emphatically introduces one available novel testing method- a new null testing, and here based on the theory of compensation methods, The principle of Offner's refractive null lens has been extended to test the transmission wavefront through conformal window optics and provide feedback during surface fabrication. a compensator system for the was designed for the conformal window is given which parameters are 100mm for its aperture and two parabolic surface as conformal window, the final residual wavefront error(RMS) of which is less than 1/20λ(λ=632.8nm).

  11. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  12. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  13. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  14. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  15. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  16. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  17. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  18. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  19. Some Operational Characteristics of CEBAF RF Windows at 2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Phillips; C. Reece; T. Powers; V. Nguyen-Tuong

    1993-01-01

    A CEBAF superconducting rf cavity was instrumented to examine RF window behavior at 2K. Of special interest was window performance at levels of cavity power dissipation considerably above normal operating conditions. A variety of transient electronic activity was observed to occur at or near the rf window, including the emission of light, a precipitous increase in reflected power, and interesting cooperative effects between window and cavity. Typically, the initiation of this activity at the window is correlated with the presence of a high x-ray and energetic electron flux at the window produced by the cavity. Electronic activity at the window can occasionally trigger the sudden disappearance of all stored energy in the cavity, herein referred to as an ''electronic quench.'' Variable decays of up to 40 mu-sec have been observed between the onset of window activity and the decay of the cavity field, which can occur in less than 200 nsec and is always accompanied by an intense pulse o f x-rays. When the cavity is off resonance with negligible stored energy, rf fields at the window can be increased even further without the appearance of these effects

  20. Some operational characteristics of CEBAF RF windows at 2K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, L.; Reece, C.; Powers, T.; Nguyen-Tuong, V.

    1993-01-01

    A CEBAF superconducting RF cavity was instrumented to examine RF window behavior at 2K. Of special interest was window performance at levels of cavity power dissipation considerably above normal operating conditions. A variety of transient electronic activity was observed to occur at or near the rf window, including the emission of light, a precipitous increase in reflected power, and interesting cooperative effects between the window and cavity. Typically, the initiation of this activity at the window is correlated with the presence of a high x-ray and energetic electron flux at the window produced by the cavity. Electronic activity at the window can occasionally trigger the sudden disappearance of all stored energy in the cavity, herein referred to as an open-quotes electronic quenchclose quotes. Variable delays of up to 40 μsec have been observed between the onset of window activity and the decay of the cavity field, which can occur in less than 200 nsec and is always accompanied by an intense pulse of x-rays. When the cavity is off resonance with negligible stored energy, rf fields at the window can be increased even further without the appearance of these effects

  1. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thi Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+ or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type. Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development.

  2. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  3. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  4. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  5. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  6. Holography through optically active windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  7. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  8. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  9. Design of large aperture, low mass vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Mapes, M.

    1993-01-01

    Large vacuum vessels are employed downstream of fixed targets in High Energy Physics experiments to provide a long path for particles to traverse without interacting with air molecules. These vessels generally have a large aperture opening known as a vacuum window which employs a thin membrane to preserve the vacuum environment yet allows the particles to pass through with a minimal effect on them. Several large windows have been built using a composite of Kevlar/Mylar including circular windows to a diameter of 96.5 cm and rectangular windows up to 193 cm x 86 cm. This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and operating experience with these windows and relates the actual performance to theoretical predictions

  10. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment

  11. Laser induced damage and fracture in fused silica vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.H.; Hurst, P.A.; Heggins, D.D.; Steele, W.A.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1996-11-01

    Laser-induced damage, that initiates catastrophic fracture, has been observed in large (≤61 cm dia) fused silica lenses that also serve as vacuum barriers in Nova and Beamlet lasers. If the elastic stored energy in the lens is high enough, the lens will fracture into many pieces (implosion). Three parameters control the degree of fracture in the vacuum barrier window: elastic stored energy (tensile stress), ratio of window thickness to flaw depth, and secondary crack propagation. Fracture experiments were conducted on 15-cm dia fused silica windows that contain surface flaws caused by laser damage. Results, combined with window failure data on Beamlet and Nova, were used to develop design criteria for a ''fail-safe'' lens (that may catastrophically fracture but not implode). Specifically, the window must be made thick enough so that the peak tensile stress is less than 500 psi (3.4 MPa) and the thickness/critical flaw size is less than 6. The air leak through the window fracture and into the vacuum must be rapid enough to reduce the load on the window before secondary crack growth occurs. Finite element stress calculations of a window before and immediately following fracture into two pieces show that the elastic stored energy is redistributed if the fragments ''lock'' in place and thereby bridge the opening. In such cases, the peak stresses at the flaw site can increase, leading to further (i.e. secondary) crack growth

  12. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  13. Sliding Window Empirical Mode Decomposition -its performance and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepien Pawel

    2014-12-01

    Proposed algorithm speeds up (about 10 times the computation with acceptable quality of decomposition. Conclusions Sliding Window EMD algorithm is suitable for decomposition of long signals with high sampling frequency.

  14. Automated roof window control system to address overheating on renovated houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lyme, Thøger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Manually controlled passive cooling system do not assure high quality environment. •Automated window system reduces overheating risk in houses of temperate climates. •Window system offers similar indoor air quality with mechanical ventilation system. •User behavior on window system is...

  15. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  16. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  17. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  18. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  19. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  20. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  1. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  2. Windowed fringe pattern analyis

    CERN Document Server

    Kemao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    This book provides solutions to the challenges involved in fringe pattern analysis, covering techniques for full-field, noncontact, and high-sensitivity measurement. The primary goal of fringe pattern analysis is to extract the hidden phase distributions that generally relate to the physical quantities being measured. Both theoretical analysis and algorithm development are covered to facilitate the work of researchers and engineers. The information presented is also appropriate as a specialized subject for students of optical and computer engineering.

  3. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  4. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  5. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  6. Advanced Control of Electrochromic Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Zarkadis, Nikos; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In our research we use the technology of electrochromic (EC) glazing to maximize the use of daylight and minimize the energy consumption in buildings while preserving visual and thermal comfort of the users. We propose an advanced automatic control of EC windows coupled with an anidolic daylighting system (ADS), blinds and dimmable fluorescent lights. EC windows with a visible transmittance range (Tv) of 0.15 – 0.50 were installed on the southern façade of an office room of the LESO experimen...

  7. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  8. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  9. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  10. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  11. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  12. Experimental evaluation of 350 MHz RF accelerator windows for the low energy demonstration accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, K.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.

    1997-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input power couplers for accelerators. To obtain a reliable, high-power, 350 MHz RF window for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium program, RF windows prototypes from different vendors were tested. Experiments were performed to evaluate the RF windows by the vendors to select a window for the LEDA project. The Communications and Power, Inc. (CPI) windows were conditioned to 445 kW in roughly 15 hours. At 445 kW a window failed, and the cause of the failure will be presented. The English Electronic Valve, Inc. (EEV) windows were conditioned to 944 kW in 26 hours and then tested at 944 kW for 4 hours with no indication of problems

  13. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  14. Attosecond light sources in the water window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Li, Jie; Yin, Yanchun; Zhao, Kun; Chew, Andrew; Wang, Yang; Hu, Shuyuan; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu

    2018-02-01

    As a compact and burgeoning alternative to synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers, high harmonic generation (HHG) has proven its superiority in static and time-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy for the past two decades and has recently gained many interests and successes in generating soft x-ray emissions covering the biologically important water window spectral region. Unlike synchrotron and free-electron sources, which suffer from relatively long pulse width or large time jitter, soft x-ray sources from HHG could offer attosecond time resolution and be synchronized with their driving field to investigate time-resolved near edge absorption spectroscopy, which could reveal rich structural and dynamical information of the interrogated samples. In this paper, we review recent progresses on generating and characterizing attosecond light sources in the water window region. We show our development of an energetic, two-cycle, carrier-envelope phase stable laser source at 1.7 μm and our achievement in producing a 53 as soft x-ray pulse covering the carbon K-edge in the water window. Such source paves the ways for the next generation x-ray spectroscopy with unprecedented temporal resolution.

  15. Optimum Energy Window In Liver Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadremomtaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In liver scintigraphy radioactive tracers in addition to liver are accumulated in other organs such as spleen. It leads to the presence of secondary source which affects image quality. Therefore knowing the influence of the noise arising from the secondary source and trying to reduce the additional data is necessary. In nuclear medicine imaging using of energy window is a useful way to reduce the noise. In this paper we try to find an optimum energy window to reduce the noise for two different low energy collimators. Liver scintigraphy images with and without activity in spleen were simulated by SIMIND software with different energy window percentages and with Low-Energy High-Resolution LEHR and Low-Energy General-Purpose LEGP collimators. We used with activity of 190 MBq. Spleen was outside of the camera field of view so that just its noise effects on the liver image is examined. Finally the images of liver with activity in spleen were compared with that without activity in spleen by MATLAB code.

  16. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  17. Highly conducting and preferred <220> oriented boron doped nc–Si films for window layers in nc–Si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata – 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Growth and optimization of the boron dopednanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films have been studied by varyingthe gaspressure applied to the hydrogendiluted silane plasma in RF (13.56 MHz) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system, using diborane (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}) as the dopant gas. High magnitudeof electrical conductivity (~10{sup 2} S cm{sup −1}) and<220>orientedcrystallographic lattice planes have been obtained with high crystalline volume fraction (~86 %) at an optimum pressure of 2.5 Torr. XRD and Raman studies reveal good crystallinity with preferred orientation, suitable for applications in stacked layer devices, particularly in nc–Si solar cells.

  18. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  19. Cost effective fabrication method for large sapphire sensor windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Gould, Alan; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    Sapphire poses very difficult challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. These challenges can result in long lead times and high prices. Large optical sensor windows demand much higher precision surfaces compared to transparent armor (windshields) to achieve acceptable image quality. Optimax is developing a high speed, cost effective process to produce such windows. The Optimax high speed process is a two-step process that combines precision fixed abrasive grinding and high speed polishing. In-house studies have demonstrated cycle time reduction of up to 6X as compared to conventional processing.

  20. T25 ITER ECH window development 110 GHz ECH distributed window development. Final report, May 1, 1994 - December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, R.A.; Moeller, C.P.; Grunloh, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is one of the major candidates for Heating and Current Drive on ITER. ECH is extremely attractive from a reactor engineering point of view, offering compact launch structures, high injected power density, and a simple interface with the shield/blanket. Economic deployment of ECH for ITER requires MW unit microwave sources (gyrotrons). The present technology limitation is the availability of suitable low loss output windows. These are needed for the torus as well as the tube. The torus window, in particular, is a demanding application as it also serves as a tritium barrier. Several distinct window concepts are under development by the various Parties. This report summarizes the efforts to make and test a open-quotes distributedclose quotes window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 110 GHz. A companion report (Final Report on Task 245+) describes the efforts to make a distributed window suitable for 1 MW cw operation at 170 GHz, the main frequency of interest to ITER. General Atomics (GA) fabricated a 4 in. x 4 in. 110 GHz distributed window which was delivered in September 1995 to Communications and Power Industries (CPI). Hot tests at CPI confirmed the power handling capability of the window. Tests were conducted with a reduced beam size at 200 kW with 0.7 s pulses without any arcing or excessive window temperatures. The power density and pulse length were equivalent to that in a full size 1.2 MW CW beam with a peak-to-average power ratio of 2.7. This window was assembled using a gold braze material to bond the sapphire strips to the niobium frame. The braze was successful except for small leaks at two locations, and re-braze efforts were unsuccessful

  1. Irradiation conditions of ADS beam window and implications for window material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are aimed at incineration of long living radioactive isotopes of spent nuclear reactor fuel, thus providing a solution for nuclear waste utilization. The idea is to couple a subcritical nuclear reactor with a high-energy proton accelerator. Protons interacting with the liquid metal target inside the reactor will produce neutrons with energy sufficient to transform long living fuel isotopes to those with shorter decay time. In some design variants a proton beam guide and window separate the vacuum of the accelerator from the liquid metal target. The window appears to be the most critical component of the whole facility as besides liquid metal corrosion it undergoes irradiation damage from incident protons, from protons and neutrons produced by spallation inside the target as well as from fission neutrons generated in the reactor fuel assemblies. In the present work we have evaluated irradiation conditions of the ADS beam window using Monte Carlo neutron, photon and charged particle transport code MCNPX. The code and the detailed geometric model of the experimental ADS (XADS) facility allow a realistic simulation of the spallation process and transport of generated nucleons as well as evaluation of various damage and operational characteristics like displacement damage, heat deposition, gas and spallation element production rates. Present results based on the reduced beam parameters provide a hope that apart from the liquid metal corrosion (not considered in the present paper) the window material could sustain full operation during the period of 3-4 month between replacements. These results may allow reconsideration of pro and contra of the window and the windowless XADS concepts

  2. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  3. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  4. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David

    2012-01-01

    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  5. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm 2 (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented

  6. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows. The proposed method...

  7. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    of confocal elliptic windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows...

  8. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  9. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  10. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...

  11. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  12. Carbon Footprint versus Performance of Aluminum, Plastic, and Wood Window Frames from Cradle to Gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kutnar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Window frame material has significant impact on the thermal performance of the window. Moreover, with sustainable design becoming a necessity, window frame materials need to have higher levels of environmental performance to be considered sustainable. As a result, a holistic performance metric is needed to assess window frame material. Three similar frames were considered, manufactured from aluminum, polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and wood. First their thermal performance was evaluated and compared using a heat transfer model. Then, carbon footprints of the three materials were considered for 1m2 of window area with a similar thermal performance. It was found that the thermal, as well as the environmental, performance of the wooden window frame was superior to those of aluminum and PVC. On the other hand aluminum frames had high environmental impacts and comparatively lower thermal performance. This study provides a holistic viewpoint on window frames by considering both environmental and thermal performance.

  13. Methodology for the design of diagnostic windows for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, Marc; Lipa, M.; Portafaix, C.; Gil, C.; Rey, G.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will operate for much longer pulse lengths within a context of high power density, introducing several new requirements for diagnostics compared with existing experiments. In this context, the upgrade of Tore Supra (CIEL Project) foresees high power and high radiating plasma scenario during very long pulse operation. This long plasma operation imposes the improvement of diagnostic systems and the design of thermally resistant in-vessel components with reliable window assemblies. Hence, the specific requirements and the methodology adopted to design Tore Supra/CIEL (TS) high thermal loaded diagnostic windows are summarised in this paper. Thermal and mechanical analyses are reported for different window materials and assembling methods

  14. Determination of Optimum Window to External Wall Ratio for Offices in a Hot and Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Alibaba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss and gain through windows has a very high impact on the thermal comfort of offices. This paper analyzes a standard low energy consumption university office that has a standard envelope. Dynamic thermal simulations with EDSL Tas software, a predicted mean vote (PMV, and a predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD with all local discomfort as stated in ASHRAE, ISO 7730: 2005, EN 15251: 2007 were used for thermal sensation, in order to optimize the best window to external wall proportion in a hot and humid climate that exists in the Famagusta case study. A simulated office building is oriented east to west in order to take advantage of the wind direction. In May 45% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 93% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 97% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the window to external wall ratio (WWR is 10%. In October 43% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 86% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 92% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%. In September 49% (PPD < 10% full open window and 51% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%.

  15. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  16. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  17. Image annotation under X Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Steven

    1991-08-01

    A mechanism for attaching graphic and overlay annotation to multiple bits/pixel imagery while providing levels of performance approaching that of native mode graphics systems is presented. This mechanism isolates programming complexity from the application programmer through software encapsulation under the X Window System. It ensures display accuracy throughout operations on the imagery and annotation including zooms, pans, and modifications of the annotation. Trade-offs that affect speed of display, consumption of memory, and system functionality are explored. The use of resource files to tune the display system is discussed. The mechanism makes use of an abstraction consisting of four parts; a graphics overlay, a dithered overlay, an image overly, and a physical display window. Data structures are maintained that retain the distinction between the four parts so that they can be modified independently, providing system flexibility. A unique technique for associating user color preferences with annotation is introduced. An interface that allows interactive modification of the mapping between image value and color is discussed. A procedure that provides for the colorization of imagery on 8-bit display systems using pixel dithering is explained. Finally, the application of annotation mechanisms to various applications is discussed.

  18. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  19. Fatigue behaviour of window and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeron, J.; Brochard, J.; Cheron, Ch.; Gabriel, F.

    1999-01-01

    The current CEA project pertains to feasibility studies of an internal source of neutrons used for irradiations of various natures. An external source generates the necessary protons thanks to a particle accelerator that delivers a high energy proton beam: 600 MeV, 40 mA. The target is composed of rod assemblies and the spallation material is lead contained in aluminium cladding cooled by low pressured tepid water. The interface between the accelerator and the target named 'window' must both ensure tightness between the accelerator and the target and maintain a differential pressure while being as thin as possible to avoid a too great dissipation of the incident beam. In this respect, the interface is made of Inconel of low thickness in order to be as transparent as possible of the proton beam whose average power density is about of 10 μA.cm -2 , and is cooled by forced convection water of the target. An analysis of nominal and incidental situations of the facility operating mode has been conducted, especially in order to evaluate the consequences of abrupt and frequent shutdown or tripping of the accelerator on the thermomechanical behaviour of the spallation rods and the window, as well as in terms of thermal fatigue. (author)

  20. Intra-Symbol Windowing for Egress Reduction in DMT Transmitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanbleu Koen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multitone (DMT uses an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT to modulate data on the carriers. The high sidelobes of the IDFT filter bank used can lead to spurious emissions (egress in unauthorized frequency bands. Applying a window function within the DMT symbol can alleviate this. However, window functions either require additional redundancy or will introduce distortions that are generally not easy to compensate for. In this paper, a special class of window functions is constructed that corresponds to a precoding at the transmitter. These do not require any additional redundancy and need only a modest amount of additional processing at the receiver. The results can be used to increase the spectral containment of DMT-based wired communications such as ADSL and VDSL (i.e., asymmetric, resp., very-high-bitrate digital subscriber loop.

  1. Intra-Symbol Windowing for Egress Reduction in DMT Transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Gert; Vanbleu, Koen; Ysebaert, Geert; Moonen, Marc

    2006-12-01

    Discrete multitone (DMT) uses an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) to modulate data on the carriers. The high sidelobes of the IDFT filter bank used can lead to spurious emissions (egress) in unauthorized frequency bands. Applying a window function within the DMT symbol can alleviate this. However, window functions either require additional redundancy or will introduce distortions that are generally not easy to compensate for. In this paper, a special class of window functions is constructed that corresponds to a precoding at the transmitter. These do not require any additional redundancy and need only a modest amount of additional processing at the receiver. The results can be used to increase the spectral containment of DMT-based wired communications such as ADSL and VDSL (i.e., asymmetric, resp., very-high-bitrate digital subscriber loop).

  2. IMPACT OF CONTENTION WINDOW ON CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHMS FOR WIRELESS ADHOC NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Nithya; C.Mala; Vijay Kumar B

    2012-01-01

    TCP congestion control mechanism is highly dependent on MAC layer Backoff algorithms that predict the optimal Contention Window size to increase the TCP performance in wireless adhoc network. This paper critically examines the impact of Contention Window in TCP congestion control approaches. The modified TCP congestion control method gives the stability of congestion window which provides higher throughput and shorter delay than the traditional TCP. Various Backoff algorithms t...

  3. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  4. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  5. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  6. Multi-window counting of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Beach, S.E.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Bradt, C.J.; Haines, D.K.; Syed, U.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In counting of radioactivity, using for example gas proportional (GP) or liquid scintillation (LS) counters, one can set up two or more electronic windows, which can measure two or more radiation components. In this work, we derived general equations for n-window counting in matrix notation, including mutual crosstalk between the windows using both the ratio (not normalized) and the fraction (normalized) methods. A solution for n radiation components is presented. For the two-window measurements, we report complete statistical analysis of the results including propagation of all uncertainties. The decision-level and the detection-limit equations were derived including crosstalk correction, uncertainties of the variables, Gaussian continuity correction, interference correction, and the overdispersion correction. Numerical verifications of the two-window systems are presented, including conditions for the detection of a minor component in the presence of a major component. In addition, limited experimental verifications of the two-window systems using LS counting are reported.

  7. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  8. Structural integrity of beam window of mercury target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Kaminaga, Masanori; Hino, Ryutaro

    2003-01-01

    The developments of a MW-class spallation neutron source facility are being carried out under the high-intensity proton accelerator project promoted by JAERI and KEK. A mercury target will be used as a neutron source in the facility. The mercury target vessel made of 316LSS will be subjected to pressure wave generated by rapid thermal expansion of mercury due to a pulsed proton beam injection. The pressure wave will make huge dynamic stress on the vessel and will deform the vessel, which would cause cavitation in mercury. To estimate the structural integrity of the mercury target vessel, especially beam window, dynamic stress behaviors due to 1 MW-pulsed proton beam injection were analyzed by using FEM code. In the analyses, two types of the target vessels with semi-cylindrical and flat type windows were used as analytical models. As the results, it has been understood that the stress generated in the beam window by the pressure wave could be treated as the secondary stress. Also it was confirmed that the flat type window would be more advantageous from the structural viewpoint than the semi-cylindrical type window. (author)

  9. Results and lessons learned from conditioning 1 MW CW 350 MHz coaxial vacuum windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, K.; Cordova, R.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.; Risbud, S.; Wilcox, D.

    1998-01-01

    The reliability of the radio frequency (RF) windows on the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) is critical to the success of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Program (APT). On the APT accelerator there will be over 1,000 windows, each passing on the order of 250 kW of CW RF power. This power level is well above power levels historically used in RF windows. Based on the high-power RF test results of the RF window prototypes from vendors, the coaxial windows made by EEV Ltd. of Chelmsford, England, were selected for LEDA. This paper describes the high-power RF testing of the 16 EEV coaxial windows. The RF window diagnostic equipment, data acquisition system and test stand are described. The results of the high power RF testing of the windows are presented. The successes and failures in the conditioning, manufacturing and testing techniques of the windows are presented. The conditioning timeline, power profile and the conditioning waveform are also discussed

  10. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  11. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2010-01-01

    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  12. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  13. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  14. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  15. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  16. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  17. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  18. Radiation damage in diagnostic window materials for the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primak, W.

    1981-07-01

    The general problem of evaluating diagnostic window materials for the TFTR at the tank wall location is described. Specific evaluations are presented for several materials: vitreous silica, crystal quartz, sapphire, zinc selenide, and several fluorides: lithium fluoride, magnesium fluoride, and calcium fluoride; and seal glasses are discussed. The effects of the neutrons will be minimal. The major problems arise from the high flux of ionizing radiation, mainly the soft x rays which are absorbed near the surface of the materials. Additionally, this large energy deposition causes a significant thermal pulse with attendant thermal stresses. It is thus desirable to protect the windows with cover slips where this is feasible or to reduce the incident radiation by mounting the windows on long pipes. A more detailed summary is given at the end of this report.

  19. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found......A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more...... using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest....

  20. Experiences with sound insulating open windows in traffic noise exposed housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    purposes, including during night, or simply because it’s a good feeling to have windows open to be in contact with the surroundings. High noise exposure can lead to adverse effects on comfort and health, and thus, there is a need for sound insulating open windows to reduce noise exposure in homes, when......Sound insulating windows are widely used in traffic noise exposed residential areas to reduce indoor noise levels to acceptable levels. However, such windows are typically only designed to provide sound insulation in closed position, and many people prefer open windows parts of time for ventilation...... with different solutions has been collected, and additional field experiments have been carried out in a case with transparent external shutters with sound absorbing slits for ventilation along window sides. It is concluded that occupants in general are satisfied with the solutions and further development...

  1. Windows Developer Power Tools Turbocharge Windows development with more than 170 free and open source tools

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, James

    2007-01-01

    Software developers need to work harder and harder to bring value to their development process in order to build high quality applications and remain competitive. Developers can accomplish this by improving their productivity, quickly solving problems, and writing better code. A wealth of open source and free software tools are available for developers who want to improve the way they create, build, deploy, and use software. Tools, components, and frameworks exist to help developers at every point in the development process. Windows Developer Power Tools offers an encyclopedic guide to m

  2. Design of a new ceramic window in 3.7 GHz LHCD transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Kuang Guangli

    2007-01-01

    According to the theory of ceramic window design, using electromagnetic field simulator, CST, and finite element method analysis software, ANSYS, the electromagnetic and thermal performances of LHCD new ceramic window have been calculated and simulated. BeO is used as windows body material for its high conductivity. Within the bandwidth of more than 300 MHz, the stationary wave ratio is below 1.1, and the maximum temperature rising is 11.7 degree C on the center of the ceramic window. (authors)

  3. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant D1206: disassembly cave window 4 replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.G.; Beckitt, S.; Potts, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    At UKAEA's fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay, the containment glass on the zinc bromide cave viewing window tank failed after 13 years active use. External shielding was fitted and the window tank subsequently drained to make it safe. Fuel cropping operations carried out behind the window were resited to enable cave work to continue whilst a project team made arrangements and plans to replace the damaged window. Because of the complexity of the task and high (alpha, beta, gamma and neutron) radiation levels in excess of 500 Sv/hr a rehearsal facility was built to develop the remote handling techniques to be employed in the task. (UK)

  4. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  5. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  6. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...

  7. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  8. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  9. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  10. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  11. A dome-shaped BE window for x-rays and its thermal and thermal stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin (about 10 μm to 300 μm in thickness) beryllium foil that is brazed onto a cooled frame. Beryllium (Be) is a low-atomic-number material so that a thin beryllium window will let useful x-rays pass through. Because beryllium has a relatively high strength and good plasticity, the thin beryllium window can keep the vacuum system tight without failure when carefully engineered. Even if the majority of high-energy photons from x-rays is transmitted through the window, some low-energy photons will be absorbed. This absorbed part turns into heat in the window. A good design of a beryllium window should be as thin as possible so that more low-energy photons can be transmitted through the window while it can still withstand the heat load and vacuum pressure. Due to the high heat load from the third-generation synchrotron radiation X-ray beams, it becomes a very challenging problem to design a safe window. This paper presents a new dome-shaped Be window concept. A novel dome-shaped Be window design with varying cross section is proposed, and its thermal and thermal stress analyses are presented in this paper. All the safety criteria for the window are checked after a full understanding of this window's behavior under heat and pressure. The dome Be window analyses are based on the assumption that the low-energy photon transmission at the first harmonic of APS Undulator A (4.09 keV) through the filter/window assembly should be at least 50 percent of the original photon flux. The results promise that a feasible filter/window assembly for APS Undulator A can be designed and built

  12. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  13. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  14. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  15. Energy Labelling of Glazings and Windows in Denmark: Calculated and Measured Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Svend; Mogensen, Morten Møller

    2002-01-01

    The influence of windows on the energy consumption in buildings is well known and in order to encourage the development and the appropriate use of high performance glazings and windows in Denmark, an Energy Labelling and Rating system is being developed. During this work a need for establishing...

  16. Surface temperature of wooden window frames under influence of solar radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castenmiller, C.J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Under influence of solar radiation the surface temperature of wooden window frames can reach values above 60 0C. High temperature can cause considerable tensions within the window frame; as a result joints can be cracked and rain water can penetrate into these joints. This penetration of rain water

  17. Experimental and Numerical Research of the Thermal Properties of a PCM Window Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koláček

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental and simulation analysis of a window system incorporating Phase Change Materials (PCMs. In this study, the latent heat storage material is exploited to increase the thermal mass of the building component. A PCM-filled window can increase the possibilities of storage energy from solar radiation and reduce the heating cooling demand. The presented measurements were performed on a specific window panel that integrates a PCM. The PCM window panel consists of four panes of safety glass with three gaps, of which the first one contains a prismatic glass, the second a krypton gas, and the last one a PCM. New PCM window panel technology uses the placement of the PCM in the whole space of the window cavity. This technology improves the thermal performance and storage mass of the window panel. The results show the incongruent melting of salt hydrates and the high thermal inertia of the PCM window panel. The simulation data showed that the PCM window panel and the double glazing panel markedly reduced the peak temperature on the interior surface, reduced the air temperature inside the room, and also considerably improved the thermal mass of the building. This means that the heat energy entering the building through the panel is reduced by 66% in the summer cycle.

  18. An Energy Efficient Instruction Window for Scalable Processor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min; Maeng, Seungryoul

    Modern microprocessors achieve high application performance at the acceptable level of power dissipation. In terms of power to performance trade-off, the instruction window is particularly important. This is because enlarging the window size achieves high performance but naive scaling of the conventional instruction window can severely increase the complexity and power consumption. In this paper, we propose low-power instruction window techniques for contemporary microprocessors. First, the small reorder buffer (SROB) reduces power dissipation by deferred allocation and early release. The deferred allocation delays the SROB allocation of instructions until their all data dependencies are resolved. Then, the instructions are executed in program order and they are released faster from the SROB. This results in higher resource utilization and low power consumption. Second, we replace a conventional issue queue by a direct lookup table (DLT) with an efficient tag translation technique. The translation scheme resolves the instruction dependency, especially for the case of one producer to multiple consumers. The efficiency of the translation scheme stems from the fact that the vast majority of instruction dependency exists within a basic block. Experimental results show that our proposed design reduces the power consumption significantly for SPEC2000 benchmarks.

  19. A robust design window for the heliotron DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Teruya; Yanagi, Nagato; Sagara, Akio

    2011-01-01

    According to the achievements in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, a design of a DEMO reactor with a LHD-type heliotron system is foreseeable. On the other hand, a DEMO is the next step reactor and high reliability and feasibility are demanded in its design. In this study, a robust design window, i.e., the design window that is not sensitive to a change in uncertain physics parameters, was surveyed through parametric scans using a system design code. It was found that a difference in main design parameters (major radius, magnetic field strength, fusion output) gives only a small change in a dependence of physics requirements on the physics conditions. Therefore, it is important to find the design window with a lower requirement on the confinement improvement to assure the design robustness. In this respect, a reduction in the minimum inboard blanket space, one of the key parameters in a LHD-type heliotron reactor design, can effectively expand the design window and contributes to the design robustness. An acceptance of higher neutron wall load and an achievement of further high confinement improvement are also expected to make both a DEMO and a commercial reactor to be more feasible and economically attractive. (author)

  20. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT

  1. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  2. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  3. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner Wed 6/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL ...

  4. A Moving Window Technique in Parallel Finite Element Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Candel, Arno; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    A moving window technique for the finite element time domain (FETD) method is developed to simulate the propagation of electromagnetic waves induced by the transit of a charged particle beam inside large and long structures. The window moving along with the beam in the computational domain adopts high-order finite-element basis functions through p refinement and/or a high-resolution mesh through h refinement so that a sufficient accuracy is attained with substantially reduced computational costs. Algorithms to transfer discretized fields from one mesh to another, which are the key to implementing a moving window in a finite-element unstructured mesh, are presented. Numerical experiments are carried out using the moving window technique to compute short-range wakefields in long accelerator structures. The results are compared with those obtained from the normal FETD method and the advantages of using the moving window technique are discussed.

  5. Use of UV-protective windows and window films to aid in the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Cox, Mary Jude; Becker, Daniel G; Horowitz, Jed H; Nichter, Larry S; Britt, L D; Long, William B; Edlic, Elizabeth C

    2004-01-01

    People are exposed to ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation throughout their daily routine, intentionally and unintentionally. Cumulative and excessive exposure to UV radiation is the behavioral cause to skin cancers, skin damage, premature skin aging, and sun-related eye disorders. More than one million new cases of skin cancer were diagnosed in the United States this year. UV radiates directly and diffusely scattered by the various environmental and atmospheric conditions and has access to the skin from all directions. Because of this diffuse UV radiation, a person situated under a covering, such as the roof of a car or house, is not completely protected from the sun's rays. Because shade structures do not protect effectively against UV radiation, there have been major advances in photoprotection of glass by the development of specially designed photoprotective windows and films. It is the purpose of this collective review to highlight the photoprotective windows and films that should be incorporated into residential, commercial, and school glass windows to reduce sun exposure. Low-emittence (low-E) coatings are microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide layers deposited on a window or skylight glazing surface to reduce the U-factor by suppressing radiative heat flow as well as to limit UV radiation. The exclusive Thermaflect coating uses the most advanced, double-layer soft coat technology to continue to deliver top performance for UV protection as well as prevent heat loss in the home. This product blocks 87% of UV radiation and has an Energy Star certification in all climate zones. Tints and films have been another important advance in glass photoprotection, especially in automobiles. Quality widow film products are high-tech laminates of polyester and metallized coatings bonded by distortion-free adhesives. The International Window Film Association provides members with accreditation in solar control films, safety films, and

  6. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  7. Windows 8 & Office 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Two complete e-books covering Windows and Office for one low price! This unique value-priced e-book set brings together two bestselling For Dummies books in a single e-book file. Including a comprehensive table of contents and the full text of each book, complete with cover, this e-book set gives you in-depth information on the leading PC productivity tools: Windows 8 and Office 2010. Best of all, you'll pay less than the cost of each book purchased separately. You'll get the complete text of: Windows 8 For Dummies, which covers The core component

  8. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  9. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  10. Implementing Boot Control for Windows Vista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Yuki; Fujita, Keisuke; Furusawa, Maiko; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    A digital forensic logging system must prevent the booting of unauthorized programs and the modification of evidence. Our previous research developed Dig-Force2, a boot control system for Windows XP platforms that employs API hooking and a trusted platform module. However, Dig-Force2 cannot be used for Windows Vista systems because the hooked API cannot monitor booting programs in user accounts. This paper describes an enhanced version of Dig-Force2, which uses a TPM and a white list to provide boot control functionality for Windows Vista systems. In addition, the paper presents the results of security and performance evaluations of the boot control system.

  11. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  12. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    OpenAIRE

    Mae Claxton

    2010-01-01

    Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty Foundation An African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? ...

  13. Time Modeling: Salvatore Sciarrino, Windows and Beclouding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to discuss one of the figures created by the Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino: the windowed form. After the composer's explanation of this figure, I argue that windows in composition can open inwards and outwards the musical discourse. On one side, they point to the composition's inner ambiences and constitute an internal remission. On the other, they instigate the audience to comprehend the external reference, thereby constructing intertextuality. After the outward window form, I will consider some techniques of distortion, particularly one that I call beclouding. To conclude, I will comment the question of memory and of compostition as time modeling.

  14. Windows Server 2012 ja Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Eteläaho, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston sisältämiin palveluihin sekä perehtyä tarkemmin Active Directoryn peruskäyttöön. Tavoitteena oli antaa lukijalle ymmärrys Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston tarjoamista käyttömahdollisuuksista ja Active Directoryn käytöstä. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta koostui virtuaaliympäristön käytöstä ja erilaisista Windows Server 2012–ohjelman palveluista. Tietoperusta kattoi esimerkiksi seuraavat käsitteet: Virtuaalisointi, Emulointi, Ohj...

  15. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  16. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  17. Window selection for dual photopeak window scatter correction in Tc-99m imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, D.J. de; King, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The width and placement of the windows for the dual photopeak window (DPW) scatter subtraction method for Tc-99m imaging is investigated in order to obtain a method that is stable on a multihead detector system for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and is capable of providing a good scatter estimate for extended objects. For various window pairs, stability and noise were examined with experiments using a SPECT system, while Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the accuracy of scatter estimates for a variety of objects and to guide the development of regression relations for various window pairs. The DPW method that resulted from this study was implemented with a symmetric 20% photopeak window composed of a 15% asymmetric photopeak window and a 5% lower window abutted at 7 keV below the peak. A power function regression was used to relate the scatter-to-total ratio to the lower window-to-total ratio at each pixel, from which an estimated scatter image was calculated. DPW demonstrated good stability, achieved by abutting the two windows away from the peak. Performance was assessed and compared with Compton window subtraction (CWS). For simulated extended objects, DPW generally produced a less biased scatter estimate than the commonly used CWS method with k = 0.5. In acquisitions of a clinical SPECT phantom, contrast recovery was comparable for both DPW and CWS; however, DPW showed greater visual contrast in clinical SPECT bone studies

  18. Beam Fields in an Integrated Cavity, Coupler and Window Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    In a multi-bunch high current storage ring, beam generated fields couple strongly into the RF cavity coupler structure when beam arrival times are in resonance with cavity fields. In this study the integrated effect of beam fields over several thousand RF periods is simulated for the complete cavity, coupler, window and waveguide system of the PEP-II B-factory storage ring collider. We show that the beam generated fields at frequencies corresponding to several bunch spacings for this case gives rise to high field strength near the ceramic window which could limit the performance of future high current storage rings such as PEP-X or Super B-factories.

  19. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides adequate security policy enforcement for organizations...

  20. UV conformal window for asymptotic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.; Vazquez, Gustavo Medina; Steudtner, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Interacting fixed points in four-dimensional gauge theories coupled to matter are investigated using perturbation theory up to three loop order. It is shown how fixed points, scaling exponents, and anomalous dimensions are obtained as a systematic power series in a small parameter. The underlying ordering principle is explained and contrasted with conventional perturbation theory and Weyl consistency conditions. We then determine the conformal window with asymptotic safety from the complete next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. Limits for the conformal window arise due to fixed point mergers, the onset of strong coupling, or vacuum instability. A consistent picture is uncovered by comparing various levels of approximation. The theory remains perturbative in the entire conformal window, with vacuum stability dictating the tightest constraints. We also speculate about a secondary conformal window at strong coupling and estimate its lower limit. Implications for model building and cosmology are indicated.

  1. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  2. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  3. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  4. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  5. HRCT Correlation with Round Window Identification during Cochlear Implantation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendem, Sai Kiran; Rangasami, Rajeswaran; Arunachalam, Ravi Kumar; Mohanarangam, Venkata Sai Pulivadulu; Natarajan, Paarthipan

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT) temporal bone measurements in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy (i.e. facial recess). This is a prospective study of 37 cochlear implant candidates, aged between 1and 6 years, who were referred for HRCT temporal bone during the period December 2013 to July 2014. Cochlear implantation was done in 37 children (25 in the right ear and 12 in the left ear). The distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and the distance between the oval window and the round window niche were measured preoperatively on sub-millimeter (0.7 mm) HRCT images. We classified the visibility of round window niche based on the surgical view (i.e. through posterior tympanotomy) during surgery into three types: 1) Type 1- fully visible, 2) Type 2- partially visible, and 3) Type 3- difficult to visualize. The preoperative HRCT measurements were used to predict the type of visualization of round window niche before surgery and correlated with the findings during surgery. The mean and standard deviation for the distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and for the distance between the oval window and the round window niche for Types 1, 2, and 3 were 8.5 ± 0.2 mm and 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, 8.0 ± 0.4 mm and 3.8 ± 0.2 mm, 7.5 ± 0.2 mm and 4.4 ± 0.2 mm respectively, and showed statistically significant difference (P window niche. This study shows preoperative HRCT temporal bone measurements are useful in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy.

  6. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  7. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explan...

  8. Massive Neutrinos and the Higgs Mass Window

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, J A; Ibarra, Alejandro; Quirós, Mariano

    2000-01-01

    If neutrino masses are produced by a see-saw mechanism the Standard Model prediction for the Higgs mass window (defined by upper (perturbativity) and lower (stability) bounds) can be substantially affected. Actually the Higgs mass window can close completely, which settles an upper bound on the Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrinos, $M$, ranging from $10^{13}$ GeV for three generations of quasi-degenerate massive neutrinos with $m_\

  9. Cascaded Window Memoization for Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khalvati , Farzad; Kianpour , Mehdi; Tizhoosh , Hamid ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 12: Medical Applications of ANN and Ethics of AI; International audience; Window Memoization is a performance improvement technique for image processing algorithms. It is based on removing computational redundancy in an algorithm applied to a single image, which is inherited from data redundancy in the image. The technique employs a fuzzy reuse mechanism to eliminate unnecessary computations. This paper extends the window memoization technique such that in addition to exploiting the data...

  10. Functional window of the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  11. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2017-07-18

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  13. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Information: http://winservices.web.cern.ch/winservices/Seminars/Tutorials/ Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner ...

  14. Estimates of EAST Operation Window with LHCD by Using a Core-SOL-Divertor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Jing; Gan Chunyun; Ye Lei

    2014-01-01

    An experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) operation window with the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in H-mode is estimated by using a core-SOL-divertor (C-S-D) model validated by the present EAST divertor experiments. The operation window consists of four limits including two usual limits, one of which is the maximum allowable heat load onto the divertor plate, and two additional limits associated with the LHCD. The predictive EAST operation window is not qualified to fulfill its mission for high input power. To extend the operation window, gas puffing and impurity seeding are presented as two effective methods. In addition, the effect of the LHCD current on the operation window is also discussed. Our numerical analysis results provide a reference for the safe operation of EAST experiments with LHCD in future. (magnetically confined plasma)

  15. Switchable photovoltaic windows enabled by reversible photothermal complex dissociation from methylammonium lead iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M; Moore, David T; Ihly, Rachelle; Stanton, Noah J; Miller, Elisa M; Tenent, Robert C; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Neale, Nathan R

    2017-11-23

    Materials with switchable absorption properties have been widely used for smart window applications to reduce energy consumption and enhance occupant comfort in buildings. In this work, we combine the benefits of smart windows with energy conversion by producing a photovoltaic device with a switchable absorber layer that dynamically responds to sunlight. Upon illumination, photothermal heating switches the absorber layer-composed of a metal halide perovskite-methylamine complex-from a transparent state (68% visible transmittance) to an absorbing, photovoltaic colored state (less than 3% visible transmittance) due to dissociation of methylamine. After cooling, the methylamine complex is re-formed, returning the absorber layer to the transparent state in which the device acts as a window to visible light. The thermodynamics of switching and performance of the device are described. This work validates a photovoltaic window technology that circumvents the fundamental tradeoff between efficient solar conversion and high visible light transmittance that limits conventional semitransparent PV window designs.

  16. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  17. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  18. MCTS Microsoft Windows 7 Configuration Study Guide Exam 70-680

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2011-01-01

    A fully updated study guide for MCTS exam 70-680 Demand for experienced, qualified Windows 7 administrators remains high. IT professionals seeking certification in Windows 7 administration will find everything they need to learn to pass the MCTS exam (70-680) in this complete Sybex Study Guide. Updated to cover the most recent version of the exam, this comprehensive guide examines all the exam objectives, using real-world scenarios, hands-on exercises, and challenging review questions.Certification in Windows 7 administration is highly prized by IT professionals and employers; this comprehensi

  19. The Rodent Eye as a Non-Invasive Window for Understanding Cancer Nanotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project uses the mouse eye as a non-surgical window for highly efficient, optical investigation of all aspects of syngeneic or xenograft models, using a state-of-the-art ocular imaging facility, the "EyePod."

  20. NOUR. Daylighting and thermal effects of windows in desert houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouahrani, Djamel

    1999-07-01

    constitutes a true improvement of daylighting level rather than a fashion. Especially for new activities such as reading and using modern kitchen equipment, the lighting in traditional houses is not adequate. Only the courtyard receives enough daylight, but it is not uniformly distributed and the activities are therefore located according to their visual demands. The daylighting in modern houses, on the other hand, allows a larger number of activities to take place in different spaces. Most studies on design of passive buildings recommend the location of windows on the south facade because of the ease of passive solar control during summer and optimum solar gain during winter. However, in the urban reality, a house could be oriented to the east, west or north, depending on the constraints of the site. Recommendations for the design of windows with these orientations are scarce. The thermal and daylighting studies indicate that it is possible to have windows to the east or west orientations with still acceptable thermal and daylighting effects as long as they comply with the following recommendations: * For a south orientation, the absolute surfaces and the fenestration should be in the medium to high range, * For an east orientation, the absolute surfaces and the fenestration should be in the medium range, * For an orientation to the west, similar recommendations may be appropriate, albeit with more carefully designed solar shading, since the probability for overheating will be higher, and * For a north orientation, the absolute surfaces and the fenestration should be in the medium to high range. As a device to control eventual glare from opposite walls, solar shading, such as light coloured curtains, are recommended.

  1. X-Windows Socket Widget Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Socket Widget Class ("Class" is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network connections for graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. UNIX Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) socket programming libraries require many method calls to configure, operate, and destroy sockets. Most X Windows GUI programs use widget sets or toolkits to facilitate management of complex objects. The widget standards facilitate construction of toolkits and application programs. The X-Windows Socket Widget Class encapsulates UNIX TCP/IP socket-management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Using the widget framework, X Windows GUI programs can treat one or more network socket instances in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program sockets. Wrapping ISP socket programming libraries inside a widget framework enables a programmer to treat a network interface as though it were a GUI.

  2. Consensus statement on round window vibroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Achille M; Todt, Ingo; Sprinzl, Georg; Profant, Milan; Schwab, Burkhard

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to review current knowledge regarding implantation of the Vibrant Soundbridge floating mass transducer (FMT) at the round window (round window vibroplasty) as well as to form a consensus on steps for a reliable, stable surgical procedure. Review of the literature and experimental observations by the authors. Round window (RW) vibroplasty has been established as a reliable procedure that produces good and stable results for patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss. The experience gained over the past few years of the authors' more than 200 implantations has led to consensus on several key points: (1) a wide and bloodless access to the middle ear with facial nerve monitoring, (2) the careful and correct identification and exposure of the round window membrane, (3) a good setup for efficient energy transition of the FMT, namely, perpendicular placement of the FMT with no contact to bone and the placement of cartilage behind the FMT to create a preloaded "spring" function, and (4) 4 points of FMT fixation: a rim of the round window bony overhang left intact both anterior and posterior to the FMT, conductor link stabilization, and cartilage behind the FMT. In addition, the FMT should be covered with soft tissue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  4. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsharo' a, Mohammad M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

  5. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharoa, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements

  6. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  7. Seismic signal time-frequency analysis based on multi-directional window using greedy strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingpin; Peng, Zhenming; Cheng, Zhuyuan; Tian, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) is an important time-frequency analysis technology with a high energy distribution in seismic signal processing. However, it is interfered by many cross terms. To suppress the cross terms of the WVD and keep the concentration of its high energy distribution, an adaptive multi-directional filtering window in the ambiguity domain is proposed. This begins with the relationship of the Cohen distribution and the Gabor transform combining the greedy strategy and the rotational invariance property of the fractional Fourier transform in order to propose the multi-directional window, which extends the one-dimensional, one directional, optimal window function of the optimal fractional Gabor transform (OFrGT) to a two-dimensional, multi-directional window in the ambiguity domain. In this way, the multi-directional window matches the main auto terms of the WVD more precisely. Using the greedy strategy, the proposed window takes into account the optimal and other suboptimal directions, which also solves the problem of the OFrGT, called the local concentration phenomenon, when encountering a multi-component signal. Experiments on different types of both the signal models and the real seismic signals reveal that the proposed window can overcome the drawbacks of the WVD and the OFrGT mentioned above. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a seismic signal's spectral decomposition. The results show that the proposed method can explore the space distribution of a reservoir more precisely.

  8. Ecophysiological function of leaf 'windows' in Lithops species - 'Living Stones' that grow underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Brandmeyer, E A; Ross, R D

    2013-01-01

    Leaf temperatures were lower when light entry at the leaf tip window was prevented through covering the window with reflective tape, relative to leaf temperatures of plants with leaf tip windows covered with transparent tape. This was true when leaf temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer, but not with a fine-wire thermocouple. Leaf tip windows of Lithops growing in high-rainfall regions of southern Africa were larger than the windows of plants (numerous individuals of 17 species) growing in areas with less rainfall and, thus, more annual insolation. The results of this study indicate that leaf tip windows of desert plants with an underground growth habit can allow entry of supra-optimal levels of radiant energy, thus most likely inhibiting photosynthetic activity. Consequently, the size of the leaf tip windows correlates inversely with habitat solar irradiance, minimising the probability of photoinhibition, while maximising the absorption of irradiance in cloudy, high-rainfall regions. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means of...

  10. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  11. Optimized Kaiser-Bessel Window Functions for Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchian, Masih; Ward, John Paul; Vonesch, Cedric; Unser, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Kaiser-Bessel window functions are frequently used to discretize tomographic problems because they have two desirable properties: 1) their short support leads to a low computational cost and 2) their rotational symmetry makes their imaging transform independent of the direction. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the parameters of these basis functions. We present a formalism based on the theory of approximation and point out the importance of the partition-of-unity condition. While we prove that, for compact-support functions, this condition is incompatible with isotropy, we show that minimizing the deviation from the partition of unity condition is highly beneficial. The numerical results confirm that the proposed tuning of the Kaiser-Bessel window functions yields the best performance.

  12. Radiation attenuation by single-crystal diamond windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, M.; Pruteanu, C. G.; Donnelly, M. -E.; Molaison, J. J.; dos Santos, A. M.; Loveday, J. S.; Boehler, R.; Tulk, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    As artificial diamond becomes more cost effective it is likely to see increasing use as a window for sample environment equipment used in diffraction experiments. Such windows are particularly useful as they exhibit exceptional mechanical properties in addition to being highly transparent to both X-ray and neutron radiation. A key application is in high-pressure studies, where diamond anvil cells (DACs) are used to access extreme sample conditions. However, despite their utility, an important consideration when using single-crystal diamond windows is their interaction with the incident beam. In particular, the Bragg condition will be satisfied for specific angles and wavelengths, leading to the appearance of diamond Bragg spots on the diffraction detectors but also, unavoidably, to loss of transmitted intensity of the beam that interacts with the sample. This effect can be particularly significant for energy-dispersive measurements, for example, in time-of-flight neutron diffraction work using DACs. This article presents a semi-empirical approach that can be used to correct for this effect, which is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of diffraction intensities.

  13. Teach yourself visually Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8.1 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8.1. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more.The tried-and-true f

  14. Performance of the Analog Moving Window Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, V. Gregers

    1970-01-01

    A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning of the ante......A type of analog integrating moving window detector for use with a scanning pulse radar is examined. A performance analysis is carried out, which takes into account both the radiation pattern of the antenna and the dynamic character of the detection process due to the angular scanning....... Finally the influence on detection performance of the width used for the moving window is investigated....

  15. Integral window hermetic fiber optic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  16. Optical distortion coefficients of laser windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of describing and evaluating thermal lensing phenomena that occur as a result of the absorption of laser light in solid windows. The aberration-function expansion method is applied for deriving the two optical distortion coefficients χ + and χ - that characterize the degradation in light intensity at the Gaussian focus of an initially diffraction-limited laser beam passing through a weakly absorbing stress-birefringent window. In a pulsed mode of operation, the concept of an effective optical distortion coefficient. χ eff, which properly combines the coefficients χ + and χ - in terms of potential impact on focal irradiances, then leads to the definition of a figure of merit for distortion. The theory and the calculations presented in this papers provide simple analytical tools for predicting the optical performance of a window-material candidate in a specific system's environment

  17. Study on the application of low energy U-window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Binghai; Liu Shikai; Chen Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    For using the low energy U-window information, based on the theory and experiment, the advantage of identifying the subtle anomaly that the low energy U-window information has given is discussed, the method of drawing the low energy U-window information is stated; a method of calibration and obtaining the calibration parameters was developed which was applied to Dongsheng region. The result indicated that the anomaly of low energy U-window information upon known field is more easy identified by comparing with the standard three windows U-window information, which proved the practicability of the method of low energy U-windows information. (authors)

  18. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  19. Nano-Micro Materials Enabled Thermoelectricity From Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-11-03

    and n type thermoelectric materials, this novel energy generation technique promises 304 watts of thermoelectricity from a 9 m2 glass window utilizing temperature difference of 20 OC. In addition to be useful even during off sunshine hours of the day, these energy harvesting windows will be capable of power generation even in the absence of a cooling systems inside the building as long as a natural temperature gradient exists between the two counter environments. With an increasing trend of having the exterior of buildings and high rises entirely made up of glass, this work offers an innovative transformation of these building exteriors into mass scale energy harvesters capable of running average lighting loads inside the building hence providing a complimentary source of electricity to the main power grid.

  20. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# Windows Presentation Foundation in .NET 4.5

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Microsoft's Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) provides you with a development framework for building high-quality user experiences for the Windows operating system. It blends together rich content from a wide range of sources and allows you unparalleled access to the processing power of your Windows computer. Pro WPF 4.5 in C# provides a thorough, authoritative guide to how WPF really works. Packed with no-nonsense examples and practical advice you'll learn everything you need to know in order to use WPF in a professional setting. The book begins by building a firm foundation of elementary

  1. Use of model-based qualitative icons and adaptive windows in workstations for supervisory control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christine M.; Saisi, Donna L.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of an operator interface using qualitative icons and dynamic windows designed and controlled by means of an operator function model is demonstrated, and the simulation system, the Georgia Tech-Multisatellite Operations Control Center, is described. Qualitative icons are used to integrate low-level quantitative data into high-level qualitative error detection mechanisms, and window technology is used for the simultaneous display of multiple data sources that reflect different aspects of the system state. Based on eleven experimental measures, the workstation incorporating the model-based qualitative icons and dynamic operator function window sets was found to perform better than the conventional workstation.

  2. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    —where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  3. Mastering Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A complete, winning approach to the number one small business solution. Do you have 75 or fewer users or devices on your small-business network? Find out how to integrate everything you need for your mini-enterprise with Microsoft's new Windows Server 2008 Small Business Server, a custom collection of server and management technologies designed to help small operations run smoothly without a giant IT department. This comprehensive guide shows you how to master all SBS components as well as handle integration with other Microsoft technologies.: Focuses on Windows Server 2008 Small Business Serv

  4. Thin Cryogenic X-ray Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Davenport, M; Elias, N; Aune, S; Franz, J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the construction and tests of cryogenic X-ray windows of 47 mm diameter made of 15 ìm thick polypropylene foil glued on a UHV flange and supported with a strongback mesh machined by electro-erosion. These hermetic windows of the solar axion telescope of the CAST experiment at CERN withstand the static and dynamic pressures of the buffer gas that are normally below 130 mbar, but may reach 1.2 bar when the magnet quenches. They were tested at 60 K up to 3.5 bar static pressure without permanent deformation.

  5. Design considerations for the SINQ target window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubs, M.; Ulrich, J.

    1991-01-01

    Since the proton-beam enters the SINQ liquid lead-bismuth target from below, a special window design is needed at attain safe operation for at least one year. The present design consist of a double-walled water cooled entrance-window and a third wall cooled by lead-bismuth. The intermediate volume contains circulating helium in order to detect any leaks in the 2nd or 3rd wall at an early stage. Several investigations have been made in the fields of radiation-damage, thermohydraulics and stress analysis. (author)

  6. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Stepan

    2017-12-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explanation of economic efficiency of the proposed construction.

  7. Windows Server® 2008 Inside Out

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2009-01-01

    Learn how to conquer Windows Server 2008-from the inside out! Designed for system administrators, this definitive resource features hundreds of timesaving solutions, expert insights, troubleshooting tips, and workarounds for administering Windows Server 2008-all in concise, fast-answer format. You will learn how to perform upgrades and migrations, automate deployments, implement security features, manage software updates and patches, administer users and accounts, manage Active Directory® directory services, and more. With INSIDE OUT, you'll discover the best and fastest ways to perform core a

  8. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  9. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Christopher J; Kuhn, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  10. THERMAL SHOCK ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS INTERACTING WITH ENERGETIC, FOCUSED BEAM OF THE BNL MUON TARGET EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; KIRK, H.; PRIGL, R.; BROWN, K.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, issues associated with the interaction of a proton beam with windows designed for the muon targetry experiment E951 at BNL are explored. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam up to 16 TP per pulse and a pulse length of 100 ns is tightly focused (to 0.5 mm rms radius) on an experimental target. The need to maintain an enclosed environment around the target implies the use of beam windows that will survive the passage of the proton beam. The required beam parameters in such a setting will induce very high thermal, quasi-static and shock stresses in the window structure that exceed the strength of most common materials. In this effort, a detailed analysis of the thermal/shock response of beam windows is attempted through a transient thermal and stress wave propagation formulation that incorporates energy deposition rates calculated the by hadron interaction code MARS. The thermal response of the window structure and the subsequent stress wave generation and propagation are computed using the finite element analysis procedures of the ANSYS code. This analysis attempts to address issues pertaining to an optimal combination of material, window thickness and pulse structure that will allow for a window to safely survive the extreme demands of the experiment

  11. Windows XP ends its life at CERN – register for Windows 7 training!

    CERN Multimedia

    Michał Kwiatek (IT-OIS)

    2012-01-01

    Windows XP has been around for over 10 years and it is now time to move on. At CERN, general support for Windows XP will end in December 2012, and before this date users are requested to schedule a migration to the next version of WindowsWindows 7.   Windows 7 is already well established at CERN – it is used by a large majority of users. In fact, there was a considerable user demand even before its official release in October 2009 and its adoption has been smooth. Users praise Windows 7 for its improved stability and a clear advantage on laptops is a much more efficient implementation of offline files. The migration to Windows 7 involves a reinstallation of the operating system. Files stored in user home folders on DFS will be immediately available after the reinstallation. Applications will be upgraded to more recent versions and in certain cases, an application may even be replaced by another application providing the same functionality. Microsoft Office suite is a good ...

  12. Using programmable graphics to improve zoom window anti-aliasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.

    2004-08-01

    Standard OpenGL-based rendering has sampling limitations. By default these rendering systems point sample rendered pixels. For highly resolved objects, this sampling is adequate to represent the object accurately, but when the object has a relatively small projected area that is on the order of a few pixels, the object intensity is corrupted with aliasing. Hardware anti-aliasing such as multisampling provides minimal relief by offering 4, 8, or 16 samples within a single pixel. However, for hardware-in-the-loop (HITL) scene generation where accurate energy conservation of unresolved sub-pixel objects must be maintained, standard hardware anti-aliasing is not good enough. Zoom anti-aliasing (ZAA) has been proven as a viable solution for rendering objects that would otherwise be grossly under-sampled. Techniques in the past have focused on processing the zoom window pixels in the CPU because the graphics processor unit (GPU) was not general purpose enough to support the zoom window processing. However, this is no longer the case because of the new capabilities of modern graphics processors. This paper presents a modern GPU-based zoom window approach and compares the results to a classic CPU-based approach.

  13. The vacuum window - a minimal concept with maximum effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredsdorff, M.; Moltke, I.; Bezzel, E.

    1997-12-01

    The projects primary aim was to develop a production technology in order to produce evacuated panes at a competitive price. Insulating using vacuum is not a new concept. It has been described in patents for over a century. The field of usage of this concept is immense, and the potentials even greater. The general principle of the vacuum window is to have nothing, namely vacuum, in-between two low radiant surfaces, thus obtaining very low heat transmission technique for highly insulating evacuated windows has most certainly been reached. To obtain the mentioned vast improvements in thermal performance of the new generation of glazing there were several technical issues to be dealt with. They have been divided up into 6 tasks: Low emission glass, spacers, tempering, edge seal, evacuation and framing. The target center U-value of the vacuum window was set to be 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K, an ambitious target requiring several previously unsolved details to be solved. The center U-value of 0.7 W/m{sup 2}K has been reached and documented through this project. The production costs compares to that of existing glazing with the same insulating capabilities. (EHS) EFP-93; EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96; EU-BRITE-DURAM; 13 refs.

  14. Uncertainties in liquid-metal fusion blanket design windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, J.K.; Abdou, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Lithium- and lead-lithium (17Li-83Pb)-cooled fusion blankets offer the promise of excellent neutronic performance, high fusion to electrical energy conversion efficiency, and design simplicity. However, interactive effects such as magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) pressure drop, flow distribution, heat transfer, corrosion, and stress appear to have large enough uncertainties to make the presence of a useful design window questionable, especially in large tokamak reactors. The work reported here attempts to: (a) define limits for the design windows for lithium and lead-lithium as breeders and coolants with stainless steel, ferritic steel, and refractory alloy structural materials in various tokamak fusion reactors and (b) quantify the impact of uncertainties in these limits on the design window. Steady-state MHD pressure drop and heat transfer models are developed and used to quantify the effects of varying several tokamak reactor and blanket design parameters and materials properties. Uncertainties in the present pressure drop equations and calculation methods are also considered. Calculations are used to evaluate the impact of the coolant inlet temperature on the thermal cycle efficiency

  15. Extraction and Categorisation of User Activity from Windows Restore Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Kahvedzic

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the user activity is one of the main goals in the analysis of digital evidence. In this paper we present a methodology for extracting this activity by comparing multiple Restore Points found in the Windows XP operating system. The registry copies represent a snapshot of the state of the system at a certain point in time. Differences between them can reveal user activity from one instant to another. The algorithms for comparing the hives and interpreting the results are of high complexity. We develop an approach that takes into account the nature of the investigation and the characteristics of the hives to reduce the complexity of the comparison and result interpretation processes. The approach concentrates on hives that present higher activity and highlights only those differences that are relevant to the investigation. The approach is implemented as a software tool that is able to compare any set of offline hives and categorise the results according to the user needs. The categorisation of the results, in terms of activity will help the investigator in interpreting the results. In this paper we present a general concept of result categorisation to prove its efficiency on Windows XP, but these can be adapted to any Windows versions including the latest versions.  

  16. MCSA Microsoft Windows 8.1 complete study guide exams 70-687, 70-688, and 70-689

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive, hands-on study guide for the Microsoft Windows 8.1 exams The MCSA: Microsoft Windows 8.1 Complete Study Guide is a comprehensive package loaded with educational study tools, including a pre-assessment test, hands-on exercises, hundreds of review questions, exclusive practice exam questions, electronic flashcards, and over an hour of author-led videos. For IT students and professionals, getting certified on Microsoft Windows 8.1 can mean huge career opportunities. Over 90% of all personal computing devices run on Windows, and those certified on the newest version will be in high

  17. Windows 8: What Educators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2012, Microsoft will release the commercial version of its next operating system, presently called "Windows 8." This version represents a significant departure from the past. Microsoft wants this operating system to meet user needs regardless of physical platform (e.g., desktop, notebook, tablet, mobile phone). As part of this mission,…

  18. Schools Facing the Expiration of Windows XP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Microsoft's plans to end support for Windows XP, believed to be the dominant computer operating system in K-12 education, could pose big technological and financial challenges for districts nationwide--issues that many school systems have yet to confront. The giant software company has made it clear for years that it plans to stop supporting XP…

  19. Performance Evaluation of Vinyl Replacement Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-15

    Grids, Nikolaev Branch of Odessa Div., Engineering Inst., UKR SSR, 1979. Grandjean, E., The Ergonomics of the Hone, Halsted Pr., New York, 1974. Griffin...Richard H.; Marshall, Stephen J., Infrared Thermography of Buildings: Qualitative Analysis of Window Infiltration Loss, Federal Office Building, Burlington

  20. New Window into the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Michael Vannier, MD, a former NASA engineer, recognized the similarity between NASA's computerized image processing technology and nuclear magnetic resonance. With technical assistance from Kennedy Space Center, he developed a computer program for Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology enabling Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to scan body tissue for earlier diagnoses. Dr. Vannier feels that "satellite imaging" has opened a new window into the human body.

  1. Windows Phone 8 application development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Szostak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    A mini-tutorial full of code examples and strategies to give you plenty of options when building your own applications for Windows Phone 8.This book is ideal if you are a developers who wants to get into mobile development. Some C# background may be useful for a complete understanding.

  2. Considerations When Upgrading and Renovating Window Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Today's educational facilities managers face many challenges. As stewards of their campus' physical assets, these professionals are charged with improving students' learning environments, saving money, and maintaining the historical and aesthetic integrity of their buildings. For schools and universities that have not replaced their windows in…

  3. Windowed active sampling for reliable neural learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barakova, E.I; Spaanenburg, L

    The composition of the example set has a major impact on the quality of neural learning. The popular approach is focused on extensive pre-processing to bridge the representation gap between process measurement and neural presentation. In contrast, windowed active sampling attempts to solve these

  4. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  5. Multistate Luminescent Solar Concentrator "Smart" Windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol, Jeroen A.H.P.; Timmermans, Gilles H.; Breugel, van Abraham J.; Schenning, Albertus P.H.J.; Debije, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    A supertwist liquid crystalline luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) "smart" window is fabricated which can be switched electrically between three states: one designed for increased light absorption and electrical generation (the "dark" state), one for transparency (the "light" state), and one for

  6. Broken windows, mediocre methods, and substandard statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Broken windows theory states that cues of inappropriate behavior like litter or graffiti amplify norm-violating behavior. In a series of quasi-experiments, Keizer, Lindenberg, and Steg altered cues of inappropriate behavior in public places and observed how many passersby subsequently violated

  7. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  8. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  9. Gabor windows supported on [-1,1] and compactly supported dual windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, H. O.; Rae Young, Kim

    2010-01-01

    window. More precisely, we show that if b window supported on [-N, N]. Under the additional assumption that g is continuous and only has a finite number of zeros on inverted left perpendicular-1, 1inverted right perpendicular, we...... characterize the frame property of {E(mb)T(n)g}(m,n is an element of Z). As a consequence we obtain easily verifiable criteria for a function g to generate a Gabor frame with a dual window having compact support of prescribed size....

  10. Windows registry forensics advanced digital forensic analysis of the Windows registry

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2011-01-01

    Harlan Carvey brings readers an advanced book on Windows Registry - the most difficult part of Windows to analyze in forensics! Windows Registry Forensics provides the background of the Registry to help develop an understanding of the binary structure of Registry hive files. Approaches to live response and analysis are included, and tools and techniques for postmortem analysis are discussed at length. Tools and techniques will be presented that take the analyst beyond the current use of viewers and into real analysis of data contained in the Registry. This book also has a DVD containing tools, instructions and videos.

  11. Dynamic compression of synthetic diamond windows (final report for LDRD project 93531).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2008-09-01

    Diamond is an attractive dynamic compression window for many reasons: high elastic limit,large mechanical impedance, and broad transparency range. Natural diamonds, however, aretoo expensive to be used in destructive experiments. Chemical vapor deposition techniquesare now able to produce large single-crystal windows, opening up many potential dynamiccompression applications. This project studied the behavior of synthetic diamond undershock wave compression. The results suggest that synthetic diamond could be a usefulwindow in this field, though complete characterization proved elusive.3

  12. Light transfer through windows with external condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keyong; Li, Shaoling; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates systematically light transfer through windows supporting cap-shaped droplets on their external face. The presence of such droplets may have negative effects on the conversion efficiency of solar cells, distorts image quality of lenses, or hinders visibility through windows and windshields. Here, the directional-hemispherical transmittance was predicted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. The droplets were monodisperse or polydisperse randomly distributed on the outside face of optically smooth windows. For nonabsorbing droplets, the diameter and size distribution did not have a significant effect on the window directional-hemispherical transmittance. The latter was nearly independent of contact angle for incident angle θi ≤ 30°. However, the directional-hemispherical transmittance decreased monotonously with increasing incident angle and droplet contact angle for contact angle θc ≤ 70° to reach a minimum at a contact angle θc,min beyond which it increased with increasing contact angle before reaching a plateau at large contact angles. This was attributed to total internal reflection at the back window/air and droplet/air interfaces. For absorbing droplets, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased significantly with increasing droplet contact angle, mean diameter, polydispersity, and projected surface area coverage due to strong absorption within the droplets. Moreover, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased with increasing contact angle for θcmean diameter, and contact angle for θc ≥ 90°. Finally, Analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the normal-hemispherical transmittance as a function of droplet contact angle, optical properties, and projected surface area coverage were derived.

  13. A biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) for enhancing DNA signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muneer; Jung, Low Tan; Bhuiyan, Al-Amin

    2017-10-01

    Digital signal processing techniques commonly employ fixed length window filters to process the signal contents. DNA signals differ in characteristics from common digital signals since they carry nucleotides as contents. The nucleotides own genetic code context and fuzzy behaviors due to their special structure and order in DNA strand. Employing conventional fixed length window filters for DNA signal processing produce spectral leakage and hence results in signal noise. A biological context aware adaptive window filter is required to process the DNA signals. This paper introduces a biological inspired fuzzy adaptive window median filter (FAWMF) which computes the fuzzy membership strength of nucleotides in each slide of window and filters nucleotides based on median filtering with a combination of s-shaped and z-shaped filters. Since coding regions cause 3-base periodicity by an unbalanced nucleotides' distribution producing a relatively high bias for nucleotides' usage, such fundamental characteristic of nucleotides has been exploited in FAWMF to suppress the signal noise. Along with adaptive response of FAWMF, a strong correlation between median nucleotides and the Π shaped filter was observed which produced enhanced discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary to fixed length conventional window filters. The proposed FAWMF attains a significant enhancement in coding regions identification i.e. 40% to 125% as compared to other conventional window filters tested over more than 250 benchmarked and randomly taken DNA datasets of different organisms. This study proves that conventional fixed length window filters applied to DNA signals do not achieve significant results since the nucleotides carry genetic code context. The proposed FAWMF algorithm is adaptive and outperforms significantly to process DNA signal contents. The algorithm applied to variety of DNA datasets produced noteworthy discrimination between coding and non-coding regions contrary

  14. Vibro-acoustic model of an active aircraft cabin window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloufi, Badr; Behdinan, Kamran; Zu, Jean

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents modeling and design of an active structural acoustic control (ASAC) system for controlling the low frequency sound field transmitted through an aircraft cabin window. The system uses stacked piezoelectric elements arranged in a manner to generate out-of-plane actuation point forces acting on the window panel boundaries. A theoretical vibro-acoustic model for an active quadruple-panel system is developed to characterize the dynamic behavior of the system and achieve a good understanding of the active control performance and the physical phenomena of the sound transmission loss (STL) characteristics. The quadruple-panel system represents the passenger window design used in some classes of modern aircraft with an exterior double pane of Plexiglas, an interior dust cover pane and a glazed dimmable pane, all separated by thin air cavities. The STL characteristics of identical pane window configurations with different piezoelectric actuator sets are analyzed. A parametric study describes the influence of important active parameters, such as the input voltage, number and location of the actuator elements, on the STL is investigated. In addition, a mathematical model for obtaining the optimal input voltage is developed to improve the acoustic attenuation capability of the control system. In general, the achieved results indicate that the proposed ASAC design offers a considerable improvement in the passive sound loss performance of cabin window design without significant effects, such as weight increase, on the original design. Also, the results show that the acoustic control of the active model with piezoelectric actuators bonded to the dust cover pane generates high structural vibrations in the radiating panel (dust cover) and an increase in sound power radiation. High active acoustic attenuation can be achieved by designing the ASAC system to apply active control forces on the inner Plexiglas panel or dimmable panel by installing the actuators on the

  15. Design and tests of 500 kW RF windows for the ITER LHCD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillairet, J., E-mail: julien.hillairet@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Faure, N. [PMB/ALCEN, Site de Peynier, Route des Michels, 13790, Peynier (France); Achard, J. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bae, Y.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bernard, J.M.; Delpech, L.; Goniche, M.; Larroque, S.; Magne, R.; Marfisi, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Park, S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Poli, S. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dechambre, N. [PMB/ALCEN, Site de Peynier, Route des Michels, 13790, Peynier (France); Vulliez, K. [Laboratoire d’étanchéité, CEA DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 2 rue James Watt 26700, Pierrelatte (France)

    2015-05-15

    In the frame of a R&D effort conducted by CEA towards the design and the qualification of a 5 GHz LHCD system for the ITER tokamak, two 5 GHz 500 kW/5 s windows have been designed, manufactured and tested at high power in collaboration with the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI). The window design rely on a symmetrical pill-box concept with a cylindrical beryllium oxide ceramic brazed on an actively water cooled copper skirt. The ceramic RF properties have been measured on a test sample to get realistic values for guiding the design. Low power measurements of the manufactured windows show return losses below −32 dB and insertion losses between −0.01 dB and −0.05 dB, with an optimum frequency shifted toward lower frequencies. High power tests conducted at NFRI show unexpected total power loss for both windows. The ceramic temperature during RF pulses has been found to reach unexpected high temperature, preventing these windows to be used under CW conditions. A post-mortem RF analysis of samples taken from one window shows that the dielectric properties of the ceramic were not the ones measured on the manufacturer sample, which partly explain the differences with the reference modelling.

  16. Gabor windows supported on [ − 1, 1] and dual windows with small support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2012-01-01

    Consider a continuous function g ∈ L 2(ℝ) that is supported on [ − 1, 1] and generates a Gabor frame with translation parameter 1 and modulation parameter 0 for some N ∈ ℕ. Under an extra condition on the zeroset of the window g we show that there exists a continuous dual window supported on [ − N......, N]. We also show that this result is optimal: indeed, if b2N2N+1 then a dual window supported on [ − N, N] does not exist. In the limit case b=2N2N+1 a dual window supported on [ − N, N] might exist, but cannot be continuous....

  17. Windows 7 A quick, hands-on introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng

    2009-01-01

    This compact book offers the quickest path for Windows users to get started with Microsoft's Windows 7 operating system. You get the essential information you need to upgrade or install the system and configure it to fit your activities, along with a tour of Windows 7's features and built-in applications. Microsoft has learned from the mistakes of Windows Vista, and Windows 7 shows it-this new OS is much faster and more stable. With Windows 7: Up and Running, you'll learn what's new and what's changed from XP and Vista, and get advice on ways to use this system for work, entertainment, inst

  18. Prognostic significance of tumor size of small lung adenocarcinomas evaluated with mediastinal window settings on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Yukinori; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Uehara, Hirofumi; Motoi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ken; Okumura, Sakae

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to clarify that the size of the lung adenocarcinoma evaluated using mediastinal window on computed tomography is an important and useful modality for predicting invasiveness, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in small adenocarcinoma. We evaluated 176 patients with small lung adenocarcinomas (diameter, 1-3 cm) who underwent standard surgical resection. Tumours were examined using computed tomography with thin section conditions (1.25 mm thick on high-resolution computed tomography) with tumour dimensions evaluated under two settings: lung window and mediastinal window. We also determined the patient age, gender, preoperative nodal status, tumour size, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and pathological status (lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion). Recurrence-free survival was used for prognosis. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for recurrence-free survival in univariate analyses. Areas under the receiver operator curves for recurrence were 0.76, 0.73 and 0.65 for mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and lung window, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.61, 0.76, 0.72 and 0.66, for lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio and preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, respectively. Lung window, mediastinal window, tumour disappearance ratio, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels and preoperative nodal status were significant factors for lymphatic vessel, vascular vessel or pleural invasion in univariate analyses; areas under the receiver operator curves were 0.60, 0.81, 0.81 and 0.65 for lung window

  19. Error analysis and new dual-cosine window for estimating the sensor frequency response function from the step response data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Long; Liang, Li-Ping; Liu, Hou-De; Xu, Ke-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at reducing the estimation error of the sensor frequency response function (FRF) estimated by the commonly used window-based spectral estimation method, the error models of interpolation and transient errors are derived in the form of non-parameter models. Accordingly, window effects on the errors are analyzed and reveal that the commonly used hanning window leads to smaller interpolation error which can also be significantly eliminated by the cubic spline interpolation method when estimating the FRF from the step response data, and window with smaller front-end value can restrain more transient error. Thus, a new dual-cosine window with its non-zero discrete Fourier transform bins at -3, -1, 0, 1, and 3 is constructed for FRF estimation. Compared with the hanning window, the new dual-cosine window has the equivalent interpolation error suppression capability and better transient error suppression capability when estimating the FRF from the step response; specifically, it reduces the asymptotic property of the transient error from O(N-2) of the hanning window method to O(N-4) while only increases the uncertainty slightly (about 0.4 dB). Then, one direction of a wind tunnel strain gauge balance which is a high order, small damping, and non-minimum phase system is employed as the example for verifying the new dual-cosine window-based spectral estimation method. The model simulation result shows that the new dual-cosine window method is better than the hanning window method for FRF estimation, and compared with the Gans method and LPM method, it has the advantages of simple computation, less time consumption, and short data requirement; the actual data calculation result of the balance FRF is consistent to the simulation result. Thus, the new dual-cosine window is effective and practical for FRF estimation.

  20. MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7.

    OpenAIRE

    Zariņš, Valdis

    2009-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā tiek aprakstītas MS Windows domēna darbstacijas migrācijas iespējas no MS Windows XP uz MS Windows 7, kā servera operētājsistēmas izmantojot tādus Microsoft produktus, kā Microsoft Windows Server 2003 un Microsoft Windows Server 2008. Kvalifikācijas darba teorētiskaja daļā tiek apskatīti Microsoft Windows 7 priekšrocības un uzlabojumus gan no darbstacijas lietotāja , gan no darbstacijas administratora puses. Ir aprakstītas Microsoft Windows Server 2008 jauninājumu ie...

  1. Low-E Storm Windows Gain Acceptance as a Home Weatherization Measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2016-05-16

    This article for Home Energy Magazine describes work by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop low-emissivity storm windows as an energy efficiency-retrofit option for existing homes. The article describes the low-emissivity invisible silver metal coatings on the glass, which reflect heat back into the home in winter or back outside in summer and the benefits of low-e storm windows including insulation, air sealing, noise blocking, protection of antique windows, etc. The article also describes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's efforts on behalf of DOE to overcome market barriers to adoption of the technology, including performance validation studies in the PNNL Lab Homes, cost effectiveness analysis, production of reports, brochures, how-to guides on low-e storm window installation for the Building America Solution Center, and a video posted on YouTube. PNNL's efforts were reviewed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum (RTF), which serves as the advisory board to the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration. In late July 2015, the RTF approved the low-e storm window measure’s savings and specifications, a critical step in integrating low-e storm windows into energy-efficiency planning and utility weatherization and incentive programs. PNNL estimates that more than 90 million homes in the United States with single-pane or low-performing double-pane windows would benefit from the technology. Low-e storm windows are suitable not only for private residences but also for small commercial buildings, historic properties, and facilities that house residents, such as nursing homes, dormitories, and in-patient facilities. To further assist in the market transformation of low-e storm windows and other high-efficiency window attachments, DOE helped found the window Attachment Energy Rating Council (AERC) in 2015. AERC is an independent, public interest, non-profit organization whose mission is to rate

  2. Nanographene charge trapping memory with a large memory window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianling; Yang, Rong; Zhao, Jing; He, Congli; Wang, Guole; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2015-11-01

    Nanographene is a promising alternative to metal nanoparticles or semiconductor nanocrystals for charge trapping memory. In general, a high density of nanographene is required in order to achieve high charge trapping capacity. Here, we demonstrate a strategy of fabrication for a high density of nanographene for charge trapping memory with a large memory window. The fabrication includes two steps: (1) direct growth of continuous nanographene film; and (2) isolation of the as-grown film into high-density nanographene by plasma etching. Compared with directly grown isolated nanographene islands, abundant defects and edges are formed in nanographene under argon or oxygen plasma etching, i.e. more isolated nanographene islands are obtained, which provides more charge trapping sites. As-fabricated nanographene charge trapping memory shows outstanding memory properties with a memory window as wide as ∼9 V at a relative low sweep voltage of ±8 V, program/erase speed of ∼1 ms and robust endurance of >1000 cycles. The high-density nanographene charge trapping memory provides an outstanding alternative for downscaling technology beyond the current flash memory.

  3. Aortopulmonary window: results of repair beyond infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Sachin; Siddharth, Bharat; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Juneja, Rajnish; Saxena, Anita; Airan, Balram

    2017-11-01

    To study the anatomic and haemodynamic data and results of surgery in patients undergoing surgical repair of aortopulmonary window beyond infancy. Between July 2005 and December 2015, 23 patients, older than 1 year undergoing surgery for aortopulmonary window were analysed retrospectively. Postoperative clinical and echocardiography follow-up were performed. Median age and weight at repair was 4 years (range 14 months-12 years) and 12 kg (range 3.5-22 kg), respectively. Fifteen patients had Richardson's Type I, 6 patients had Type II and 2 patients had Type III aortopulmonary window. Six patients had associated defects. Baseline mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 101 ± 14.9 mmHg (range 80-130, median 100 mmHg) and pulmonary vascular resistance index was 9.6 ± 5.9 (median 7.7 Wood units/m2, range 3.7-23.5 Wood units/m2). Patch repair of aortopulmonary window was performed using the sandwich method (transwindow) (n = 15), transaortic (n = 3) and transpulmonary artery (n = 2) approaches; 2 patients underwent double ligation and 1 underwent division and suturing. Two patients underwent valved patch closure of aortopulmonary window and 1 patient underwent valved patch closure of associated ventricular septal defect. There were 2 in-hospital deaths: one due to intractable pulmonary hypertension and the other due to low cardiac output. Mean follow-up was 36 months (range 2-119 months). Eighteen patients were in NYHA Class I at last follow-up. There were no late deaths or reoperation. Surgery can be safely undertaken beyond infancy in carefully selected patients of aortopulmonary window with acceptable early and mid-term outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of four-pane building window filled with a PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolacek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transparent building element filled with Phase change materials (PCMs represent an innovative solution that can achieve thermal comfort in buildings lowering the cooling and heating demand. There are many different PCMs which are used in the building element. Salt hydrates can absorb a large amount of energy and have properties similar to water. Nevertheless, these materials have a tendency to supercool (supercooling effect and to incongruent melt. This paper reports the results of the measurement specific four-pane window filled with a PMCs. Thermal properties of the window were tested in the climate simulator where the climatic conditions were dynamically controlled. The measurement confirmed high thermal inertia of the window and also reducing heat transfer through the window.

  5. Fabrication of Microcapsules for Dye-Doped Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal-Based Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mingyun; Park, Kyun Joo; Seok, Seunghwan; Ok, Jong Min; Jung, Hee-Tae; Choe, Jaehoon; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-08-19

    A dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is an attractive material for application in smart windows. Smart windows using a PDLC can be operated simply and have a high contrast ratio compared to those of other devices that employed photochromic or thermochromic material. However, in conventional dye-doped PDLC methods, dye contamination can cause problems and has a limited degree of commercialization of electric smart windows. Here, we report on an approach to resolve dye-related problems by encapsulating the dye in monodispersed capsules. By encapsulation, a fabricated dye-doped PDLC had a contrast ratio of >120 at 600 nm. This fabrication method of encapsulating the dye in a core-shell structured microcapsule in a dye-doped PDLC device provides a practical platform for dye-doped PDLC-based smart windows.

  6. The size effect of searching window for measuring wavefront of laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Lim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jung Cheol; Yi, Seung Jun; Ra, Sung Woong

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the size effect of the searching window for measuring of a laser beam using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. The shapes of spot images on an acquired wavefront image by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor are usually imbalanced. Also, the distributed intensity pattern of each spot image is varied according to successively acquired wavefront image. We studied on the optimized size of searching window to get wavefront with high measurement resolution. We experimented on the various size effect of searching window on an acquired wavefront image to get fine wavefront information using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. As the experimental results, we proposed the optimum size of searching window to measure improved wavefront.

  7. The Development of a Hibachi Window for Electron Beam Transmission in a KrF Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, C.A.; Parsells, R.; Butler, J.E.; Sethian, J.D.; Ciebiera, L.; Hegeler, F.; Jun, C.; Langish, S.; Myers, M.

    2003-01-01

    In support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), a 150 (micro)m thick silicon (Si) wafer coated on one side with a 1.2 (micro)m nanocrystalline diamond foil is being fabricated as an electron beam transmission (hibachi) window for use in KrF lasers. The hibachi window separates the lasing medium from the electron beam source while allowing the electron beam to pass through. The hibachi window must be capable of withstanding the challenging environment presented in the lasing chamber, which include: fluorine gas, delta pressure >2 atm at 5 Hz, and a high heat flux due to the transmission of electrons passing through the foil. Tests at NRL/Electra and at PPPL have shown that a device employing these novel components in the stated configuration provide for a robust hibachi window with structural integrity

  8. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 2, Window design details: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    During 1983, TRW conducted a photodetachment neutralizer development (PDN) - Laser Resonator study. The emphasis of this contract was to assess a technology base of the PDN concept. Three technology assessments were conducted: Mirror Technology assessments, Window Engineering Analysis/Technology assessment, and COIL medium modeling with emphasis on PDN issues. Based on the results of these technology assessments the follow-on contract was funded to develop a technology verification. Due to funding limitations this technology verification program was divided into two separate follow-on contracts. Under this follow-on contract, the following tasks were performed: Measure Attenuation Coefficient of 3M FC-104, FC-77, FC-43 with temperature and attenuation coefficient of sapphire, generate finite element/finite difference thermal/structural model of the HEX double window, determine thermal/structural response from the proposed operating conditions, develop option response data from the deflection/stress inputs, recommend design and operating parameters for demonstrator and operational HEX double window, generate Level 1 layouts and drawings of double paned demonstrator window and window mount/manifold, and generate preliminary layout drawings of shutter. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted for both the operational and demonstrator window heat exchanger (HEX) designs and operating conditions

  9. Solution-Processed Smart Window Platforms Based on Plasmonic Electrochromics

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Sara

    2018-04-30

    Electrochromic smart windows offer a viable route to reducing the consumption of buildings energy, which represents about 30% of the worldwide energy consumption. Smart windows are far more compelling than current static windows in that they can dynamically modulate the solar spectrum depending on climate and lighting conditions or simply to meet personal preferences. The latest generation of smart windows relies on nominally transparent metal oxide nanocrystal materials whose chromism can be electrochemically controlled using the plasmonic effect. Plasmonic electrochromic materials selectively control the near infrared (NIR) region of the solar spectrum, responsible for solar heat, without affecting the visible transparency. This is in contrast to conventional electrochromic materials which block both the visible and NIR and thus enables electrochromic devices to reduce the energy consumption of a building or a greenhouse in warm climate regions due to enhancements of both visible lighting and heat blocking. Despite this edge, this technology can benefit from important developments, including low-cost solution-based manufacturing on flexible substrates while maintaining durability and coloration efficiency, demonstration of independent control in the NIR and visible spectra, and demonstration of self-powering capabilities. This thesis is focused on developing low-temperature and all-solution processed plasmonic electrochromic devices and dual-band electrochromic devices. We demonstrate new device fabrication approaches in terms of materials and processes which enhance electrochromic performance all the while maintaining low processing temperatures. Scalable fabrication methods are used to highlight compatibility with high throughput, continuous roll-to-roll fabrication on flexible substrates. In addition, a dualband plasmonic electrochromic device was developed by combining the plasmonic layer with a conventional electrochromic ion storage layer. This enables

  10. Aplikasi Game Quiz Animals Berbasis Windows 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulyani Arifin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Game is currently in great demand by various circles, especially children. Children's interest in the game can be used as a tool to increase children’s intellectuality, i.e. English competence. The purpose of this study is to design an animal-themed quiz game in English languange based on Windows 8 operating system, followed by making a game prototype designed. This game is expected to be an exciting educational tool for children in learning English and broadening the knowledge about types of animal. The research is conducted through the stages of game design requirements, game design, evaluation and implementation. Based on theresults of the evaluation it is found that thoroughly the game already meets the standards of IMK by Shneiderman and Plaisant (2010. It is good enough as a game play since it is available at Window Store.

  11. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  12. Windows® 7 Administrator's Pocket Consultant

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William

    2009-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows 7-from desktop configuration and management to networking and security issues. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks by using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether at your desk or in the field!

  13. SHUFFLE. Windows 95/98/2000 version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavic, S.; Zefran, B.

    2000-01-01

    Program package SHUFFLE was developed to help the user during fuel loading and unloading operations at a nuclear power plant. The first version, developed in 1992, has been written in the CLIPPER program language and run under the DOS operating system. Since the DOS environment exhibits several drawbacks regarding code portability and flexibility, the recent SHUFFLE version has been transformed to run under the MS Windows operating system. (author)

  14. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  15. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are interesting to study as they reflect the subject’s ability to predict movement of external targets, keep focus and move the eyes appropriately. The process of smooth pursuit requires collaboration between several systems in the brain and the resulting action may p...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  16. Feasibility study of broadband efficient ''water window'' source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Jiang Weihua; Endo, Akira; Li Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a table-top broadband emission water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) in the 2-4 nm region, extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). Arrays resulting from n=4-n=4 transitions are overlaid with n=4-n=5 emission and shift to shorter wavelength with increasing atomic number. An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on a bismuth plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  17. Acoustic window planning for ultrasound acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Virga, Salvatore; Rackerseder, Julia; Frisch, Benjamin; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous robotic ultrasound has recently gained considerable interest, especially for collaborative applications. Existing methods for acquisition trajectory planning are solely based on geometrical considerations, such as the pose of the transducer with respect to the patient surface. This work aims at establishing acoustic window planning to enable autonomous ultrasound acquisitions of anatomies with restricted acoustic windows, such as the liver or the heart. We propose a fully automatic approach for the planning of acquisition trajectories, which only requires information about the target region as well as existing tomographic imaging data, such as X-ray computed tomography. The framework integrates both geometrical and physics-based constraints to estimate the best ultrasound acquisition trajectories with respect to the available acoustic windows. We evaluate the developed method using virtual planning scenarios based on real patient data as well as for real robotic ultrasound acquisitions on a tissue-mimicking phantom. The proposed method yields superior image quality in comparison with a naive planning approach, while maintaining the necessary coverage of the target. We demonstrate that by taking image formation properties into account acquisition planning methods can outperform naive plannings. Furthermore, we show the need for such planning techniques, since naive approaches are not sufficient as they do not take the expected image quality into account.

  18. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  19. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in a delay in bringing a case to court. The concept of this paper is to start the initial forensic analysis of the storage media in locations that are most likely to contain digital evidence, the Windows Registry. Consequently, the forensic analysis process and the recovery of digital evidence may take less time than would otherwise be required. In this paper, the Registry structure of Windows 7 is discussed together with several elements of information within the Registry of Windows 7 that may be valuable to a forensic investigator. These elements were categorized into five groups which are system, application, networks, attached devices and the history lists. We have discussed the values of identified elements to a forensic investigator. Also, a tool was implemented to perform the function of extracting these elements and presents them in usable form to a forensics investigator.

  20. Teleoperator performance with virtual window display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert E.; Merritt, John O.; Coleman, Richard; Ikehara, Curtis S.

    1991-08-01

    The virtual window display is a hybrid of the head-coupled, helmet-mounted display and the fixed CRT mounted on a tabletop. Moving the CRTs from the operator''s head retains the benefits of motion parallax while providing higher quality color images, greater comfort and fewer restrictions on the operator''s view of the control site. A prototype virtual window display was constructed with direct mechanical linkage to servo camera movements to the operator''s head motions. This apparatus was used to compare remote performance with and without motion parallax, paired with either stereoscopic or monoscopic views. Mean stereoacuity and depth scaling responses for six observers of a Howard-Dolman apparatus showed improved performance when motion parallax accompanied monoscopic, but not stereoscopic view. Mean performance times for six observers retrieving objects from a wire maze show similar, though not significant, improvement when motion parallax accompanies monoscopic view. Observers report that manipulator requirements for hand steadiness reduce the opportunity to get depth information from head movements. The use of motion parallax information in a monoscopic virtual window display can improve teleoperator performance.

  1. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  2. Design of Nonrecursive Digital Filters Using the Ultraspherical Window Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Antoniou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the design of nonrecursive digital filters using the ultraspherical window function is proposed. Economies in computation are achieved in two ways. First, through an efficient formulation of the window coefficients, the amount of computation required is reduced to a small fraction of that required by standard methods. Second, the filter length and the independent window parameters that would be required to achieve prescribed specifications in lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandstop filters as well as in digital differentiators and Hilbert transformers are efficiently determined through empirical formulas. Experimental results demonstrate that in many cases the ultraspherical window yields a lower-order filter relative to designs obtained using windows like the Kaiser, Dolph-Chebyshev, and Saramäki windows. Alternatively, for a fixed filter length, the ultraspherical window yields reduced passband ripple and increased stopband attenuation relative to those produced when using the alternative windows.

  3. In situ monitoring of polyimide windows for external ion microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinomura, A.; Mokuno, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Tsubouchi, N.; Horino, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Damage of polyimide windows for external ion microbeams was monitored by analyzing backscattering protons from the window. A 1.5 MeV proton microbeam focused to approximately 50 x 50 μm 2 was transmitted through the polyimide window from vacuum to oxygen atmosphere. The changes in backscattering spectra of the window were monitored as a function of irradiation dose up to 2 x 10 18 H + /cm 2 . For comparison, the polyimide window was irradiated in vacuum in the same way as the oxygen case. The backscattering spectra drastically changed in the case of oxygen. We observed that the carbon spectrum width, corresponding to the thickness of the window, substantially decreased with increasing the irradiation dose. The in situ monitoring of backscattering protons demonstrated the ability to detect the damage of the window and to predict the rupture of the window

  4. Orthogonal sets of data windows constructed from trigonometric polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Suboptimal, easily computable substitutes for the discrete prolate-spheroidal windows used by Thomson for spectral estimation are given. Trigonometric coefficients and energy leakages of the window polynomials are tabulated.

  5. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephen B; Cosentino, Bradley J; McKay, Kelly J; Monson, Cathleen; Zuurdeeg, Walt; Blevins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs) and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22%) species (34 total carcasses) recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52). These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window collisions can be used to

  6. Window area and development drive spatial variation in bird-window collisions in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Hager

    Full Text Available Collisions with windows are an important human-related threat to birds in urban landscapes. However, the proximate drivers of collisions are not well understood, and no study has examined spatial variation in mortality in an urban setting. We hypothesized that the number of fatalities at buildings varies with window area and habitat features that influence avian community structure. In 2010 we documented bird-window collisions (BWCs and characterized avian community structure at 20 buildings in an urban landscape in northwestern Illinois, USA. For each building and season, we conducted 21 daily surveys for carcasses and nine point count surveys to estimate relative abundance, richness, and diversity. Our sampling design was informed by experimentally estimated carcass persistence times and detection probabilities. We used linear and generalized linear mixed models to evaluate how habitat features influenced community structure and how mortality was affected by window area and factors that correlated with community structure. The most-supported model was consistent for all community indices and included effects of season, development, and distance to vegetated lots. BWCs were related positively to window area and negatively to development. We documented mortalities for 16/72 (22% species (34 total carcasses recorded at buildings, and BWCs were greater for juveniles than adults. Based on the most-supported model of BWCs, the median number of annual predicted fatalities at study buildings was 3 (range = 0-52. These results suggest that patchily distributed environmental resources and levels of window area in buildings create spatial variation in BWCs within and among urban areas. Current mortality estimates place little emphasis on spatial variation, which precludes a fundamental understanding of the issue. To focus conservation efforts, we illustrate how knowledge of the structural and environmental factors that influence bird-window

  7. Highly Insulating and Light Transmitting Aerogel glazing for Window (HILIT Aerogel Window)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and to transfer the results from lab- to mid- and finally to large-scale making of 60 by 60 cm2 in a pre-industrial plant. The large samples forms the basis for assembly of evacuated aerogel glazings optimised with respect to thermal and optical properties. The production process development and transfer to pre...... invention of several technical solutions related to moulding and handling of the large gels. Despite the efforts only aerogels with a thickness up to 15 mm have been produced with a good reproducibility. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.015 W/mK at atmospheric pressure and 0.010 W/mK at 10 h......Pa. The optical properties have been improved compared to previous aerogels thanks to the process and the smooth surfaces obtained and a heat treatment of the dried aerogel. A rim seal solution that offers the required air and moisture tightness without leading to severe thermal bridge effects has been developed...

  8. An Intelligent Window for Optimal Ventilation and Minimum Thermal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rose, Jørgen; Liu, Mingzhe

    This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration.......This report compares the simulation results of 12 window typologies for four countries on four selected days. The simulation results are used to select the window frame construction including glazing type and pane configuration....

  9. Scatter correction in myocardial thallium SPECT. Needs for optimization of energy window settings in the energy window-based scatter correction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yuichiro; Iida, Hidehiro

    1999-01-01

    Accuracy and limitation of energy-window based scatter correction techniques have been evaluated for myocardial 201 Tl SPECT by means of Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, projection view-dependency of energy distribution of the scattered photons was evaluated. Two geometrical configurations were simulated; namely a homogeneous cylindrical radioactivity located asymmetrically in a homogeneous cylindrical phantom, and a homogeneous ring radioactivity positioned at the myocardial region of a human thorax phantom. Energy spectra were recorded for each projection, and accuracy of the triple-energy window (TEW) method was then evaluation for both phantoms. The energy distribution of the scattered photons was apparently dependent on the projection view. TEW also demonstrated systematic overcorrection for the scatter because of multiple photo peaks around 80 keV, and more importantly, the error was highly dependent on the projection view. The error reached to 35-38% for the view that is the closest to the 201 Tl radioactivity (anterior view in case of the myocardial ring phantom), and was approximately 20% in the opposite view. This view-dependency of the error remained for other energy window settings, and was found to cause significant artifact in the reconstructed myocardial images, typically causing a defect in the anterior myocardial wall. Thus, this study demonstrated the need for optimizing the window settings for each projection view in all energy window-based scatter correction methods. (author)

  10. A data acquisition system based on Windows for Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ge; Wang Jian; Nie Jimin

    2000-01-01

    As a new operating system, Windows is becoming a leading operating system in PC world. The authors will describe a new data acquisition system based on Windows for Moessbauer spectroscopy. Compared with the old data acquisition system based on MS-DOS, new system is easier in the man-machine interaction, runs in multi-process way and uses more resources of Windows

  11. 14 CFR 29.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 29.775 Section 29.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Accommodations § 29.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not...

  12. 14 CFR 25.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 25.775 Section 25... § 25.775 Windshields and windows. (a) Internal panes must be made of nonsplintering material. (b.... (d) The design of windshields and windows in pressurized airplanes must be based on factors peculiar...

  13. 14 CFR 23.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 23.775 Section 23... Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 23.775 Windshields and windows. (a) The internal panels of windshields and windows must be constructed of a nonsplintering material, such as nonsplintering safety glass. (b...

  14. 30 CFR 18.66 - Tests of windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of windows and lenses. 18.66 Section 18... Tests § 18.66 Tests of windows and lenses. (a) Impact tests. A 4-pound cylindrical weight with a 1-inch-diameter hemispherical striking surface shall be dropped (free fall) to strike the window or lens in its...

  15. 14 CFR 27.775 - Windshields and windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Windshields and windows. 27.775 Section 27.775 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.775 Windshields and windows. Windshields and windows must be made of material that will not break...

  16. Preliminary thermal and stress analysis of the SINQ window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, G.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results of a finite element analysis for the SINQ proton beam window are presented. Temperatures and stresses are calculated in an axisymmetric model. As a result of these calculations, the H 2 O-cooled window (safety window) could be redesigned in such a way that plastic deformation resulting from excessive stress in some areas is avoided. (author)

  17. Global field synchronization in gamma range of the sleep EEG tracks sleep depth: Artifact introduced by a rectangular analysis window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusterholz, Thomas; Achermann, Peter; Dürr, Roland; Koenig, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila

    2017-06-01

    Investigating functional connectivity between brain networks has become an area of interest in neuroscience. Several methods for investigating connectivity have recently been developed, however, these techniques need to be applied with care. We demonstrate that global field synchronization (GFS), a global measure of phase alignment in the EEG as a function of frequency, must be applied considering signal processing principles in order to yield valid results. Multichannel EEG (27 derivations) was analyzed for GFS based on the complex spectrum derived by the fast Fourier transform (FFT). We examined the effect of window functions on GFS, in particular of non-rectangular windows. Applying a rectangular window when calculating the FFT revealed high GFS values for high frequencies (>15Hz) that were highly correlated (r=0.9) with spectral power in the lower frequency range (0.75-4.5Hz) and tracked the depth of sleep. This turned out to be spurious synchronization. With a non-rectangular window (Tukey or Hanning window) these high frequency synchronization vanished. Both, GFS and power density spectra significantly differed for rectangular and non-rectangular windows. Previous papers using GFS typically did not specify the applied window and may have used a rectangular window function. However, the demonstrated impact of the window function raises the question of the validity of some previous findings at higher frequencies. We demonstrated that it is crucial to apply an appropriate window function for determining synchronization measures based on a spectral approach to avoid spurious synchronization in the beta/gamma range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving quantitative dosimetry in 177Lu-DOTATATE SPECT by energy window-based scatter corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerburg, Vera; Klausen, Thomas L.; Holm, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Patient-specific dosimetry of lutetium-177 (177Lu)-DOTATATE treatment in neuroendocrine tumours is important, because uptake differs across patients. Single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT)-based dosimetry requires a conversion factor between the obtained counts and the activity, which depends on the collimator type, the utilized energy windows and the applied scatter correction techniques. In this study, energy window subtraction-based scatter correction methods are compared experimentally and quantitatively. Materials and methods 177Lu SPECT images of a phantom with known activity concentration ratio between the uniform background and filled hollow spheres were acquired for three different collimators: low-energy high resolution (LEHR), low-energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium-energy general purpose (MEGP). Counts were collected in several energy windows, and scatter correction was performed by applying different methods such as effective scatter source estimation (ESSE), triple-energy and dual-energy window, double-photopeak window and downscatter correction. The intensity ratio between the spheres and the background was measured and corrected for the partial volume effect and used to compare the performance of the methods. Results Low-energy collimators combined with 208 keV energy windows give rise to artefacts. For the 113 keV energy window, large differences were observed in the ratios for the spheres. For MEGP collimators with the ESSE correction technique, the measured ratio was close to the real ratio, and the differences between spheres were small. Conclusion For quantitative 177Lu imaging MEGP collimators are advised. Both energy peaks can be utilized when the ESSE correction technique is applied. The difference between the calculated and the real ratio is less than 10% for both energy windows. PMID:24525900

  19. Window and dome technologies and materials; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 27-29, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocek, Paul

    1989-09-01

    Papers on window and dome technologies and methodologies are presented, covering the processing and application of window and dome materials such as polycrystalline MgAl2O4 spinel, yttria and lanthana-doped yttria, transparent aluminum oxynitride, sapphire materials, fluoride glass, zinc sulfide, and germanium materials. Other topics include high modulus layers as protective coatings for window materials, ultrahard coatings for IR materials, IR applications of GeC thin filems, CVD diamond for IR applications, amorphic diamond films grown with a laser-ion source, dome cooling, microwave shielding effectiveness of electrically conductive coated optical windows, and the window evaluation program for an airborne FLIR system. In addition, papers are presented on modeling optical properties of window materials, lattice symmetries and thermal expansion, rain damage protection for IR materials, optical window materials for hypersonic flow, the IR emission due to aerodynamic heating of missile domes, a ZnS window for the IR instrumentation system, hypersonic aerooptical effects, optical and semiconductor properties of lead telluride coatings, boron phosphide for coating IR transparencies, and the measurement of high out-of-band filter rejection characteristics.

  20. Large area window on vacuum chamber surface for neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Yokoo, Tetsuya; Ueno, Kenji; Suzuki, Junichi; Teraoku, Takuji; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of a large area window using a thin aluminum plate on the surface of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments at a pulsed neutron source was investigated. In the prototype investigation for a window with an area of 1m×1.4m and a thickness of 1 mm, the measured pressure dependence of the displacement agreed well with a calculation using a nonlinear strain–stress curve up to the plastic deformation region. In addition, we confirmed the repetition test up to 2000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which is sufficient for the lifetime of the vacuum chamber for neutron scattering instruments. Based on these investigations, an actual model of the window to be mounted on the vacuum chamber of the High Resolution Chopper Spectrometer (HRC) at J-PARC was designed. By using a calculated stress distribution on the window, the clamping structure capable of balancing the tension in the window was determined. In a model with a structure identical to the actual window, we confirmed the repetition test over more than 7000 pressurization-and-release cycles, which shows a lifetime long enough for the actual usage of the vacuum chamber on the HRC.

  1. An Adaptive Window-setting Scheme for Segmentation of Bladder Tumor Surface via MR Cystography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaijie; Liu, Fanghua; Xiao, Ping; Lv, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive window-setting scheme for non-invasive detection and segmentation of bladder tumor surface in T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The inner border of the bladder wall is firstly covered by a group of ball-shaped detecting windows with different radii. By extracting the candidate tumor windows and excluding the false positive (FP) candidates, the entire bladder tumor surface is detected and segmented by the remaining windows. Different from previous bladder tumor detection methods which are mostly focusing on the existence of a tumor, this paper emphasizes segmenting the entire tumor surface in addition to detecting the presence of the tumor. The presented scheme was validated by 10 clinical T1-weighted MR image datasets (5 volunteers and 5 patients). The bladder tumor surfaces and the normal bladder wall inner borders in the ten datasets were covered by 223 and 10491 windows, respectively. Such large number of the detecting windows makes the validation statistically meaningful. In the FP reduction step, the best feature combination was obtained by using receiver operating characteristics or ROC analysis. The validation results demonstrated the potential of this presented scheme in segmenting the entire tumor surface with high sensitivity and low FP rate. This work inherits our previous results of automatic segmentation of the bladder wall and will be an important element in our MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography system. PMID:22645274

  2. Individua l tree identification in airborne LASER data BY inverse SEARCH window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bastos Gorgens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The local maximum filtering performance is highly dependent of the window size definition. This paper proposes that the window size should be determined by an inverse relationship to the canopy height model, and test the hypothesis that a windowsize inversely proportional will have better performance than the window proportional to the canopy height model. The study area is located in the southeastern region of the State of British Columbia, Canada. The natural vegetation is the boreal type and is characterized by the dominance of two species Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelmann (Engelmann spruce and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook. Nutt. (sub-alpine fir. The relief is mountainous with altitudes ranging from 650-2400 meters. 62 plots with 256 square meters were measured in the field. The airborne LiDAR had discrete returns, 2 points per square meter density and small-footprint. The performance of the search windows was evaluated based on success percentage, absolute average error and also compared to the observed values of the field plots. The local maximum filter underestimated the number of trees per hectare for both window sizing methods. The use of the inverse proportional window size has resulted in superior results, particularly for regions with highest density of trees.

  3. Evaluation of various energy windows at different radionuclides for scatter and attenuation correction in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Afrouz; Ashoor, Mansour; Sohrabpour, Mostafa; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Rezaei, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) and qualified images by the various methods is very important for detecting the abnormalities at the body organs. Scatter and attenuation of photons by the organs lead to errors in radiopharmaceutical estimation as well as degradation of images. The choice of suitable energy window and the radionuclide have a key role in nuclear medicine which appearing the lowest scatter fraction as well as having a nearly constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. The energy windows of symmetrical window (SW), asymmetric window (ASW), high window (WH) and low window (WL) using Tc-99m and Sm-153 radionuclide with solid water slab phantom (RW3) and Teflon bone phantoms have been compared, and Matlab software and Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP4C) code were modified to simulate these methods and obtaining the amounts of FWHM and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using line spread functions (LSFs). The experimental data were obtained from the Orbiter Scintron gamma camera. Based on the results of the simulation as well as experimental work, the performance of WH and ASW display of the results, lowest scatter fraction as well as constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. WH and ASW were optimal windows in nuclear medicine imaging for Tc-99m in RW3 phantom and Sm-153 in Teflon bone phantom. Attenuation correction was done for WH and ASW optimal windows and for these radionuclides using filtered back projection algorithm. Results of simulation and experimental show that very good agreement between the set of experimental with simulation as well as theoretical values with simulation data were obtained which was nominally less than 7.07 % for Tc-99m and less than 8.00 % for Sm-153. Corrected counts were not affected by the thickness of scattering material. The Simulated results of Line Spread Function (LSF) for Sm-153 and Tc-99m in phantom based on four windows and TEW method were

  4. Computed Tomography Window Blending: Feasibility in Thoracic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Jacob C; Wortman, Jeremy R; Rocha, Tatiana C; Folio, Les R; Andriole, Katherine P; Khurana, Bharti

    2018-02-07

    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm. Two emergency radiologists independently interpreted the axial images from 103 chest CTs with both blended and conventional windows. Interpretation time and diagnostic performance were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar test, respectively. Agreement with Nexus CT Chest injury severity was assessed with the weighted kappa statistic. A total of 13,295 images were processed without error. Interpretation was faster with window blending, resulting in a 20.3% time saving (P window-blended cases was 82.7%, compared to 81.6% for conventional windows. The specificity of the window-blended cases was 93.1%, compared to 90.5% for conventional windows. All injuries of major clinical significance (per Nexus CT Chest criteria) were correctly identified in all reading sessions, and all negative cases were correctly classified. All readers demonstrated near-perfect agreement with injury severity classification with both window settings. In this pilot study utilizing retrospective data, window blending allows faster preliminary interpretation of axial chest CT performed for trauma, with no significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to conventional window settings. Future studies would be required to assess the utility of window blending in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  6. Right-to-left-shunt detected by c-TCD using the orbital window in comparison with temporal bone windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kimura, Kazumi; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Sakai, Kenichirou; Aoki, Junya; Iwanaga, Takeshi; Shibazaki, Kensaku

    2012-01-01

    There have been some reports on right-to-left shunt as a cause of cryptogenic stroke. Although contrast transcranial Doppler (c-TCD) can detect RLS, an insufficient temporal window has occasionally restricted its applicability. Thus, we compared the rates of detecting RLS among temporal windows for the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and the orbital window for the internal carotid artery (ICA) on c-TCD. We used c-TCD to detect RLS in patients with suspected ischemic stroke. We enrolled patients who had both sufficient bilateral temporal windows for MCAs and a right orbital window for ICA and performed c-TCD using all three windows simultaneously. We enrolled 106 consecutive patients and identified microembolic signals (MES) in 30 (28%) of them. Among these 30 patients, 15 had MES from all 3 windows. When these 30 patients were defined as being positive for RLS, the rates of detection were 67%, 73%, and 80% from the right temporal, left temporal, and right orbital windows, respectively (P= .795). The right orbital window as well as the temporal window for c-TCD could detect RLS. Insonation from the orbital window should be useful for patients who lack temporal windows. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. A review of the benefits and rationale of viewing liver window settings for abdominal computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Tan; Mandarano, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    , that the majority of respondents are currently recording liver-windows routinely for all abdominal CT scans. This is performed even though many of these respondents agreed with established literature that liver-windows should be reserved for patients with high clinical suspicion of hepatic disease, or when a lesion is detected on the standard soft-tissue-window

  8. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  9. Diffusion escape through a cluster of small absorbing windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcman, D [Department of Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Schuss, Z [Department of Mathematics, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2008-04-18

    We study the first eigenvalue of the Laplace equation in a bounded domain in R{sup d} (d=2,3) with mixed Neumann-Dirichlet (Zaremba) boundary conditions. The Neumann condition is imposed on most of the boundary and the Dirichlet boundary consists of a cluster of small windows. When the windows are well separated the first eigenvalue is asymptotically the sum of eigenvalues of mixed problems with a single Dirichlet window. However, when two or more Dirichlet windows cluster tightly together they interact nonlinearly. We compare our asymptotic approximation of the eigenvalue to the escape rate of simulated Brownian particles through the small windows.

  10. Exam 70-411 administering Windows Server 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Course, Microsoft Official Academic

    2014-01-01

    Microsoft Windows Server is a multi-purpose server designed to increase reliability and flexibility of  a network infrastructure. Windows Server is the paramount tool used by enterprises in their datacenter and desktop strategy. The most recent versions of Windows Server also provide both server and client virtualization. Its ubiquity in the enterprise results in the need for networking professionals who know how to plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot networks relying on Windows Server. Microsoft Learning is preparing the next round of its Windows Server Certification program

  11. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  12. RAZVOJ SODOBNIH INFORMACIJSKIH REŠITEV V WINDOWS AZURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dukarić, Robert

    2010-01-01

    V diplomskem delu obravnavamo Windows Azure platformo ter njeno vlogo v svetu računalništva v oblaku. Umestimo jo med ostale ponudnike oblačnega računalništva ter jo z njimi primerjamo. Prav tako podrobno opišemo in obrazložimo strukturo Windows Azure platforme ter vseh njenih storitev. V nadaljevanju še opišemo življenjski cikel razvoja Windows Azure aplikacij, obravnavamo podporo k interoperabilnosti v Windows Azure, opišemo prehod aplikacij na Windows Azure, kjer predstavimo možnost izvedb...

  13. Windows Server 2012 -palvelimen hallinta PowerShell-komennoilla

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkänen, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli perehtyä Windows Server 2012 -palvelimen ja aktiivihakemiston hallintaan käyttäen Windows PowerShell -komentotulkkia. PowerShell on Microsoftin kehittämä komentotulkki ja skriptausympäristö, jonka tarkoitus on tehostaa ja automatisoida Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien ja sovellusten hallintaa komentorivin ja skriptien avulla. Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmään, aktiivihakemistoon ja Windows PowerShell -komentotulkkiin liitty...

  14. Optimizing the performance of bandpass photon detectors for inverse photoemission: Transmission of alkaline earth fluoride window crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiede, Christian; Schmidt, Anke B.; Donath, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Bandpass photon detectors are widely used in inverse photoemission in the isochromat mode at energies in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range. The energy bandpass of gas-filled counters is usually formed by the ionization threshold of the counting gas as high-pass filter and the transmission cutoff of an alkaline earth fluoride window as low-pass filter. The transmission characteristics of the window have, therefore, a crucial impact on the detector performance. We present transmission measurements in the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range for alkaline earth fluoride window crystals in the vicinity of the transmission cutoff as a function of crystal purity, surface finish, surface contamination, temperature, and thickness. Our findings reveal that the transmission characteristics of the window crystal and, thus, the detector performance depend critically on these window parameters

  15. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2015-01-01

    Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows-periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other periods or stages). Despite great interest in sensitive windows from both fundamental and applied perspectives, the functional (adaptive) reasons why they have evolved are unclear. Here we outline a conceptual framework for understanding when natural selection should favour changes in plasticity across development. Our approach builds on previous theory on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, which relates individual and population differences in plasticity to two factors: the degree of uncertainty about the environmental conditions and the extent to which experiences during development ('cues') provide information about those conditions. We argue that systematic variation in these two factors often occurs within the lifetime of a single individual, which will select for developmental changes in plasticity. Of central importance is how informational properties of the environment interact with the life history of the organism. Phenotypes may be more or less sensitive to environmental cues at different points in development because of systematic changes in (i) the frequency of cues, (ii) the informativeness of cues, (iii) the fitness benefits of information and/or (iv) the constraints on plasticity. In relatively stable environments, a sensible null expectation is that plasticity will gradually decline with age as the developing individual gathers information. We review recent models on the evolution of developmental changes in plasticity and explain how they fit into our conceptual framework. Our aim is to encourage an adaptive perspective on sensitive windows in development.

  16. X-Windows PVT Widget Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Process Validation Table (PVT) Widget Class ( Class is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network registration services for Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. Heretofore, ISP PVT programming tasks have required many method calls to identify, query, and interpret the connections and messages exchanged between a client and a PVT server. Normally, programmers have utilized direct access to UNIX socket libraries to implement the PVT protocol queries, necessitating the use of many lines of source code to perform frequent tasks. Now, the X-Windows PVT Widget Class encapsulates ISP client server network registration management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Use of the widget framework enables an X Windows GUI program to interact with PVT services in an abstract way and in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program PVT clients. Wrapping the PVT services inside the widget framework enables a programmer to treat a PVT server interface as though it were a GUI. Moreover, an alternate subclass could implement another service in a widget of the same type. This program was written by Matthew R. Barry of United Space Alliance for Johnson Space Center. For further information, contact the Johnson Technology Transfer Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-23582 Shuttle Data Center File- Processing Tool in Java A Java-language computer program has been written to facilitate mining of data in files in the Shuttle Data Center (SDC) archives. This program can be executed on a variety of workstations or via Web-browser programs. This program is partly similar to prior C-language programs used for the same purpose, while differing from those programs in that it exploits the platform-neutrality of Java in implementing several features that are important for analysis of large sets of time-series data

  17. Windows-työasemien asennuksen automatisointi

    OpenAIRE

    Paloharju, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli kehittää Microsoft-palvelinympäristöön sopivista Windows-työasemien automatisointiin tarkoitetuista työkaluista pilottiasiakkaalle toimiva ratkaisu nykyistä asennustapaa korvaamaan. Tavoitteena oli tuottaa ratkaisusta myös vakioitu prosessi, jonka avulla järjestelmä voidaan siirtää tarvittaessa myös muiden asiakkaiden käyttöön. Oikeiden työkalujen valitsemiseksi ensimmäiseksi tutustuttiin teoriassa Microsoftin tarjoamiin työkaluihin ja asennusstrategioihin. ...

  18. Pro WF Windows Workflow in NET 40

    CERN Document Server

    Bukovics, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) is a revolutionary part of the .NET 4 Framework that allows you to orchestrate human and system interactions as a series of workflows that can be easily mapped, analyzed, adjusted, and implemented. As business problems become more complex, the need for workflow-based solutions has never been more evident. WF provides a simple and consistent way to model and implement complex problems. As a developer, you focus on developing the business logic for individual workflow tasks. The runtime handles the execution of those tasks after they have been composed into a wor

  19. Windows Vista for Starters The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    Fast-paced and easy to use, this concise book teaches you the basics of Windows Vista so you can start using this operating system right away. Written by "New York Times" columnist, bestselling author, Emmy-winning CBS News correspondent and Missing Manuals creator David Pogue, the book will help you: Navigate the desktop, including the fast, powerful and fully integrated desktop search functionUse the Media Center to record TV and radio, present photos, play music, and record all of these to a DVDBreeze across the Web with the vastly improved Internet Explorer 7 tabbed browserBecome familiar

  20. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  1. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...... capital and set up three hypotheses regarding the influence of different factors on the nascence period. To test our hypotheses, we used a representative sample of 678 graduate women entrepreneurs in Germany and ran a logit regression on the nascence period. The estimated model revealed two main factors...

  2. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    of a pilot study that investigated the impact of six coated glazings on daylight conditions in scale models. The study focused primarily on visual perception. Generally, the pilot study indicated that some types of coated glazings (especially solar protective coatings) significantly affect the perception......There is at present an architectural trend promoting the use of large glass facades in commercial and office buildings. These facades generate a large cooling and heating demand creating the need for combined solar-protective and low-emissitivity coated windows. This report describes the results...

  3. Beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray beamline fabricated by hot isostatic press method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Seiji; Maezawa, Hideki; Nishida, Kiyotoshi; Sakamoto, Naoki.

    1995-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation experimental facilities in National Laboratory for High Energy Physics are the experimental facilities for joint utilization, that possess the positron storage ring of 2.5 GeV exclusively used for synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is led through a mainstay beam channel to the laboratory, and in the beam line of X-ray, it is used for experiment through the taking-out window made of beryllium. At this time, the function of the taking-out window is to shut off between the ultrahigh vacuum in the mainstay beam channel and the atmosphere, and to cut the low energy component of synchrotron radiation spectra. The experiment using X-ray is carried out mostly in the atmosphere. The design of the efficient cooling water channel which is compatible with the flange construction is important under the high thermal load of synchrotron radiation. The beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray was made by HIP method, and the ultrahigh vacuum test, the high pressure water flow test and the actual machine test were carried out by heat cycle. The properties required for the window material, the requirement of the construction, the new development of HIP method, and the experiments for evaluating the manufactured beryllium window are described. (K.I.)

  4. Multi-gamma windows coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yunpeng

    1998-10-01

    In 4πβ-γ coincidence measurement of radioactivity, efficiency extrapolation method has been applied for a long time. According to the principle developed by P. J. Campion, usually a single gamma window is selected, and also an useful assumption is introduced that efficiency of individual β-branch are linearly related to one another, resulting in a simply linear efficiency function. Generally, the extrapolation curve is not linear so in practice an unspecified efficiency function which is usually defined simply as a polynomial in N c /N γ is introduced. Because of the unspecification of the efficiency function, systematic errors may arise theoretically from which the polynominal function is either inaccurate or unsuitable for extrapolation. To solve this problem, a new method, which is called multi-gamma windows coincidence method is proposed, and a new linear extrapolation equation based on average β efficiency is strictly derived from the basic coincidence equations with the least approximation. Theoretically, this method is applicable to any simple or complex decay (except pure β decay and some decay with long life metastable energy level) with minimum systematic errors

  5. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  6. Windows 7 ieviešana

    OpenAIRE

    Laurens, Matīss

    2011-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā „Windows 7 ieviešana” tiek izveidota Windows 7 operētājsistēmas ieviešanas sistēma virtuālajā vidē, kas sevī ietver visu ieviešanas produktu un rīku apvienojumu, lai būtu pieejami visi „Lite Touch Installation” ieviešanas veidi noteiktu ieviešanas situāciju risināšanai. Ieviešanas sistēma tiek veidota ar mērķi izveidot pilnība strādājošu infrastruktūru virtuālajā vidē, pēc kuras piemēra pēc tam būtu iespējams realizēt strādājošu ievi...

  7. Development of dielectric window to conductor assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikinheimo, L.; Nuutinen, S.; Taehtinen, S.

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the work done by Association Euratom-Tekes in developing manufacturing procedures for vacuum tight ceramic to metal joints and in manufacturing full scale components for the ICRF vacuum window construction. The development started at VTT Manufacturing Technology in 1996 under the Task T238.2 and continued in 1997 under the Underlying Technology tasks. In the design of the components, the following issues were addressed and resolved: (1) The choice of dielectric material; The choice is made as the best compromise among nuclear, mechanical, and thermal properties, but in due consideration of material availability, fabrication issues and response to cyclic loads, (2) Layout and detailed design. The shape of the dielectric window is optimized to minimize electric fields in the dielectric materials; The optimised field distribution is computed in a 2D geometry; The design includes thermal calculation and the cooling layout and includes provision for remote handling replacement in one block, (3) Metal/dielectric joining. The joining technology is selected and justified. Joining tests on material selections to verify the applicability has been done, the validation of the design pre-prototype tests have been carried out selectively. The steps for the manufacture of these full scale components are described in the report with the appropriate concluding remarks and suggestions for the further actions. (orig.)

  8. Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Dokos, Adam; Burns, Bradley

    2010-01-01

    The Portable Handheld Optical Window Inspection Device (PHOWID) is a measurement system for imaging small defects (scratches, pits, micrometeor impacts, and the like) in the field. Designed primarily for window inspection, PHOWID attaches to a smooth surface with suction cups, and raster scans a small area with an optical pen in order to provide a three-dimensional image of the defect. PHOWID consists of a graphical user interface, motor control subsystem, scanning head, and interface electronics, as well as an integrated camera and user display that allows a user to locate minute defects before scanning. Noise levels are on the order of 60 in. (1.5 m). PHOWID allows field measurement of defects that are usually done in the lab. It is small, light, and attaches directly to the test article in any orientation up to vertical. An operator can scan a defect and get useful engineering data in a matter of minutes. There is no need to make a mold impression for later lab analysis.

  9. Materials And Devices In Electrochromic Window Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Anderson, Elizabeth J.; Plante, Timothy D.; Rauh, R. David

    1985-12-01

    Windows with switchable electrochromic glazings are potentially useful for regulating solar input to building interiors. In this article, we describe the structure and operation of a proposed solid-state electrochromic glazing based on crystalline LixWO3 (c-LiXWO3) and a low coloration efficiency counter electrode material such as amorphous Nb2O5 (a-Nb2O5). The importance of reversibility in electrochromic glazing operation is emphasized, and optical switching experiments that demonstrate reversible lithium insertion/extraction in c-LixW03, a-LixWO3, and a-LixNb2O5 are described. Additional optical switching experiments in tandem electrochromic cells comprised of c-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 and a-LixWO3/a-Nb2O5 demonstrated the proposed design, indicating reversible optical switching over 500 and 200 complete cycles, respectively, without degradation. Optical data on the evolution of reflective and absorp-tive modulation in c-LixWO3 are presented and solar attenuation results are used to demon-strate the advantage of using crystalline electrochromics to conserve daylighting during electrochromic window operation.

  10. Infecting Windows, Linux & Mac in one go

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Still love bashing on Windows as you believe it is an insecure operating system? Hold on a second! Just recently, a vulnerability has been published for Java 7.   It affects Windows/Linux PCs and Macs, Internet Explorer, Safari and Firefox. In fact, it affects all computers that have enabled the Java 7 plug-in in their browser (Java 6 and earlier is not affected). Once you visit a malicious website (and there are plenty already out in the wild), your computer is infected… That's "Game Over" for you.      And this is not the first time. For a while now, attackers have not been targeting the operating system itself, but rather aiming at vulnerabilities inherent in e.g. your Acrobat Reader, Adobe Flash or Java programmes. All these are standard plug-ins added into your favourite web browser which make your web-surfing comfortable (or impossible when you un-install them). A single compromised web-site, however, is sufficient to prob...

  11. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  12. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of window target unit for LBE cooled XADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, N.I.; Neitzel, H.J.; Chen, H.Y.; Cheng, X.

    2004-10-01

    A window target unit for a LBE cooled primary core is one of the basic options considered in the framework of the Preliminary Design Study of eXperimental Accelerator Driven System (PDS-XADS). In the present work, thermal hydraulic analysis has been performed for this option focusing on the window cooling. At first system analysis has been performed for the entire target unit using the one-dimensional system code, HERETA. Then Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis has been carried out for lower part of the target to study the cooling capability of the window. The CFX 5.6 code has been applied using an advanced turbulence model, called Sheer Stress Transport (SST) model, combined with the advanced wall treatment available in the new CFX 5 version. The results of the HERETA calculations show that a stable natural circulation flow, with a steady state flow rate of 192 kg/s, is established. No temperature peak is observed by a start up procedure with beam ramp having a period of 200 s. It is found, however, a start up procedure with beam jump has to be avoided to prevent the overheating of the window. Based on the results of CFX 5.6 calculations, the window thickness is reduced to 2 mm in the center from the initial proposal of 3 mm in order to satisfy the thermal design limit. The maximum temperature change rate of the window under beam trips is predicted as high as 412 C/s after 0.1 s of the beam interrupt. It is judged that beam trips with a beam interrupt duration less than 1 s could also be crucial to the integrity of the window. Finally, three postulated accidents (i.e., beam focusing, loss of heat sink, and unexpected beam jump) have been analyzed to find out the time for the beam to be switched off in order to avoid window failure. The present results show that window failure occurs in 0.1∝0.8 second after the start of the beam focusing and in about 200 seconds after loss of heat sink. However, window failure is not expected for a beam jump scenario

  14. Electrochromic Window Demonstration at the Donna Land Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Luis L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thanachareonkit, Anothai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) Public Buildings Service (PBS) has jurisdiction, custody or control over 105 land ports of entry throughout the United States, 35 of which are located along the southern border. At these facilities, one of the critical functions of windows is to provide border control personnel with direct visual contact with the surrounding environment. This also can be done through surveillance cameras, but the high value that U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CPB) officers place on direct visual contact can be encapsulated in the following statement by a senior officer regarding this project: “nothing replaces line of sight.” In sunny conditions, however, outdoor visibility can be severely compromised by glare, especially when the orb of the sun is in the field of view. This often leads to the deployment of operable shading devices, such as Venetian blinds. While these devices address the glare, they obstruct the view of the surroundings, negating the visual security benefits of the windows.

  15. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  16. Water window ptychographic imaging with characterized coherent X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Max [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Skopintsev, Petr [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation); Dzhigaev, Dmitry [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gorobtsov, Oleg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Center, ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Senkbeil, Tobias; Gundlach, Andreas von; Gorniak, Thomas [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Shabalin, Anatoly; Viefhaus, Jens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rosenhahn, Axel, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Analytical Chemistry - Biointerfaces, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Applied Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Vartanyants, Ivan, E-mail: axel.rosenhahn@rub.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’ (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-23

    Water window ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging was demonstrated at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was characterized with the non-redundant array method. A ptychographical coherent diffractive imaging experiment in the water window with focused soft X-rays at 500 eV is reported. An X-ray beam with high degree of coherence was selected for ptychography at the P04 beamline of PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. The beam coherence was measured with the newly developed non-redundant array method, and a coherence length of 4.1 µm and global degree of coherence of 35% at 100 µm exit slit opening in the vertical direction were determined. A pinhole, 2.6 µm in size, selected the coherent part of the beam that was used to obtain ptychographic reconstruction results of a lithographically manufactured test sample and a fossil diatom. The achieved resolution was 53 nm for the test sample and was only limited by the size of the detector. The diatom was imaged at a resolution better than 90 nm.

  17. INFLUENCE OF WINDOW SIZE IN SMALL-WINDOW COLOR MEASUREMENT, PARTICULARLY OF TEETH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLT, RA; TENBOSCH, JJ; COOPS, JC

    Tooth colour is often measured with a small window for illumination and measurement. This causes edge loss of the light, resulting in systematic errors in colour coordinates. This paper gives a quantification of the edge losses, and explains their cause. We measured reflectance spectra for 27

  18. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  19. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.