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Sample records for window amplitude differences

  1. Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Svidt, Kjeld; Nielsen, Peter V.

    In natural ventilation systems fresh air is often provided through opening of windows. However, the knowledge of the performance of windows is rather limited. Computation of natural ventilation air flow through windows is most commonly made using discharge coefficients, that are regarded as being...... constant. The reported results show that the discharge coefficient for a window opening cannot be regarded as a constant and that it varies considerably with the size of the opening area, the window type and the temperature difference. Therefore, the use of a constant value can lead to serious errors...

  2. Ethnic differences in electrocardiographic amplitude measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, Ishak A.; Nash, Ira S.

    2004-01-01

    There is a controversy regarding ethnic differences in electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns because of the potentially confounding socioeconomic, nutritional, environmental and occupational factors. We reviewed the first 1000 medical files of a multiethnic community, where all individuals shared similar living conditions. Only healthy adults age 15 to 60 years were included. Wave amplitudes were measured manually from the standard 12lead ECG. Minnesota coding was used. ECG from 597 subjects were included in the study: 350 Saudi Arabians, 95 Indians, 17 Sri-Lankans, 39 Filipinos, and 57 Caucasians; 349 were men. the mean +-SD of Sokolow-Lyon voltage (SLV) in men was signifcantly different among ethnic groups (2.9+-0.86, 2.64+-0.79, 2.73+-0.72, 3.23+-0.61, 2.94+-0.6, 2.58+-0.79 mV, P=0.0006, for Saudi's, Indians, Jordanians, Filipinos, Sri-Lankans, and Caucasians, respectively). SLV was similar among ethnic groups in women. The prevalence of early transition pattern was also different among ethnic groups in men but not women (15.8%, 34.6%, 17.9%, 21.7%, 35.3%, 26.8% in Suadi, Indian, Jordanian, Filipino, Sri-Lankan, and Caucasian, respectively, P=0.037). T wave amplitude was significantly different among ethnic groups in selected lead. ECG wave amplitude differs with ethnic region even when other factors are similar. Using SLV of 3.5 mV as a criterion may overestimate the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in some ethnic groups. The pattern of high R wave in lead V1is common in healthy adults in certain ethnic groups. T wave height differs with ethnic origin and sex. (author)

  3. Defining the spectral and amplitude domain of music---a window into audio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Myoung W.

    In terms of 'visualizing music', this thesis presents the first critical measurements for the selected musical instruments (piano, violin, cello, flute, piccolo, drums, double bass, electric bass, and electric guitar) seeking to describe their place in the spectral and amplitude domain. All data presented as a part of this research were measured with Z-weighting (un-weighted) from 12.5Hz to 20kHz along the frequency axis, in 1/3 octave bands, evaluated statistically and in equivalent sound level. Measuring musical performances can be a very subjective process. Therefore, this research proceeded under some strategically chosen conditions and limitations. The measurements were made with each musician playing at several different intensities of musical performance. Chosen musical genres were classical, pop and jazz for the selected musical instruments. To obtain data representative of real world conditions, musical instrument measurements were made mostly in professional recording studios by professional players. The results seek to define the spectral and amplitude domain occupied by these instruments when playing typical works.

  4. Determination of finite-difference weights using scaled binomial windows

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-05-01

    The finite-difference method evaluates a derivative through a weighted summation of function values from neighboring grid nodes. Conventional finite-difference weights can be calculated either from Taylor series expansions or by Lagrange interpolation polynomials. The finite-difference method can be interpreted as a truncated convolutional counterpart of the pseudospectral method in the space domain. For this reason, we also can derive finite-difference operators by truncating the convolution series of the pseudospectral method. Various truncation windows can be employed for this purpose and they result in finite-difference operators with different dispersion properties. We found that there exists two families of scaled binomial windows that can be used to derive conventional finite-difference operators analytically. With a minor change, these scaled binomial windows can also be used to derive optimized finite-difference operators with enhanced dispersion properties. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Workload of window cleaners using ladders differing in rung separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Looze, M.P. de; Kingma, I.; Reijneveld, K.C.N.; Korte, E.M. de; Grinten, M.P. van der; Dieën, J.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare energetic workload, perceived exertion, perceived discomfort, safety, and mechanical load at lower limb joints among window cleaners during usage of extension ladders with 30 and 35 cm rung separation. Eleven healthy male professional window cleaners

  6. The Architectural and Technical Consequences of Different Window Details in a Danish Passive House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2008-01-01

     This paper focuses on a study of window details from "The Comfort Houses" in relation to "traditional" Danish construction solutions. The aim is to evaluate different ways of solving a window detail and to identify both architectural and technical consequences. It is important to investigate both...

  7. Temperature-amplitude coupling for stable biological rhythms at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Gen; Fujioka, Atsuko; Koinuma, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Shigeyoshi, Yasufumi

    2017-06-01

    Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells. The amplitudes of Cry1 and Dbp circadian expression increased significantly with temperature. In contrast, other clock transcripts demonstrated no significant change in amplitude. To understand these experimental results, we analyzed mathematical models with different network topologies. It was found that the geometric mean amplitude of gene expression must increase to maintain a stable period with increasing temperatures and reaction speeds for all models studied. To investigate the generality of this temperature-amplitude coupling mechanism for period stability, we revisited data on the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC) period, which is also stable under temperature variation. We confirmed that the YMC amplitude increased at higher temperatures, suggesting temperature-amplitude coupling as a common mechanism shared by circadian and 4 h-metabolic rhythms.

  8. Frequency and amplitude modulation have different effects on the percepts elicited by retinal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Devyani; Fine, Ione; Horsager, Alan; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Humayun, Mark S; Greenberg, Robert J; Weiland, James D

    2012-01-20

    In an effort to restore functional form vision, epiretinal prostheses that elicit percepts by directly stimulating remaining retinal circuitry were implanted in human subjects with advanced retinitis pigmentosa RP). In this study, manipulating pulse train frequency and amplitude had different effects on the size and brightness of phosphene appearance. Experiments were performed on a single subject with severe RP (implanted with a 16-channel epiretinal prosthesis in 2004) on nine individual electrodes. Psychophysical techniques were used to measure both the brightness and size of phosphenes when the biphasic pulse train was varied by either modulating the current amplitude (with constant frequency) or the stimulating frequency (with constant current amplitude). Increasing stimulation frequency always increased brightness, while having a smaller effect on the size of elicited phosphenes. In contrast, increasing stimulation amplitude generally increased both the size and brightness of phosphenes. These experimental findings can be explained by using a simple computational model based on previous psychophysical work and the expected spatial spread of current from a disc electrode. Given that amplitude and frequency have separable effects on percept size, these findings suggest that frequency modulation improves the encoding of a wide range of brightness levels without a loss of spatial resolution. Future retinal prosthesis designs could benefit from having the flexibility to manipulate pulse train amplitude and frequency independently (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00279500).

  9. Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Barbara; Piquerez, André; Habermacher, Manuel; Ragettli, Martina; Röösli, Martin; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Vienneau, Danielle; Foraster, Maria; Müller, Uwe; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-18

    Noise exposure prediction models for health effect studies normally estimate free field exposure levels outside. However, to assess the noise exposure inside dwellings, an estimate of indoor sound levels is necessary. To date, little field data is available about the difference between indoor and outdoor noise levels and factors affecting the damping of outside noise. This is a major cause of uncertainty in indoor noise exposure prediction and may lead to exposure misclassification in health assessments. This study aims to determine sound level differences between the indoors and the outdoors for different window positions and how this sound damping is related to building characteristics. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at home in a sample of 102 Swiss residents exposed to road traffic noise. Sound pressure level recordings were performed outdoors and indoors, in the living room and in the bedroom. Three scenarios-of open, tilted, and closed windows-were recorded for three minutes each. For each situation, data on additional parameters such as the orientation towards the source, floor, and room, as well as sound insulation characteristics were collected. On that basis, linear regression models were established. The median outdoor-indoor sound level differences were of 10 dB(A) for open, 16 dB(A) for tilted, and 28 dB(A) for closed windows. For open and tilted windows, the most relevant parameters affecting the outdoor-indoor differences were the position of the window, the type and volume of the room, and the age of the building. For closed windows, the relevant parameters were the sound level outside, the material of the window frame, the existence of window gaskets, and the number of windows.

  10. Investigation of Different Configurations of a Ventilated Window to Optimize Both Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Heiselberg, Per; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2017-01-01

    ) for the calculation of the thermal and solar properties of commercial and innovative window systems. Additionally, comfort performance is evaluated by inlet air temperature and internal surface temperature of the windows calculated by WIS software. The results of the study show the energy and comfort performance...... the energy consumption or optimizing the thermal comfort. The provided optimal window typologies can be used in residential and commercial buildings for both new constructions and renovations.......The study in this article investigates 15 ventilated window typologies with different pane configurations and glazing types in climates of four European countries (United Kingdom, Denmark, France and Germany) in order to identify the optimum typology with regard to their energy balance and impact...

  11. Renormalization group and relations between scattering amplitudes in a theory with different mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulov, A.V.; Skalozub, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    In the Yukawa model with two different mass scales the renormalization group equation is used to obtain relations between scattering amplitudes at low energies. Considering fermion-fermion scattering as an example, a basic one-loop renormalization group relation is derived which gives possibility to reduce the problem to the scattering of light particles on the external field substituting a heavy virtual state. Applications of the results to problem of searching new physics beyond the Standard Model are discussed [ru

  12. Padé approximant for normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungthong, P.; Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.; Kolitawong, C.; Merger, D.; Wilhelm, M.

    2018-04-01

    Analytical solutions for the normal stress differences in large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow (LAOS), for continuum or molecular models, normally take the inexact form of the first few terms of a series expansion in the shear rate amplitude. Here, we improve the accuracy of these truncated expansions by replacing them with rational functions called Padé approximants. The recent advent of exact solutions in LAOS presents an opportunity to identify accurate and useful Padé approximants. For this identification, we replace the truncated expansion for the corotational Jeffreys fluid with its Padé approximants for the normal stress differences. We uncover the most accurate and useful approximant, the [3,4] approximant, and then test its accuracy against the exact solution [C. Saengow and A. J. Giacomin, "Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow," Phys. Fluids 29, 121601 (2017)]. We use Ewoldt grids to show the stunning accuracy of our [3,4] approximant in LAOS. We quantify this accuracy with an objective function and then map it onto the Pipkin space. Our two applications illustrate how to use our new approximant reliably. For this, we use the Spriggs relations to generalize our best approximant to multimode, and then, we compare with measurements on molten high-density polyethylene and on dissolved polyisobutylene in isobutylene oligomer.

  13. A Contrast on Conductor Galloping Amplitude Calculated by Three Mathematical Models with Different DOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is pivotal to find an effective mathematical model revealing the galloping mechanism. And it is important to compare the difference between the existing mathematical models on the conductor galloping. In this paper, the continuum cable model for transmission lines was proposed using the Hamilton principle. Discrete models of one DOF, two DOFs, and three DOFs were derived from the continuum model by using the Garlekin method. And the three models were compared by analyzing the galloping vertical amplitude and torsional angle with different influence factors. The influence factors include wind velocity, flow density, span length, damping ratio, and initial tension. The three-DOF model is more accurate at calculating the galloping characteristics than the other two models, but the one-DOF and two-DOF models can also present the trend of galloping amplitude change from the point view of qualitative analysis. And the change of the galloping amplitude relative to the main factors was also obtained, which is very essential to the antigalloping design applied in the actual engineering.

  14. Measurement of g-value for windows with different solar shading devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Gudum, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    The resulting g-value (total solar energy transmittance) of windows with different combinations of glazing type and solar shading type is investigated by means of measurements. The measurements are carried out by exposing the indoor test facility (METSET) to sun from the indoor solar simulator (64...

  15. Individual Differences in Developmental Change: Quantifying the Amplitude and Heterogeneity in Cognitive Change across Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cognitive decline in older adults is of smaller amplitude in longitudinal than in cross-sectional studies. Yet, the measure of interest rests generally with aggregated group data. A focus on individual developmental trajectories is rare, mainly because it is difficult to assess intraindividual change reliably. Individual differences in developmental trajectories may differ quantitatively (e.g., larger or smaller decline or qualitatively (e.g., decline vs improvement, as well as in the degree of heterogeneity of change across different cognitive domains or different tasks. The present paper aims at exploring, within the Geneva Variability Study, individual change across several cognitive domains in 92 older adults (aged 59–89 years at baseline over a maximum of seven years and a half. Two novel, complementary methods were used to explore change in cognitive performance while remaining entirely at the intra-individual level. A bootstrap based confidence interval was estimated, for each participant and for each experimental condition, making it possible to define three patterns: stability, increase or decrease in performance. Within-person ANOVAs were also conducted for each individual on all the tasks. Those two methods allowed quantifying the direction, the amplitude and the heterogeneity of change for each individual. Results show that trajectories differed widely among individuals and that decline is far from being the rule.

  16. Differential immunotoxicity induced by two different windows of developmental trichloroethylene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Woodruff, William; Blossom, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may induce immune system alterations that contribute to adult stage autoimmune disease. We have shown that continuous exposure of MRL+/+ mice to trichloroethylene (TCE) from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 49 alters several aspects of CD4(+) T cell function. This window of exposure corresponds to conception-adolescence/young adulthood in humans. More narrowly defining the window of TCE developmental exposure causes immunotoxicity that would establish the stage at which avoidance and/or intervention would be most effective. The current study divided continuous TCE exposure into two separate windows, namely, gestation only (GD0 to birth (PND0)) and early-life only (PND0-PND49). The mice were examined for specific alterations in CD4(+) T cell function at PND49. One potentially long-lasting effect of developmental exposure, alterations in retrotransposon expression indicative of epigenetic alterations, was found in peripheral CD4(+) T cells from both sets of developmentally exposed mice. Interestingly, certain other effects, such as alterations in thymus cellularity, were only found in mice exposed to TCE during gestation. In contrast, expansion of memory/activation cell subset of peripheral CD4(+) T cells were only found in mice exposed to TCE during early life. Different windows of developmental TCE exposure can have different functional consequences.

  17. Differential Immunotoxicity Induced by Two Different Windows of Developmental Trichloroethylene Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may induce immune system alterations that contribute to adult stage autoimmune disease. We have shown that continuous exposure of MRL+/+ mice to trichloroethylene (TCE from gestational day (GD 0 to postnatal day (PND 49 alters several aspects of CD4+ T cell function. This window of exposure corresponds to conception-adolescence/young adulthood in humans. More narrowly defining the window of TCE developmental exposure causes immunotoxicity that would establish the stage at which avoidance and/or intervention would be most effective. The current study divided continuous TCE exposure into two separate windows, namely, gestation only (GD0 to birth (PND0 and early-life only (PND0-PND49. The mice were examined for specific alterations in CD4+ T cell function at PND49. One potentially long-lasting effect of developmental exposure, alterations in retrotransposon expression indicative of epigenetic alterations, was found in peripheral CD4+ T cells from both sets of developmentally exposed mice. Interestingly, certain other effects, such as alterations in thymus cellularity, were only found in mice exposed to TCE during gestation. In contrast, expansion of memory/activation cell subset of peripheral CD4+ T cells were only found in mice exposed to TCE during early life. Different windows of developmental TCE exposure can have different functional consequences.

  18. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amplitude differences least squares method applied to temporal cardiac beat alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, R O; Laciar, E; Valentinuzzi, M E

    2007-01-01

    High resolution averaged ECG is an important diagnostic technique in post-infarcted and/or chagasic patients with high risk of ventricular tachycardia (VT). It calls for precise determination of the synchronism point (fiducial point) in each beat to be averaged. Cross-correlation (CC) between each detected beat and a reference beat is, by and large, the standard alignment procedure. However, the fiducial point determination is not precise in records contaminated with high levels of noise. Herein, we propose an alignment procedure based on the least squares calculation of the amplitude differences (LSAD) between the ECG samples and a reference or template beat. Both techniques, CC and LSAD, were tested in high resolution ECG's corrupted with white noise and 50 Hz line interference of varying amplitudes (RMS range: 0-100μV). Results point out that LSDA produced a lower alignment error in all contaminated records while in those blurred by power line interference better results were found only within the 0-40 μV range. It is concluded that the proposed method represents a valid alignment alternative

  20. Differences in P300 amplitudes and topography between cycloid psychosis and schizophrenia in Leonhard's classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, W K; Dierks, T; Franzek, E; Maurer, K; Beckmann, H

    1993-03-01

    In a polydiagnostic approach, we investigated the parameters of auditory P300 in a group of 18 remitted schizophrenics and in 18 age- and sex-matched controls. All patients fulfilled the criteria of schizophrenic disorder according to DSM-III-R. Applying Leonhard's classification, patients were to be subdivided into 7 cycloid psychosis and 11 Leonhard's schizophrenics. Patients with cycloid psychosis fulfilled the operational criteria of Brockington et al. We found significantly lower P300 amplitudes in the group of Leonhard's schizophrenics than in controls and in cycloid psychosis, whereas no difference could be shown between patients with cycloid psychosis and controls. Both the maxima and the minima of the P300 field map were dislocated significantly to the right in the group of Leonhard's schizophrenics but not in cycloid psychosis.

  1. Low cycle fatigue behavior of the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy under different strain amplitudes and strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cycle fatigue behavior of extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy was investigated under uniaxial tension-compression at different strain amplitudes and strain rates. The results show that the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy exhibits cyclic hardening at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.4% to 1.0%, the asymmetry of hysteresis loops becomes increasingly obvious when the strain amplitude increases. Higher strain rates correspond to higher stress amplitudes, high mean stresses and short fatigue life. {10–12} extension twins play a role in the cyclic deformation under higher strain amplitudes (0.8%, 1.0%. The relationship between total strain energy density and fatigue life can be described by the modified Morrow model. The effect of strain rate on the fatigue life can also be predicted by the model.

  2. Window Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    This research project has investigated 17 households in Germany (cities and rural areas). The main aim was to learn about the significance of the window to these people: What they think of their windows, how, when and why they use them in their everyday life, if they have a favorite window and why......, as well as the opposite. The report also includes a special focus on overheating and people’s strategies against this. Knowing about what people appreciate in a window and their actual practices and the reasons for their behaviour may be useful in many different ways, for instance to inform public...... of ethnographic tools that required their involvement, such as making a diary of their heating experiences during a random week in the summer of 2014, taking photos of windows and sending postcards with specific tasks....

  3. A high-density ERP study reveals latency, amplitude, and topographical differences in multiple sclerosis patients versus controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelan, R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify latency, amplitude and topographical differences in event-related potential (ERP) components between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls and to compare ERP findings with results from the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). METHODS: Fifty-four subjects (17 relapsing remitting (RRMS) patients, 16 secondary progressive (SPMS) patients, and 21 controls) completed visual and auditory oddball tasks while data were recorded from 134 EEG channels. Latency and amplitude differences, calculated using composite mean amplitude measures, were tested using an ANOVA. Topographical differences were tested using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). RESULTS: In the visual modality, P2, P3 amplitudes and N2 latency were significantly different across groups. In the auditory modality, P2, N2, and P3 latencies and N1 amplitude were significantly different across groups. There were no significant differences between RRMS and SPMS patients on any ERP component. There were topographical differences between MS patients and controls for both early and late components for the visual modality, but only in the early components for the auditory modality. PASAT score correlated significantly with auditory P3 latency for MS patients. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant ERP differences between MS patients and controls. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study indicated that both early sensory and later cognitive ERP components are impaired in MS patients relative to controls.

  4. Prior history of FDI muscle contraction: different effect on MEP amplitude and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talis, V L; Kazennikov, O V; Castellote, J M; Grishin, A A; Ioffe, M E

    2014-03-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation of left motor cortex were assessed in ten healthy subjects during maintenance of a fixed FDI contraction level. Subjects maintained an integrated EMG (IEMG) level with visual feedback and reproduced this level by memory afterwards in the following tasks: stationary FDI muscle contraction at the level of 40 ± 5 % of its maximum voluntary contraction (MVC; 40 % task), at the level of 20 ± 5 % MVC (20 % task), and also when 20 % MVC was preceded by either no contraction (0-20 task), by stronger muscle contraction (40-20 task) or by no contraction with a previous strong contraction (40-0-20 task). The results show that the IEMG level was within the prescribed limits when 20 and 40 % stationary tasks were executed with and without visual feedback. In 0-20, 40-20, and 40-0-20 tasks, 20 % IEMG level was precisely controlled in the presence of visual feedback, but without visual feedback the IEMG and force during 20 % IEMG maintenance were significantly higher in the 40-0-20 task than those in 0-20 and 40-20 tasks. That is, without visual feedback, there were significant variations in muscle activity due to different prehistory of contraction. In stationary tasks, MEP amplitudes in 40 % task were higher than in 20 % task. MEPs did not differ significantly during maintenance of the 20 % level in tasks with different prehistory of muscle contraction with and without visual feedback. Thus, in spite of variations in muscle background activity due to different prehistory of contraction MEPs did not vary significantly. This dissociation suggests that the voluntary maintenance of IEMG level is determined not only by cortical mechanisms, as reflected by corticospinal excitability, but also by lower levels of CNS, where afferent signals and influences from other brain structures and spinal cord are convergent.

  5. Do patients having a decrease in SNAP amplitude during the course of MMN present with a different condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmont, Emilien; Benaïm, Charles; Launay, Mael; Sacconi, Sabrina; Soriani, Marie-Hélène; Desnuelle, Claude

    2009-11-01

    A decrease in sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) amplitude has been recently reported in some patients during the course of multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction blocks (MMNCB). It is not known if those patients have different clinical expression and disability when compared with typical MMNCB. Clinical, biological and electrophysiological assessments were performed in 15 patients fitting the diagnosis criteria of MMNCB, including normal SNAP amplitude at initial examination. Patients presenting with nerve entrapment or associated disease causative of sensory neuropathy were excluded. Median time of follow-up was 3 years (1-17 years). At the last examination, four patients had at least one SNAP amplitude below 50% of normal value. None had clinically objective sensory loss. Clinical and electrophysiological data obtained at the last examination were compared between patients with normal SNAP amplitude and patients with decreased SNAP amplitude. No difference between both population in term of age, sex, disease duration, anti-GM1 antibody titers, CSF data and number of conduction blocks was noted. In contrast, patients with decreased SNAP amplitude had worse overall neuropathy limitation scale (ONLS) scores (7 vs. 2; p = 0.02), a higher number of affected nerves (12.5 vs. 4; p = 0.018), a higher number of affected limb regions (6 vs. 2; p = 0.019) and lower median CMAP amplitude (2 mV vs. 6.5 mV; p = 0.04). They were all dependent on higher doses of IVIg (1.4 g/(kg 4 weeks vs. 0.6; p = 0.018). A reduction in SNAP amplitude during the course of MMNCB is associated with a more severe disease and a more prominent axonal loss. This result needs to be confirmed in a larger cohort.

  6. A comparison of planar sensitivity and spatial resolution among different collimators and energy windows on 223Ra imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Takuro; Miyaji, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Shuto; Motegi, Kazuki; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Miwa, Kenta; Wagatsuma, Kei

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influence of combination of different collimators and energy windows on the planar sensitivity and the spatial resolution during experimental 223 Ra imaging, and to determine optimal imaging parameters. A vial type source containing 223 Ra solution (4.55 MBq / 5.6 ml) was placed in the air at 100 mm away from the collimator surface. Planar images were acquired with LEHR, JLMEGP, ELEGP and MEGP collimators on two dual-head gamma cameras (Symbia intevo (Siemens) and Infinia 3 (GE)). We compared three energy window combinations: 1) single window at 82 keV, 2) double window at 82+154 keV, 3) triple window at 82+154+270 keV. The energy spectrum, the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, such as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM), of each collimator were assessed. Five energy spectra (at around 82, 154, 270, 351 and 405 keV) were essentially observed among four collimators. The sensitivity was high for LEHR collimator, then ELEGP and LMEGP collimator was 3-4 fold, which is greater than MEGP collimator. The 82 keV energy window of four collimators has best spatial resolution. Moreover, the spatial resolution of the 82 keV energy window with LMEGP and ELEGP collimator was almost equal to that of the triple window with MEGP collimator. Optimal imaging parameters were single energy window using LMEGP or ELEGP, and then triple energy window using MEGP collimator. (author)

  7. MASMA: a versatile multifunctional unit (gated window amplifier, analog memory, and height-to-time converter); Element multifonctionnel M.A.S.M.A. (module amplificateur a seuil, memoire analogique et convertisseur amplitude-temps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goursky, V.; Thenes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This multipurpose unit is designed to accomplish one of the following functions: - gated window amplifier, - Analog memory and - Amplitude-to-time converter. The first function is mainly devoted to improve the poor resolution of pulse-height analyzers with a small number of channels. The analog memory, a new function in the standard range of plug-in modules, is capable of performing a number of operations: 1) fixed delay, or variable delay dependent on an external parameter (application to the analog processing of non-coincident pulses), 2) de-randomiser to increase the efficiency of the pulse height analysis in a spectrometry experiment, 3) linear multiplexer to allow an analyser to serve as many spectrometry devices as memory elements that it possesses. Associated with a coding scaler, this unit, if used as a amplitude-to-time converter, constitutes a Wilkinson A.D.C with a capability of 10 bits (or more) and with a 100 MHz clock frequency. (authors) [French] Le present element est concu pour etre utilise dans l'un des modes de fonctionnement suivants: - amplificateur a seuil avec porte, - memoire analogique, - convertisseur amplitude-temps. La fonction amplificateur a seuil est destinee principalement a remedier a la resolution insuffisante de certains analyseurs d'amplitude possedant un faible nombre de canaux. La fonction memoire analogique est une fonction qui n'existe pas encore dans la gamme d'elements standardises. Elle peut trouver de nombreuses applications; a titre d'exemple, citons: 1) element de retard fixe ou dependant d'un parametre externe (application au calcul analogique portant sur les impulsions), 2) memoire-tampon: placee devant un analyseur, elle augmente l'efficacite d'analyse d'une chaine de spectrometrie, 3) multiplexeur analogique, permettant a un seul analyseur de desservir autant de voies de spectrometrie qu'il possede de memoires. En fonction convertisseur amplitude-temps, ce tiroir

  8. Investigation of a mutual interaction force at different pressure amplitudes in sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaee, Nastaran; Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Mirheydari, Mona; Ebrahimi, Homa

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the secondary Bjerknes force for two oscillating bubbles in various pressure amplitudes in a concentration of 95% sulfuric acid. The equilibrium radii of the bubbles are assumed to be smaller than 10 μm at a frequency of 37 kHz in various strong driving acoustical fields around 2.0 bars (1 bar=10 5 Pa). The secondary Bjerknes force is investigated in uncoupled and coupled states between the bubbles, with regard to the quasi-adiabatic model for the bubble interior. It finds that the value of the secondary Bjerknes force depends on the driven pressure of sulfuric acid and its amount would be increased by liquid pressure amplitude enhancement. The results show that the repulsion area of the interaction force would be increased by increasing the driven pressure because of nonlinear oscillation of bubbles. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Suppression of Subsequent N1m Amplitude When the Masker Frequency is Different from the Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Uratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When two tones are presented in a short interval of time, the presentation of the preceding tone (masker suppresses the response evoked by the subsequent tone (signal. To address the processing in forward suppression, we applied 2- and 4-kHz maskers, followed by a 1-kHz signal at varying signal delays (0 to 320 ms and measured the signal-evoked N1m. A two-way analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant effect for signal delay in both masker presentation conditions. The N1m peak amplitude at the signal delay of 320 ms was significantly larger than those of 10, 20, 40, and 80 ms ( p < 0.05. No significant enhancement for the very short signal delay was observed. The results suggest that the enhancement of N1m peak amplitude for short signal delay conditions is maximized when the frequency of the masker is identical to that of the signal.

  10. Measuring pattern, amplitude and timing differences between monetary and nonmonetary seasonal factors of tourism - the case of Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderstaat, J.R.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonality is a frequent and important occurrence in the tourism industry, with concurrent effects on both the financial and volume flows of tourism. The purpose of this study is to measure pattern, amplitude and timing differences between the seasonal factors of monetary and non-monetary

  11. Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-11-01

    The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure. We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort. Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined. Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys. Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.

  12. Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson Crommert, M; Halvorsen, K; Ekblom, M M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0°) to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus (OI) with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement.

  13. Trunk Muscle Activation at the Initiation and Braking of Bilateral Shoulder Flexion Movements of Different Amplitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eriksson Crommert

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if trunk muscle activation patterns during rapid bilateral shoulder flexions are affected by movement amplitude. Eleven healthy males performed shoulder flexion movements starting from a position with arms along sides (0° to either 45°, 90° or 180°. EMG was measured bilaterally from transversus abdominis (TrA, obliquus internus (OI with intra-muscular electrodes, and from rectus abdominis (RA, erector spinae (ES and deltoideus with surface electrodes. 3D kinematics was recorded and inverse dynamics was used to calculate the reactive linear forces and torque about the shoulders and the linear and angular impulses. The sequencing of trunk muscle onsets at the initiation of arm movements was the same across movement amplitudes with ES as the first muscle activated, followed by TrA, RA and OI. All arm movements induced a flexion angular impulse about the shoulders during acceleration that was reversed during deceleration. Increased movement amplitude led to shortened onset latencies of the abdominal muscles and increased level of activation in TrA and ES. The activation magnitude of TrA was similar in acceleration and deceleration where the other muscles were specific to acceleration or deceleration. The findings show that arm movements need to be standardized when used as a method to evaluate trunk muscle activation patterns and that inclusion of the deceleration of the arms in the analysis allow the study of the relationship between trunk muscle activation and direction of perturbing torque during one and the same arm movement.

  14. Improved image quality and detectability of hypovascular liver metastases on DECT with different adjusted window settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbernd, Jens; Forsting, Michael; Lauenstein, Thomas; Wetter, Axel [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2017-03-15

    To investigate dual-energy CT of hypovascular liver metastases (LMs) with special focus on window settings (WSs). The aim of the study is to investigate the extent to which adapted WSs and the low-energy images of DECT improve the visibility especially of smaller LMs. 30 patients with LMs of colorectal cancer were investigated with DECT of the liver. In each patient contrast-enhanced DECT imaging with portal-venous delay was performed. The total number, mean number and conspicuity (1= excellent - 5 = poor) of LMs were documented on 80-kVp images and virtual 120-kVp images with different WSs (25/200 HU, 50/200, 75/200 HU, 25/350 HU, 50/350 HU, 75/350 HU, 25/500 HU, 50/500 HU, 75/500 HU). The attenuation (HU) of LMs and several anatomic regions and the background noise on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images were documented. Signal (liver)/noise and liver/LM ratio (SNR/LLMR) were calculated. The total number of LMs depending on size (<1cm, 1-2cm, >2cm) on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images with previously investigated best and regular WSs were documented. The highest total number, mean number per patient and total number of LMs <1cm were detected with the WS 25/350 HU on 80kVp images (7.0; p = 0.02/218; p = 0.01/64;p<0.001) compared to the WS 75/200 HU on virtual 120 kVp images and the regular WS 50/350 HU on 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images. The best conspicuity of LMs on 80 kVp images was documented with the WS 25/350 HU compared to the best WS on virtual 120 kVp images with 75/200 HU (1.2 vs. 2.5; p = 0.01). HU of normal liver, aorta, SNR and LLMR differed significantly between 80 kVp images and virtual 120 kVp images (128.1 vs. 93.6; < 0.05/192.8 vs. 131.4; < 0.05/10.3 vs. 8.1; p < 0.05/2.8 vs. 2.1; p < 0.05). Low kVp images of DECT datasets are more precise in detecting hypovascular liver metastases than virtual 120 kVp images. Dedicated window settings have a relevant influence on conspicuity.

  15. Construction of concrete hot cells; requirements for shielding windows for concrete walls with different densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The shielding windows form part of the basic equipment of hot cells for remote handling, as defined in standard DIN 25 420 part 1. The draft standard in hand is intended to specify the design and manufacture requirements, especially with regard to main dimensions, sight quality, shielding effects, and radiation resistance. The standard refers to three types of shielding window with surface area design (product of density and wall thickness) corresponding to concrete walls of the densities 2.4, 3.4, and 4.0 g/cm 3 . The windows fit to three types of concrete of common usage, and the design is made for Co-60 radiation, with attenuation factors of about 10 4 , 10 6 , or 10 7 . For concrete walls with densities between these data, a shielding window suitable to the next higher density data is to be chosen. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Evaluation of various energy windows at different radionuclides for scatter and attenuation correction in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Afrouz; Ashoor, Mansour; Sohrabpour, Mostafa; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Rezaei, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) and qualified images by the various methods is very important for detecting the abnormalities at the body organs. Scatter and attenuation of photons by the organs lead to errors in radiopharmaceutical estimation as well as degradation of images. The choice of suitable energy window and the radionuclide have a key role in nuclear medicine which appearing the lowest scatter fraction as well as having a nearly constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. The energy windows of symmetrical window (SW), asymmetric window (ASW), high window (WH) and low window (WL) using Tc-99m and Sm-153 radionuclide with solid water slab phantom (RW3) and Teflon bone phantoms have been compared, and Matlab software and Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP4C) code were modified to simulate these methods and obtaining the amounts of FWHM and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using line spread functions (LSFs). The experimental data were obtained from the Orbiter Scintron gamma camera. Based on the results of the simulation as well as experimental work, the performance of WH and ASW display of the results, lowest scatter fraction as well as constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. WH and ASW were optimal windows in nuclear medicine imaging for Tc-99m in RW3 phantom and Sm-153 in Teflon bone phantom. Attenuation correction was done for WH and ASW optimal windows and for these radionuclides using filtered back projection algorithm. Results of simulation and experimental show that very good agreement between the set of experimental with simulation as well as theoretical values with simulation data were obtained which was nominally less than 7.07 % for Tc-99m and less than 8.00 % for Sm-153. Corrected counts were not affected by the thickness of scattering material. The Simulated results of Line Spread Function (LSF) for Sm-153 and Tc-99m in phantom based on four windows and TEW method were

  17. Differential Immunotoxicity Induced by Two Different Windows of Developmental Trichloroethylene Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Woodruff, William; Blossom, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to environmental toxicants may induce immune system alterations that contribute to adult stage autoimmune disease. We have shown that continuous exposure of MRL+/+ mice to trichloroethylene (TCE) from gestational day (GD) 0 to postnatal day (PND) 49 alters several aspects of CD4+ T cell function. This window of exposure corresponds to conception-adolescence/young adulthood in humans. More narrowly defining the window of TCE developmental exposure causes immunotoxicity t...

  18. Age Differences in Prenatal Testosterone's Protective Effects on Disordered Eating Symptoms: Developmental Windows of Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M.; Breedlove, S. Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone exposure may be protective against disordered eating. However, prior studies have produced mixed results. Developmental differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating may explain these discrepancies. Indeed, studies have differed in the age of participants assessed, with data supporting prenatal testosterone effects on disordered eating in early adolescent and young adult samples but not in late adolescence. The present series of studies are the first to investigate age differences in prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating. Two indirect markers of higher prenatal testosterone were examined: 1) lower finger-length ratios [index (2D)/ring (4D) finger] (Study 1), and 2) lower disordered eating in females from opposite-sex twin pairs (who are thought to be exposed to higher prenatal testosterone from their male co-twin) relative to female controls (Study 2). Participants were twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (Study 1: n = 409; Study 2: n = 1,538) in early adolescence, late adolescence, or young adulthood. Disordered eating was assessed with well-validated questionnaires. Finger-length ratios were measured from hand scans, using electronic computer calipers. Findings were consistent across both studies. Higher prenatal testosterone (lower 2D:4D; females from opposite-sex twin pairs vs. controls) predicted lower disordered eating in early adolescence and young adulthood only. Prenatal testosterone-disordered eating associations were not observed during late adolescence. Results point to the possibility of developmental windows of expression for prenatal testosterone's protective effects on disordered eating and suggest that prior discrepant results may reflect age differences across samples. PMID:25621790

  19. Interferential current therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: comparison of the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundog, Meltem; Atamaz, Funda; Kanyilmaz, Selcen; Kirazli, Yesim; Celepoglu, Gunay

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of interferential current (IFC) and sham IFC on knee osteoarthritis. A randomized and single-blind study was performed on 60 patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. The patients were allocated to three active IFC groups (40, 100, and 180 Hz), and one sham IFC group. Treatments were performed 5 times a week for 3 wks consecutively. Each patient was assessed at the end of the treatments and at the first month using the following measurements: visual analog scale (pain at rest, pain on movement and disability), physician and patient judgments regarding treatment effectiveness, 15-m walking time (in minutes), range of motion (ROM), the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and paracetamol intake (g/wk). Although there were significant improvements in all variables, except WOMAC stiffness and range of motion, measured in all groups at the end of the treatment and during the follow-up, this improvement was greater in active IFC groups than in the sham group. The improvement in WOMAC stiffness was observed only in active IFC treatment groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference between different amplitude-modulated frequencies of IFC treatments was observed. This study demonstrated the superiority of the IFC with some advantages on pain and disability outcomes when compared with sham IFC for the management of knee osteoarthritis. However, the effectiveness of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of IFC was not superior when compared with each other.

  20. A comparison of different energy window subtraction methods to correct for scatter and downscatter in I-123 SPECT imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerburg, Vera; de Nijs, Robin; Holm, Søren

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in quantification of single photon emission computer tomography imaging is scatter. In iodine-123 (I-123) imaging, both the primary 159 keV photons and photons of higher energies are scattered. In this experimental study, different scatter correction methods, based...... on energy window subtraction, have been compared with each other....

  1. Window of implantation transcriptomic stratification reveals different endometrial subsignatures associated with live birth and biochemical pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Ruiz-Alonso, Maria; Sebastian-Leon, Patricia; Pellicer, Antonio; Valbuena, Diana; Simón, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    To refine the endometrial window of implantation (WOI) transcriptomic signature by defining new subsignatures associated to live birth and biochemical pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated in vitro fertilization clinic and reproductive genetics laboratory. Healthy fertile oocyte donors (n = 79) and patients with infertility diagnosed by Endometrial Receptivity Analysis (n = 771). None. WOI transcriptomic signatures associated with specific reproductive outcomes. The retrospective cohort study was designed to perform a prediction model based on transcriptomic clusters for endometrial classification (training set, n = 529). The clinical follow-up set in the expected WOI (n = 321) was tested with the transcriptomic predictor to detect WOI variability and the pregnancy outcomes associated with these subsignatures (n = 228). The endometrial receptivity signature was redefined into four WOI transcriptomic profiles. This stratification identified an optimal endometrial receptivity (RR) signature resulting in an ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) of 80% in terms of live birth, as well as a late receptive-stage (LR) signature with a potential high risk of 50% biochemical pregnancy. Abnormal down-regulation of the cell cycle was the main dysregulated function among the 22 genes associated with biochemical pregnancy. The major differences between the WOI transcriptomic stratification were in the OPR and biochemical pregnancy rate. The OPR ranged from 76.9% and 80% in the late prereceptive (LPR) and RR signatures, respectively, versus 33.3% in the LR. The biochemical pregnancy rate was 7.7% and 6.6% in LPR and RR, respectively, but 50% in LR, which highlights the relevance of endometrial status in the progression of embryonic implantation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the [Formula: see text] decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the [Formula: see text] decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3[Formula: see text] collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the [Formula: see text] decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  3. Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bruce; Chambers, James; Garber, Danny; Malik, Jamal; Fazio, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A collection of five must-have Azure titles, from some of the biggest names in the field Available individually, but at a discounted rate for the collection, this bundle of five e-books covers key developer and IT topics of Windows Azure, including ASP.NET, mobile services, web sites, data storage, and the hybrid cloud. A host of Microsoft employees and MPVs come together to cover the biggest challenges that professionals face when working with Windows Azure. The e-books included are as follows: Windows Azure and ASP.NET MVC MigrationWindows Azure Mobile ServicesWindows Azure Web SitesWindows

  4. Window shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy

    2013-01-01

    The terms "window shopping" and "showrooming" refer to the activity in which potential buyers visit a brick-and-mortar store to examine a product but end up either not buying it or buying the product from an online retailer. This paper analyzes potential buyers who differ in their preference for after-sale service that is not offered by online retailers. For some buyers, making a trip to the brick-and-mortar store is costly; however, going to the store to examine the product has the advantage...

  5. Magneto-mechanical damping and ΔE-effect in ferritic steel at different levels of ultrasound strain amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardashev, B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Magneto-mechanical damping and Young modulus (ΔE-effect) of reactor pressure vessel steels were investigated in a wide amplitude range for both amplitude-independent (AID) and amplitude-dependent (ADD) damping ranges. Two types of Japanese Reference Quality (JRQ) steel samples in as received and thermally aged states were used in the experiments. The measurements were made, using the composite oscillator technique at resonance frequencies of about 100 kHz. Longitudinal vibrations of the rod samples were used. Magnetic field up to 2600 A/m was applied along the length of the rod. Amplitude, time and field dependencies of the damping and resonant frequencies (Young modulus) have been measured. Computer controlled acoustic measurements were made simultaneously at two amplitude levels. The data about the influence of high amplitude ultrasonic excitation (HAUE) of the samples (with the amplitudes in the ADD range) on hysteretic field behaviour of AID, ADD and resonant frequencies (ΔE-effects) were obtained. The experiments showed that ΔE-effect at low amplitudes (AID range) was qualitatively changed by HAUE, whereas AID was almost the same during the experiments with and without HAUE. It was found that annealing of the JRQ steel for three years at 290 degree C slightly increased magneto-mechanical damping and ΔE-effect for both AID and ADD ranges, but it did not change qualitatively neither amplitude nor magnetic field dependencies. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the influence of annealing can be explained by relaxation of internal stresses in the sample material. This confirms by higher level of flow stresses for 'as received' sample as compared with the stresses for 'thermally aged' one. The newly found effect of HAUE is supposed to be caused by reversible changes (due to high vibrational amplitude) of the internal stresses as well. (author)

  6. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor's definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals' impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or similar patterns. We designed the survey questionnaire

  7. No Time for Dead Time: Use the Fourier Amplitude Differences to Normalize Dead-time-affected Periodograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Dead time affects many of the instruments used in X-ray astronomy, by producing a strong distortion in power density spectra. This can make it difficult to model the aperiodic variability of the source or look for quasi-periodic oscillations. Whereas in some instruments a simple a priori correction for dead-time-affected power spectra is possible, this is not the case for others such as NuSTAR, where the dead time is non-constant and long (∼2.5 ms). Bachetti et al. (2015) suggested the cospectrum obtained from light curves of independent detectors within the same instrument as a possible way out, but this solution has always only been a partial one: the measured rms was still affected by dead time because the width of the power distribution of the cospectrum was modulated by dead time in a frequency-dependent way. In this Letter, we suggest a new, powerful method to normalize dead-time-affected cospectra and power density spectra. Our approach uses the difference of the Fourier amplitudes from two independent detectors to characterize and filter out the effect of dead time. This method is crucially important for the accurate modeling of periodograms derived from instruments affected by dead time on board current missions like NuSTAR and Astrosat, but also future missions such as IXPE.

  8. Ocular pulse amplitude in different types of glaucoma using dynamic contour tonometry: Diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lingyan; Ding, Yuzhi; Duan, Xuanchu; Wu, Zhifeng

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in patients with different types of glaucoma using dynamic contour tonometry (DCT), to evaluate ocular and systemic factors associated with the OPA and to verify whether OPA measured by DCT is an independent predictor for glaucoma diagnosis. A total of 217 eyes of 217 participants in the following five groups were included in this cross-sectional study: Chronic angle closure glaucoma (CACG), primary open angle glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma (NTG), suspected open angle glaucoma (SOAG) and normal control (NC). The following tests were simultaneously performed during a single visit: Intra-ocular pressure (IOP), OPA, cup-to-disk (C/D) ratio, mean damage (MD) and loss variance (LV). OPAs were compared in each group. The association between OPA and IOP, age, C/D ratio, MD and LV was detected. OPA analysis prior to and after trabeculectomy was also performed to assess its prognostic value. Among the 217 individuals, the OPA was consistent with the IOP, both measured by DCT, along with the MD and LV. Patients with CACG and SOAG had higher OPA values than those with NTG and normal controls. Compared with patients aged >30 years, the OPA was significantly lower in younger patients, while they may not have been affected by different C/D ratios. After trabeculectomy, the OPA had significantly decreased compared with the values prior to surgery. In conclusion, the present study showed that the OPA is correlated with the IOP determined by DCT. CACG and SOAG patients had higher OPA values than patients with other types of glaucoma. OPA measured by DCT may be a predictor for glaucoma diagnosis and prognosis.

  9. Windows 8 secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Thurrott, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Tips, tricks, treats, and secrets revealed on Windows 8 Microsoft is introducing a major new release of its Windows operating system, Windows 8, and what better way to learn all its ins and outs than from two internationally recognized Windows experts and Microsoft insiders, authors Paul Thurrott and Rafael Rivera? They cut through the hype to get at useful information you'll not find anywhere else, including what role this new OS plays in a mobile and tablet world. Regardless of your level of knowledge, you'll discover little-known facts about how things work, what's new and different, and h

  10. CAVE WINDOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M.

    1960-10-25

    A cave window is described. It is constructed of thick glass panes arranged so that interior panes have smaller windowpane areas and exterior panes have larger areas. Exterior panes on the radiation exposure side are remotely replaceable when darkened excessively. Metal shutters minimize exposure time to extend window life.

  11. Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-09-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The windows method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neighbour, Roger; Larsen, Jan-Helge

    2017-01-01

    through in sequence, each one opening a different viewpoint or window on the case. To experienced tutors, the windows method’s prescriptive structure may at first seem somewhat rigid. However, for learners with less experience of reflection and self-disclosure, it provides the security necessary...

  13. Age and gender differences in self-esteem : A cross-cultural window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, R.C.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Gebauer, J.E.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from

  14. Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions: Individual Differences as a Window on Cognitive Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Naomi P.; Miyake, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are high-level cognitive processes, often associated with the frontal lobes, that control lower level processes in the service of goal-directed behavior. They include abilities such as response inhibition, interference control, working memory updating, and set shifting. EFs show a general pattern of shared but distinct functions, a pattern described as “unity and diversity.” We review studies of EF unity and diversity at the behavioral and genetic levels, focusing on studies of normal individual differences and what they reveal about the functional organization of these cognitive abilities. In particular, we review evidence that across multiple ages and populations, commonly studied EFs (a) are robustly correlated but separable when measured with latent variables; (b) are not the same as general intelligence or g; (c) are highly heritable at the latent level and seemingly also highly polygenic; and (d) activate both common and specific neural areas and can be linked to individual differences in neural activation, volume, and connectivity. We highlight how considering individual differences at the behavioral and neural levels can add considerable insight to the investigation of the functional organization of the brain, and conclude with some key points about individual differences to consider when interpreting neuropsychological patterns of dissociation. PMID:27251123

  15. Age and Gender Differences in Self-Esteem-A Cross-Cultural Window

    OpenAIRE

    Bleidorn, W; Arslan, RC; Denissen, JJA; Rentfrow, PJ; Gebauer, JE; Potter, J; Gosling, SD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 APA, all rights reserved). Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first ...

  16. Inventions on Displaying and Resizing Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    Windows are used quite frequently in a GUI environment. The greatest advantage of using windows is that each window creates a virtual screen space. Hence, although the physical screen space is limited to a few inches, use of windows can create unlimited screen space to display innumerable items. The use of windows facilitates the user to open and interact with multiple programs or documents simultaneously in different windows. Sometimes a single program may also open multiple windows to displ...

  17. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  18. Activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor during Different Critical Windows in Pregnancy Alters Mammary Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Betina J.; Collins, Loretta L.; O'Reilly, Michael A.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during pregnancy causes severe defects in mammary gland development and function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Alterations in epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during pregnancy-related mammary development can lead to failed lactogenesis. To determine which of these processes are affected and at what time periods, we examined proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in mammary glands following exposure to TCDD during early, mid or throughout pregnancy. Although AhR activation throughout pregnancy did not cause early involution, there was a 50% decrease in cell proliferation, which was observed as early as the sixth day of pregnancy (DP). TCDD treatment on the day of impregnation only reduced development and proliferation in early and mid-pregnancy, followed by partial recovery by DP17. However, when AhR activation was delayed to DP7, developmental impairment was not observed in mid-pregnancy, but became evident by DP17, whereas proliferation was reduced at all times. Thus, early exposure to TCDD was neither necessary nor sufficient to cause persistent defects in lactogenesis. These varying outcomes in mammary development due to exposure at different times in pregnancy suggest there are critical windows during which AhR activation impairs mammary epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:19502548

  19. Windows Home Server users guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edney, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Windows Home Server brings the idea of centralized storage, backup and computer management out of the enterprise and into the home. Windows Home Server is built for people with multiple computers at home and helps to synchronize them, keep them updated, stream media between them, and back them up centrally. Built on a similar foundation as the Microsoft server operating products, it's essentially Small Business Server for the home.This book details how to install, configure, and use Windows Home Server and explains how to connect to and manage different clients such as Windows XP, Windows Vist

  20. Difference between even- and odd-numbered cycles in the predictability of solar activity and prediction of the amplitude of cycle 25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yoshida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was shown previously that the sunspot number (SSN at a point 3 years before the minimum is well correlated with the maximum SSN of the succeeding cycle, and a better correlation is obtained when the maximum SSN is replaced by the average SSN over a cycle for which the average SSN is calculated by dividing cycles at a point 3 years before the minimum (Yoshida and Yamagishi, 2010; Yoshida and Sayre, 2012. Following these findings, we demonstrate in this paper that the correlation between the SSN 3 years before the minimum and the amplitude of the coming cycle differs significantly between even-numbered and odd-numbered cycles: the correlation is much better for even-numbered cycles. Further, it is shown that the amplitude of even-numbered cycles is strongly correlated with that of the succeeding odd-numbered cycles, while the correlation between amplitudes of odd-numbered cycles and those of succeeding even-numbered cycles is very poor. Using the excellent correlations, we estimate the maximum SSN of the current cycle 24 at 81.3 and predict the maximum SSN of cycle 25 to be 115.4 ± 11.9. It is of note, however, that a peak of the SSN has been observed in February 2012 and the peak value 66.9 is considerably smaller than the estimated maximum SSN of cycle 24. We conjecture that the second higher peak of the SSN may appear.

  1. Round window closure affects cochlear responses to suprathreshold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qunfeng; Whitcomb, Carolyn; Eggleston, Jessica; Sun, Wei; Salvi, Richard; Hu, Bo Hua

    2013-12-01

    The round window acts as a vent for releasing inner ear pressure and facilitating basilar membrane vibration. Loss of this venting function affects cochlear function, which leads to hearing impairment. In an effort to identify functional changes that might be used in clinical diagnosis of round window atresia, the current investigation was designed to examine how the cochlea responds to suprathreshold stimuli following round window closure. Prospective, controlled, animal study. A rat model of round window occlusion (RWO) was established. With this model, the thresholds of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and the input/output (IO) functions of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and acoustic startle responses were examined. Round window closure caused a mild shift in the thresholds of the auditory brainstem response (13.5 ± 9.1 dB). It also reduced the amplitudes of the distortion product otoacoustic emissions and the slope of the input/output functions. This peripheral change was accompanied by a significant reduction in the amplitude, but not the threshold, of the acoustic startle reflex, a motor response to suprathreshold sounds. In addition to causing mild increase in the threshold of the auditory brainstem response, round window occlusion reduced the slopes of both distortion product otoacoustic emissions and startle reflex input/output functions. These changes differ from those observed for typical conductive or sensory hearing loss, and could be present in patients with round window atresia. However, future clinical observations in patients are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Strategic Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette; King, David R.; Meglio, Olimpia

    We examine the importance of speed and timing in acquisitions with a framework that identifies management considerations for three interrelated acquisition phases (selection, deal closure and integration) from an acquiring firm’s perspective. Using a process perspective, we pinpoint items within...... acquisition phases that relate to speed. In particular, we present the idea of time-bounded strategic windows in acquisitions consistent with the notion of kairòs, where opportunities appear and must be pursued at the right time for success to occur....

  3. Effects of window size and shape on accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of target images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1993-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for increasing the accuracy of subpixel centroid estimation of (nearly) point target images in cases where the signal-to-noise ratio is low and the signal amplitude and shape vary from frame to frame. In the algorithm, the centroid is calculated over a data window that is matched in width to the image distribution. Fourier analysis is used to explain the dependency of the centroid estimate on the size of the data window, and simulation and experimental results are presented which demonstrate the effects of window size for two different noise models. The effects of window shape were also investigated for uniform and Gaussian-shaped windows. The new algorithm was developed to improve the dynamic range of a close-range photogrammetric tracking system that provides feedback for control of a large gap magnetic suspension system (LGMSS).

  4. Windows 7 is supported at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The new version of the Windows operating system - Windows 7 - is now officially supported at CERN. Windows 7 32-bit is now the default operating system for the new computers at CERN. What’s new in Windows 7 Users of Windows XP will find many new features and options. Users of Windows Vista will feel very familiar with one major difference: higher performance and better responsiveness of the operating system. Other enhancements include: refined Aero desktop that makes it easier to navigate between your different application windows; new snapping windows that allows user to resize a window simply by dragging it to the edge of the screen and “pin” that allows grouping and arranging often accessed applications on the taskbar. Windows 7 introduces the new concept of libraries – containers for user files that have links to different local or network folders. By default, users can see four libraries: Documents, Music, Pictures and Videos. These libraries point to the cor...

  5. Association Between Inflammatory Markers and Progression to Kidney Dysfunction: Examining Different Assessment Windows in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nathaniel L; Hunt, Kelly J; Stevens, Danielle R; Jarai, Gabor; Rosen, Glenn D; Klein, Richard L; Virella, Gabriel; Lopes-Virella, Maria F

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with the development of kidney dysfunction and the time frame of their association. Biomarkers were measured at four time points during 28 years of treatment and follow-up in patients with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) cohort. In addition to traditional biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen), we measured interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNFR-1/2), markers of endothelial dysfunction (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin [sE-selectin]), and fibrinolysis (total and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]). Renal outcomes were defined as progression to incident chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or more severe) or macroalbuminuria (albumin excretion rate ≥300 mg/24 h). Prospective multivariate event-time analyses were used to determine the association of each biomarker with each subsequent event within prespecified intervals (3-year and 10-year windows). Multivariate event-time models indicated that several markers of inflammation (sTNFR-1/2), endothelial dysfunction (sE-selectin), and clotting/fibrinolysis (fibrinogen and PAI-1) are significantly associated with subsequent development of kidney dysfunction. Although some markers showed variations in the associations between the follow-up windows examined, the results indicate that biomarkers (sTNFR-1/2, sE-selectin, PAI-1, and fibrinogen) are associated with progression to chronic kidney disease in both the 3-year and the 10-year windows. Plasma markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and clotting/fibrinolysis are associated with progression to kidney dysfunction in type 1 diabetes during both short-term and long-term follow-up. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Parenthetical Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemi, Esther; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    artificial from natural stimuli and detects common and individual needs by measuring heart pulse and body temperature. The focal point here is light and how light affects human perception while at the same time the perception of sound and how gesture can provide the best possible cognition of actual needs...... light is a form that adapts natures’ properties and modifies the artificial environment as a stage direction, implying at the same time mood and modifying it in collaboration with sound. Having evaluated how this affects the body and human perception in this particular time that we experience nowadays......Parenthetical Window is a project that engages scientific research in human perception providing a platform for users to experience their own limits and needs in their individual circadian rhythm. The presentation focuses on a case study in a community of dancers where the individual needs in light...

  7. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    plitude waves and finite amplitude waves. This article provides a brief introduction to finite amplitude wave theories. Some of the general characteristics of waves as well as the importance of finite amplitude wave theories are touched upon. 2. Small Amplitude Waves. The topmost and the lowest levels of the waves are re-.

  8. Exploiting Performance of Different Low-Cost Sensors for Small Amplitude Oscillatory Motion Monitoring: Preliminary Comparisons in View of Possible Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of low amplitude oscillatory motion detection through different low-cost sensors: a LIS3LV02DQ MEMS accelerometer, a Microsoft Kinect v2 range camera, and a uBlox 6 GPS receiver. Several tests were performed using a one-direction vibrating table with different oscillation frequencies (in the range 1.5–3 Hz and small challenging amplitudes (0.02 m and 0.03 m. A Mikrotron EoSens high-resolution camera was used to give reference data. A dedicated software tool was developed to retrieve Kinect v2 results. The capabilities of the VADASE algorithm were employed to process uBlox 6 GPS receiver observations. In the investigated time interval (in the order of tens of seconds the results obtained indicate that displacements were detected with the resolution of fractions of millimeters with MEMS accelerometer and Kinect v2 and few millimeters with uBlox 6. MEMS accelerometer displays the lowest noise but a significant bias, whereas Kinect v2 and uBlox 6 appear more stable. The results suggest the possibility of sensor integration both for indoor (MEMS accelerometer + Kinect v2 and for outdoor (MEMS accelerometer + uBlox 6 applications and seem promising for structural monitoring applications.

  9. ERP to chess stimuli reveal expert-novice differences in the amplitudes of N2 and P3 components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael J; Gobet, Fernand; Chassy, Philippe; Ramchandani, Payal Nanik

    2013-10-01

    ERP experiments were conducted to analyze the underlying neural events when chess players make simple judgments of a board position. Fourteen expert players and 14 age-matched novices viewed, for each of four tasks, 128 unique positions on a mini (4 × 4) chess board each presented for 0.5 s. The tasks were to respond: (a) if white king was in check, (b) if black knight was present, (c) if white king was not in check, and (d) if no black knight was present. Experts showed an enhanced N2 with check targets and a larger P3 with knight targets, relative to novices. Expert-novice differences in posterior N2 began as early as 240 ms on check-related searches. Results were consistent with the view that prolonged N2 components reflect matching of current perceptual input to memory, and thus are sensitive to experts' superior pattern recognition and memory retrieval of chunks. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    A large part of the energy consumption in countries in Nordic and Arctic climates is used for space heating in buildings. In typical buildings the windows are responsible for a con-siderable part of the heat losses. Therefore there is a large potential for energy savings by developing and using...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  11. An investigation into the analgesic effects of different frequencies of the amplitude-modulated wave of interferential current therapy on cold-induced pain in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark I; Tabasam, Ghazala

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the analgesic effects of different amplitude-modulated frequencies of interferential current therapy (IFT) on cold-induced pain in healthy subjects. Single-blind parallel group methodology was used. Subjects completed 6 cycles of the cold-induced pain test (2 pretreatment, 2 during treatment, 2 posttreatment). During each cycle, subjects plunged their hand into iced water and the time taken to reach pain threshold was recorded. The hand remained immersed in the iced water for a further 30 seconds, after which the self-reports of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were recorded. Laboratory in the United Kingdom. Sixty unpaid, pain-free volunteers without a known pathology that could cause pain. IFT delivered on the nondominant arm at a "strong but comfortable" intensity without visible muscle twitches, using a quadripolar application technique at 1 of 6 possible amplitude modulated "beat" frequencies (20, 60, 100, 140, 180, 220Hz). The percentage change in pain threshold, pain intensity, and pain unpleasantness from the pretreatment baseline. Two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance found no effects for groups for pain threshold (P=.11) or pain ratings (P>.05). There were no effects for cycle for any of the outcome measures. Effects for group by cycle interaction were noted for pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings (P<.05), although post hoc analysis failed to determine the nature of this interaction. Experimentally induced cold pain was not influenced by IFT frequencies.

  12. Adaptive Window Zero-Crossing-Based Instantaneous Frequency Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar S Chandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of estimating instantaneous frequency (IF of a real-valued constant amplitude time-varying sinusoid. Estimation of polynomial IF is formulated using the zero-crossings of the signal. We propose an algorithm to estimate nonpolynomial IF by local approximation using a low-order polynomial, over a short segment of the signal. This involves the choice of window length to minimize the mean square error (MSE. The optimal window length found by directly minimizing the MSE is a function of the higher-order derivatives of the IF which are not available a priori. However, an optimum solution is formulated using an adaptive window technique based on the concept of intersection of confidence intervals. The adaptive algorithm enables minimum MSE-IF (MMSE-IF estimation without requiring a priori information about the IF. Simulation results show that the adaptive window zero-crossing-based IF estimation method is superior to fixed window methods and is also better than adaptive spectrogram and adaptive Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD-based IF estimators for different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  13. Improved Windows for Cold Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    considerably by reducing the frame width, which results in a larger transparent area causing a larger solar gain but still main-taining a low thermal transmittance. Using three layers of glass with large gaps, using very slim frame profiles, and omitting the edge constructions that normally causes thermal...... windows with improved energy performance. Traditionally evaluation of the energy performance of windows has focused on the thermal transmittance, but as windows differ from the rest of the building envelope by allowing solar energy to enter the building, the total solar energy transmittance is equally...... important. In the heating season in cold climates the solar gain through windows can be utilized for space heating which results in a corresponding reduction in the energy production that is often based on fossil fuels. A suitable quantity for evaluating the energy performance of windows in a simple...

  14. Handbook on Windows and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    transmission through windows is described in detail including radiation, convection and conduction as well as solar transmittance of window glazing. The most used terms related to characterization of window energy performance are defined and calculation methods according to international standards...... flow and detailed calculation of light and solar transmittance is given.Different measurement techniques for characterization of window heat loss coefficient and total solar energy transmittance is described and references to interantional standards are given.Finally, the handbook includes...... a comprehensive list of window related standards and a list of Nordic research and development projects.Two programs are encloased in the handbook for calculation of solar radiation on inclined surfaces including a shadow correction and a simple program for evaluation of energy savings and risk of overtemperature....

  15. Electromyographic amplitude variability of chewing cycles in deaf individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, A Siriani; Vitti, M; Chaves, T C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, D; Zuccolotto, M C C; Regalo, S C H

    2006-09-01

    This study had the goal of determining if the amplitude of the surface electromyograph signals changes in terms of time of analysis and subjects, deaf or normal listeners, when estimated in a 250 ms of length window, visually determined, considering the most stable signal period from the center of the chewing cycle. In order to do this, groups with control subjects, listeners and deaf individuals, who made use of the Brazilian sign language (LIBRAS), were studied. All participants performed continuous 5 s of chewing for the electromyographic recording of the temporalis and masseter muscles. The normalized RMS values of three chewing cycles were compared between and among groups. The results from the Kruskall-Wallis test did not show any statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the normalized RMS values obtained in the three individual chewing cycles, for each of the two completed and evaluated cycles, in both groups studied. The Mann-Whitney test showed that the mean normalized RMS values obtained in the first chewing cycle were higher for the control group when compared to the mean amplitude values of the first chewing cycle of the group of deaf volunteers. It can be concluded that, in these experimental conditions, the RMS values obtained from the select windows of 250 ms length duration, in relatively stable periods of the electromyographic signal of chewing cycles did not suffer any changes in terms of EMG register duration, in both studied groups, but does give evidence of the differences among the groups.

  16. False Windows - Yesterday and Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  17. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  18. Optimum Design Parameters of Box Window DSF Office at Different Glazing Types under Sub Interval of Intermediate Sky Conditions (20-40 klux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayeb, O. K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrita, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Despite Double skin façade (DSF) buildings are widely deployed worldwide, daylighting strategy is not commonly incorporated in these buildings compare to other strategies. Therefore, further theoretical and experimental studies would lead to adopting daylighting strategy in DSF office buildings. The aim of this study is to investigate the daylighting performance of office building at different design parameters of box window DSF using different glazing types under sub interval of intermediate sky conditions (20-40) klux using the (IES VE) simulation tool from Integrated Environmental Solutions - Virtual Environment. The implemented design parameters are window wall ratio (WWR) of internal façade (10-100) %, cavity depth (CD) of DSF (1-2.5) m and different glazing types. The glazing types were selected from the list available in the (IES VE) simulation tool. After series of evaluations, bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) is implemented for the exterior façade while clear float, clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), grey and brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float) and blue coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) are implemented for the interior façade. In this paper, several evaluation parameters are used to quantify the optimum design parameters that would balance the daylighting requirements of a box window DSF office versus sky conditions range (20-40) klux. The optimum design parameters of DSF office building obtained under different glazing types are highlighted as follows. When using bronze tinted coating (STOPSOL) for the exterior façade, the glazing types of interior façade that showed superior daylighting performance of DSF office at (CD of 1.0m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 1.5m with WWR of 70%), (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) and (CD of 2.0m with WWR of 70%) are grey tinted coating (Anti-sun float), clear reflective coating (STOPSOL), brown tinted coating (Anti-sun float), and clear float glazing respectively. Blue Coating tinted (SUNCOOL float) of interior façade glazing

  19. WE-E-BRE-06: High-Dose Microbeam Radiation Induces Different Responses in Tumor Microenvironment Compared to Conventional Seamless Radiation in Window Chamber Tumor Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S; Zhang, J; Hadsell, M [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Fontanella, A; Schroeder, T; Palmer, G; Dewhirst, M [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Boss, M [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Berman, K [School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy and GRID therapy are different forms of Spatially-Fractioned Radiation Therapy (SFRT) that is fundamentally different from the conventional seamless and temporally fractionated radiation therapy. SFRT is characterized by a ultra-high dose (10s –100s Gy) dose single treatment with drastic inhomogeneity pattern of given spatial frequencies. Preclinical and limited clinical studies have shown that the SFRT treatments may offer significant improvements in reducing treatment toxicity, especially for those patients who have not benefited from the state-of-the-art radiation therapy approaches. This preliminary study aims to elucidate the underlying working mechanisms of SFRT, which currently remains poorly understood. Methods: A genetically engineered 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma cell line and nude mice skin fold window chamber were used. A nanotechnology-based 160kV x-ray irradiator delivered 50Gy (entrance dose) single treatments of microbeam or seamless radiation. Animals were in 3 groups: mock, seamless radiation, and 300μm microbeam radiation. The windows were imaged using a hyperspectral system to capture total hemoglobin/saturation, GFP fluorescence emission, RFP fluorescence emission, and vessel density at 9 time points up to 7 days post radiation. Results: We found unique physiologic changes in different tumor/normal tissue regions and differential effects between seamless and microbeam treatments. They include 1) compared to microbeam and mock radiation seamless radiation damaged more microvasculature in tumor-surrounding normal tissue, 2) a pronounced angiogenic effect was observed with vascular proliferation in the microbeam irradiated portion of the tumor days post treatment (no such effect observed in seamless and mock groups), and 3) a notable change in tumor vascular orientation was observed where vessels initially oriented parallel to the beam length were replaced by vessels running perpendicular to the irradiation

  20. Quantitative assessment of time trends: influence of time window selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, A.; Mavko, B.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of thermalhydraulic system code predictions is today indispensable for code verification and validation. It is also needed for standard nuclear power plant nodalization development and qualification. Initially the Fast Fourier Transform Based Method (FFTBM) was proposed for accuracy quantification. Later a few new methods were proposed like Automated Code Assessment Program (ACAP) and Stochastic Approximation Ratio Based Method (SARBM). Recently, the review of FFTBM applications was done and reference FFTBM database was proposed consisting of most accurate international standard problems, standard problem exercises or organization calculations as judged by FFTBM. The calculations were presented by primary pressure average amplitude and total accuracy for the whole transient duration. The objective of this study was to investigate how the time window selection influences on the results. For the quantitative assessment various BETHSY experiments and Mochovce plant transient were selected and calculations obtained by RELAP5/MOD3.2 and RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 code, respectively. In the accuracy analysis each transient is subdivided into phases that define the time window and time interval. The time window is time duration of phase. The time interval is time window from the start time of first phase to the end time of selected phase. The analysis was performed for moving time window (sequence of narrow time windows) and increasing time interval (sequence of time intervals). The results for moving time window showed that accuracy measures were very time dependent and they efficiently showed the instantaneous discrepancies occurring in the calculated signal. They also give picture how complex is the transient. The average amplitude (AA) was compared with relative error function (the difference between calculated and measured signal divided by measured signal) and SARBM results. The trends for accuracy measures were similar. These results suggest that for

  1. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  2. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  3. An fMRI study of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with different pathological basis using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei WEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the distinction of abnormal brain activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE with hippocampal sclerosis (HS or other pathogical basis, and to discuss their underlying pathophysiological mechanism in mTLE.  Methods Thirty mTLE patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS and 30 mTLE patients with occupying lesion in unilateral temporal lobe (mTLE-OL were investigated by comparing with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. MRI data were collected using a Siemens 3.0T scanner, and all of the participants were studied using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF analysis of resting state fMRI. A cost-function modification was used for image preprocessing, then the difference of extratemporal mALFF changes between the two groups of mTLE patients were analyzed with two-sample t test, and the correlation between mALFF and epilepsy duration of mTLE were also investigated.  Results In the resting state, mTLE-HS patients and mTLE-OL patients all showed significant changes in mALFF in extratemporal structures, but the distribution patterns of changes in brain were different. Compared with mTLE-HS, the mTLE-OL patients showed increased mALFF in bilateral inferior parietal lobes, precuneus, angular gyrus, middle and posterior cingulate gyrus and contralateral middle temporal gyrus, while mALFF reducing was observed in contralateral postcentral gyrus, bilateral middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum (P < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, that is to say, the default mode network (DMN in mTLE-HS were inhibited more seriously than in mTLE-OL patients. Correlation analysis showed that no significant correlation was found between mALFF and epilepsy duration in mTLE-HS patients; mALFF in bilateral middle and posterior cingulate gyrus was positively correlated with epilepsy duration in mTLE-OL patients (r = 0.687, P = 0.000, while mALFF in bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with epilepsy duration (r

  4. Windows 10 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 quickly and painlessly with this beginner's guide Windows 10 Simplified is your absolute beginner's guide to the ins and outs of Windows. Fully updated to cover Windows 10, this highly visual guide covers all the new features in addition to the basics, giving you a one-stop resource for complete Windows 10 mastery. Every page features step-by-step screen shots and plain-English instructions that walk you through everything you need to know, no matter how new you are to Windows. You'll master the basics as you learn how to navigate the user interface, work with files, create

  5. Windows 10 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2015-01-01

    The fast and easy way to get up and running with Windows 10 Windows 10 For Dummies covers the latest version of Windows and gets you up and running with the changes and new features you'll find in this updated operating system. Packed with time-saving tips to help you get the most out of the software, this helpful Windows 10 guide shows you how to manage Windows tasks like navigating the interface with a mouse or touchscreen, connecting to the web, and troubleshooting problems and making quick fixes. Assuming no prior knowledge of the software, Windows 10 For Dummies addresses the updates to

  6. Water vapor motion signal extraction from FY-2E longwave infrared window images for cloud-free regions: The temporal difference technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhenhui; Chu, Yanli; Zhao, Hang; Tang, Min

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the low-level atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) in clear areas with FY-2E IR2 window (11.59-12.79 μm) channel imagery, where the traditional cloud motion wind technique fails. A new tracer selection procedure, which we call the temporal difference technique, is demonstrated in this paper. This technique makes it possible to infer low-level wind by tracking features in the moisture pattern that appear as brightness temperature ( T B) differences between consecutive sequences of 30-min-interval FY-2E IR2 images over cloud-free regions. The T B difference corresponding to a 10% change in water vapor density is computed with the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN4) radiative transfer model. The total contribution from each of the 10 layers is analyzed under four typical atmospheric conditions: tropical, midlatitude summer, U.S. standard, and midlatitude winter. The peak level of the water vapor weighting function for the four typical atmospheres is assigned as a specific height to the T B "wind". This technique is valid over cloud-free ocean areas. The proposed algorithm exhibits encouraging statistical results in terms of vector difference (VD), speed bias (BIAS), mean vector difference (MVD), standard deviation (SD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE), when compared with the wind field of NCEP reanalysis data and rawinsonde observations.

  7. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Maria Cristina; Pei, Yongbing; Ring, Terry A

    2013-11-28

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄) represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C₂H₅)₄NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  8. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mascolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C2H54NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  9. Schematic Window Methodology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this IRAD is to produce a generic launch window analyzer (SWM) that allows for large-scale rapid analysis of a launch window and orbit design trade space....

  10. The effect of manipulating root mean square window length and overlap on reliability, inter-individual variability, statistical significance and clinical relevance of electromyograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Burden, Adrian; Lewis, Sandra Elizabeth; Willcox, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Numerous ways exist to process raw electromyograms (EMGs). However, the effect of altering processing methods on peak and mean EMG has seldom been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using different root mean square (RMS) window lengths and overlaps on the amplitude, reliability and inter-individual variability of gluteus maximus EMGs recorded during the clam exercise, and on the statistical significance and clinical relevance of amplitude differences between two exercise conditions. Mean and peak RMS of 10 repetitions from 17 participants were obtained using processing window lengths of 0.01, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 1 s, with no overlap and overlaps of 25, 50 and 75% of window length. The effect of manipulating window length on reliability and inter-individual variability was greater for peak EMG (coefficient of variation [CV] window generally displaying the lowest variability. As a consequence, neither statistical significance nor clinical relevance (effect size [ES]) of mean EMG was affected by manipulation of window length. Statistical significance of peak EMG was more sensitive to changes in window length, with lower p-values generally being recorded for the 1 s window. As use of different window lengths has a greater effect on variability and statistical significance of the peak EMG, then clinicians should use the mean EMG. They should also be aware that use of different numbers of exercise repetitions and participants can have a greater effect on EMG parameters than length of processing window. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pengaruh Window Level Dan Window Width Pada Lung Window Dan Mediastinum Window Pada Kualitas Citra CT-Scan Thorax

    OpenAIRE

    Gaol, Syahnaro Lumban

    2015-01-01

    This Research of image CT-SCAN thorax with influence of window level and window width, to obtain, get value of window level and optimal window width lung window and mediastinum window, so that get image of CT-SCAN thorax which with image quality. Image of CT-SCAN thorax obtained for mediastinum window use window width 350, 400, 450, 500 HU. And Window level 50,100,150 HU. While for lung window use window width 1000,1100 HU. The window level - 500-,600,-700,-800,-900,-1000 HU, by three observe...

  12. Windows for Intel Macs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Even the most devoted Mac OS X user may need to use Windows XP, or may just be curious about XP and its applications. This Short Cut is a concise guide for OS X users who need to quickly get comfortable and become productive with Windows XP basics on their Macs. It covers: Security Networking ApplicationsMac users can easily install and use Windows thanks to Boot Camp and Parallels Desktop for Mac. Boot Camp lets an Intel-based Mac install and boot Windows XP on its own hard drive partition. Parallels Desktop for Mac uses virtualization technology to run Windows XP (or other operating systems

  13. Windows® Internals

    CERN Document Server

    Russinovich, Mark E; Ionescu, Alex

    2009-01-01

    See how the core components of the Windows operating system work behind the scenes-guided by a team of internationally renowned internals experts. Fully updated for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, this classic guide delivers key architectural insights on system design, debugging, performance, and support-along with hands-on experiments to experience Windows internal behavior firsthand.Delve inside Windows architecture and internals:Understand how the core system and management mechanisms work-from the object manager to services to the registryExplore internal system data structures usin

  14. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security......Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...

  15. Characteristics of Air Flow through Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Dam, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars C.

    This paper describes the first results of a series of laboratory investigations that is performed to characterise three different window types. The results show the air flow conditions for different ventilation strategies and temperature differences. For one of the windows values of the discharge...

  16. High Power Coax Window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, M.L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T.S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Stirbet, M.

    2010-01-01

    A superconducting RF (SRF) power coupler capable of handling 500 kW CW RF power is required for present and future storage rings and linacs. There are over 35 coupler designs for SRF cavities ranging in frequency from 325 to 1500 MHz. Coupler windows vary from cylinders to cones to disks, and RF power couplers are limited by the ability of ceramic windows to withstand the stresses due to heating and mechanical flexure. We propose a novel robust co-axial SRF coupler design which uses compressed window technology. This technology will allow the use of highly thermally conductive materials for cryogenic windows. Using compressed window techniques on disk co-axial windows will make significant improvements in the power handling of SRF couplers. We present the bench test results of two window assemblies back to back, as well as individual window VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vacuum test assembly was made and the windows baked out at 155C. The processes used to build windows is scalable to larger diameter coax and to higher power levels.

  17. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  18. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  19. Programming Windows Azure

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Learn the nuts and bolts of cloud computing with Windows Azure, Microsoft's new Internet services platform. Written by a key member of the product development team, this book shows you how to build, deploy, host, and manage applications using Windows Azure's programming model and essential storage services. Chapters in Programming Windows Azure are organized to reflect the platform's buffet of services. The book's first half focuses on how to write and host application code on Windows Azure, while the second half explains all of the options you have for storing and accessing data on the plat

  20. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  1. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  2. Mastering Windows 7 Deployment

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Aidan; van Surksum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Get professional-level instruction on Windows 7 deployment tools Enterprise-level operating system deployment is challenging and requires knowledge of specific tools. It is expected that Windows 7 will be extensively deployed in businesses worldwide. This comprehensive Sybex guide provides thorough coverage of the Microsoft deployment tools that were specifically created for Windows 7, preparing system administrators, MIS professionals, and corporate programmers to tackle the task effectively.Companies worldwide are expected to deploy Windows 7 as their enterprise operating system; system admi

  3. Aerodynamic window for a laser fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Wataru

    1983-01-01

    Since the window of a laser system absorbs a part of the laser energy, the output power is determined by the characteristics of the window. The use of an aerodynamic window has been studied. The required characteristics are to keep the large pressure difference. An equation of motion of a vortex was presented and analyzed. The operation power of the system was studied. A multi-stage aerodynamic window was proposed to reduce the power. When the jet flow of 0.3 of the Mach number is used, the operation power will be several Megawatt, and the length of an optical path will be about 100 m. (Kato, T.)

  4. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  5. Seismic amplitude processing and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Ashwani

    2008-10-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes. Geophone groups are wavenumber filters that change the seismic amplitudes because of a wavenumber dependent information loss. Numerically defined filters deconvolve the recording group response from horizontal and the vertical component seismic data recorded with groups of uniform and non-uniform geophone sensitivity, different group lengths and spacing, and noise. The filtering effect of an array increases as the group length increases, and only the wavenumber range defined by the group interval can be correctly compensated for the group effect. A rigorous, explicit spatial antialias filter is designed and applied by removing the energy above the first Nyquist wavenumber in the horizontal slowness-frequency domain. The filter removes the spatially aliased frequencies selectively at each slowness. The aliased energy is dispersive and present at both small and large horizontal slownesses. The filter can be explicitly applied to regularly spaced or irregularly spaced traces and is independent of any event linearity assumption. An integrative interpretation approach defines the effect of the structural setting on gas hydrate and free-gas accumulation at a site at the East Casey fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. At a well location, hydrates are interpreted as fracture fillings with maximum saturation ˜30% of the available pore space. Two low acoustic impedance (Ip) free-gas features terminating at the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data and the derived Ip volumes. The 2D Ip profile shows a contrast in BSR

  6. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. The Luminaire Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Horóczi, Eszter

    2017-01-01

    integrated into the window. A qualitative experiment is carried out by integrating controllable LED in the frame of a façade window in a full-scale mock-up. It is examined how this set-up can support the colour spectrum and intensity of the daylight intake during the transmission time from daylight...

  8. Air transparent soundproof window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Hoon, E-mail: shkim@mmu.ac.kr [Division of Marine Engineering, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo 530-729, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seong-Hyun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343, R. O. Korea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  9. Air transparent soundproof window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A soundproof window or wall which is transparent to airflow is presented. The design is based on two wave theories: the theory of diffraction and the theory of acoustic metamaterials. It consists of a three-dimensional array of strong diffraction-type resonators with many holes centered on each individual resonator. The negative effective bulk modulus of the resonators produces evanescent wave, and at the same time the air holes with subwavelength diameter existed on the surfaces of the window for macroscopic air ventilation. The acoustic performance levels of two soundproof windows with air holes of 20mm and 50mm diameters were measured. The sound level was reduced by about 30 - 35dB in the frequency range of 400 - 5,000Hz with the 20mm window, and by about 20 - 35dB in the frequency range of 700 - 2,200Hz with the 50mm window. Multi stop-band was created by the multi-layers of the window. The attenuation length or the thickness of the window was limited by background noise. The effectiveness of the soundproof window with airflow was demonstrated by a real installation.

  10. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  11. Increasing power-law range in avalanche amplitude and energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Portella, Víctor; Serra, Isabel; Corral, Álvaro; Vives, Eduard

    2018-02-01

    Power-law-type probability density functions spanning several orders of magnitude are found for different avalanche properties. We propose a methodology to overcome empirical constraints that limit the range of truncated power-law distributions. By considering catalogs of events that cover different observation windows, the maximum likelihood estimation of a global power-law exponent is computed. This methodology is applied to amplitude and energy distributions of acoustic emission avalanches in failure-under-compression experiments of a nanoporous silica glass, finding in some cases global exponents in an unprecedented broad range: 4.5 decades for amplitudes and 9.5 decades for energies. In the latter case, however, strict statistical analysis suggests experimental limitations might alter the power-law behavior.

  12. Thermal Bridge Effects in Window Grooves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report thermal bridge effects in window grooves are analyzed. The analysis is performed using different thicknesses of the window groove insulation, to evaluate what the optimal solution is.All analysis in the report is performed using both 2- and 3-dimensional numerical analysis....

  13. Selecting windows for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.

  14. GA microwave window development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.P.; Kasugai, A.; Sakamoto, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1994-10-01

    The GA prototype distributed window was tested in a 32 mm diam. waveguide system at a power density suitable for a MW gyrotron, using the JAERI/Toshiba 110 GHz long pulse internal converter gyrotron in the JAERI test stand. The presence of the untilted distributed window had no adverse effect on the gyrotron operation. A pulse length of 10 times the calculated thermal equilibrium time (1/e time) of 30 msec was reached, and the window passed at least 750 pulses greater than 30 msec and 343 pulses greater than 60 msec. Beyond 100 msec, the window calorimetry reached steady state, allowing the window dissipation to be measured in a single pulse. The measured loss of 4.0% agrees both with the estimated loss, on which the stress calculations are based, and with the attenuation measured at low power in the HE 11 mode. After the end of the tests, the window was examined; no evidence of arcing air coating was found in the part of the window directly illuminated by the microwaves, although there was discoloration in a recess containing an optical diagnostic which outgassed, causing a local discharge to occur in that recess. Finally, there was no failure of the metal-sapphire joints during a total operating time of 50 seconds consisting of pulses longer than 30 msec

  15. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  16. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  17. Windows 8 simplified

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The easiest way for visual learners to get started with Windows 8 The popular Simplified series makes visual learning easier than ever, and with more than 360,000 copies sold, previous Windows editions are among the bestselling Visual books. This guide goes straight to the point with easy-to-follow, two-page tutorials for each task. With full-color screen shots and step-by-step directions, it gets beginners up and running on the newest version of Windows right away. Learn to work with the new interface and improved Internet Explorer, manage files, share your computer, and much more. Perfect fo

  18. Windows 95 Beslutningsguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto

    1996-01-01

    Mange virksomheder der bruger pc'er står netop nu over for valget: Skal vi fortsætte med DOS/Windows 3.x som operativsystem, eller skal vi skifte til efterfølgeren Windows 95? Skal vi/kan vi skifte successivt, eller skal det være en "alt eller intet beslutning". Hvornår er det rigtige tidspunkt...... at skifte? Denne artikel vil forsøge at give en baggrundsviden om Windows 95, der kan hjælpe virksomhederne igennem denne beslutningsfase....

  19. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  20. Application of sol-gel based sensors to environmental monitoring of Mauméjean stained glass windows housed in two different buildings at downtown Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Poza, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of historical stained glass windows is mainly caused by acid attack enhanced by humidity and pollutants. Accordingly, their preventive conservation should include environmental evaluation. Mauméjean’s stained glass windows (c 1940 of two buildings located at downtown Madrid have been monitored by sol-gel sensors of acidity and temperature. The philosophy was the application of innovative glassy sol-gel sensors to assess the conservation conditions of stained glass windows, i.e. modern materials for preservation of historical materials. Conservation conditions (environmental acidity and temperature of restored and non-restored stained glass windows have been recorded throughout 13 months. The main contributing parameter to outdoor acidity is proximity to road traffic, which produces acid species able to diminish two units of pH with respect to neutral conditions. This acid environment affects both sides of stained glass windows, even in those protected with a glazing system, which allows natural ventilation. Other contributing parameters to increase the air acidity were façade orientation, sensor position, distance to pollutants sources, human interaction and uncontrolled ventilation.La degradación de vidrieras históricas se debe fundamentalmente al ataque ácido favorecido por la humedad y los contaminantes. Por tanto, su conservación preventiva debe incluir una evaluación ambiental. Se han evaluado vidrieras de Mauméjean (c 1940 de dos edificios del centro de Madrid mediante sensores sol-gel de acidez y de temperatura. La filosofía consistió en aplicar dichos sensores basados en materiales vítreos para tasar las condiciones de conservación de vidrieras del patrimonio, es decir materiales modernos para la preservación de materiales históricos. Las condiciones de conservación (acidez ambiental y temperatura de vidrieras restauradas y no restauradas se han registrado durante 13 meses. El principal parámetro que

  1. Windows 10 Technical Preview

    OpenAIRE

    Jyväsjärvi, Teppo

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutustaan uuden kesällä 2015 virallisesti julkaistavan Windows 10 -käyttöjärjestelmän Technical Preview -kehitysversioon. Ensimmäinen Technical Preview -versio julkaistiin syksyllä 2014. Opinnäytetyössä tutustaan Windows 10:n uusin ominaisuuksiin ja tehdään vertailua aiemman Windows 8.1 -version kanssa. Työssä Windows 10 Technical Preview asennetaan virtuaalikoneelle, käydään läpi asennuksen eri vaiheet sekä suurimmat muutokset käyttöliittymässä ja sovelluksissa. Op...

  2. SAF for Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Timme

    2001-01-01

    SAF for Windows er et computerprogram til parametrisk konstruktion af translationsskaller. Skaloverfladernes tredimensionelle, facetterede form fremkommer ved en kombination af to todimensionelle formbestemmende kurver, som kan vælges og redigeres af brugeren. Programmet kan udfolde de genererede...

  3. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    3004-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  4. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  5. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables, ... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  6. Windows Security patch required

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This concerns Windows PCs (XP, 2000, NT) which are NOT centrally managed at CERN for security patches, e.g. home PCs, experiment PCs, portables,... A security hole which can give full privileges on Windows systems needs to be URGENTLY patched. Details of the security hole and hotfix are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-026.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-026.asp

  7. High Performance Window Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2∙ F∙h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  8. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  9. Impact of three window configurations on daylight conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, Marie-Claude; Sørensen, Karl Grau; Traberg-Borup, Steen

    The report describes the results of a pilot study on daylight conditions in simple rooms of residential buildings. As a tool for the analyses the Radiance Lighting Simulating System was used to simulate one room with three different window configurations, a vertical window, a dormer window......, and a roof window. The simulations were performed for overcast sky conditions and under one sunny sky, for two different times of the day. The study shows that the window configuration affects the daylight conditions (distribution and intensity) significantly. The roof window results in a higher (average......) daylight factor on a horizontal plane, i.e. more than twice as high compared with the vertical window, and more than triple as high compared with the dormer window....

  10. Window modelling in Syrthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, V.; Peniguel, C. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France); Rupp, I. [Simulog, N3S, Estet, Simail, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelyne (France)

    1997-12-31

    Developments to take into account windows from a thermal point of view have been implemented in SYRTHES. Windows are discretized along their lateral surfaces in several independent patches. Then a one-dimensional analytical model solves the semi-transparent radiation and conduction problem occurring across the window for each patch. The spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient (`non grey` medium) is taken into account through a multi-band model. This window model is coupled with the conduction and radiation capabilities already existing in SYRTHES. When convection is taking place, it is handled by ESTET. This development will be applied to an infra-red system designed to dry paper. The simplified test case presented here consists very schematically in two cavities separated by a window (vitro-ceramic). The top cavity contains a very hot tungsten wire (the infrared source) surrounded by a tube made of quartz. The bottom cavity is where the fast moving sheet of paper will be located. Of Course the real geometry is much more complex. (authors)

  11. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  12. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    systems is proposed, based on studies presented in literature and a general process leading to the effects on energy consumptions is identified.Existing studies on the topic of window opening behaviour are highlighted and a theoretical framework to deal with occupants' interactions with building controls......, aimed at improving or maintaining the preferred indoor environmental conditions, is elaborated. This approach is used to look into the drivers for the actions taken by the occupants (windows opening and closing) and to investigate the existing models in literature of these actions for both residential...... and office buildings. The analysis of the literature highlights how a shared approach on identifying the driving forces for occupants' window opening and closing behaviour has not yet been reached. However, the reporting of variables found not to be drivers may reveal contradictions in the obtained results...

  13. Windows 8.1 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Boyce, Jim; Tidrow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Windows 8.1 coverage that goes above and beyond all competitors? Serving as an evolutionary update to Windows 8, Windows 8.1 provides critical changes to parts of Windows 8, such as greater customization of the interface and boot operations, return of a 'start button' that reveals apps, greater integration between the two interfaces, and updates to apps. Weighing in at nearly 1000 pages, Windows 8.1 Bible provides deeper Windows insight than any other book on the market. It's valuable for both professionals needing a guide to the nooks and crannies of Windows and regular users wanting a wide

  14. The Moving Window Technique: A Window into Developmental Changes in Attention during Facial Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elina; Meixner, Tamara; Iarocci, Grace; Kanan, Christopher; Smilek, Daniel; Tanaka, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies children employ to selectively attend to different parts of the face may reflect important developmental changes in facial emotion recognition. Using the Moving Window Technique (MWT), children aged 5-12 years and adults ("N" = 129) explored faces with a mouse-controlled window in an emotion recognition task. An…

  15. Windows Deployment Services : Esiasennuspalvelin

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Arto

    2010-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Windows Deployment Services, jonka tarkoituksena on toimia esiasennus-palvelimena Windows-käyttöjärjestelmien levykuvien jakamiseen sekä asentamiseen. Opinnäytetyö to-teutettiin yhteistyössä Concept.10 IT:n ja tuotannon kanssa. Concept.10:n tuotannon lähtökohtana on valmistaa ja asentaa Suomen markkinoille tietokonelaitteistoja ohjelmistoineen ja tukipalveluineen. Tuo-tantoon olennaisena osana kuuluu esiasennuspalvelin, jolla voidaan asentaa useita tietokoneita samaa...

  16. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  17. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2010-01-01

    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  18. Microsoft Windows Security Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    Windows security concepts and technologies for IT beginners IT security can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This full-color book, with a focus on the Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, offers a clear and easy-to-understand approach to Windows security risks and attacks for newcomers to the world of IT. By paring down to just the essentials, beginners gain a solid foundation of security concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built. This straightforward guide begins each chapter by laying out a list of topics to be discussed,

  19. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2017-12-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2018-03-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  1. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  2. "Stained Glass" Landscape Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannata, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Both adults and children alike marvel at the grand vivid stained-glass windows created by American artist Louis Comfort Tiffany. Today he is commonly recognized as one of America's most influential designers and artists throughout the last nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the lesson described in this article, students created their own…

  3. Exploring Shop Window Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Using visual resources from everyday life in art lessons can enrich students' knowledge about the creation of visual images, artifacts, and sites, and develop their critical understanding about the cultural impact of these images and their effects on people's lives. Through examining an exhibition in the windows of Selfridges department store in…

  4. Opening the Literature Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Great literature gives students a window to other places and times, but it often requires students to step outside their comfort zones and take on challenges they wouldn't usually attempt. Unfortunately, research shows that many schools are not assigning literature that pushes students beyond their current reading level. Jago encourages teachers…

  5. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman

    1991-01-01

    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  6. Regularity of Dual Gabor Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a construction of dual windows associated with Gabor frames with compactly supported windows. The size of the support of the dual windows is comparable to that of the given window. Under certain conditions, we prove that there exist dual windows with higher regularity than the canonical dual window. On the other hand, there are cases where no differentiable dual window exists, even in the overcomplete case. As a special case of our results, we show that there exists a common smooth dual window for an interesting class of Gabor frames. In particular, for any value of K∈ℕ, there is a smooth function h which simultaneously is a dual window for all B-spline generated Gabor frames {EmbTnBN(x/2}m,n∈ℕ for B-splines BN of order N=1,…,2K+1 with a fixed and sufficiently small value of b.

  7. Daylight Redirecting Window Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The open office area (Figure 9) is 48’ deep with a sloped ceiling designed to disperse light down into the cubicle workstations. The sloped ceiling...Ceiling Ht. 9’ , 10’* Window VT 40%, 70%* Office Furniture 60” Cubicle * Lighting Schedule ASHRAE 90.1* Blinds Control Always Closed, Automated...2829 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ESTCP Program Office Dr. James

  8. Windows with improved energy performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    Heat loss through windows represents a considerable part of the total heat loss from houses. However, apart from providing daylight access and view, windows offer a unique potential for solar gain to be exploited during the heating season. Until now valuation of the energy performance of windows...... has primary focused on the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However, as the U-value, especially for the glazing part, has improved considerably during the last years, the total solar energy transmittance, g-value, has become equally important to the total energy performance of windows. Improved energy...... performance of windows can be reached by development of each element of the window, but to gain a considerable improvement in the overall energy performance all elements of the windows need to be examined together and the construction optimised. This paper describes potential improvements of window elements...

  9. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  10. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  11. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  12. Computed Tomography Window Blending: Feasibility in Thoracic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Jacob C; Wortman, Jeremy R; Rocha, Tatiana C; Folio, Les R; Andriole, Katherine P; Khurana, Bharti

    2018-02-07

    This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of processing computed tomography (CT) images with a custom window blending algorithm that combines soft-tissue, bone, and lung window settings into a single image; to compare the time for interpretation of chest CT for thoracic trauma with window blending and conventional window settings; and to assess diagnostic performance of both techniques. Adobe Photoshop was scripted to process axial DICOM images from retrospective contrast-enhanced chest CTs performed for trauma with a window-blending algorithm. Two emergency radiologists independently interpreted the axial images from 103 chest CTs with both blended and conventional windows. Interpretation time and diagnostic performance were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test and McNemar test, respectively. Agreement with Nexus CT Chest injury severity was assessed with the weighted kappa statistic. A total of 13,295 images were processed without error. Interpretation was faster with window blending, resulting in a 20.3% time saving (P window-blended cases was 82.7%, compared to 81.6% for conventional windows. The specificity of the window-blended cases was 93.1%, compared to 90.5% for conventional windows. All injuries of major clinical significance (per Nexus CT Chest criteria) were correctly identified in all reading sessions, and all negative cases were correctly classified. All readers demonstrated near-perfect agreement with injury severity classification with both window settings. In this pilot study utilizing retrospective data, window blending allows faster preliminary interpretation of axial chest CT performed for trauma, with no significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to conventional window settings. Future studies would be required to assess the utility of window blending in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  14. Monodromies and the structure of gauge and gravity amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhove, Pierre [IPhT - Institut de Physique Theorique, Orme des Merisiers bat. 774, PC 136, CEA/DSM/IPhT, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques - IHES, Le Bois-Marie 35, route de Chartres 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    We show that different color-ordered tree-level amplitudes in gauge theories satisfy monodromy relations. These relations imply the existence of minimal basis of amplitude and provide the numerator factors of the amplitude for a parametrisation of the tree-level amplitude using only cubic vertices. Applications to supergravity amplitudes follow straightforwardly through the KLT-relations. Through the cuts, these tree-level relations give rise to non-trivial identities at loop level. At higher loop this constrains the critical ultraviolet behaviour of the four-graviton amplitude in N=8 supergravity to all order in perturbation. We argue this implies that the four-graviton N=8 amplitudes has a seven-loop logarithmic divergence in four dimensions. (author)

  15. Windows in Low Energy Houses. Size Matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Mari-Louise

    2004-06-01

    A generally accepted way of building passive houses has been to have small windows facing north and a large glass facade to the south. This is to minimize losses on the north side while gaining as much solar heat as possible on the south. In spring 2001, twenty terraced houses were built outside Goeteborg partly in this way. The indoor temperature is kept at a comfortable level by passive methods, using solar gains and internal gains from household appliances and occupants. Heat losses are very low, since the building envelope is well insulated and since modern coated triple-glazed windows have been installed. The purpose of this work is to investigate how decreasing the window size facing south and increasing the window size facing north in low energy houses will influence the energy consumption and maximum power needed to keep the indoor temperature between 23 and 26 deg C. Different climates and orientations have been investigated and so have the influence of occupancy and window type. A dynamic building simulation tool, DEROB, has been used and the simulations indicate an extremely low energy demand for the houses. The results show that the size of the energy efficient windows does not have a major influence on the heating demand in winter, but is of relevant signification looking at the cooling need in summer. This indicates that instead of the traditional technique of building passive houses it is possible to enlarge the window area facing north and get better lighting conditions. To decrease the energy need for cooling, there is an optimal window size facing south that is smaller than the original size of the investigated buildings.

  16. USB Storage Device Forensics for Windows 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ayesha; Iqbal, Waseem; Abbas, Haider

    2017-07-18

    Significantly increased use of USB devices due to their user-friendliness and large storage capacities poses various threats for many users/companies in terms of data theft that becomes easier due to their efficient mobility. Investigations for such data theft activities would require gathering critical digital information capable of recovering digital forensics artifacts like date, time, and device information. This research gathers three sets of registry and logs data: first, before insertion; second, during insertion; and the third, after removal of a USB device. These sets are analyzed to gather evidentiary information from Registry and Windows Event log that helps in tracking a USB device. This research furthers the prior research on earlier versions of Microsoft Windows and compares it with latest Windows 10 system. Comparison of Windows 8 and Windows 10 does not show much difference except for new subkey under USB Key in registry. However, comparison of Windows 7 with latest version indicates significant variances. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  18. Teach yourself visually Windows 10

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learn Windows 10 visually with step-by-step instructions Teach Yourself VISUALLY Windows 10 is the visual learner's guide to the latest Windows upgrade. Completely updated to cover all the latest features, this book walks you step-by-step through over 150 essential Windows tasks. Using full color screen shots and clear instruction, you'll learn your way around the interface, set up user accounts, play media files, download photos from your camera, go online, set up email, and much more. You'll even learn how to customize Windows 10 to suit the way you work best, troubleshoot and repair common

  19. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  20. The quantum state vector in phase space and Gabor's windowed Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, A J; Watson, P

    2010-01-01

    Representations of quantum state vectors by complex phase space amplitudes, complementing the description of the density operator by the Wigner function, have been defined by applying the Weyl-Wigner transform to dyadic operators, linear in the state vector and anti-linear in a fixed 'window state vector'. Here aspects of this construction are explored, and a connection is established with Gabor's 'windowed Fourier transform'. The amplitudes that arise for simple quantum states from various choices of windows are presented as illustrations. Generalized Bargmann representations of the state vector appear as special cases, associated with Gaussian windows. For every choice of window, amplitudes lie in a corresponding linear subspace of square-integrable functions on phase space. A generalized Born interpretation of amplitudes is described, with both the Wigner function and a generalized Husimi function appearing as quantities linear in an amplitude and anti-linear in its complex conjugate. Schroedinger's time-dependent and time-independent equations are represented on phase space amplitudes, and their solutions described in simple cases.

  1. Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic Window System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, F,A; Byker,H, J

    2006-10-27

    Pleotint has embarked on a novel approach with our Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic, SRT™, windows. We are integrating dynamic sunlight control, high insulation values and low solar heat gain together in a high performance window. The Pleotint SRT window is dynamic because it reversibly changes light transmission based on thermochromics activated directly by the heating effect of sunlight. We can achieve a window package with low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), a low U value and high insulation. At the same time our windows provide good daylighting. Our innovative window design offers architects and building designers the opportunity to choose their desired energy performance, excellent sound reduction, external pane can be self-cleaning, or a resistance to wind load, blasts, bullets or hurricanes. SRT windows would provide energy savings that are estimated at up to 30% over traditional window systems. Glass fabricators will be able to use existing equipment to make the SRT window while adding value and flexibility to the basic design. Glazing installers will have the ability to fit the windows with traditional methods without wires, power supplies and controllers. SRT windows can be retrofit into existing buildings,

  2. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  3. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  4. Transparent aerogel Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    In a recent EU FP5 project, monolithic silica aerogel was further developed with respect to the production process at pilot-scale, its properties and the application as transparent insulation material in highly insulating and transparent windows. The aerogel production process has been optimised......-value of 0.7 W/m²K for about 14 mm aerogel thickness, which for a 20 mm thickness corresponds to a U-value of approximately 0.5 W/m²K. No other known glazing exhibits such an excellent combination of solar transmittance and heat loss coefficient. At a Danish location and North facing, the energy balance...

  5. Windows on animal minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D R

    1995-06-01

    The simple kinds of conscious thinking that probably occur in nonhuman animals can be studied objectively by utilizing the same basic procedure that we use every day to infer what our human companions think and feel. This is to base such inferences on communicative behavior, broadly defined to include human language, nonverbal communication, and semantic communication in apes, dolphins, parrots, and honeybees. It seems likely that animals often experience something similar to the messages they communicate. Although this figurative window on other minds is obviously imperfect, it is already contributing significantly to our growing understanding and appreciation of animal mentality.

  6. Invariant sets for Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, Albert D; Dragunov, Timothy N; Malysheva, Olga V

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the visualization and exploration of invariant sets (fractals, strange attractors, resonance structures, patterns etc.) for various kinds of nonlinear dynamical systems. The authors have created a special Windows 95 application called WInSet, which allows one to visualize the invariant sets. A WInSet installation disk is enclosed with the book.The book consists of two parts. Part I contains a description of WInSet and a list of the built-in invariant sets which can be plotted using the program. This part is intended for a wide audience with interests ranging from dynamical

  7. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi

    2011-01-01

    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  8. Investigations into the causes and methods of reducing airflow induced buffeting over vehicle rear windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Larry

    Rear Window Buffeting (RWB) is the low-frequency, high amplitude, helicopter-type sound that results in many 4-door vehicles when driven 30-70 mph with one rear window lowered. This event is a cause for concern among the occupants of an affected vehicle, and may result in great discomfort to the occupants if actions are not taken to reduce the magnitude of the event. In this dissertation, a comparison is made between moon roof buffeting and rear window buffeting, and data are presented where Sound Pressure Levels approaching 130 dB have been measured. This level may actually be causing ear pain in some people. Various explanations are presented in the literature for the root causes of rear window buffeting. This dissertation presents the results of an investigation to determine the root cause of rear window buffeting in a compact Sport Utility Vehicle. A brief synopsis of the types of flow-induced noises is provided, and three types of wind noises are described. Comparison between the classic spring-mass-damper system is made to the Helmholtz resonator, and the application of the Helmholtz resonator system to a vehicle cabin is discussed. A comprehensive explanation is provided to explain the mechanism resulting in the closely related moon roof buffeting problem. The presence of frequency lock-on is discussed, and data are provided demonstrating lock-on. Data are presented showing how rear window buffeting also exhibits lock-on, and three regions of differing air flow patterns along the side of the test vehicle are described. Data are presented supporting the three region concept and how the various attachments and geometries of the vehicle interact that make some vehicles more susceptible to the rear window buffeting problem. A comparison between the relative magnitudes of Moon Roof Buffeting and Rear Window Buffeting is made and an explanation is provided. Previously published computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work advocating that the root cause of rear window

  9. Thermal and Optical Properties of Low-E Storm Windows and Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Thomas D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-17

    Installing low-emissivity (low-E) storm windows and panels over existing windows has been identified as a cost-effective new approach for improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings where window replacement is impractical or too expensive. As such, it is desirable to characterize the key energy performance properties of low-E storm windows and panels when installed over different types of existing primary windows. this paper presents the representative U-factors, solar heat gain coefficients (SGHCs) and visible transmittance properties of the combined assemblies of various storm windows and panel types installed over different primary windows.

  10. Proof of the fundamental BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Leonardo de la; Kniss, Alexander; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental BCJ-relation is a linear relation between primitive tree amplitudes with different cyclic orderings. The cyclic orderings differ by the insertion place of one gluon. The coefficients of the fundamental BCJ-relation are linear in the Lorentz invariants 2p i p j . The BCJ-relations are well established for pure gluonic amplitudes as well as for amplitudes in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. Recently, it has been conjectured that the BCJ-relations hold also for QCD amplitudes. In this paper we give a proof of this conjecture. The proof is valid for massless and massive quarks.

  11. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  12. Windows on the axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the Θ vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10 6 eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  14. Windows on the axion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    Peccei-Quinn symmetry with attendant axion is a most compelling, and perhaps the most minimal, extension of the standard model, as it provides a very elegant solution to the nagging strong CP-problem associated with the THETA vacuum structure of QCD. However, particle physics gives little guidance as to the axion mass; a priori, the plausible values span the range: 10/sup /minus/12/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup 6/ eV, some 18 orders-of-magnitude. Axions have a host of interesting astrophysical and cosmological effects, including, modifying the evolution of stars of all types (our sun, red giants, white dwarfs, and neutron stars), contributing significantly to the mass density of the Universe today, and producing detectable line radiation through the decays of relic axions. Consideration of these effects has probed 14 orders-of-magnitude in axion mass, and has left open only two windows for further exploration: 10/sup /minus/6/ eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 10/sup /minus/3/ eV and 1 eV /approx lt/ m/sub a/ /approx lt/ 5 eV (hadronic axions only). Both these windows are accessible to experiment, and a variety of very interesting experiments, all of which involve ''heavenly axions,'' are being planned or are underway. 58 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Development of ITER diagnostic window assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maquet, Ph.; Walker, C.I.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Encheva, A.; Pitcher, C.S.; Reichle, R.; Vayakis, G.; Veshchev, E.; Udintsev, V.S.; Walsh, M.J.; Watts, C.; Patel, K.M.; Giacomin, T.; Hughes, Shaun; Taylor, Neill; Pearce, Robert; Okayama, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The concepts chosen for ITER Diagnostic Windows are given. • The description of the main components of the window assemblies is presented. • An overview of the R and D related to the window assemblies is given. • The process for their development is briefly explained. -- Abstract: Most of ITER's diagnostics will be provided with viewing lines (optical, microwave, spectroscopic) for the monitoring of key characteristics of the plasma or for the achievement of physical measurements inside the vacuum vessel. For many of them the nature of the physical signal transmitted through the viewing lines requires the implementation of window assemblies incorporating either Glass/Ceramic or Beryllium window. The main requirements of the Diagnostic Window Assemblies are the transmission of the signals without attenuation or disturbances, the containment of vacuum, the confinement of in-vessel radioactive materials. Although they are generally not in direct viewing of the plasma, they are exposed to severe environmental conditions in normal and accidental conditions. The concept chosen for ITER Diagnostic Window Assemblies is based on a system of two windows with a monitored interspace, largely inspired from previous large machine solutions. Such a system is able to satisfy the transmission and vacuum requirements. Although this capability has previously proven a high reliability level, ITER conditions, which are more stringent, impose the requirement for improvement of existing designs and even the development of novel solutions, in particular to assure the radioactive material confinement function, which must be met in all circumstances including all off-normal conditions. Moreover the qualification of these concepts shall meet the nuclear safety requirements, although non metallic and beryllium components are not covered by existing codes and standards. This paper presents designs of window assemblies for different diagnostics. It gives an update of the

  16. Working with Windows 7 at CERN (EN)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Overview of new concepts and user interface changes in Windows 7 as compared with older versions of Windows: XP or Vista. Availability of Windows 7 at CERN and its integration with CERN Windows infrastructure will be discussed.

  17. Renovation and design of double casement windows with regard to the occurrence of water vapour condensation or mould on the interior surface of the window jamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrnacova, L.; Balik, L.

    2017-10-01

    The condensation of water vapour on the interior surface is an indicator of construction dysfunction or ignoring of the surroundings temperature and relative humidity. This paper deals with analysis of the occurrence of condensation on the jamb of double casement windows (windows with two window casements). More precisely, this is a surface in the interior where water vapour condensation or mould occur. For the renovation of existing double casement windows, there are different solutions based on window design: application of double insulating glazing on the interior window casement, application of double insulating glazing on the exterior casement, or installation of a simple window. We first describe measurement of an existing double casement window located in a mountain cottage. Second, the results and comparison of 2D thermal model of different types of double casement window construction. Also, the external insulation of the peripheral wall was included in the model.

  18. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  19. Design and Application of CVD Diamond Windows for X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Yifei; Cookson, David

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented

  20. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  1. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  2. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... and neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...

  3. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  4. Beam line windows at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The A-6 main beam-line window at LAMPF separates the vacuum of the main beam line from the isotope production station, proton irradiation ports, and the beam stop, which operate in air. This window must withstand the design beam current of 1 mA at 800 MeV for periods of at least 3000 hours without failure. The window is water cooled and must be strong enough to withstand the 2.1 MPa (300 psig) cooling water pressure, as well as beam-induced thermal stresses. Two designs have been used to meet these goals, a stepped-plate window and a hemispherical window, both made from a precipitation-hardened nickel base alloy, Alloy 718. Calculations of the temperatures and stresses in each of these windows are presented

  5. Windows with improved energy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2002-01-01

    . Heat loss through windows represents a considerably part of the total heat loss from houses. However windows provide a unique potential of solar energy gain to the building besides from providing daylight access and view. This results in a need for development of windows with improved energy...... performances. During the last 20 years the U-value of the glazing part of windows has been improved considerably, but the frame part has not followed the same development with respect to energy performance. Therefore an increasingly large part of the total heat loss through windows is relating to the frame...... part, for which reason, as far as energy efficiency and total economy are concerned, it has become more interesting to further develop frame structures. Traditionally, the energy performance of windows has primarily been characterised by the heat loss coefficient, U-value. However as the heat loss has...

  6. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  7. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mapes, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn’t been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  8. Design of the beryllium window for Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Raparia, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) beam line, there were two Beryllium (Be) windows with an air gap to separate the high vacuum upstream side from low vacuum downstream side. There had been frequent window failures in the past which affected the machine productivity and increased the radiation dose received by workers due to unplanned maintenance. To improve the window life, design of Be window is reexamined. Detailed structural and thermal simulations are carried out on Be window for different design parameters and loading conditions to come up with better design to improve the window life. The new design removed the air gap and connect the both beam lines with a Be window in-between. The new design has multiple advantages such as 1) reduces the beam energy loss (because of one window with no air gap), 2) reduces air activation due to nuclear radiation and 3) increased the machine reliability as there is no direct pressure load during operation. For quick replacement of this window, an aluminum bellow coupled with load binder was designed. There hasn't been a single window failure since the new design was implemented in 2012.

  9. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept...

  10. Windows 7 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Pogue, David

    2010-01-01

    In early reviews, geeks raved about Windows 7. But if you're an ordinary mortal, learning what this new system is all about will be challenging. Fear not: David Pogue's Windows 7: The Missing Manual comes to the rescue. Like its predecessors, this book illuminates its subject with reader-friendly insight, plenty of wit, and hardnosed objectivity for beginners as well as veteran PC users. Windows 7 fixes many of Vista's most painful shortcomings. It's speedier, has fewer intrusive and nagging screens, and is more compatible with peripherals. Plus, Windows 7 introduces a slew of new features,

  11. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  12. Live histograms in moving windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.E.

    1989-01-01

    Application of computer graphics for specific hardware testing is discussed. The hardware is position sensitive detector (multiwire proportional chamber) which is used in high energy physics experiments, and real-out electronics for it. Testing program is described (XPERT), which utilises multi-window user interface. Data are represented as histograms in windows. The windows on the screen may be moved, reordered, their sizes may be changed. Histograms may be put to any window, and hardcopy may be made. Some program internals are discussed. The computer environment is quite simple: MS-DOS IBM PC/XT, 256 KB RAM, CGA, 5.25'' FD, Epson MX. 4 refs.; 7 figs

  13. Thermal monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.E.; Choi, E.; Hu, G.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    In a practical gyrotron device, the design of a reliable vacuum window to withstand high mean power densities is of utmost importance. Computer modelling of an actual window assumes a number of conditions including the power density profile, the electromagnetic wave attenuation constant of the window material and heat transfer coefficients. The last two factors can vary significantly with temperature. A technique for actually monitoring the real time temperature distribution over the window surface with an IR camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. This measurement serves as an aid for developing the analysis of window designs. The ability to observe small hot spots due to tiny metallic specks on the window surface is also of great value in quality control and window failure prevention. The experimental arrangement involves an infrared camera (AGA780) with an indium antimonide detector (3-5 μm) observing the window through a grid pattern of tiny holes (cutoff for the 3rd harmonic of 60 GHz). A 12 0 FOV lens with a 12mm extension ring was used to defocus the grid. The thermal emissivity E /sub w/ approx. = 0.95. Thus, an IR measurement of the window is a surface temperature measurement. To minimize the problem of external reflections, the outside surface of the waveguide was painted black. This then requires a cool waveguide; room temperature is sufficient

  14. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    A full-color guide to key Windows 7 administration concepts and topics Windows 7 is the leading desktop software, yet it can be a difficult concept to grasp, especially for those new to the field of IT. Microsoft Windows Operating System Essentials is an ideal resource for anyone new to computer administration and looking for a career in computers. Delving into areas such as fundamental Windows 7 administration concepts and various desktop OS topics, this full-color book addresses the skills necessary for individuals looking to break into a career in IT. Each chapter begins with a list of topi

  15. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  16. Windows 7 the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2010-01-01

    This book provides everything you need to manage and maintain Windows 7. You'll learn all of the features and enhancements in complete detail, along with specifics for configuring the operating system to put you in full control. Bestselling author and Windows expert William Stanek doesn't just show you the steps you need to follow, he also tells you how features work, why they work, and how you can customize them to meet your needs. Learn how to squeeze every bit of power out of Windows 7 to take full advantage of its features and programs. Set up, customize, and tune Windows 7-Optimize its

  17. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  18. The theory of radio windows in the ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budden, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Radio waves in a stratified plasma can sometimes penetrate through a region where, according to a simple ray theory, they would be evanescent. They emerge on the far side in a different magnetoionic mode. This occurs when the incident wave normal is within a small cone of angles, called a radio window. The best known example is the Ellis window, used to explain the Z-trace in ionosonde records. Other phenomena where windows may be important have recently been studied. Simple approximate formulae are given for the transmission coefficient of a window and for its angular widths. These show the dependence on frequency, electron concentration gradient and direction of the ambient magnetic field. Comparison with more accurate calcuations shows that these formulae are likely to be reliable in practical applications. The tracing of rays near a window is discussed, and the properties of a second kind of window are described. (author)

  19. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  20. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  1. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  2. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  3. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  4. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  5. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  6. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  7. Parametric Study Of Window Frame Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a parametric study on window frame geometry with the goal of designing frames with very good thermal properties. Three different parametric frame models are introduced, deseribed by a number of variables. In the first part of the study, a process of sensitivity analysis...

  8. Online measurement method for pulse amplitude in pulsed extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinghai; Li Shichang; Chen Jing

    2009-01-01

    Online measurement of pulse amplitude by air purge was studied. The pulse amplitude in a pulsed extraction column was calculated online by measurement of characteristic parameters of the signal's curve. The method can be used for calculation of different pulsed extraction columns. (authors)

  9. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  10. Transparency of 2μ m window of Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannou, P.; Seignovert, B.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maltagliati, L.; Rey, M.; Sotin, C.

    2018-02-01

    Titan's atmosphere is optically thick and hides the surface and the lower layers from the view at almost all wavelengths. However, because gaseous absorptions are spectrally selective, some narrow spectral intervals are relatively transparent and allow to probe the surface. To use these intervals (called windows) a good knowledge of atmospheric absorption is necessary. Once gas spectroscopic linelists are well established, the absorption inside windows depends on the way the far wings of the methane absorption lines are cut-off. We know that the intensity in all the windows can be explained with the same cut-off parameters, except for the window at 2 μm. This discrepancy is generally treated with a workaround which consists in using a different cut-off description for this specific window. This window is relatively transparent and surface may have specific spectral signatures that could be detected. Thus, a good knowledge of atmosphere opacities is essential and our scope is to better understand what causes the difference between the 2 μm window and the other windows. In this work, we used scattered light at the limb and transmissions in occultation observed with VIMS (Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) onboard Cassini, around the 2 μm window. Data shows an absorption feature that participates to the shape of this window. Our atmospheric model fits well the VIMS data at 2 μm with the same cut-off than for the other windows, provided an additional absorption is introduced in the middle of the window around ≃ 2.065 μm. It explains well the discrepency between the cut-off used at 2 μm, and we show that a gas with a fairly constant mixing ratio, possibly ethane, may be the cause of this absorption. Finally, we studied the impact of this absorption on the retrieval of the surface reflectivity and found that it is significant.

  11. Learning Windows Azure Mobile Services for Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8

    CERN Document Server

    Webber-Cross, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This book is based around a case study game which was written for the book. This means that the chapters progress in a logical way and build upon lessons learned as we go. Real-world examples are provided for each topic that are practical and not given out-of-context so they can be applied directly to other applications.If you are a developer who wishes to build Windows 8 and Phone 8 applications and integrate them with Windows Azure Mobile Services, this book is for you. Basic C# and JavaScript skills are advantageous, as well as some knowledge of building Windows 8 or Windows Phone 8 applica

  12. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  13. Thermal bridges of modern windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Møller, Eva B.; Nielsen, Anker

    2013-01-01

    With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even if the wi......With its focus on reduced energy consumption, contemporary housing construction requires a highly insulated and airtight building envelope with as few thermal bridges as possible.Windows must be carefully designed, as thermal bridges can lead to surface condensation or mold growth, even...... if the window has an U-factor of 1 W/(m2·K) or lower. This paper describes the development of modern, energy efficient Danish windows with reduced thermal bridges. It focuses on materials, geometry, and sealing of window panes based on a literature review. Examples of modern windows are presented. Experience...... been an important driver for the development of new window solutions in Denmark, increasing the inner-surface temperature at the sealing of window panes. However, it will not stop complaints fromconsumers, as this temperature is calculated under standardized conditions. Increasing requirements...

  14. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 2, Window design details: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    During 1983, TRW conducted a photodetachment neutralizer development (PDN) - Laser Resonator study. The emphasis of this contract was to assess a technology base of the PDN concept. Three technology assessments were conducted: Mirror Technology assessments, Window Engineering Analysis/Technology assessment, and COIL medium modeling with emphasis on PDN issues. Based on the results of these technology assessments the follow-on contract was funded to develop a technology verification. Due to funding limitations this technology verification program was divided into two separate follow-on contracts. Under this follow-on contract, the following tasks were performed: Measure Attenuation Coefficient of 3M FC-104, FC-77, FC-43 with temperature and attenuation coefficient of sapphire, generate finite element/finite difference thermal/structural model of the HEX double window, determine thermal/structural response from the proposed operating conditions, develop option response data from the deflection/stress inputs, recommend design and operating parameters for demonstrator and operational HEX double window, generate Level 1 layouts and drawings of double paned demonstrator window and window mount/manifold, and generate preliminary layout drawings of shutter. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted for both the operational and demonstrator window heat exchanger (HEX) designs and operating conditions

  15. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  16. Windows for tablets for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Just for you--Windows 8 from the tablet user's perspective If you're an experienced Windows user, you don't need a guide to everything that Windows 8 can do, just to those tools and functions that work on your tablet. And so here it is. This new book zeros in on what you need to know to work best on your tablet with Windows 8. Topics include navigating the new Windows 8 interface and how it works on a touchscreen, how to safely connect to the Internet, how to work with apps or share your tablet in a group, and much more. If you're a new tablet user, you'll particularly appre

  17. Differences in the motor unit firing rates and amplitudes in relation to recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous between chronically resistance trained and physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczala, Adam J; Miller, Jonathan D; Trevino, Michael A; Dimmick, Hannah L; Herda, Trent J

    2018-02-26

    Previous investigations report no changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates during submaximal contractions following resistance training. These investigations did not account for MU recruitment or examine firing rates as a function of recruitment threshold (REC).Therefore, MU recruitment and firing rates in chronically resistance trained (RT) and physically active controls (CON) were examined. Surface electromyography signals were collected from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) during isometric muscle actions at 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). For each MU, force at REC, mean firing rate (MFR) during the steady force, and MU action potential amplitude (MUAPAMP) were analyzed. For each individual and contraction, the MFRs were linearly regressed against REC, whereas, exponential models were applied to the MFR vs. MUAPAMP and MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships with the y-intercepts and slopes (linear) and A and B terms (exponential) calculated. For the 40% MVC, the RT group had less negative slopes (p=0.001) and lower y-intercepts (p=0.006) of the MFR vs. REC relationships and lower B terms (p=0.011) of the MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships. There were no differences in either relationship between groups for the 70% MVC. During the 40% MVC, the RT had a smaller range of MFRs and MUAPAMPS in comparison to the CON, likely due to reduced MU recruitment. The RT had lower MFRs and recruitment during the 40% MVC that may indicate a leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship, and thus require less excitation to the motoneuron pool to match the same relative force.

  18. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  19. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Puhlfürst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′.

  20. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  1. An investigation into the magnitude of the current window and perception of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) sensation at various frequencies and body sites in healthy human participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicola; Bennett, Michael I; Johnson, Mark I

    2013-02-01

    Strong nonpainful transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is prerequisite to a successful analgesic outcome although the ease with which this sensation is achieved is likely to depend on the magnitude of current amplitude (mA) between sensory detection threshold (SDT) and pain threshold, that is, the current window. To measure the current window and participant's perception of the comfort of the TENS sensation at different body sites. A repeated measure cross-over study was conducted using 30 healthy adult volunteers. Current amplitudes (mA) of TENS [2 pulses per second (pps); 30 pps; 80 pps] at SDT, pain threshold, and strong nonpainful intensities were measured at the tibia (bone), knee joint (connective tissue), lower back [paraspinal (skeletal) muscle], volar surface of forearm (nerve) and waist (fat). The amplitude to achieve a strong nonpainful intensity was represented as a percentage of the current window. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Effects were detected for body site and frequency for SDT (P<0.001, P=0.018, respectively), current window (P<0.001, P<0.001, respectively), and strong nonpainful TENS as a percentage of the current window (P=0.002, P<0.001, respectively). The current window was larger for the knee joint compared with tibia (difference [95% confidence interval]=12.76 mA [4.25, 21.28]; P=0.001) and forearm (10.33 mA [2.62, 18.40]; P=0.006), and for the lower back compared with tibia (12.10 mA [1.65, 22.52]; P=0.015) and forearm (9.65 mA [1.06, 18.24]; P=0.019). The current window was larger for 2 pps compared with 30 pps (P<0.001) and 80 pps (P<0.001). Participants rated strong nonpainful TENS as most comfortable at the lower back (P<0.001) and least comfortable at the tibia and forearm (P<0.001). TENS is most comfortable and easiest to titrate to a strong nonpainful intensity when applied over areas of muscle and soft tissue.

  2. Analysis and modelization of short-duration windows of seismic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriani, B.; Lacoume, J.L.; Martin, N.; Cliet, C.; Dubesset, M.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral analysis of a seismic arrival is of a great interest, but unfortunately the common Fourier analysis is unserviceable on short-time windows. So, in order to obtain the spectral characteristics of the dominant components of a seismic signal on a short-time interval, the authors study parametric methods. At first, the autoregressive methods are able to localize a small number of non-stationary pure frequencies. But the amplitude determination is impossible with these methods. So, they develop a combination of AR and Capon's methods. In the Capon's method, the amplitude is conserved for a given frequency, at the very time when the contribution of the other frequencies is minimized. Finally, to characterize completely the different pure-frequency dominant components of the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal with these elements, the authors need also the phase and the attenuation; for that, they use the Prony's method where the signal is represented by a sum of damped sinusoids. This last method is used to modelize an offset VSP. It is shown that, using four frequencies and their attributes (amplitude, phase, attenuation), it is possible to modelize quasi-exactly the section. When reconstructing the signal, if one (or more) frequency is eliminated, an efficient filtering can be applied. The AR methods, and Prony's in particular, are efficient tools for signal component decomposition and information compression

  3. Windows 8 visual quick tips

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Easy-in, easy-out format covers all the bells and whistles of Windows 8 If you want to learn how to work smarter and faster in Microsoft's Windows 8 operating system, this easy-to-use, compact guide delivers the goods. Designed for visual learners, it features short explanations and full-color screen shots on almost every page, and it's packed with timesaving tips and helpful productivity tricks. From enhancing performance and managing digital content to setting up security and much more, this handy guide will help you get more out of Windows 8. Uses full-color screen shots and short, step-by-

  4. Transparent solar cell window module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Joseph Lik Hang; Chen, Ruei-Tang; Hwang, Gan-Lin; Tsai, Ping-Yuan [Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan County 709 (China); Lin, Chien-Chu [I-Lai Acrylic Corporation, Tainan City (China)

    2010-03-15

    A transparent solar cell window module based on the integration of traditional silicon solar cells and organic-inorganic nanocomposite material was designed and fabricated. The transparent solar cell window module was composed of a nanocomposite light-guide plate and traditional silicon solar cells. The preparation of the nanocomposite light-guide plate is easy without modification of the traditional casting process, the nanoparticles sol can be added directly to the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monomer syrup during the process. The solar energy collected by this window can be used to power up small household electrical appliances. (author)

  5. Big Book of Windows Hacks

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston

    2008-01-01

    Bigger, better, and broader in scope, the Big Book of Windows Hacks gives you everything you need to get the most out of your Windows Vista or XP system, including its related applications and the hardware it runs on or connects to. Whether you want to tweak Vista's Aero interface, build customized sidebar gadgets and run them from a USB key, or hack the "unhackable" screensavers, you'll find quick and ingenious ways to bend these recalcitrant operating systems to your will. The Big Book of Windows Hacks focuses on Vista, the new bad boy on Microsoft's block, with hacks and workarounds that

  6. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  7. Holography through optically active windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By using two orthogonally polarized reference beams, holograms can be recorded through stressed windows and the reconstructed virtual image will show no stress pattern. As shown analytically, the stress-pattern-free hologram is recordable for any polarization state of the object illumination. Hence, the more efficient nondepolarizing diffuser can be used in performing holography through stressed windows if two reference beams are used. Results are presented for a pair of machined polysulfone windows intended for use in a holographic flow-visualization setup in a single-stage-compressor test rig.

  8. Relative amplitude preservation processing utilizing surface consistent amplitude correction. Part 4; Surface consistent amplitude correction wo mochiita sotai shinpuku hozon shori. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on seismic exploration from the ground surface using the reflection method, for surface consistent amplitude correction from among effects imposed from the ground surface and a surface layer. Amplitude distribution on the reflection wave zone is complex. Therefore, items to be considered in making an analysis are multiple, such as estimation of spherical surface divergence effect and exponential attenuation effect, not only amplitude change through the surface layer. If all of these items are taken into consideration, burden of the work becomes excessive. As a method to solve this problem, utilization of amplitude in initial movement of a diffraction wave may be conceived. Distribution of the amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave shows a value relatively close to distribution of the vibration transmitting and receiving points. The reason for this is thought because characteristics of the vibration transmitting and receiving points related with waveline paths in the vicinity of the ground surface have no great difference both on the diffraction waves and on the reflection waves. The lecture described in this paper introduces an attempt of improving the efficiency of the surface consistent amplitude correction by utilizing the analysis of amplitude in initial movement of the diffraction wave. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  10. Cascaded Amplitude Modulations in Sound Texture Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McWalter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound textures, such as crackling fire or chirping crickets, represent a broad class of sounds defined by their homogeneous temporal structure. It has been suggested that the perception of texture is mediated by time-averaged summary statistics measured from early auditory representations. In this study, we investigated the perception of sound textures that contain rhythmic structure, specifically second-order amplitude modulations that arise from the interaction of different modulation rates, previously described as “beating” in the envelope-frequency domain. We developed an auditory texture model that utilizes a cascade of modulation filterbanks that capture the structure of simple rhythmic patterns. The model was examined in a series of psychophysical listening experiments using synthetic sound textures—stimuli generated using time-averaged statistics measured from real-world textures. In a texture identification task, our results indicated that second-order amplitude modulation sensitivity enhanced recognition. Next, we examined the contribution of the second-order modulation analysis in a preference task, where the proposed auditory texture model was preferred over a range of model deviants that lacked second-order modulation rate sensitivity. Lastly, the discriminability of textures that included second-order amplitude modulations appeared to be perceived using a time-averaging process. Overall, our results demonstrate that the inclusion of second-order modulation analysis generates improvements in the perceived quality of synthetic textures compared to the first-order modulation analysis considered in previous approaches.

  11. Grab Windows training opportunities; check CERN Windows roadmap!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    CERN Operating Systems and Information Services group (IT-OIS) actively monitors market trends to check how new software products correspond to CERN needs. In the Windows world, Windows 7 has been a big hit, with over 1500 Windows 7 PCs within less than a year since its support was introduced at CERN. No wonder: Windows XP is nearly 10 years old and is steadily approaching the end of its life-cycle. At CERN, support for Windows XP will stop at the end of December 2012. Compared to Vista, Windows 7 has the same basic hardware requirements, but offers higher performance, so the decision to upgrade is rather straightforward. CERN support for Vista will end in June 2011. In the world of Microsoft Office, version 2007 offers better integration with the central services than the older version 2003. Progressive upgrade from 2003 to 2007 is planned to finish in September 2011, but users are encouraged to pro-actively upgrade at their convenience. Please note that Office 2007 brings an important change in the area of ...

  12. Computerized tomography magnified bone windows are superior to standard soft tissue windows for accurate measurement of stone size: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Kambadakone, Avinash; Monga, Manoj; Anderson, James K; Thoreson, Andrew A; Lee, Hang; Dretler, Stephen P; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2009-04-01

    We determined the most accurate method of measuring urinary stones on computerized tomography. For the in vitro portion of the study 24 calculi, including 12 calcium oxalate monohydrate and 12 uric acid stones, that had been previously collected at our clinic were measured manually with hand calipers as the gold standard measurement. The calculi were then embedded into human kidney-sized potatoes and scanned using 64-slice multidetector computerized tomography. Computerized tomography measurements were performed at 4 window settings, including standard soft tissue windows (window width-320 and window length-50), standard bone windows (window width-1120 and window length-300), 5.13x magnified soft tissue windows and 5.13x magnified bone windows. Maximum stone dimensions were recorded. For the in vivo portion of the study 41 patients with distal ureteral stones who underwent noncontrast computerized tomography and subsequently spontaneously passed the stones were analyzed. All analyzed stones were 100% calcium oxalate monohydrate or mixed, calcium based stones. Stones were prospectively collected at the clinic and the largest diameter was measured with digital calipers as the gold standard. This was compared to computerized tomography measurements using 4.0x magnified soft tissue windows and 4.0x magnified bone windows. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's correlation and paired t test. In the in vitro portion of the study the most accurate measurements were obtained using 5.13x magnified bone windows with a mean 0.13 mm difference from caliper measurement (p = 0.6). Measurements performed in the soft tissue window with and without magnification, and in the bone window without magnification were significantly different from hand caliper measurements (mean difference 1.2, 1.9 and 1.4 mm, p = 0.003, window settings with magnification. For uric acid calculi the measurement error was observed only in standard soft tissue window settings. In vivo 4.0x

  13. Infrared monitoring of gyrotron windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huey, H.; Lopez, N.; Hu, G.; Choi, E.; Mundie, L.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for monitoring the gyrotron output window surface temperature with an infrared camera while the gyrotron is in operation has been developed. The IR camera views the window through a perforated waveguide wall, and serves both as a guide for the safe operation at high average power of the tube, as well as an aid in the analysis of new window designs. Window temperatures were studied as a function of a number of parameters, including gun anode voltage, beam current, magnetic field, coolant flow, and load matching. The IR technique is applicable to many types of high average power microwave and millimeter wave tubes. Successful operation of the Varian 60 GHz gyrotron to 214 kW CW was guided by the infrared camera. Analyses on 28, 56 and 60 GHz gyrotrons have led to a number of design changes. A comparison with computer calculations is also presented

  14. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  15. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  16. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  17. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  18. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  19. A window on urban sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigt, Rien van; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Spit, Tejo J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced

  20. Mastering Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Finn, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The one book you absolutely need to get up and running with Windows Server 2008 R2. One of the world's leading Windows authorities and top-selling author Mark Minasi explores every nook and cranny of the latest version of Microsoft's flagship network operating system, Windows Server 2008 R2, giving you the most in-depth coverage in any book on the market.: Focuses on Windows Windows Server 2008 R2, the newest version of Microsoft's Windows' server line of operating system, and the ideal server for new Windows 7 clients; Author Mark Minasi is one of the world's leading Windows authorities and h

  1. Windows with an improved energy balance of 30%

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    The aim of the project has been to investigate and to develop thermally improved windows based on an evaluation of the energy balance of the window, i.e. the total influence of the window on the energy consumption for space heating. The energy balance is the net heat flow per window area which...... carried out in the project. The large glass distance helps to reduce the traditional thermal bridge effect of the spacer and the integrated frame leads to an increase in transmitted solar energy. Furthermore, a controlled air exchange in case of pressure differences between the enclosures in the glazing...... means that both energy losses and transmittance of solar radiation is considered.The final goal of the project was to improve the energy balance of a window with at least 30%. As reference is chosen a common low energy glazing mounted in a wooden frame construction measuring 1188 × 1188 mm2...

  2. Design and Characterization of the ALMA Band 5 Vacuum Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Arne; Murk, Axel; Yagoubov, Pavel; Patt, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the electromagnetic design process of the vacuum window for the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 5 (163-211 GHz). We have carried out investigations by means of numerical simulations as well as reflection and transmission measurements. Simulations were performed using the finite element method, an efficient quasi-analytical technique, and rigorous coupled-wave analysis. We used an injection-molded vacuum window prototype as a starting point of the design process and investigated deterioration in the electromagnetic performance caused by different types of manufacturing artifacts. Following these analyses, an optimization of the window has been performed based on simulations. We measured the reflectivity and transmittance of the newly designed window and this paper demonstrates that the optimized window exhibits a return loss better than -20 dB, as required by the ALMA specifications.

  3. climwin: An R Toolbox for Climate Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    When studying the impacts of climate change, there is a tendency to select climate data from a small set of arbitrary time periods or climate windows (e.g., spring temperature). However, these arbitrary windows may not encompass the strongest periods of climatic sensitivity and may lead to erroneous biological interpretations. Therefore, there is a need to consider a wider range of climate windows to better predict the impacts of future climate change. We introduce the R package climwin that provides a number of methods to test the effect of different climate windows on a chosen response variable and compare these windows to identify potential climate signals. climwin extracts the relevant data for each possible climate window and uses this data to fit a statistical model, the structure of which is chosen by the user. Models are then compared using an information criteria approach. This allows users to determine how well each window explains variation in the response variable and compare model support between windows. climwin also contains methods to detect type I and II errors, which are often a problem with this type of exploratory analysis. This article presents the statistical framework and technical details behind the climwin package and demonstrates the applicability of the method with a number of worked examples. PMID:27973534

  4. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure. PMID:28243510

  5. Mort Rainey's Split Personality in Secret Window

    OpenAIRE

    Sandjaya, Cynthya; Limanta, Liem Satya

    2013-01-01

    Psychological issue is the main issue discussed in David Koepp's Secret Window through its main character, Mort Rainey. Rainey's psychological struggle will be the main theme in this research. This thesis examines Rainey's split personality. Furthermore, in this study, we want to analyze the process of how Mort Rainey's personality splits into two different personalities. To meet the answer of this study, we will use the theory of Dissociative Identity Disorder with a support from Sigmund Fre...

  6. Expansion of Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study from various perspectives the expansion of tree level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes into linear combination of color-ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes. By applying the gauge invariance principle, a programable recursive construction is devised to expand EYM amplitude with arbitrary number of gravitons into EYM amplitudes with fewer gravitons. Based on this recursive technique we write down the complete expansion of any single trace EYM amplitude in the basis of color-order Yang-Mills amplitude. As a byproduct, an algorithm for constructing a polynomial form of the BCJ numerator for Yang-Mills amplitudes is also outlined in this paper. In addition, by applying BCFW recursion relation we show how to arrive at the same EYM amplitude expansion from the on-shell perspective. And we examine the EYM expansion using KLT relations and show how to evaluate the expansion coefficients efficiently.

  7. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  8. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  9. ALOHA: Automatic libraries of helicity amplitudes for Feynman diagram computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Priscila; Link, William; Maltoni, Fabio; Mattelaer, Olivier; Stelzer, Tim

    2012-10-01

    We present an application that automatically writes the HELAS (HELicity Amplitude Subroutines) library corresponding to the Feynman rules of any quantum field theory Lagrangian. The code is written in Python and takes the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) as an input. From this input it produces the complete set of routines, wave-functions and amplitudes, that are needed for the computation of Feynman diagrams at leading as well as at higher orders. The representation is language independent and currently it can output routines in Fortran, C++, and Python. A few sample applications implemented in the MADGRAPH 5 framework are presented. Program summary Program title: ALOHA Catalogue identifier: AEMS_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/UoI-NCSA.php No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6094320 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7479819 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python2.6 Computer: 32/64 bit Operating system: Linux/Mac/Windows RAM: 512 Mbytes Classification: 4.4, 11.6 Nature of problem: An effcient numerical evaluation of a squared matrix element can be done with the help of the helicity routines implemented in the HELAS library [1]. This static library contains a limited number of helicity functions and is therefore not always able to provide the needed routine in the presence of an arbitrary interaction. This program provides a way to automatically create the corresponding routines for any given model. Solution method: ALOHA takes the Feynman rules associated to the vertex obtained from the model information (in the UFO format [2]), and multiplies it by the different wavefunctions or propagators. As a result the analytical expression of the helicity routines is obtained. Subsequently, this expression is

  10. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  11. Fringe image analysis based on the amplitude modulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Shaoyan; Da, Feipeng

    2010-05-10

    A novel phase-analysis method is proposed. To get the fringe order of a fringe image, the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern is carried out, which is combined with the phase-shift method. The primary phase value is obtained by a phase-shift algorithm, and the fringe-order information is encoded in the amplitude-modulation fringe pattern. Different from other methods, the amplitude-modulation fringe identifies the fringe order by the amplitude of the fringe pattern. In an amplitude-modulation fringe pattern, each fringe has its own amplitude; thus, the order information is integrated in one fringe pattern, and the absolute fringe phase can be calculated correctly and quickly with the amplitude-modulation fringe image. The detailed algorithm is given, and the error analysis of this method is also discussed. Experimental results are presented by a full-field shape measurement system where the data has been processed using the proposed algorithm. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  12. 16 CFR 455.3 - Window form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Window form. 455.3 Section 455.3 Commercial... Window form. (a) Form given to buyer. Give the buyer of a used vehicle sold by you the window form...) Incorporated into contract. The information on the final version of the window form is incorporated into the...

  13. Music@Microsoft.Windows: Composing Ambience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    It is well known, of course, that all Windows versions except for 3.1 have a brief (four to six second) piece of music indicating that Windows is booted and ready for use. While the music may indicate Windows has booted, it bears no immediately discernable relation to the various uses we might actually put Windows to--working, gaming,…

  14. Windows Server 2012 R2 administrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for system administrators and IT professionals with experience in Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2012 environments who are looking to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to manage and maintain the core infrastructure required for a Windows Server 2012 and Windows Server 2012 R2 environment.

  15. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN (FR)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). La mise à disposition de Windows 7 au CERN et son intégration dans l’infrastructure de Windows au CERN seront présentées.

  16. Fatigue life assessment under multiaxial variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Kenmeugne, B.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Robert, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A variable amplitude multiaxial fatigue life prediction method is presented in this paper. It is based on a stress as input data are the stress tensor histories which may be calculated by FEM analysis or measured directly on the structure during the service loading. The different steps of he method are first presented then its experimental validation is realized for log and finite fatigue lives through biaxial variable amplitude loading tests using cruciform steel samples. (authors). 9 refs., 7 figs

  17. Oscillatory integration windows in neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Singh, Swikriti Saran; Stopfer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory synchrony among neurons occurs in many species and brain areas, and has been proposed to help neural circuits process information. One hypothesis states that oscillatory input creates cyclic integration windows: specific times in each oscillatory cycle when postsynaptic neurons become especially responsive to inputs. With paired local field potential (LFP) and intracellular recordings and controlled stimulus manipulations we directly test this idea in the locust olfactory system. We find that inputs arriving in Kenyon cells (KCs) sum most effectively in a preferred window of the oscillation cycle. With a computational model, we show that the non-uniform structure of noise in the membrane potential helps mediate this process. Further experiments performed in vivo demonstrate that integration windows can form in the absence of inhibition and at a broad range of oscillation frequencies. Our results reveal how a fundamental coincidence-detection mechanism in a neural circuit functions to decode temporally organized spiking. PMID:27976720

  18. Teach yourself visually Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide for visual learners eager to get started with Windows 8 If you learn more quickly when you can see how things are done, this Visual guide is the easiest way to get up and running on Windows 8. It covers more than 150 essential Windows tasks, using full-color screen shots and step-by-step instructions to show you just what to do. Learn your way around the interface and how to install programs, set up user accounts, play music and other media files, download photos from your digital camera, go online, set up and secure an e-mail account, and much more. The tried-and-true format

  19. Optimum Energy Window In Liver Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadremomtaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In liver scintigraphy radioactive tracers in addition to liver are accumulated in other organs such as spleen. It leads to the presence of secondary source which affects image quality. Therefore knowing the influence of the noise arising from the secondary source and trying to reduce the additional data is necessary. In nuclear medicine imaging using of energy window is a useful way to reduce the noise. In this paper we try to find an optimum energy window to reduce the noise for two different low energy collimators. Liver scintigraphy images with and without activity in spleen were simulated by SIMIND software with different energy window percentages and with Low-Energy High-Resolution LEHR and Low-Energy General-Purpose LEGP collimators. We used with activity of 190 MBq. Spleen was outside of the camera field of view so that just its noise effects on the liver image is examined. Finally the images of liver with activity in spleen were compared with that without activity in spleen by MATLAB code.

  20. Windows Server 2012 : Uudet ominaisuudet ja muutokset

    OpenAIRE

    Oksanen, Joni

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opintyön tarkoituksena on valottaa Windows Server 2012 -käyttöjärjestelmän muutoksia verrattuna vanhaan Windows Server 2008 R2 -versioon. Työ aloitettiin ennen Windows Server 2012 -julkaisua Release Candidate -version testauksella ja myöhemmin julkaisun jälkeen Windows Serverin kokeiluversiolla. Työssä on silti ajankohtaista tietoa Windows Server 2012:sta. Aluksi käsitellään Windows Servereiden kehityskaarta lyhyesti ja käsitellään uusinta Windows Serveriä tuotteena se...

  1. *New* CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  2. *New*: CRITICAL Windows Security patch

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued a new CRITICAL security patch, MS03-039. It must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security hole and patch for MS03-039 (which also includes MS03-026) are at: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp

  3. Advanced Control of Electrochromic Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Zarkadis, Nikos; Morel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In our research we use the technology of electrochromic (EC) glazing to maximize the use of daylight and minimize the energy consumption in buildings while preserving visual and thermal comfort of the users. We propose an advanced automatic control of EC windows coupled with an anidolic daylighting system (ADS), blinds and dimmable fluorescent lights. EC windows with a visible transmittance range (Tv) of 0.15 – 0.50 were installed on the southern façade of an office room of the LESO experimen...

  4. What's New in Windows Vista?

    CERN Document Server

    Culp, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Get ready for a quick blast through this significant change to Windows! This guide will give you a quick look at many of the most significant new features in Vista, Microsoft's first revision of Windows in nearly six years. Starting with the changes to the interface, introducing Aero, and showing you some visuals, we then move on to the completely revamped search options. The new task scheduler and printing gadgets, are next with some cool new changes. Probably the most significant changes, however, come in the area of security and this guide takes a look at them from user priveleges, to

  5. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  6. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  7. Microsoft Windows Server Administration Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies you need to administer a Windows Server OS Administering a Windows operating system (OS) can be a difficult topic to grasp, particularly if you are new to the field of IT. This full-color resource serves as an approachable introduction to understanding how to install a server, the various roles of a server, and how server performance and maintenance impacts a network. With a special focus placed on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) certificate, the straightforward, easy-to-understand tone is ideal for anyone new to computer administration looking t

  8. The vehicle routing problem with time windows and temporal dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg; Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we formulate the vehicle routing problem with time windows and temporal dependencies. The problem is an extension of the well studied vehicle routing problem with time windows. In addition to the usual constraints, a scheduled time of one visit may restrain the scheduling options...... dependencies are modeled by generalized precedence constraints. Four different master problem formulations are proposed and it is shown that the formulations can be ranked according to the tightness with which they describe the solution space. A tailored time window branching is used to enforce feasibility...

  9. Forensic Analysis of Windows Registry Against Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyang Xie; Keyu Jiang; Xiaohong Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Windows Registry forensics is an important branch of computer and network forensics. Windows Registry is often considered as the heart of Windows Operating Systems because it contains allof the configuration setting of specific users, groups, hardware, software, and networks. Therefore, Windows Registry can be viewed as a gold mine of forensic evidences which could be used in courts. This paper introduces the basics of Windows Registry, describes its structure and its keys and subkeys thathav...

  10. ELM pacing and the ITER operating window: mutual constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, G. W.; Pacher, H. D.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pitts, R. A.

    2011-08-01

    On ITER, one of the methods foreseen to reduce the energy loading due to edge localized modes (ELMs) on the divertor targets is the use of pellet injection to control the ELM frequency and amplitude of the energy losses at each ELM. However, the use of such pellet pacing introduces additional fuel throughput. This may constrict the burning plasma operating window through its influence on divertor plasma detachment, thus reducing the attainable alpha power. Consistent modelling of core, scrape-off layer, and divertor is used to document this effect. The result is a determination of the maximum attainable alpha power at the nominal pumping speed as a function of pacing pellet size and the maximum allowable pellet size as a function of ELM loss power fraction for which the reference operating window is not reduced.

  11. Experimental evaluation of 350 MHz RF accelerator windows for the low energy demonstration accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, K.; Rees, D.; Roybal, W.

    1997-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input power couplers for accelerators. To obtain a reliable, high-power, 350 MHz RF window for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium program, RF windows prototypes from different vendors were tested. Experiments were performed to evaluate the RF windows by the vendors to select a window for the LEDA project. The Communications and Power, Inc. (CPI) windows were conditioned to 445 kW in roughly 15 hours. At 445 kW a window failed, and the cause of the failure will be presented. The English Electronic Valve, Inc. (EEV) windows were conditioned to 944 kW in 26 hours and then tested at 944 kW for 4 hours with no indication of problems

  12. Amplitude chimeras and chimera death in dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-01-01

    We find chimera states with respect to amplitude dynamics in a network of Stuart- Landau oscillators. These partially coherent and partially incoherent spatio-temporal patterns appear due to the interplay of nonlocal network topology and symmetry-breaking coupling. As the coupling range is increased, the oscillations are quenched, amplitude chimeras disappear and the network enters a symmetry-breaking stationary state. This particular regime is a novel pattern which we call chimera death. It is characterized by the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent inhomogeneous steady states and therefore combines the features of chimera state and oscillation death. Additionally, we show two different transition scenarios from amplitude chimera to chimera death. Moreover, for amplitude chimeras we uncover the mechanism of transition towards in-phase synchronized regime and discuss the role of initial conditions. (paper)

  13. The zerology of kaon-nucleon forward scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    1981-01-01

    It has been realized for a long time that zeros of the forward kaon-nucleon scattering amplitudes are useful in correlating different low and high-energy scattering parameters and in providing a consistency test of available data. The simplest possibility of exploring zeros is to evaluate the ordinary dispersion relations in the complex energy plane. The more natural way of bringing zeros of amplitudes into play is to consider either one of the more sophisticated forms of dispersion relations: i) phase dispersion relations, ii) inverse-amplitude dispersion relations, iii) logarithmic dispersion relations, or to apply the maximum modulus theorem and a factorization theorem. The author concentrates on the use of logarithmic dispersion relations because this approach seems to be the most convenient one for future extensions to nonforward scattering data analyses based on the zeros of the amplitude. (Auth.)

  14. The super-correlator/super-amplitude duality: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Burkhard; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Sokatchev, Emery

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of the duality between super-correlators and scattering super-amplitudes in planar N=4 SYM. We provide a number of further examples supporting the conjectured duality relation between these two seemingly different objects. We consider the five- and six-point one-loop NMHV and the six-point tree-level NNMHV amplitudes, obtaining them from the appropriate correlators of strength tensor multiplets in N=4 SYM. In particular, we find exact agreement between the rather non-trivial parity-odd sector of the integrand of the six-point one-loop NMHV amplitude, as obtained from the correlator or from BCFW recursion relations. Together these results lead to the conjecture that the integrands of any N^kMHV amplitude at any loop order in planar N=4 SYM can be described by the correlators of stress-tensor multiplets.

  15. The Construction of Spin Foam Vertex Amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin foam vertex amplitudes are the key ingredient of spin foam models for quantum gravity. These fall into the realm of discretized path integral, and can be seen as generalized lattice gauge theories. They can be seen as an attempt at a 4-dimensional generalization of the Ponzano-Regge model for 3d quantum gravity. We motivate and review the construction of the vertex amplitudes of recent spin foam models, giving two different and complementary perspectives of this construction. The first proceeds by extracting geometric configurations from a topological theory of the BF type, and can be seen to be in the tradition of the work of Barrett, Crane, Freidel and Krasnov. The second keeps closer contact to the structure of Loop Quantum Gravity and tries to identify an appropriate set of constraints to define a Lorentz-invariant interaction of its quanta of space. This approach is in the tradition of the work of Smolin, Markopoulous, Engle, Pereira, Rovelli and Livine.

  16. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  17. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  18. Implementing a hybrid network deployment server for Windows and Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Sharapov, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the thesis was selecting, testing and building hybrid network deployment server that should be capable of installing Windows and Linux-based operating systems. The server built to help system administrators at the Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences. The thesis focused on the Windows operating system, because it was the main operating system used at the university. At first, different methods were sorted out by technical specifications and then tested to prove thei...

  19. Low-Amplitude Topographic Features and Textures on the Moon: Initial Results from Detrended Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Global lunar topographic data derived from ranging measurements by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard LRO mission to the Moon have extremely high vertical precision. We use detrended topography as a means for utilization of this precision in geomorphological analysis. The detrended topography was calculated as a difference between actual topography and a trend surface defined as a median topography in a circular sliding window. We found that despite complicated distortions caused by the non-linear nature of the detrending procedure, visual inspection of these data facilitates identification of low-amplitude gently-sloping geomorphic features. We present specific examples of patterns of lava flows forming the lunar maria and revealing compound flow fields, a new class of lava flow complex on the Moon. We also highlight the identification of linear tectonic features that otherwise are obscured in the images and topographic data processed in a more traditional manner.

  20. Amplitude normalization reduces cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) amplitude asymmetries in normal subjects: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Fowler, Andrea; Jacobson, Gary P

    2014-03-01

    The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is an acoustically synchronized, signal averaged, brief inhibitory response of a contracted muscle usually resulting from an acoustic stimulus. The cVEMP is recorded from the tonically contracted sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). The presence and amplitude of the cVEMP is related to both the integrity of the sacculo-collic pathway and magnitude of electromyographic (EMG) activity at the time of recording. Measurement variables include the absolute latency of the primary positive going component (referred to as P13) and interaural (i.e., left versus right) latency differences. Also measured is the peak-to-peak interaural amplitude asymmetry (IAA; percent difference in amplitude, left versus right). It is known that the amplitude of the cVEMP is positively correlated with the magnitude of tonic EMG from which the evoked potential is extracted. Thus, if EMG amplitude is uncontrolled, one cannot determine whether cVEMP asymmetries are occurring due to unilateral end organ disease or asymmetric tonic EMG activity. Two methods have been suggested to control for tonic EMG activity. These include (1) patient self-monitoring of EMG activity with biofeedback and (2) mathematical correction (i.e., amplitude normalization) of the left and right cVEMP waveforms. Currently, it is unknown how effective amplitude normalization techniques are at reducing cVEMP amplitude asymmetry in the presence of varying levels of EMG. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the use of amplitude correction techniques would reduce significantly the P13-N23 IAA data in otologically and neurologically intact adults when the level of EMG was varied between right and left sides. A prospective, repeated measures design was used for three different investigations in which cVEMPs were recorded and then processed using amplitude correction. Subjects were 20 otologically and neurologically health young adults between 21 and 29 yr

  1. Scattering amplitudes with off-shell quarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hameren, A.; Kutak, K.; Salwa, T.

    2013-11-01

    We present a prescription to calculate manifestly gauge invariant tree-level scattering amplitudes for arbitrary scattering processes with off-shell initial-state quarks within the kinematics of high-energy scattering. Consider the embedding of the process, in which the off-shell u-quark is replaced by an auxiliary quark qA, and an auxiliary photon γA is added in final state. The momentum flow is as if qA carries momentum k1 and the momentum of γA is identical to 0. γA only interacts via Eq. (3), and qA further only interacts with gluons via normal quark-gluon vertices. qA-line propagators are interpreted as iℓ̸1/(2ℓ1ṡp), and are diagonal in color space. Sum the squared amplitude over helicities of the auxiliary photon. For one helicity, simultaneously assign to the external qA-quark and to γA the spinor and polarization vector |ℓ1], {, {}. Multiply the amplitude with √{-x1k12/2}. For the rest, normal Feynman rules apply.Some remarks are at order. Regarding the momentum flow, we stress, as in [20], that momentum components proportional to k1 do not contribute in the eikonal propagators, and there is a freedom in the choice of the momenta flowing through qA-lines.Regarding the sum over helicities, one might argue that only one of them leads to a non-zero result for given helicity of the final-state quark, but there may, for example, be several identical such quarks in the final state with different helicities.In case of more than one quark in the final state with the same flavor as the off-shell quark, the rules as such admit graphs with γA-propagators. These must be omitted. They do not survive the limit Λ→∞ in the derivation, since the γA-propagators are suppressed by 1/Λ.The rules regarding the qA-line could be elaborated further like in [20], leading to simplified vertices for gluons attached to this line and reducing the numerator of the eikonal propagators to 1. Formulated as above, however, the prescription is more straightforward and

  2. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  3. Composite superstring model for hadron amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, P.O. Box 188300, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Hadron dynamics is formulated in terms of interacting composite strings. These composite string amplitudes give other possible solution of duality equations for crossing channels in addition to classical string amplitudes. The composite strings carry quark flavour and spin degrees of freedom on edging two-dimensional surfaces. Consistent composite string models with extended N=3 Virasoro superconformal symmetry are found. Simple amplitudes for interaction of pi and K-mesons in this model are represented.

  4. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  5. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  6. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  7. A Logarithmic-Amplitude Polar Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Andresen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A polar diagram where the amplitude of the transfer function is on a logarithmic scale, is presented. This gives a one-size-fits-all diagram with no need for zooming in and out, and no need for additional reasoning about infinite-radius encirclements when there are poles on the imaginary axis - as opposed to what is usually neccessary with the standard polar (Nyquist- diagram. All properties needed for stability considerations are upheld, such as encirclements, gain and phase margins. The path for s in the loop transfer function is carefully chosen with regard to possible poles on the imaginary axis. Small excursions into the right half plane in the form of arcs of different-sized logarithmic spirals result in corresponding large but finite arcs that do not overlap in the logarithmic polar plots.

  8. Polynomial structures in one-loop amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Yang Gang

    2008-01-01

    A general one-loop scattering amplitude may be expanded in terms of master integrals. The coefficients of the master integrals can be obtained from tree-level input in a two-step process. First, use known formulas to write the coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals; these formulas depend on an additional variable, u, which encodes the dimensional shift. Second, convert the u-dependent coefficients of (4-2ε)-dimensional master integrals to explicit coefficients of dimensionally shifted master integrals. This procedure requires the initial formulas for coefficients to have polynomial dependence on u. Here, we give a proof of this property in the case of massless propagators. The proof is constructive. Thus, as a byproduct, we produce different algebraic expressions for the scalar integral coefficients, in which the polynomial property is apparent. In these formulas, the box and pentagon contributions are separated explicitly.

  9. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  10. The slice is right (an exercise in CT windowing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, B.

    2003-01-01

    This article was adapted from a poster display presentation and is offered in the form of a workbook exercise. Its object is to teach students and other novices the fine art of CT windowing. When asked how window widths and levels work, I invariably use the analogy of the Range Finder Game from the game show The Price is Right for demonstration purposes. I employ the comparison from the popular game show to demonstrate what window widths and window levels are, and how they work in unison. This exercise employs two minor differences from the TV game. Number one, the monetary scale has been replaced by a CT number scale. Number two, the movable range finder that has a fixed scale on the game show, is replaced by a range finder (WW) scale, which can alter its range. (author)

  11. Broadband focal plane wavefront control of amplitude and phase aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Tyler D.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Carlotti, Alexis; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado

    2012-09-01

    The Stroke Minimization algorithm developed at the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Laboratory has proven symmetric dark hole generation using minimal stroke on two deformable mirrors (DM) in series. The windowed approach to Stroke Minimization has proven symmetric dark holes over small bandwidths by using three wavelengths to define the bandwidth of correction in the optimization problem. We address the relationship of amplitude and phase aberrations with wavelength, how this changes with multiple DMs, and the implications for simultaneously correcting both to achieve symmetric dark holes. Operating Stroke Minimization in the windowed configuration requires multiple wavelength estimates. To save on exposures, a single estimate is extrapolated to bounding wavelengths using the established relationship in wavelength to produce multiple estimates of the image plane electric field. Here we demonstrate better performance by improving this extrapolation of the estimate to other wavelengths. The accuracy of the functional relationship will ultimately bound the achievable bandwidth, therefore as a metric these results are also compared to estimating each wavelength separately. In addition to these algorithm improvements, we also discuss a laboratory upgrade and how it can better simulate broadband starlight. We also discuss the possibility of leveraging two DMs in series to directly estimate the electric field over a narrow bandwidth and the challenges associated with it.

  12. *NEW* CRITICAL Windows Security patches

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 3 October and 10 September 2003, Microsoft issued new CRITICAL security patches MS03-040 and MS03-039. They must be URGENTLY applied on ALL WINDOWS systems, which are not centrally managed for security patches. This includes Experiment computers, Home computers and Windows Portable and Desktop systems not running NICE. Details of the security holes and patches are at: MS03-039: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-039.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-039.asp MS03-040: http://cern.ch/it-div/news/hotfix-MS03-040.asp http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/bulletin/MS03-040.asp

  13. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  14. The flexibility window in zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartbaeva, Asel; Wells, Stephen A; Treacy, M M J; Thorpe, M F

    2006-12-01

    Today synthetic zeolites are the most important catalysts in petrochemical refineries because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-sieving properties. There have been considerable efforts to synthesize new zeolites with specific pore geometries, to add to the 167 available at present. Millions of hypothetical structures have been generated on the basis of energy minimization, and there is an ongoing search for criteria capable of predicting new zeolite structures. Here we show, by geometric simulation, that all realizable zeolite framework structures show a flexibility window over a range of densities. We conjecture that this flexibility window is a necessary structural feature that enables zeolite synthesis, and therefore provides a valuable selection criterion when evaluating hypothetical zeolite framework structures as potential synthetic targets. We show that it is a general feature that experimental densities of silica zeolites lie at the low-density edge of this window--as the pores are driven to their maximum volume by Coulomb inflation. This is in contrast to most solids, which have the highest density consistent with the local chemical and geometrical constraints.

  15. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...... capital and set up three hypotheses regarding the influence of different factors on the nascence period. To test our hypotheses, we used a representative sample of 678 graduate women entrepreneurs in Germany and ran a logit regression on the nascence period. The estimated model revealed two main factors...

  16. Rugged Ceramic Window for RF Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P.; Rimmer, Robert; Elliot, Tom; Stirbet, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  17. Oval Window Size and Shape: a Micro-CT Anatomical Study With Considerations for Stapes Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdilla, Matthew J; Skrzat, Janusz; Kozerska, Magdalena; Leszczyński, Bartosz; Tarasiuk, Jacek; Wroński, Sebastian

    2018-04-11

    The oval window is an important structure with regard to stapes surgeries, including stapedotomy for the treatment of otosclerosis. Recent study of perioperative imaging of the oval window has revealed that oval window niche height can indicate both operative difficulty and subjective discomfort during otosclerosis surgery. With regard to shape, structures incorporated into the oval window niche, such as cartilage grafts, must be compatible with the shape of the oval window. Despite the clinical importance of the oval window, there is little information regarding its size and shape. This study assessed oval window size and shape via micro-computed tomography paired with modern morphometric methodology in the fetal, infant, child, and adult populations. Additionally, the study compared oval window size and shape between sexes and between left- and right-sided ears. No significant differences were found among traditional morphometric parameters among age groups, sides, or sexes. However, geometric morphometric methods revealed shape differences between age groups. Further, geometric morphometric methods provided the average oval window shape and most-likely shape variance. Beyond demonstrating oval window size and shape variation, the results of this report will aid in identifying patients among whom anatomical variation may contribute to surgical difficulty and surgeon discomfort, or otherwise warrant preoperative adaptations for the incorporation of materials into and around the oval window.

  18. Microsoft Windows Intune 20 Quickstart Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Overton, David

    2012-01-01

    This book is a concise and practical tutorial that shows you how to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs. If you are an administrator or partner who wants to plan, set up and maintain Windows Intune and manage a group of PCs then this book is for you . You should have a basic understanding of Windows administration, however, knowledge of Windows Intune would not be required.

  19. Beryllium window for an APS diagnostics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, I.C.; Yang, B.X.; Sharma, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    A beryllium (Be) window for an Advanced Photon Source (APS) diagnostics beamline has been designed and built. The window, which has a double concave axisymmetrical profile with a thickness of 0.5 mm at the center, receives 160 W/mm 2 (7 GeV/100 mA stored beam) from an undulator beam. The window design as well as thermal and thermomechanical analyses, including thermal buckling of the Be window, are presented

  20. Robust seismic images amplitude recovery using curvelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, Peyman P.; Herrmann, Felix J.; Stolk, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we recover the amplitude of a seismic image by approximating the normal (demigration-migration) operator. In this approximation, we make use of the property that curvelets remain invariant under the action of the normal operator. We propose a seismic amplitude recovery method that

  1. Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) of noise from wind turbines and its more extreme version named “other amplitude modulation” OAM have been investigated intensively during the last few years due to the additional annoyance impact this type of noise has compared to broad band noise. In a recent published...

  2. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  3. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Tim W; Frankenhuis, Willem E

    2015-01-01

    Development in many organisms appears to show evidence of sensitive windows-periods or stages in ontogeny in which individual experience has a particularly strong influence on the phenotype (compared to other periods or stages). Despite great interest in sensitive windows from both fundamental and applied perspectives, the functional (adaptive) reasons why they have evolved are unclear. Here we outline a conceptual framework for understanding when natural selection should favour changes in plasticity across development. Our approach builds on previous theory on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity, which relates individual and population differences in plasticity to two factors: the degree of uncertainty about the environmental conditions and the extent to which experiences during development ('cues') provide information about those conditions. We argue that systematic variation in these two factors often occurs within the lifetime of a single individual, which will select for developmental changes in plasticity. Of central importance is how informational properties of the environment interact with the life history of the organism. Phenotypes may be more or less sensitive to environmental cues at different points in development because of systematic changes in (i) the frequency of cues, (ii) the informativeness of cues, (iii) the fitness benefits of information and/or (iv) the constraints on plasticity. In relatively stable environments, a sensible null expectation is that plasticity will gradually decline with age as the developing individual gathers information. We review recent models on the evolution of developmental changes in plasticity and explain how they fit into our conceptual framework. Our aim is to encourage an adaptive perspective on sensitive windows in development.

  4. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows. The proposed method...

  5. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    of confocal elliptic windows and propose a new way to present the information when a spatial point process is considered. This method gives smooth changes for smooth expansions of the set of clusters. A simulation study is used to show how the elliptic windows outperforms the usual circular windows...

  6. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  7. Travailler avec Windows 7 au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Vue d'ensemble des nouveaux concepts et des changements dans l'interface utilisateur survenus dans Windows 7 depuis les versions antérieures de Windows (XP ou Vista). Le plan de migration à Windows 7 sera aussi débattu.

  8. Modelling window opening behaviour in Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Vinther; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present and analyse data from two studies of window opening behaviour in residential buildings in Denmark. Based on measurements of indoor environment, weather and window opening behaviour in 15 dwellings, we propose a model that will predict window opening behaviour. The data...

  9. Restudy of the open-superstring tree amplitudes by looking at their field-theoretical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.; Yeung, W.B.; Yu, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    We carry out complete computations of some open- and closed-superstring tree amplitudes by using the bosonized covariant vertices. Some open-superstring amplitudes so obtained are shown to be different from those obtained in the light-cone gauge approach by some numerical factors. The low-energy limits of our five open-superstring amplitudes are then shown to match the five super Yang-Mills field amplitudes while the five light-cone gauge open-superstring amplitudes fail to do so

  10. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F

    2016-02-22

    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  11. Temporal Control of Metabolic Amplitude by Nocturnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Stubblefield

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing of food intake and nutrient utilization is critical to health and regulated partly by the circadian clock. Increased amplitude of circadian oscillations and metabolic output has been found to improve health in diabetic and obesity mouse models. Here, we report a function for the circadian deadenylase Nocturnin as a regulator of metabolic amplitude across the day/night cycle and in response to nutrient challenge. We show that mice lacking Nocturnin (Noct−/− display significantly increased amplitudes of mRNA expression of hepatic genes encoding key metabolic enzymes regulating lipid and cholesterol synthesis, both over the daily circadian cycle and in response to fasting and refeeding. Noct−/− mice have increased plasma triglyceride throughout the night and increased amplitude of hepatic cholesterol levels. Therefore, posttranscriptional control by Nocturnin regulates the amplitude of these critical metabolic pathways, and loss of this activity results in increased metabolic flux and reduced obesity.

  12. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl on accommodation amplitude. METHODS: Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25, tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25, and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25 and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25 were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107 and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148 between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III, but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065. CONCLUSION: A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance.

  13. T-wave amplitude is related to physical fitness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, Yaron; Birati, Edo Y; Shapira, Itzhak; Topilsky, Yan; Wirguin, Michal; Canaani M D, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    Abnormalities in repolarization may reflect underlying myocardial pathology and play a prominent role in arrhythmogenesis The T-wave amplitude has been associated with cardiovascular outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) Additionally, T-wave amplitude is considered a predictor of arrhythmias, as well as being related to an individual's inflammatory status. The combined influence of different variables, such as inflammation, cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness status, on the T-wave amplitude has not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect the T-wave amplitude. Data from 255 consecutive apparently healthy individuals included in the Tel Aviv Medical Center Inflammation Survey (TAMCIS) were reviewed. All patients had undergone a physical examination and an exercise stress test, and different inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers (fibrinogen, potassium, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured. Multivariate stepwise analysis revealed that the body mass index and the resting heart rate were significantly associated with the T-wave amplitude (β=-0.34, P physical fitness and not to his/her inflammatory status. ©2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  15. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  16. Windows Command Line Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    The perfect companion to any book on Windows Server 2008 or Windows 7, and the quickest way to access critical information. Focusing just on the essentials of command-line interface (CLI), Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference easily shows how to quickly perform day-to-day tasks of Windows administration without ever touching the graphical user interface (GUI). Specifically designed for busy administrators, Windows Command-Line Administration Instant Reference replaces many tedious GUI steps with just one command at the command-line, while concise, easy to access answers provid

  17. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  18. All Tree-level Amplitudes in Massless QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan; Schuster, Theodor; /Humboldt U., Berlin

    2010-10-25

    We derive compact analytical formulae for all tree-level color-ordered gauge theory amplitudes involving any number of external gluons and up to three massless quark-anti-quark pairs. A general formula is presented based on the combinatorics of paths along a rooted tree and associated determinants. Explicit expressions are displayed for the next-to-maximally helicity violating (NMHV) and next-to-next-to-maximally helicity violating (NNMHV) gauge theory amplitudes. Our results are obtained by projecting the previously-found expressions for the super-amplitudes of the maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (N = 4 SYM) onto the relevant components yielding all gluon-gluino tree amplitudes in N = 4 SYM. We show how these results carry over to the corresponding QCD amplitudes, including massless quarks of different flavors as well as a single electroweak vector boson. The public Mathematica package GGT is described, which encodes the results of this work and yields analytical formulae for all N = 4 SYM gluon-gluino trees. These in turn yield all QCD trees with up to four external arbitrary-flavored massless quark-anti-quark-pairs.

  19. Investigation of cooling methods and thickness considerations in the filter/window assembly for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    1993-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray windows are vacuum separators and are usually made of thin beryllium metal. Filters are provided upstream to absorb the soft x-rays so that the window can be protected from overheating, which could result in failure. The filters are made of thin carbon products or sometimes beryllium, the same material as the window. When the synchrotron x-rays pass through a filter or window, part of the photons will be absorbed by the filter or window. The absorbed photons cause heat to build up within the filter or window. Successful filter and window designs should effectively dissipate the heat generated by the absorbed photons and guarantee the safety of the filter and window. The cooling methods typically used in a filter or window design are conduction and radiation cooling or a combination of the two. The different cooling methods were first examined with regard to efficiency and effectiveness in different temperature ranges. Analysis results are presented for temperature distribution and corresponding thermal stresses in the filter and window. Another important issue to be resolved in designing a filter/window assembly is how to select the thickness of the filters and windows. This paper focuses on the criteria for choosing the thickness of a filter: whether it is better to use a few thick filters or a series of thin ones; how to determine the minimum/maximum thickness; and the difference in thickness considerations for the window versus the filter. Numerical investigations are presented

  20. Windows 2012 Server network security securing your Windows network systems and infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Rountree, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Windows 2012 Server Network Security provides the most in-depth guide to deploying and maintaining a secure Windows network. The book drills down into all the new features of Windows 2012 and provides practical, hands-on methods for securing your Windows systems networks, including: Secure remote access Network vulnerabilities and mitigations DHCP installations configuration MAC filtering DNS server security WINS installation configuration Securing wired and wireless connections Windows personal firewall

  1. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  2. Numerical construction of 'optimal' nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkin, A.; Lombardi, M.

    2002-01-01

    A numerical recipe for the construction of nonoscillating amplitude and phase functions for potentials with a single minimum is given. We give different examples illustrating the recipe, showing the usefulness of the procedure for the construction of basis functions in bound-state scattering processes, such as those described by quantum defect theory. The resulting amplitude and accumulated phase functions are coined as 'optimal' nonoscillating (as a function of the space and energy variables) because they are the counterpart for the quantum problem of the classical action for the analog semiclassical problem

  3. X-Windows PVT Widget Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Matthew R.

    2006-01-01

    The X-Windows Process Validation Table (PVT) Widget Class ( Class is used here in the object-oriented-programming sense of the word) was devised to simplify the task of implementing network registration services for Information Sharing Protocol (ISP) graphical-user-interface (GUI) computer programs. Heretofore, ISP PVT programming tasks have required many method calls to identify, query, and interpret the connections and messages exchanged between a client and a PVT server. Normally, programmers have utilized direct access to UNIX socket libraries to implement the PVT protocol queries, necessitating the use of many lines of source code to perform frequent tasks. Now, the X-Windows PVT Widget Class encapsulates ISP client server network registration management tasks within the framework of an X Windows widget. Use of the widget framework enables an X Windows GUI program to interact with PVT services in an abstract way and in the same manner as that of other graphical widgets, making it easier to program PVT clients. Wrapping the PVT services inside the widget framework enables a programmer to treat a PVT server interface as though it were a GUI. Moreover, an alternate subclass could implement another service in a widget of the same type. This program was written by Matthew R. Barry of United Space Alliance for Johnson Space Center. For further information, contact the Johnson Technology Transfer Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-23582 Shuttle Data Center File- Processing Tool in Java A Java-language computer program has been written to facilitate mining of data in files in the Shuttle Data Center (SDC) archives. This program can be executed on a variety of workstations or via Web-browser programs. This program is partly similar to prior C-language programs used for the same purpose, while differing from those programs in that it exploits the platform-neutrality of Java in implementing several features that are important for analysis of large sets of time-series data

  4. Electromagnetic energies of nuclei and the nuclear Compton amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The electromagnetic energy of a nucleus is derived in perturbation theory, which relates this quantity to the amplitude for the forward scattering of virtual photons on a nucleus (nuclear Compton amplitude). Through the use of the gauge invariance of this amplitude, the energy is separated into Coulomb and transverse components. Our formalism, although basically nonrelativistic, admits corrections of order (v/c) 2 to the nuclear charge operator. The energy is further separated into one-body terms, related to the n--p mass difference, and two-body terms which lead to the Breit interaction and the nuclear Lamb shift. These results are then related to electron scattering sum rules in the manner of Cottingham. Mesonic contributions to the electromagnetic energy are also discussed

  5. PASTA - An RF Phase and Amplitude Scan and Tuning Application

    CERN Document Server

    Galambos, J; Deibele, C; Henderson, S

    2005-01-01

    To assist the beam commissioning in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac, a general purpose RF tuning application has been written to help set RF phase and amplitude. It follows the signature matching procedure described in Ref.* The method involves varying an upstream Rf cavity amplitude and phase settings and comparing the measured downstream beam phase responses to model predictions. The model input for cavity phase and amplitude calibration and for the beam energy are varied to best match observations. This scheme has advantages over other RF tuning techniques of not requiring intercepting devices (e.g. Faraday Cups), and not being restricted to a small linear response regime near the design values. The application developed here is general and can be applied to different RF structure types in the SNS linac. Example applications in the SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) structures will be shown.

  6. Gearbox Vibration Signal Amplitude and Frequency Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakher Chaari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gearboxes usually run under fluctuating load conditions during service, however most of papers available in the literature describe models of gearboxes under stationary load conditions. Main task of published papers is fault modeling for their detection. Considering real situation from industry, the assumption of stationarity of load conditions cannot be longer kept. Vibration signals issued from monitoring in maintenance operations differ from mentioned models (due to load non-stationarity and may be difficult to analyze which lead to erroneous diagnosis of the system. The objective of this paper is to study the influence of time varying load conditions on a gearbox dynamic behavior. To investigate this, a simple spur gear system without defects is modeled. It is subjected to a time varying load. The speed-torque characteristic of the driving motor is considered. The load variation induces speed variation, which causes a variation in the gearmesh stiffness period. Computer simulation shows deep amplitude modulations with sidebands that don't differ from those obtained when there is a defective tooth. In order to put in evidence the time varying load effects, Short Time Fourier Transform and then Smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution are used. Results show that the last one is well suited for the studied case.

  7. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M A; Continentino, M A

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  8. Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, M. A.; Continentino, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.

  9. Assessing Thermal Comfort Due to a Ventilated Double Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Jorge S.; Corvacho, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Building design and its components are the result of a complex process, which should provide pleasant conditions to its inhabitants. Therefore, indoor acceptable comfort is influenced by the architectural design. ISO and ASHRAE standards define thermal comfort as the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. The energy demand for heating, beside the building’s physical properties, also depend on human behaviour, like opening or closing windows. Generally, windows are the weakest façade element concerning to thermal performance. A lower thermal resistance allows higher thermal conduction through it. When a window is very hot or cold, and the occupant is very close to it, it may result in thermal discomfort. The functionality of a ventilated double window introduces new physical considerations to a traditional window. In consequence, it is necessary to study the local effect on human comfort in function of the boundary conditions. Wind, solar availability, air temperature and therefore heating and indoor air quality conditions will affect the relationship between this passive system and the indoor environment. In the present paper, the influence of thermal performance and ventilation on human comfort resulting from the construction and geometry solutions is shown, helping to choose the best solution. The presented approach shows that in order to save energy it is possible to reduce the air changes of a room to the minimum, without compromising air quality, enhancing simultaneously local thermal performance and comfort. The results of the study on the effect of two parallel windows with a ventilated channel in the same fenestration on comfort conditions for several different room dimensions, are also presented. As the room dimensions’ rate changes so does the window to floor rate; therefore, under the same climatic conditions and same construction solution, different results are obtained.

  10. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, C A; Hartfield, J W; Hawryluk, R J; Hegeler, F; Heitzenroeder, P J; Jun, C H; Ku, L P; Lamarche, P H; Myers, M C; Parker, J J; Parsells, R F; Payen, M; Raftopoulos, S; Sethian, J D

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, , and ) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W centre dot cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated w...

  11. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  12. Image annotation under X Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Steven

    1991-08-01

    A mechanism for attaching graphic and overlay annotation to multiple bits/pixel imagery while providing levels of performance approaching that of native mode graphics systems is presented. This mechanism isolates programming complexity from the application programmer through software encapsulation under the X Window System. It ensures display accuracy throughout operations on the imagery and annotation including zooms, pans, and modifications of the annotation. Trade-offs that affect speed of display, consumption of memory, and system functionality are explored. The use of resource files to tune the display system is discussed. The mechanism makes use of an abstraction consisting of four parts; a graphics overlay, a dithered overlay, an image overly, and a physical display window. Data structures are maintained that retain the distinction between the four parts so that they can be modified independently, providing system flexibility. A unique technique for associating user color preferences with annotation is introduced. An interface that allows interactive modification of the mapping between image value and color is discussed. A procedure that provides for the colorization of imagery on 8-bit display systems using pixel dithering is explained. Finally, the application of annotation mechanisms to various applications is discussed.

  13. The plant-window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Naser, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Power plant data, and the information that can be derived from it, provide the link to the plant through which the operations, maintenance and engineering staff understand and manage plant performance. The increasing use of computer technology in the U.S. nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of available data into clear, concise, and coherent information that can be readily accessed and used throughout the plant. This need can be met by an integrated computer workstation environment that provides the necessary information and software applications, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. As part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Electric Power Research Institute, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed functional requirements for a Plant-Wide Integrated Environment Distributed On Workstations (Plant-Window) System. The Plant-Window System (PWS) can serve the needs of operations, engineering, and maintenance personnel at nuclear power stations by providing integrated data and software applications (e.g., monitoring, analysis, diagnosis, and control applications) within a common environment. The PWS requirements identify functional capabilities and provide guidelines for standardized hardware, software, and display interfaces to define a flexible computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades

  14. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Li, T.; Zheng, R. S.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based Hα telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°-36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100-4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii (R) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4-133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s-1. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ˜27 km s-1. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between -9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  15. Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)

  16. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  17. Transition amplitudes within the stochastic quantization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum mechanical transition amplitudes are calculated within the stochastic quantization scheme for the free nonrelativistic particle, the harmonic oscillator and the nonrelativistic particle in a constant magnetic field; we close with free Grassmann quantum mechanics. (authors)

  18. An analysis of heavy ion scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.

    1979-01-01

    A heurisht method is derived for the analysis of light heavy ion systems. It consists in splitting an oscillatory amplitude into subamplitudes each of them being smooth, at least in modulus. Applications are given

  19. Utilizing Windows Azure to Support Geo-science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.

    2014-12-01

    Windows Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure, created by Microsoft for developing, deploying and managing applications through global networks. It provides Platform as a service (PaaS) which have been widely used in different domains to support scientific studies. This paper experiences the feasibility of utilizing Windows Azure to support different type of geo-science applications. Specially, the load balancing feature of Azure is used to address intensive concurrent access for geo-science data; cloud-based database is utilized for support Big Spatial data management; and the global deployment feature is used to improve the evaluation accuracy for geo-science services.

  20. A new type time-amplitude converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Haiwei; Han Jian; Li Zhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The time-amplitude converter is used mostly in nuclear physics experiments where require fast time measurement, such as the identify of particles, the measurement of excitated life-span and flying time of nucleon, and so on. According to the requirement of experiment, a new type time-amplitude converter composing of IC has been developed. It is precision is 100 ns. It has the merits of stable performance, higher precision and so on. (authors)

  1. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  2. Scattering amplitudes of regularized bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We compute scattering amplitudes of the regularized bosonic Nambu-Goto string in the mean-field approximation, disregarding fluctuations of the Lagrange multiplier and an independent metric about their mean values. We use the previously introduced Lilliputian scaling limit to recover the Regge behavior of the amplitudes with the usual linear Regge trajectory in space-time dimensions d >2 . We demonstrate a stability of this minimum of the effective action under fluctuations for d <26 .

  3. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  4. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  5. Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zobay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz. The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz oscillations (“edge effect” giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1,f2 between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1,f230 Hz frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL, tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency, we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus.

  6. Lg Amplitude Tomography in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W. S.; Stead, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Lg Q can be used to isolate source effects, and determine magnitude (mbLg), and patterns have been shown to correlate with deformation age, geothermal circulation, and possibly partial melt within the crust. Tomographic studies of Lg Q are typically performed using a few stations and many earthquakes, the density of earthquakes providing spatial resolution. The unprecedented breadth and density of the USArray should allow more balanced data sets, and better resolution in aseismic regions. To test this, we processed amplitude data from 515 events recorded by the broad-band vertical channels of 395 stations within the initial footprint of the USArray. Events were obtained from PDE monthly and weekly catalogs, and were chosen to maximize station coverage, including consideration of the USArray deployment schedule, and a magnitude-distance criteria, selecting the potentially best recorded event per quarter-degree block. The IRIS DMC provided waveform data and instrument response information. We measured RMS amplitudes in overlapping octave width bands between 0.5 and 8 Hz, for windows defined by group velocities 3.6 to 3.0 km/s. Over 30,000 amplitudes passed a signal-to- noise threshold of 2. We then solved for laterally varying crustal Q, as well as site and source terms. Results for the 1-Hz band (0.75 - 1.5 Hz) show dramatic variations in Q ranging from below 100 to over 600. Low Q is observed throughout the Pacific region, including Coast and Cascade ranges. Lowest Q is found at the Geysers and in the Salton Trough. A large inland region of low Q extends from the Yellowstone area, through the Snake River Plain, to the Great Salt Lake and Sevier basins. High Q crust is observed for the Colorado Plateau, and the Columbia Basin. Smaller islands of high Q include the Sierra Nevada, higher altitude regions of Nevada, such as the Toiyabe, Toquima, Monitor, Hot Creek, Snake, Wilson Creek and Jarbidge ranges, the Bitterroot Range, the Snoqualmie Batholith, the central

  7. Effectiveness and Discussion of Ventilation Design with Automatic Revolving Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jing Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve and discuss the effectiveness of automatic revolving window ventilation on human comfort, where the temperature sensor mounted indoors gives the signal to start the stepping motor of the revolving window. There is a controller for automatic regulation according to the difference between the preset temperature and indoor temperature, where the air flow of ventilating fan imports outside air to take excess heat away from the room, in order to reduce the indoor temperature. The revolving window opening angle is simulated and analyzed, and the impact of different air rates on the indoor temperature is analyzed. This system can regulate the indoor temperature to effectively reach the optimal human comfort temperature, and can reduce the frequency of using air conditioning, in order to attain the goals of energy saving, carbon reduction, and environmental protection.

  8. The pulsed amplitude unit for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolfe, J.; Browne, M.J.; Jobe, R.K.

    1987-02-01

    There is a recurring requirement in the SLC for the control of devices such as magnets, phase shifters, and attenuators on a beam-by-beam basis. The Pulsed Amplitude Unit (PAU) is a single width CAMAC module developed for this purpose. It provides digitally programmed analog output voltages on a beam-by-beam basis. Up to 32 preprogrammed values of output voltage are available from the single analog output of the module, and any of these values can be associated with any of the 256 possible SLC beam definitions. A 12-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) digitizes an analog input signal at the appropriate beam time and stores it in a buffer memory. This feature is normally used to monitor the response of the device being controlled by the PAU at each beam time. Initial application of the PAU is a part of the system that controls the output of Klystrons in the SLC. The PAU combines several different functions in a single module. In order to accommodate these functions in a single width CAMAC module, field programmed logic is used extensively. Field Programmable Logic Arrays, Programmed Array Logic, and a Field Programmable Logic Sequencer are employed

  9. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  10. Efficient reverse time migration with amplitude encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Huazhong; Zhao, Lei; Shao, Yu; Wang, Meixia; Osen, Are

    2015-08-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is an accurate seismic imaging method for imaging the complex subsurface structure. Traditional common shot RTM suffers from low efficiency due to the large number of single shot gathers, especially for marine seismic data. Phase encoding is commonly used to reduce the computational cost of RTM. Phase encoding in the frequency domain is usually related to time shift in the time domain. Therefore, phase-encoding-based RTM needs time padding to avoid information loss which degrades the efficiency of the time-domain wavefield extrapolator. In this paper, an efficient time-domain RTM scheme based on the amplitude encoding is proposed. This scheme uses the orthogonal cosine basis as the encoding function, which has similar physical meaning to plane wave encoding (i.e. plane-wave components with different surface shooting angles). The proposed scheme can generate a qualified imaging result as well as common shot RTM but with less computational cost. Since this scheme does not need time padding, it is more efficient than the phase encoding schemes and can be conveniently implemented in the time domain. Numerical examples on the Sigsbee2a synthetic dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  12. A mechanistic ultrasonic vibration amplitude model during rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Fernando, P K S C

    2017-04-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) has been investigated in machining of brittle, ductile, as well as composite materials. Ultrasonic vibration amplitude, as one of the most important input variables, affects almost all the output variables in RUM. Numerous investigations on measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude without RUM machining have been reported. In recent years, ultrasonic vibration amplitude measurement with RUM of ductile materials has been investigated. It is found that the ultrasonic vibration amplitude with RUM was different from that without RUM under the same input variables. RUM is primarily used in machining of brittle materials through brittle fracture removal. With this reason, the method for measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of ductile materials is not feasible for measuring that in RUM of brittle materials. However, there are no reported methods for measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of brittle materials. In this study, ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of brittle materials is investigated by establishing a mechanistic amplitude model through cutting force. Pilot experiments are conducted to validate the calculation model. The results show that there are no significant differences between amplitude values calculated by model and those obtained from experimental investigations. The model can provide a relationship between ultrasonic vibration amplitude and input variables, which is a foundation for building models to predict other output variables in RUM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Data in support of energy performance of double-glazed windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the data used in a research project to propose a new simplified windows rating system based on saved annual energy (“Developing an empirical predictive energy-rating model for windows by using Artificial Neural Network” (Shakouri Hassanabadi and Banihashemi Namini, 2012 [1], “Climatic, parametric and non-parametric analysis of energy performance of double-glazed windows in different climates” (Banihashemi et al., 2015 [2]. A full factorial simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 26 different types of windows in a four-story residential building. In order to generalize the results, the selected windows were tested in four climates of cold, tropical, temperate, and hot and arid; and four different main orientations of North, West, South and East. The accompanied datasets include the annual saved cooling and heating energy in different climates and orientations by using the selected windows. Moreover, a complete dataset is provided that includes the specifications of 26 windows, climate data, month, and orientation of the window. This dataset can be used to make predictive models for energy efficiency assessment of double glazed windows.

  14. Instant Windows PowerShell

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Vinith

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A practical, hands-on tutorial approach that explores the concepts of PowerShell in a friendly manner, taking an adhoc approach to each topic.If you are an administrator who is new to PowerShell or are looking to get a good grounding in these new features, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you will have some experience in PowerShell and Windows Server, as well being familiar with the PowerShell command-line.

  15. Editorial - Opening windows onto data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of Internet Archaeology's strengths and 'unique selling points' not yet replicated by (many other e-journals, is that data is integrated into articles rather than being 'supplementary' or offered for download. The aim has always been for the narrative to be a wave driving readers towards the underlying data. Opening windows onto the data from within the text is one of the things I think the journal does best and is a feature used throughout Emma Durham's article 'Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain'. Archaeological data does not speak for itself. It needs a narrative. It needs context. But by intermeshing data with interpretation, readers can dip into the data and start to explore it while reading the article, allowing a more immediate understanding of the bigger picture.

  16. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  17. Multi-window counting of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semkow, T.M.; Beach, S.E.; Khan, A.J.; Bari, A.; Bradt, C.J.; Haines, D.K.; Syed, U.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In counting of radioactivity, using for example gas proportional (GP) or liquid scintillation (LS) counters, one can set up two or more electronic windows, which can measure two or more radiation components. In this work, we derived general equations for n-window counting in matrix notation, including mutual crosstalk between the windows using both the ratio (not normalized) and the fraction (normalized) methods. A solution for n radiation components is presented. For the two-window measurements, we report complete statistical analysis of the results including propagation of all uncertainties. The decision-level and the detection-limit equations were derived including crosstalk correction, uncertainties of the variables, Gaussian continuity correction, interference correction, and the overdispersion correction. Numerical verifications of the two-window systems are presented, including conditions for the detection of a minor component in the presence of a major component. In addition, limited experimental verifications of the two-window systems using LS counting are reported.

  18. TEMPERATURE FIELDS IN THE ZONE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN WINDOW AND BUILDING ENVELOPE

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Ivanov; A. N. Butenko; L. V. Karaseva

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. To determine additional heat losses through window opening slopes, it is ne-cessary to calculate temperature fields of a wall in the zone of connection between window and building envelope. Two types of building envelopes are considered: solid brick wall and two-layer-wall of bricks and fiber foam concrete block interlayered with air.Results. The results obtained show the influence of a window on the temperature field of wall opening. Different types of wall structures are ...

  19. Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmur, N.F.

    1986-12-01

    It is known that various crystalline and liquid compounds form on the downstream surfaces of beryllium windows exposed to air. It is also known that the integrity of such windows may be compromised resulting in leaks through the window. The purpose of this report is to document the occurrences described as they pertain to the NSLS and to analyze, where possible, the various substances formed

  20. Smart windows based on cholesteric liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Hitesh; Debije, Michael G.; Schenning, Albert P. H. J.

    2017-02-01

    With increase in global warming, use of active cooling and heating devices are continuously increasing to maintain interior temperature of built environment, greenhouses and cars. To reduce the consumption of tremendous amount of energy on cooling and heating devices we need an improved control of transparent features (i.e. windows). In this respect, smart window which is capable for reflecting solar infrared energy without interfering with the visible light would be very attractive. Most of the technologies developed so far are to control the visible light. These technologies block visual contact to the outside world which cause negative effects on human health. An appealing method to selectively control infrared transmission is via utilizing the reflection properties of cholesteric liquid crystals. In our research, we have fabricated a smart window which is capable of reflecting different amount of solar infrared energy depending on the specific climate conditions. The reflection bandwidth can be tuned from 120 nm to 1100 nm in the infrared region without interfering with the visible solar radiations. Calculations reveal that between 8% and 45% of incident solar infrared light can be reflected with a single cell. Simulation studies predicted that more than 12% of the energy spent on heating, cooling and lighting in the built environment can be saved by using the fabricated smart window compared to standard double glazing window.

  1. The Effect of Moving Window on Acoustic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Min; Jiang, Jack J; Willey, Malachi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the moving window method on acoustic measures and discrimination ability between normal and disordered voices. Fifty-three normal voices and 50 disordered voices were recruited. Three selection methods, the moving window method, the mid-vowel method, and the whole vowel method, were applied to each raw audio signal to determine the most stable segment of each signal. Acoustic parameters such as percent jitter, percent shimmer, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), cepstral peak prominence (CPP), and correlation dimension (D2) were calculated. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the stability of these segments across different methods. An artificial neural network was used for estimating how well disordered voices were discriminated from normal ones. Segments selected using the moving window method were more stable than those selected using the other two methods, meaning lower perturbation and nonlinear dynamic measurements as well as higher SNR and CPP values. The discrimination accuracy rate for the moving window method was 91.90 ± 8.73%, whereas the mid-vowel method and the whole vowel method were 72.34 ± 12.94% and 70.34 ± 5.24%, respectively. The moving window method is capable of providing a more stable audio segment and can discriminate disordered voices from normal ones more effectively. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Window decompression in laser-heated MagLIF targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Daniel; Peterson, Kyle; Sefkow, Adam

    2015-11-01

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept requires pre-magnetized fuel to be pre-heated with a laser before undergoing compression by a thick solid liner. Recent experiments and simulations suggest that yield has been limited to date by poor laser preheat and laser-induced mix in the fuel region. In order to assess laser energy transmission through the pressure-holding window, as well as resultant mix, we modeled window disassembly under different conditions using 1D and 2D simulations in both Helios and HYDRA. We present results tracking energy absorption, time needed for decompression, risk of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) that may scatter laser light, and potential for mix from various window thicknesses, laser spot sizes and gas fill densities. These results indicate that using thinner windows (0.5-1 μm windows) and relatively large laser spot radii (600 μm and above) can avoid deleterious effects and improve coupling with the fuel. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  3. Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.

  4. Round window stimulation for conductive and mixed hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Margaret T; Tubbs, Rhonda S; Adunka, Marcia C; King, English R; Hillman, Todd A; Adunka, Oliver F; Chen, Douglas A; Buchman, Craig A

    2014-10-01

    Assess surgical complications, postoperative residual hearing, and speech perception outcomes of placement of a middle ear implant on the round window in conductive and mixed hearing loss cases. Single-subject, repeated-measures design where each subject served as his or her own control. Tertiary referral medical systems. Eighteen subjects with either conductive or mixed hearing loss who could not benefit from conventional amplification were enrolled in a clinical trial investigating vibratory stimulation of the round window. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was positioned in the round window niche. Unaided residual hearing, and aided sound field thresholds and speech perception abilities were evaluated preoperatively, and at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months post-activation of the external speech processor. Six subjects experienced complications that either required further medical management or resolved on their own. There was no difference in residual bone conduction thresholds or unaided word discrimination over time. All subjects experienced a significant improvement in aided speech perception abilities as compared to preoperative performance. Subjects with conductive and mixed hearing loss with placement of the FMT in the round window niche experienced improved sound field thresholds and speech perception, without compromising residual hearing thresholds. Vibratory stimulation of the round window via a middle ear implant may be an appropriate treatment option for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss. Additional research is needed on the preferred placement of the FMT, improvement of functional gain, and methods to limit postoperative complications and need for revision surgery.

  5. Windows 7 Annoyances Tips, Secrets, and Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, David

    2010-01-01

    Windows 7 may be faster and more stable than Vista, but it's a far cry from problem-free. David A. Karp comes to the rescue with the latest in his popular Windows Annoyances series. This thorough guide gives you the tools you need to fix the troublesome parts of this operating system, plus the solutions, hacks, and timesaving tips to make the most of your PC. Streamline Windows Explorer, improve the Search tool, eliminate the Green Ribbon of Death, and tame User Account Control promptsExplore powerful Registry tips and tools, and use them to customize every aspect of Windows and solve its sho

  6. Windows PowerShell 20 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Thomas; Schill, Mark E; Tanasovski, Tome

    2011-01-01

    Here's the complete guide to Windows PowerShell 2.0 for administrators and developers Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's next-generation scripting and automation language. This comprehensive volume provides the background that IT administrators and developers need in order to start using PowerShell automation in exciting new ways. It explains what PowerShell is, how to use the language, and specific ways to apply PowerShell in various technologies. Windows PowerShell is Microsoft's standard automation tool and something that every Windows administrator will eventually have to understand; this b

  7. Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security co

  8. Windows 8.1 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The bestselling book on Windows, now updated for the new 8.1 features Microsoft has fine-tuned Windows 8 with some important new features, and veteran author Andy Rathbone explains every one in this all-new edition of a long-time bestseller. Whether you're using Windows for the first time, upgrading from an older version, or just moving from Windows 8 to 8.1, here's what you need to know. Learn about the dual interfaces, the new Start button, how to customize the interface and boot operations, and how to work with programs and files, use the web and social media, manage music and photos, and

  9. Manufacturing of diamond windows for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkamp, W.; Nikitina, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new diamond window construction is presented and explicit manufacturing details are given. This window will increase the power dissipation by about a factor of 4 over present day state of the art windows to absorb 600 W of power. This power will be generated by in-vacuum undulators with the storage ring ALBA operating at a design current of 400 mA. Extensive finite element (FE) calculations are included to predict the windows behavior accompanied by explanations for the chosen boundary conditions. A simple linear model was used to cross-check the FE calculations.

  10. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... window is made of fiber-reinforced plastic (plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass). This composite material is a weatherproof material with very low thermal conductivity and high mechanical strength. These properties make the material very suitable for frame profiles due to lower heat loss...

  11. Microsoft Windows 7 Administration Instant Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Panek, William

    2010-01-01

    An on-the-spot reference for Windows 7 administrators. Hundreds of thousands of IT administrators, network administrators, and IT support technicians work daily with Windows 7. This well-organized, portable reference covers every facet of Windows 7, providing no-nonsense instruction that is readily accessible when you need it. Designed for busy administrators, it features thumb tabs and chapter outlines to make answers easy to find.: Windows 7 administrative and support personnel need quick answers to situations they confront each day; this Instant Reference is designed to provide information,

  12. Scott Brothers Windows and Doors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Brothers Windows and Doors (the Company) is located in Bridgeville, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  13. Effect of Window Glazing on Colour Quality of Transmitted Daylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Dangol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the colour quality of the daylight transmitted through different window glazing types is evaluated. The analysis considered four different types of window glazing: laminated, monolithic, coated and applied film glazing ranging in luminous transmittance from around 0.97 to <0.1. The spectral transmittance data of different window glazing types are taken from the International Glazing Data Base (IGDB, which is maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL. The study showed that the CIE CRI does not always seem to be the suitable method to predict the colour quality of daylight in building for particular situations. However, in the context of this study, the prediction of colour rendering properties of window glazing by other metrics such as Colour Quality Scale (version 9, Memory CRI, Ra,D65 (adjusted CRI metric with D65 as the reference illuminant performed better. For most of the daylit situations inside the building, the chromaticity difference criterion was not met. Judging the colour quality of such situations requires different method.

  14. Bayesian distributed lag interaction models to identify perinatal windows of vulnerability in children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ander; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J; Coull, Brent A

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological research supports an association between maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and adverse children's health outcomes. Advances in exposure assessment and statistics allow for estimation of both critical windows of vulnerability and exposure effect heterogeneity. Simultaneous estimation of windows of vulnerability and effect heterogeneity can be accomplished by fitting a distributed lag model (DLM) stratified by subgroup. However, this can provide an incomplete picture of how effects vary across subgroups because it does not allow for subgroups to have the same window but different within-window effects or to have different windows but the same within-window effect. Because the timing of some developmental processes are common across subpopulations of infants while for others the timing differs across subgroups, both scenarios are important to consider when evaluating health risks of prenatal exposures. We propose a new approach that partitions the DLM into a constrained functional predictor that estimates windows of vulnerability and a scalar effect representing the within-window effect directly. The proposed method allows for heterogeneity in only the window, only the within-window effect, or both. In a simulation study we show that a model assuming a shared component across groups results in lower bias and mean squared error for the estimated windows and effects when that component is in fact constant across groups. We apply the proposed method to estimate windows of vulnerability in the association between prenatal exposures to fine particulate matter and each of birth weight and asthma incidence, and estimate how these associations vary by sex and maternal obesity status in a Boston-area prospective pre-birth cohort study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  16. Methodology for the design of diagnostic windows for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, Marc; Lipa, M.; Portafaix, C.; Gil, C.; Rey, G.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will operate for much longer pulse lengths within a context of high power density, introducing several new requirements for diagnostics compared with existing experiments. In this context, the upgrade of Tore Supra (CIEL Project) foresees high power and high radiating plasma scenario during very long pulse operation. This long plasma operation imposes the improvement of diagnostic systems and the design of thermally resistant in-vessel components with reliable window assemblies. Hence, the specific requirements and the methodology adopted to design Tore Supra/CIEL (TS) high thermal loaded diagnostic windows are summarised in this paper. Thermal and mechanical analyses are reported for different window materials and assembling methods

  17. Optical Distortion Evaluation in Large Area Windows using Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Skow, Miles; Nurge, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    It is important that imagery seen through large area windows, such as those used on space vehicles, not be substantially distorted. Many approaches are described in the literature for measuring the distortion of an optical window, but most suffer from either poor resolution or processing difficulties. In this paper a new definition of distortion is presented, allowing accurate measurement using an optical interferometer. This new definition is shown to be equivalent to the definitions provided by the military and the standards organizations. In order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of this new approach the distortion of an acrylic window is measured using three different methods; image comparison, Moiré interferometry, and phase-shifting interferometry.

  18. Experiences with sound insulating open windows in traffic noise exposed housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    purposes, including during night, or simply because it’s a good feeling to have windows open to be in contact with the surroundings. High noise exposure can lead to adverse effects on comfort and health, and thus, there is a need for sound insulating open windows to reduce noise exposure in homes, when......Sound insulating windows are widely used in traffic noise exposed residential areas to reduce indoor noise levels to acceptable levels. However, such windows are typically only designed to provide sound insulation in closed position, and many people prefer open windows parts of time for ventilation...... with different solutions has been collected, and additional field experiments have been carried out in a case with transparent external shutters with sound absorbing slits for ventilation along window sides. It is concluded that occupants in general are satisfied with the solutions and further development...

  19. Neural basis of the time window for subjective motor-auditory integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi eToida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal contiguity between an action and corresponding auditory feedback is crucial to the perception of self-generated sound. However, the neural mechanisms underlying motor–auditory temporal integration are unclear. Here, we conducted four experiments with an oddball paradigm to examine the specific event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by delayed auditory feedback for a self-generated action. The first experiment confirmed that a pitch-deviant auditory stimulus elicits mismatch negativity (MMN and P300, both when it is generated passively and by the participant’s action. In our second and third experiments, we investigated the ERP components elicited by delayed auditory feedback of for a self-generated action. We found that delayed auditory feedback elicited an enhancement of P2 (enhanced-P2 and a N300 component, which were apparently different from the MMN and P300 components observed in the first experiment. We further investigated the sensitivity of the enhanced-P2 and N300 to delay length in our fourth experiment. Strikingly, the amplitude of the N300 increased as a function of the delay length. Additionally, the N300 amplitude was significantly correlated with the conscious detection of the delay (the 50% detection point was around 200 ms, and hence reduction in the feeling of authorship of the sound (the sense of agency. In contrast, the enhanced-P2 was most prominent in short-delay (≤ 200 ms conditions and diminished in long-delay conditions. Our results suggest that different neural mechanisms are employed for the processing of temporally-deviant and pitch-deviant auditory feedback. Additionally, the temporal window for subjective motor–auditory integration is likely about 200 ms, as indicated by these auditory ERP components.

  20. Univariate Cubic L1 Interpolating Splines: Spline Functional, Window Size and Analysis-based Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Cherng Fang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We compare univariate L1 interpolating splines calculated on 5-point windows, on 7-point windows and on global data sets using four different spline functionals, namely, ones based on the second derivative, the first derivative, the function value and the antiderivative. Computational results indicate that second-derivative-based 5-point-window L1 splines preserve shape as well as or better than the other types of L1 splines. To calculate second-derivative-based 5-point-window L1 splines, we introduce an analysis-based, parallelizable algorithm. This algorithm is orders of magnitude faster than the previously widely used primal affine algorithm.

  1. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. We investigate the effects of dynamical selection on long-range correlations.

  2. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique bea...... for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles.......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...

  3. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-01-01

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes

  4. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  5. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  6. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  7. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  8. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  9. The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    in a maximum of foam expansion. The expansion maximum is obtained for different glasses (labware, E-glass, CRT panel, soda-lime-silica) by foaming with CaCO3 at isokom temperature and from literature data. In general, the viscosity window was found to be within 104–106 Pa s when foaming with MnO2 or metal...

  10. Passage retrieval for question answering using sliding windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Verberne, S.

    2008-01-01

    The information retrieval (IR) community has investigated many different techniques to retrieve passages from large collections of documents for question answering (QA). In this paper, we specifically examine and quantitatively compare the impact of passage retrieval for QA using sliding windows and

  11. Monodromy relations in higher-loop string amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, S.; Stieberger, S.

    2017-12-01

    New monodromy relations of loop amplitudes are derived in open string theory. We particularly study N-point (planar and non-planar) one-loop amplitudes described by a world-sheet cylinder and derive a set of relations between subamplitudes of different color orderings. Various consistency checks are performed by matching α‧-expansions of planar and non-planar amplitudes involving elliptic iterated integrals with the resulting periods giving rise to two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. The latter refer to the two homology cycles on the once-punctured complex elliptic curve and the monodromy equations provide relations between these two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. Furthermore, our monodromy relations involve new objects for which we present a tentative interpretation in terms of open string scattering amplitudes in the presence of a non-trivial gauge field flux. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to generalize the new monodromy relations to the non-oriented case and beyond the one-loop level. Comparing a subset of our results with recent findings in the literature we find therein several serious issues related to the structure and significance of monodromy phases and the relevance of missed contributions from contour integrations.

  12. Monodromy relations in higher-loop string amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohenegger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New monodromy relations of loop amplitudes are derived in open string theory. We particularly study N-point (planar and non-planar one-loop amplitudes described by a world-sheet cylinder and derive a set of relations between subamplitudes of different color orderings. Various consistency checks are performed by matching α′-expansions of planar and non-planar amplitudes involving elliptic iterated integrals with the resulting periods giving rise to two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. The latter refer to the two homology cycles on the once-punctured complex elliptic curve and the monodromy equations provide relations between these two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. Furthermore, our monodromy relations involve new objects for which we present a tentative interpretation in terms of open string scattering amplitudes in the presence of a non-trivial gauge field flux. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to generalize the new monodromy relations to the non-oriented case and beyond the one-loop level. Comparing a subset of our results with recent findings in the literature we find therein several serious issues related to the structure and significance of monodromy phases and the relevance of missed contributions from contour integrations.

  13. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  14. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  15. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  16. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  17. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  18. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without...... unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...

  19. Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using...... amplitude-only data are compared with images obtained using the same data sets in which the phase information has been retained. In addition to this, some modifications for the imaging algorithm is presented which to some extent counters the effects of excluding the phase information in the reconstruction....

  20. Amplitude Variability in gamma Dor and delta Sct Stars Observed by Kepler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kosak, Mary Katherine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackiewicz, Jason [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM

    2015-08-17

    The NASA Kepler spacecraft data revealed a large number of new multimode nonradially pulsating gamma Dor and delta Sct variable stars. The Kepler high-precision long time-series photometry makes it possible to study amplitude variations of the frequencies, and recent literature on amplitude and frequency variations in nonradially pulsating variables is summarized. Several methods are applied to study amplitude variability in about a dozen gamma Doradus or delta Scuti candidate variable stars observed for several quarters as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program. The magnitude and timescale of the amplitude variations are discussed, along with the presence or absence of correlations between amplitude variations for different frequencies of a given star. Proposed causes of amplitude spectrum variability that will require further investigation are also discussed.

  1. Amplitude effects on the dynamic performance of hydrostatic gas thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, A. K.; Tapia, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    A strip gas film bearing with inherently compensated inlets is analyzed to determine the effect of disturbance amplitude on its dynamic performance. The governing Reynolds' equation is solved using finite-difference techniques. The time dependent load capacity is represented by a Fourier series up to and including the third harmonics. For the range of amplitudes investigated the linear stiffness was independent of the amplitude, and the linear damping was inversely proportional to (1 - epsilon-squared) to the 1.5 power where epsilon is the amplitude relative to the film thickness.

  2. Supporting Multiple Pointing Devices in Microsoft Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of a Microsoft Windows driver including APIs supporting multiple pointing devices is presented. Microsoft Windows does not natively support multiple pointing devices controlling independent cursors, and a number of solutions to this have been implemented by us...

  3. What are windows on language evolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    This chapter offers an elucidation of the idea that certain phenomena provide windows on language evolution. Non-metaphorically, such windows are shown to be conceptual constructs used for making inferences about aspects of language evolution from data or assumptions about properties of

  4. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  5. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  6. Android is the new Windows

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you recall the early virus attacks in the early 2000s? “Blaster”, “I love you” and “Slammer” were attacking the pretty much unprotected Microsoft Windows operating system.   While Microsoft has been hit hard in the past, they have tried to improve and are now on a par with other software vendors. Today, they can even be happy that Android is taking over the baton - at least on mobile platforms. According to the Sophos 2013 Security Threat Report “Android [is] today’s the biggest target” and Android devices in Australia and the U.S. experienced even more malware attacks, whether successful or unsuccessful, than PCs during the past three months. The Kaspersky security company recently added that 99% of all mobile threats target Android. Lucky you if you use an iPhone, or a good old Nokia with no Internet connectivity at all. But why is that? It is partly down to the same fac...

  7. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Freeman, J. (VAT, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)); Powell, F. (Luxel, Inc., Friday Harbor, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  9. Mastering Windows Server 2012 R2

    CERN Document Server

    Minasi, Mark; Booth, Christian; Butler, Robert; McCabe, John; Panek, Robert; Rice, Michael; Roth, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Check out the new Hyper-V, find new and easier ways to remotely connect back into the office, or learn all about Storage Spaces-these are just a few of the features in Windows Server 2012 R2 that are explained in this updated edition from Windows authority Mark Minasi and a team of Windows Server experts led by Kevin Greene. This book gets you up to speed on all of the new features and functions of Windows Server, and includes real-world scenarios to put them in perspective. If you're a system administrator upgrading to, migrating to, or managing Windows Server 2012 R2, find what you need to

  10. Least Squares Moving-Window Spectral Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Jong

    2017-08-01

    Least squares regression is proposed as a moving-windows method for analysis of a series of spectra acquired as a function of external perturbation. The least squares moving-window (LSMW) method can be considered an extended form of the Savitzky-Golay differentiation for nonuniform perturbation spacing. LSMW is characterized in terms of moving-window size, perturbation spacing type, and intensity noise. Simulation results from LSMW are compared with results from other numerical differentiation methods, such as single-interval differentiation, autocorrelation moving-window, and perturbation correlation moving-window methods. It is demonstrated that this simple LSMW method can be useful for quantitative analysis of nonuniformly spaced spectral data with high frequency noise.

  11. Compact UHV valve with field replaceable windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Freeman, J.; Powell, F.

    1991-01-01

    There are many applications in synchrotron radiation research where window valves can be usefully employed. Examples include gas cells for monochromator calibration, filters for high order light rejection, and as vacuum isolation elements between machine and experimental vacua. Often these devices are fairly expensive, and have only fixed (ie non-removable) windows. The development of a new type of seal technology by VAT for their series 01 valves provides a gate surface which is free from obstructions due to internal mechanical elements. This feature allows a threaded recess to be machined into the gate to receive a removable window frame which can carry standard size Luxel thin film windows. The combination of these features results in a DN 40 (2.75in. conflat flange) valve which provides a clear aperture of 21mm diameter for the window material. 8 refs., 2 figs

  12. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  13. Attributing varying ENSO amplitudes in climate model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Kug, J.-S.; Jin, F.-F.; Collins, M.; Ohba, M.; Wittenberg, A.

    2012-04-01

    Realistic simulation of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, which has a great impact on the global weather and climate, is of primary importance in the coupled atmosphere-ocean modeling. Nevertheless, the ENSO amplitude is known to vary considerably in a multi-model ensemble (MME) archived in the coupled model inter-comparison project phase 3 (CMIP3). Given a large uncertainty in the atmospheric processes having a substantial influence to the models' ENSO intensity, we constructed physics parameter ensembles (PPEs) based on four climate models (two of them are included in the CMIP5 archive) in which parameters in the atmospheric parameterization schemes have been perturbed. Analysis to the 33-member PPEs reveals a positive relationship between the ENSO amplitude and the mean precipitation over the eastern equatorial Pacific in each model. This relationship is explained by the mean state difference controling the ENSO activity but not by the ENSO rectification of the mean state. The wetter mean state in the eastern equatorial Pacific favors an eastward shift in the equatorial zonal wind stress response to El Niño/La Niña, which acts to increase the ENSO amplitude due to enhanced coupled instability. Such a relationship, however, cannot be seen in both CMIP3 and CMIP5 MMEs, indicating that the above mechanism does not explain the diversity in ENSO amplitude across the models. Yet, ensemble historical runs available for some of the CMIP5 models show the positive relationship between the ENSO amplitude and the mean precipitation, providing a useful insight into the ENSO changes under the global warming in individual models.

  14. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  15. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  16. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  17. Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.

  18. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the init...

  19. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  20. Computed Tomographic Window Setting for Bronchial Measurement to Guide Double-Lumen Tube Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Hwa; Bae, Jinyoung; Paik, Hyesun; Koo, Chang-Hoon; Bahk, Jae-Hyon

    2018-04-01

    The bronchial diameter measured on computed tomography (CT) can be used to guide double-lumen tube (DLT) sizes objectively. The bronchus is known to be measured most accurately in the so-called bronchial CT window. The authors investigated whether using the bronchial window results in the selection of more appropriately sized DLTs than using the other windows. CT image analysis and prospective randomized study. Tertiary hospital. Adults receiving left-sided DLTs. The authors simulated selection of DLT sizes based on the left bronchial diameters measured in the lung (width 1,500 Hounsfield unit [HU] and level -700 HU), bronchial (1,000 HU and -450 HU), and mediastinal (400 HU and 25 HU) CT windows. Furthermore, patients were randomly assigned to undergo imaging with either the bronchial or mediastinal window to guide DLT sizes. Using the underwater seal technique, the authors assessed whether the DLT was appropriately sized, undersized, or oversized for the patient. On 130 CT images, the bronchial diameter (9.9 ± 1.2 mm v 10.5 ± 1.3 mm v 11.7 ± 1.3 mm) and the selected DLT size were different in the lung, bronchial, and mediastinal windows, respectively (p window suggested too small DLTs (28 Fr) for adults. In the prospective study, oversized tubes were chosen less frequently in the bronchial window than in the mediastinal window (6/110 v 23/111; risk ratio 0.38; 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p = 0.003). No tubes were undersized after measurements in these two windows. The bronchial measurement in the bronchial window guided more appropriately sized DLTs compared with the lung or mediastinal windows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of Energy Saving Potential and Optimization of Thermally Broken Fiberglass Window Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the energy saving potential and development process of fiberglass window frames, with intention for application in cold climates. A method is presented, where different means of improving thermal performance of a window frame are evaluated. Firstly, very simple geometries...

  2. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  3. Does twitter song amplitude signal male arousal in redwings (Turdus iliacus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, H.M.; Balsby, T.J.S.; Espmark, Y.O.

    2010-01-01

    Bird songs may vary in amplitude for several reasons. Variations due to differences in environmental conditions are well known but whether signal information varies with song amplitude is less well known. In some species quiet songs are heard as a soft twitter. These twitter songs are common in T...

  4. The effect of music amplitude on the relaxation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staum, M J; Brotons, M

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to ascertain how 3 different volume levels of music affect the relaxation response both psychologically (preference scores and self-report) and physiologically (heart rate), (b) to determine the amplitude preference for relaxation among young adults, and (c) to compare differences in preference response between music and nonmusic majors and between the genders. One hundred forty-four college-age music and nonmusic majors were participants in this study. Subjects listened to 27 minutes of music while relaxing. The amplitude of the music was changed every 3 minutes in a randomized order so that each subject received loud (80-90 dB) medium (70-80 dB) or soft (60-70 dB) music 3 times each during the experimental period for a total of 9 amplitude changes. A sample of subjects wore a small heart rate monitor on their wrist and chest during the procedure. Simultaneously with the selected listening, they were encouraged to turn a dial on a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) indicating their amplitude preference for relaxation. Self-report information was gathered at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results of the CRDI analyses indicate that overall, subjects showed overwhelming preference for the soft music in comparison to medium or loud. Males, however, preferred the loud music more than females, and music majors preferred softer music over non-majors who preferred louder music. There were no differences attributed to amplitude level in the analysis of heart rate data. Analysis of the self report data yielded a wide variety of responses concerning their individual preferences, not always consistent with the empirical measures. Overall, there was an increase in relaxation reported over the duration of the experiment. Response differentiation to loudness levels indicates a long line of useful research not only on relaxation and stress reduction in health related fields, but also on the effects of background amplitude of

  5. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  6. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  7. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen eDiesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The amplitude of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR is enhanced in tinnitus. As ASSR ampli¬tude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As attention effects on the N1 are signi¬fi¬cantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings of auditory evoked responses which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al. 2010 were analysed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analysed in the source domain (source space projection. Stimuli were amplitude-modulated tones with one of three carrier fre¬quen¬cies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octaves above the audio¬metric edge frequency in con¬trols, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audio¬metric edgeResults: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010, the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. In the present study, both tinnitus patients and healthy controls show an N1m-amplitude profile identical to the one of ASSR amplitudes in healthy controls. N1m amplitudes elicited by tonal frequencies located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate tinnitus frequency are smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones and do not differ among each other.Conclusions: There is no N1-amplitude enhancement effect in tinnitus. The enhancement effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude cannot be accounted for in terms of attention induced by tinnitus.

  8. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  9. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner Wed 6/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL ...

  10. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for 99m Tc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for 201 Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For 99m Tc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138–145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For 201 Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64–85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the establishment of new protocol for

  11. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Jin; Yu, A. Ram; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m (99mTc) and thallium-201 (201Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for 99mTc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for 201Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For 99mTc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138-145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For 201Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64-85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the establishment of new protocol for CZT

  12. Optimal energy window selection of a CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Su-Jin [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, A. Ram [Laboratory animal center, OSONG Medical Innovation Foundation, Chunguk 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 133-792 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yun Young [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul 133-792 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Min [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science and Research Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-11

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)-based small-animal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has desirable characteristics such as superior energy resolution, but data acquisition for SPECT imaging has been widely performed with a conventional energy window. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal energy window settings for technetium-99 m ({sup 99m}Tc) and thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl), the most commonly used isotopes in SPECT imaging, using CZT-based small-animal SPECT for quantitative accuracy. We experimentally investigated quantitative measurements with respect to primary count rate, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and scatter fraction (SF) within various energy window settings using Triumph X-SPECT. The two ways of energy window settings were considered: an on-peak window and an off-peak window. In the on-peak window setting, energy centers were set on the photopeaks. In the off-peak window setting, the ratios of energy differences between the photopeak from the lower- and higher-threshold varied from 4:6 to 3:7. In addition, the energy-window width for {sup 99m}Tc varied from 5% to 20%, and that for {sup 201}Tl varied from 10% to 30%. The results of this study enabled us to determine the optimal energy windows for each isotope in terms of primary count rate, CNR, and SF. We selected the optimal energy window that increases the primary count rate and CNR while decreasing SF. For {sup 99m}Tc SPECT imaging, the energy window of 138–145 keV with a 5% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was determined to be the optimal energy window. For {sup 201}Tl SPECT imaging, the energy window of 64–85 keV with a 30% width and off-peak ratio of 3:7 was selected as the optimal energy window. Our results demonstrated that the proper energy window should be carefully chosen based on quantitative measurements in order to take advantage of desirable characteristics of CZT-based small-animal SPECT. These results provided valuable reference information for the

  13. Large-amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. M.; Su, Y. N.; Ji, H. S. [Key Laboratory for Dark Matter and Space Science, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, T. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Zheng, R. S., E-mail: zhangqm@pmo.ac.cn [Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2017-06-10

    In this paper, we report our multiwavelength observations of the large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations of a filament observed on 2015 May 3. Located next to active region 12335, the sigmoidal filament was observed by the ground-based H α telescopes from the Global Oscillation Network Group and by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The filament oscillations were most probably triggered by the magnetic reconnection in the filament channel, which is characterized by the bidirectional flows, brightenings in EUV and soft X-ray, and magnetic cancellation in the photosphere. The directions of oscillations have angles of 4°–36° with respect to the filament axis. The whole filament did not oscillate in phase as a rigid body. Meanwhile, the oscillation periods (3100–4400 s) have a spatial dependence, implying that the curvature radii ( R ) of the magnetic dips are different at different positions. The values of R are estimated to be 69.4–133.9 Mm, and the minimum transverse magnetic field of the dips is estimated to be 15 G. The amplitudes of S5-S8 grew with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 damped with time. The oscillation amplitudes range from a few to ten Mm, and the maximum velocity can reach 30 km s{sup −1}. Interestingly, the filament experienced mass drainage southward at a speed of ∼27 km s{sup −1}. The oscillations continued after the mass drainage and lasted for more than 11 hr. After the mass drainage, the oscillation phases did not change much. The periods of S5-S8 decreased, while the periods of S9-S14 increased. The amplitudes of S5-S8 damped with time, while the amplitudes of S9-S14 grew. Most of the damping (growing) ratios are between −9 and 14. We offer a schematic cartoon to explain the complex behaviors of oscillations by introducing thread-thread interaction.

  14. Calculation of the real part of the nuclear amplitude at high s and small t from the Coulomb amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, P.; Nicolescu, B. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Theory Group, Lab. de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), CNRS 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    A new method for the determination of the real part of the elastic scattering amplitude is examined for high energy proton-proton at small momentum transfer. This method allows us to decrease the number of model assumptions, to obtain the real part in a narrow region of momentum transfer and to test different models. The possible non-exponential behavior of the real part was found on the base of the analysis of the ISR experimental data. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of electrochromic windows impact in the energy performance of buildings in Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.F.; Gaspar, A.R.; Martins, A.G.; Frontini, F.

    2014-01-01

    Old buildings refurbishment is essential for the global improvement of building energy indicators. Within this context, the paper focuses on the energy savings that may occur when using electrochromic (EC) windows, an interesting emerging technology alternative to shading devices to control solar gain in buildings located in Mediterranean climates. The EC windows technology is briefly presented and the optical properties adjustments of the glasses are discussed according to the operated range. The EC window dynamic behavior and the different control strategies are modeled and implemented in the ESP-r building simulation program. The EC window impact in the energy needs for heating and cooling is studied, considering different ambient parameters (exterior dry bulb temperature, interior dry bulb temperature and incident radiation) and set points for the EC control. A comparison of several windows solutions (single, double-glazing and EC windows), the type of building, internal gains from occupancy, lighting and equipment and the orientation of windows are considered for discussion through the analysis of the energy needs for heating and cooling. It is concluded that for this climate the best positive results are obtained when the EC are used in the west façade. For the south façade the results show no significant advantages in using EC windows. - Highlights: • Energy performance analysis of Electrochromic (EC) windows is carried out. • EC glass and control strategies are modeled and implemented in ESP-r. • EC windows are evaluated, on a test prototype, as an alternative to shading devices. • Set-points and measured variables are used to control optical properties of EC glass. • The most effective results are obtained when EC windows are used in the west façade

  16. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae Claxton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAn African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? I...

  17. Windows 8 & Office 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rathbone, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Two complete e-books covering Windows and Office for one low price! This unique value-priced e-book set brings together two bestselling For Dummies books in a single e-book file. Including a comprehensive table of contents and the full text of each book, complete with cover, this e-book set gives you in-depth information on the leading PC productivity tools: Windows 8 and Office 2010. Best of all, you'll pay less than the cost of each book purchased separately. You'll get the complete text of: Windows 8 For Dummies, which covers The core component

  18. Microsoft Windows Server 2012 administration instant reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Fast, accurate answers for common Windows Server questions Serving as a perfect companion to all Windows Server books, this reference provides you with quick and easily searchable solutions to day-to-day challenges of Microsoft's newest version of Windows Server. Using helpful design features such as thumb tabs, tables of contents, and special heading treatments, this resource boasts a smooth and seamless approach to finding information. Plus, quick-reference tables and lists provide additional on-the-spot answers. Covers such key topics as server roles and functionality, u

  19. Teach yourself visually Windows 8 tablets

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A visual guide to all the features of the new Windows 8 Tablet This must-have resource features visually rich, step-by-step instructions that show you how to get the most enjoyment from your Windows 8 tablet. Learn about the exciting new Metro UI, optimized specifically for touch devices. The most popular and commonly used apps and functions are covered too, along with the basics of syncing with a network, setting up e-mail, watching videos, listening to music, and common productivity tasks. This book provides all the guidance needed to enjoy all the best the new Windows 8 tablets have to offe

  20. Implementing Boot Control for Windows Vista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Yuki; Fujita, Keisuke; Furusawa, Maiko; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    A digital forensic logging system must prevent the booting of unauthorized programs and the modification of evidence. Our previous research developed Dig-Force2, a boot control system for Windows XP platforms that employs API hooking and a trusted platform module. However, Dig-Force2 cannot be used for Windows Vista systems because the hooked API cannot monitor booting programs in user accounts. This paper describes an enhanced version of Dig-Force2, which uses a TPM and a white list to provide boot control functionality for Windows Vista systems. In addition, the paper presents the results of security and performance evaluations of the boot control system.

  1. Conceptual design of proton beam window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Ishikura, Syuichi; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    In a MW-scale neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator, a proton beam window is installed as the boundary between a high vacuum region of the proton beam transport line and a helium environment around the target assembly working as a neutron source. The window is cooled by water so as to remove high volumetric heat generated by the proton beam. A concept of the flat-type proton beam window consisting of two plates of 3 mm thick was proposed, which was found to be feasible under the proton beam power of 5 MW through thermal-hydraulic and structural strength analyses. (authors)

  2. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  3. Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s”

    OpenAIRE

    Mae Claxton

    2010-01-01

    Window Shopping, Granada, 1930s,” Photographs, p. 16, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty Foundation An African American woman, dressed in her Saturday go-to-town-best, stands outside a store window, chin in hand, contemplating the contents in the window. The image is reflective and thoughtful. What is she thinking? And what lies beyond the frame of this photograph? In Mississippi in the 1930s, could she walk into this store, perhaps try on clothes or hats, and make a purchase? ...

  4. Time Modeling: Salvatore Sciarrino, Windows and Beclouding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Tadeu de Camargo Piedade

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I intend to discuss one of the figures created by the Italian composer Salvatore Sciarrino: the windowed form. After the composer's explanation of this figure, I argue that windows in composition can open inwards and outwards the musical discourse. On one side, they point to the composition's inner ambiences and constitute an internal remission. On the other, they instigate the audience to comprehend the external reference, thereby constructing intertextuality. After the outward window form, I will consider some techniques of distortion, particularly one that I call beclouding. To conclude, I will comment the question of memory and of compostition as time modeling.

  5. Windows Server 2012 ja Active Directory

    OpenAIRE

    Eteläaho, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli tutustua Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston sisältämiin palveluihin sekä perehtyä tarkemmin Active Directoryn peruskäyttöön. Tavoitteena oli antaa lukijalle ymmärrys Windows Server 2012–ohjelmiston tarjoamista käyttömahdollisuuksista ja Active Directoryn käytöstä. Opinnäytetyön tietoperusta koostui virtuaaliympäristön käytöstä ja erilaisista Windows Server 2012–ohjelman palveluista. Tietoperusta kattoi esimerkiksi seuraavat käsitteet: Virtuaalisointi, Emulointi, Ohj...

  6. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  7. Analytic amplitudes for hadronic forward scattering: COMPETE update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, B.; Cudell, J.R.; Ezhela, V.V.; Gauron, P.; Kang, K.; Kuyanov, Yu.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Martynov, E.; Razuvaev, E.A.; Tkachenko, N.P

    2003-04-01

    We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes, and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, p-bar p, {pi}p, Kp, {gamma}p, {gamma}{gamma}, {sigma}p). Although these parametrizations are very close for {radical}s {>=} 9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term {approx} ln{sup 2} s enables one to extend the fit down to {radical}s = 4 GeV. We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude ({rho} parameter) for present and future pp and p-bar p colliders, and on the total cross sections for {gamma}p {yields} hadrons at cosmic-ray energies and for {gamma}{gamma} {yields} hadrons up to {radical}s = 1 TeV.

  8. Covariant superstring fermionic amplitudes. Vertex operators and picture changing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, G.; Nunez, C.; Bonini, M.

    1988-07-01

    Massive Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz vertex operators in the -1/2 and -1 ghost representations respectively are obtained from the factorization of the scattering amplitude of an arbitrary number of bosonic and fermionic massless states on general Riemann surfaces. The correlators for the ghost field of charge -1 and its derivatives are given as well as the normal ordering prescriptions to be used in computing scattering amplitudes. The vertex operators for the massless and the first two excited levels, both of the Ramond and the Neveu-Schwarz sector are given explicitly. The picture changing mechanism is considered and applied to relate the Neveu-Schwarz vertices in different representations. (author). 22 refs

  9. Amplitude and phase control of trichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangming; Zou Jinhua; Li Xing; Du Dan; Cheng Guangling

    2005-01-01

    We study the dependence of absorption and dispersion spectra on amplitudes and phases of the driving fields in multiple electromagnetically induced transparency. For this purpose we consider trichromatic excitation in a three-level Λ atomic system, in which a trichromatic control laser and a monochromatic probe laser are applied to two different transitions, respectively. We numerically calculate the absorption and dispersion spectra. Two characteristic features are found. Firstly, the central transparency can be made to appear or to disappear by utilizing the amplitudes and phases of the driving components. Secondly, so long as we fix the sum of two relative phases of two sideband excitation components to the central component, the absorption and dispersion spectra keep their own lineshapes unchanged no matter how we vary the respective relative phases

  10. Modified amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayour, Basem; Suresh, P K

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of thermal gravitational waves is obtained by including the high-frequency thermal gravitons created from extra-dimensional effects and is a new feature of the spectrum. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves in a thermal vacuum state are found to be enhanced. The amplitude of the waves is modified in the frequency range (10 −16 –10 8 Hz) but the corresponding spectral energy density is less than the upper bound of various estimated results. With the addition of higher frequency thermal waves, the obtained spectral energy density of the wave in the thermal vacuum state does not exceed the upper bound put by the nucleosynthesis rate. The existence of cosmologically originated thermal gravitational waves due to extra dimension is not ruled out. (paper)

  11. Loop Amplitude Diagrams in Manifest, Maximal Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anna

    The issue of finiteness of maximal supergravity has been subject to research for quite some time. Here, we approach that question through an examination of how to describe amplitude diagrams in D = 11 maximal supergravity from a field theory point of view. The strength of the formulation is the presence of manifest supersymmetry through the use of pure spinors. An initial analysis of what the subsequent characteristics turn out to be, partly in lower dimensions through dimensional reduction, gives at hand results that agree with previous work, pointing towards a first divergence for the 7-loop contribution to the 4-point amplitude in four dimensions. The text is mainly based on and may be regarded as an introduction to the main points presented there.

  12. A robust design window for the heliotron DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Tanaka, Teruya; Yanagi, Nagato; Sagara, Akio

    2011-01-01

    According to the achievements in the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, a design of a DEMO reactor with a LHD-type heliotron system is foreseeable. On the other hand, a DEMO is the next step reactor and high reliability and feasibility are demanded in its design. In this study, a robust design window, i.e., the design window that is not sensitive to a change in uncertain physics parameters, was surveyed through parametric scans using a system design code. It was found that a difference in main design parameters (major radius, magnetic field strength, fusion output) gives only a small change in a dependence of physics requirements on the physics conditions. Therefore, it is important to find the design window with a lower requirement on the confinement improvement to assure the design robustness. In this respect, a reduction in the minimum inboard blanket space, one of the key parameters in a LHD-type heliotron reactor design, can effectively expand the design window and contributes to the design robustness. An acceptance of higher neutron wall load and an achievement of further high confinement improvement are also expected to make both a DEMO and a commercial reactor to be more feasible and economically attractive. (author)

  13. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...... in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of tree-level amplitudes. Several explicit examples are provided...

  14. A brief introduction to modern amplitude methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J.

    2014-12-10

    I provide a basic introduction to modern helicity amplitude methods, including color organization, the spinor helicity formalism, and factorization properties. I also describe the BCFW (on-shell) recursion relation at tree level, and explain how similar ideas - unitarity and on-shell methods - work at the loop level. These notes are based on lectures delivered at the 2012 CERN Summer School and at TASI 2013.

  15. Deep Inelastic Scattering at the Amplitude Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2005-01-01

    The deep inelastic lepton scattering and deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections can be interpreted in terms of the fundamental wavefunctions defined by the light-front Fock expansion, thus allowing tests of QCD at the amplitude level. The AdS/CFT correspondence between gauge theory and string theory provides remarkable new insights into QCD, including a model for hadronic wavefunctions which display conformal scaling at short distances and color confinement at large distances

  16. Window selection for dual photopeak window scatter correction in Tc-99m imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, D.J. de; King, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The width and placement of the windows for the dual photopeak window (DPW) scatter subtraction method for Tc-99m imaging is investigated in order to obtain a method that is stable on a multihead detector system for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and is capable of providing a good scatter estimate for extended objects. For various window pairs, stability and noise were examined with experiments using a SPECT system, while Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the accuracy of scatter estimates for a variety of objects and to guide the development of regression relations for various window pairs. The DPW method that resulted from this study was implemented with a symmetric 20% photopeak window composed of a 15% asymmetric photopeak window and a 5% lower window abutted at 7 keV below the peak. A power function regression was used to relate the scatter-to-total ratio to the lower window-to-total ratio at each pixel, from which an estimated scatter image was calculated. DPW demonstrated good stability, achieved by abutting the two windows away from the peak. Performance was assessed and compared with Compton window subtraction (CWS). For simulated extended objects, DPW generally produced a less biased scatter estimate than the commonly used CWS method with k = 0.5. In acquisitions of a clinical SPECT phantom, contrast recovery was comparable for both DPW and CWS; however, DPW showed greater visual contrast in clinical SPECT bone studies

  17. DETERMINISTIC COMPONENTS IN THE LIGHT CURVE AMPLITUDE OF Y OPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Alexandru; Turcu, Vlad; Vamos, Calin

    2010-01-01

    About two decades after the discovery of the amplitude decline of the light curve of the classical Cepheid Y Oph, its study is resumed using an increased amount of homogenized data and an extended time base. In our approach, the investigation of different time series concerning the light curve amplitude of Y Oph is not only the reason for the present study, but also a stimulus for developing a coherent methodology for studying long- and short-term variability phenomena in variable stars, taking into account the details of concrete observing conditions: amount of data, data sampling, time base, and individual errors of observational data. The statistical significance of this decreasing trend was estimated by assuming its linearity. We approached the decision-making process by formulating adequate null and alternative hypotheses, and testing the value of the regression line slope for different data sets via Monte Carlo simulations. A variability analysis, through various methods, of the original data and of the residuals obtained after removing the linear trend was performed. We also proposed a new statistical test, based on amplitude spectrum analysis and Monte Carlo simulations, intended to evaluate how detectible is a given (linear) trend in well-defined observing conditions: the trend detection probability. The main conclusion of our study on Y Oph is that, even if the false alarm probability is low enough to consider the decreasing trend to be statistically significant, the available data do not allow us to obtain a reasonably powerful test. We are able to confirm the light curve amplitude decline, and the order of magnitude of its slope with a better statistical substantiation. According to the obtained values of the trend detection probability, it seems that the trend we are dealing with is marked by a low detectibility. Our attempt to find signs of possible variability phenomena at shorter timescales ended by emphasizing the relative constancy of our data

  18. Transversity Amplitudes in Hypercharge Exchange Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Benitez de Lugo, M.

    1979-01-01

    ' In this work we present several techniques developed for the extraction of the. Transversity amplitudes governing quasi two-body meson baryon reactions with hypercharge exchange. We review the methods used in processes having a pure spin configuration, as well as the more relevant results obtained with data from K p and Tp interactions at intermediate energies. The predictions of the additive quark model and the ones following from exchange degeneracy and etoxicity are discussed. We present a formalism for amplitude analysis developed for reactions with mixed spin configurations and discuss the methods of parametric estimation of the moduli and phases of the amplitudes, as well as the various tests employed to check the goodness of the fits. The calculation of the generalized joint density matrices is given and we propose a method based on the generalization of the idea of multipole moments, which allows to investigate the structure of the decay angular correlations and establishes the quality of the fits and the validity of the simplifying assumptions currently used in this type of studies. (Author) 43 refs

  19. Differential equations for Feynman graph amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remiddi, E.

    1997-01-01

    It is by now well established that, by means of the integration by part identities all the integrals occurring in the evaluation of a Feynman graph of given topology can be expressed in terms of a few independent master integrals. It is shown in this paper that the integration by part identities can be further used for obtaining a linear system of first-order differential equations for the master integrals themselves. The equations con then be used for the numerical evaluation of the amplitudes as well as for investigating their analytic properties, such as the asymptotic and threshold behaviours and the corresponding expansions (and for analytic integration purposes, when possible). The new method is illustrated through its somewhat detailed application to the case of the one-loop self-mass amplitude, by explicitly working out expansions and quadrature formulas, both in arbitrary continuous dimension n and in the n→4 limit. It is then shortly discussed which features of the new method are expected to work in the more general case of multi-point, multi-loop amplitudes

  20. Amplitude analysis for hypercharge exchange reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V

    1972-01-01

    The s channel helicity non-flip amplitudes for the line reversed reactions pi N to K( Sigma , Lambda ) and KN to pi ( Sigma , Lambda ) are determined directly from cross-section and polarization data at 4 GeV/c. Rigorous bounds are obtained on the magnitudes of the flip amplitudes, whose phases are assumed to be given by an exchange degenerate K*-K** Regge trajectory. The solution for the non-flip amplitude is unique and shows the following characteristics: (i) Im K* ( Delta lambda =0) has a 'cross-over' zero at t approximately=-0.15 in both Sigma and Lambda reactions, (ii) Im K** ( Delta lambda =0) has an approximate double zero near t approximately=-0.6 in Sigma reactions and a positive minimum there in Lambda reactions, (iii) Re K* ( Delta lambda =0) and Re K** ( Delta lambda =0) are less peripheral in character than their imaginary counter-part and have similar behaviour at alpha =0 to simple Regge poles. (12 refs).

  1. Market volatility modeling for short time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Neto, Paulo S. G.; Silva, David A.; Ferreira, Tiago A. E.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.

    2011-10-01

    The gain or loss of an investment can be defined by the movement of the market. This movement can be estimated by the difference between the magnitudes of two stock prices in distinct periods and this difference can be used to calculate the volatility of the markets. The volatility characterizes the sensitivity of a market change in the world economy. Traditionally, the probability density function (pdf) of the movement of the markets is analyzed by using power laws. The contributions of this work is two-fold: (i) an analysis of the volatility dynamic of the world market indexes is performed by using a two-year window time data. In this case, the experiments show that the pdf of the volatility is better fitted by exponential function than power laws, in all range of pdf; (ii) after that, we investigate a relationship between the volatility of the markets and the coefficient of the exponential function based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann ideal gas theory. The results show an inverse relationship between the volatility and the coefficient of the exponential function. This information can be used, for example, to predict the future behavior of the markets or to cluster the markets in order to analyze economic patterns.

  2. Windows XP Operating System Security Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goktepe, Meftun

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research is to determine if Windows XP, when used as a workstation operating system in domain- based networks, provides adequate security policy enforcement for organizations...

  3. UV conformal window for asymptotic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.; Vazquez, Gustavo Medina; Steudtner, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Interacting fixed points in four-dimensional gauge theories coupled to matter are investigated using perturbation theory up to three loop order. It is shown how fixed points, scaling exponents, and anomalous dimensions are obtained as a systematic power series in a small parameter. The underlying ordering principle is explained and contrasted with conventional perturbation theory and Weyl consistency conditions. We then determine the conformal window with asymptotic safety from the complete next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. Limits for the conformal window arise due to fixed point mergers, the onset of strong coupling, or vacuum instability. A consistent picture is uncovered by comparing various levels of approximation. The theory remains perturbative in the entire conformal window, with vacuum stability dictating the tightest constraints. We also speculate about a secondary conformal window at strong coupling and estimate its lower limit. Implications for model building and cosmology are indicated.

  4. Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clooten Siding & Window, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bismarck, North Dakota. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Bismarck, North Dakota.

  5. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  6. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  7. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  8. Frequency and amplitude normalization and filter design | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... describes the relationship between the transition bandwidth and the parameter that determines the selectivity of the filter for each of the windows. Some characteristics have been calculated for the designed and constructed filters. Keywords: normalization, filter design, windows and windowing. Nigerian Journal of Physics ...

  9. HRCT Correlation with Round Window Identification during Cochlear Implantation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendem, Sai Kiran; Rangasami, Rajeswaran; Arunachalam, Ravi Kumar; Mohanarangam, Venkata Sai Pulivadulu; Natarajan, Paarthipan

    2014-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of High Resolution Computer Tomography (HRCT) temporal bone measurements in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy (i.e. facial recess). This is a prospective study of 37 cochlear implant candidates, aged between 1and 6 years, who were referred for HRCT temporal bone during the period December 2013 to July 2014. Cochlear implantation was done in 37 children (25 in the right ear and 12 in the left ear). The distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and the distance between the oval window and the round window niche were measured preoperatively on sub-millimeter (0.7 mm) HRCT images. We classified the visibility of round window niche based on the surgical view (i.e. through posterior tympanotomy) during surgery into three types: 1) Type 1- fully visible, 2) Type 2- partially visible, and 3) Type 3- difficult to visualize. The preoperative HRCT measurements were used to predict the type of visualization of round window niche before surgery and correlated with the findings during surgery. The mean and standard deviation for the distance between the short process of incus and the round window niche and for the distance between the oval window and the round window niche for Types 1, 2, and 3 were 8.5 ± 0.2 mm and 3.2 ± 0.2 mm, 8.0 ± 0.4 mm and 3.8 ± 0.2 mm, 7.5 ± 0.2 mm and 4.4 ± 0.2 mm respectively, and showed statistically significant difference (P window niche. This study shows preoperative HRCT temporal bone measurements are useful in predicting the actual visualization of round window niche as viewed through posterior tympanotomy.

  10. Economic efficiency of application of solar window

    OpenAIRE

    Shapoval Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Priority and qualitatively new direction in the fuel and energy sector is renewable energy. This paper describes a feasibility study of using solar window in the system of solar heat supply. The article presents literature data about the effectiveness of the use of solar systems in other countries. The results confirm a sufficient efficiency of solar heat supply with using solar Windows. Insights based on practical experience and mathematical calculations, which are aimed at a detailed explan...

  11. Massive Neutrinos and the Higgs Mass Window

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, J A; Ibarra, Alejandro; Quirós, Mariano

    2000-01-01

    If neutrino masses are produced by a see-saw mechanism the Standard Model prediction for the Higgs mass window (defined by upper (perturbativity) and lower (stability) bounds) can be substantially affected. Actually the Higgs mass window can close completely, which settles an upper bound on the Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrinos, $M$, ranging from $10^{13}$ GeV for three generations of quasi-degenerate massive neutrinos with $m_\

  12. Cascaded Window Memoization for Medical Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khalvati , Farzad; Kianpour , Mehdi; Tizhoosh , Hamid ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 12: Medical Applications of ANN and Ethics of AI; International audience; Window Memoization is a performance improvement technique for image processing algorithms. It is based on removing computational redundancy in an algorithm applied to a single image, which is inherited from data redundancy in the image. The technique employs a fuzzy reuse mechanism to eliminate unnecessary computations. This paper extends the window memoization technique such that in addition to exploiting the data...

  13. High performance solar control office windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.J.

    1977-12-01

    Investigations conducted over a 9 month period on the use of ion beam sputtering methods for the fabrication of solar control windows for energy conservation are described. Principal emphasis was placed on colored, reflecting, heat rejecting, office building windows for reducing air conditioning loads and to aid in the design of energy conserving buildings. The coating techniques were developed primarily for use with conventional absorbing plate glass such as PPG solarbronze, but were also demonstrated on plastic substrates for retrofit applications. Extensive material investigations were conducted to determine the optimum obtainable characteristics, with associated weathering studies as appropriate aimed at achieving a 20 year minimum life. Conservative estimates indicate that successful commercialization of the windows developed under this program would result in energy savings of 16,000,000 barrels of oil/year by 1990 if installation were only 10 percent of new commercial building stock. These estimates are relative to existing design for energy conserving windows. Installation in a greater percentage of new stock and for retrofit applications could lead to proportionately greater energy savings. All such installations are projected as cost effective as well as energy effective. A secondary program was carried out to modify the techniques to yield thermal control windows for residential applications. These windows were designed to provide a high heat retention capability without seriously affecting their transmission of incident solar radiation, thereby enhancing the greenhouse effect. This part of the program was successful in producing a window form which could be interchanged for standard residential window material in a cost and energy effective manner. The only variation from standard stock in appearance is a very light rose or neutral gray coloring.

  14. Functional window of the avian compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonia, Vishvendra Singh; Kondabagil, Kiran; Saha, Dipankar; Ganguly, Swaroop

    2017-05-01

    The functional window is an experimentally observed property of the avian compass that refers to its selectivity around the geomagnetic-field strength. We show that the simple radical-pair model, using biologically feasible hyperfine parameters, can qualitatively explain the salient features of the avian compass as observed in behavioral experiments: its functional window, as well as disruption of the compass action by radio-frequency fields of specific frequencies. Further, we show that adjustment of the hyperfine parameters can tune the functional window, suggesting a possible mechanism for its observed adaptation to field variation. While these lend support to the radical-pair model, we find that in its simplest form-or even with minor augmentations-it cannot quantitatively explain the observed width of the functional window. This suggests deeper generalization of the model, possibly in terms of more nuclei or more subtle environmental interaction than has been considered hitherto. Finally, we examine a possible biological purpose for the functional window; even assuming evolutionary benefit from radical-pair magnetoreception, it seems likely that the functional window could be just a corollary thereof, imparting no additional advantage.

  15. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS 2000 AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A demonstration of the new supported Windows environment for all the CERN personal computers (PC) will be given which is based on Windows 2000. This presentation will assume little or no familiarity with the PC, or NICE, and will concentrate on the services being offered to the users of PCs at CERN. How NICE 2000 can facilitate the work of all users, eventually becoming the key access point to all activities in the laboratory will be demonstrated. Information: http://winservices.web.cern.ch/winservices/Seminars/Tutorials/ Date Title Language Location Speaker Fri 1/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Alberto Pace Tue 5/6 10:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F LHC Auditorium (30/7th floor) Frederic Hemmer Tue 5/6 14:00 Une introduction à Windows 2000 au CERN F SL Auditorium (864/1s floor) Michel Bornand Tue 5/6 14:00 An introduction to Windows 2000 at CERN E IT Auditorium (31/3-004) Andreas Wagner ...

  17. PEDOT-CNT coated electrodes stimulate retinal neurons at low voltage amplitudes and low charge densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba, R; Herrmann, T; Zeck, G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two different microelectrode materials--the conductive polymer composite poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT)-carbon nanotube(CNT) and titanium nitride (TiN)--at activating spikes in retinal ganglion cells in whole mount rat retina through stimulation of the local retinal network. Stimulation efficacy of the microelectrodes was analyzed by comparing voltage, current and transferred charge at stimulation threshold. Retinal ganglion cell spikes were recorded by a central electrode (30 μm diameter) in the planar grid of an electrode array. Extracellular stimulation (monophasic, cathodic, 0.1-1.0 ms) of the retinal network was performed using constant voltage pulses applied to the eight surrounding electrodes. The stimulation electrodes were equally spaced on the four sides of a square (400 × 400 μm). Threshold voltage was determined as the pulse amplitude required to evoke network-mediated ganglion cell spiking in a defined post stimulus time window in 50% of identical stimulus repetitions. For the two electrode materials threshold voltage, transferred charge at threshold, maximum current and the residual current at the end of the pulse were compared. Stimulation of retinal interneurons using PEDOT-CNT electrodes is achieved with lower stimulation voltage and requires lower charge transfer as compared to TiN. The key parameter for effective stimulation is a constant current over at least 0.5 ms, which is obtained by PEDOT-CNT electrodes at lower stimulation voltage due to its faradaic charge transfer mechanism. In neuroprosthetic implants, PEDOT-CNT may allow for smaller electrodes, effective stimulation in a safe voltage regime and lower energy-consumption. Our study also indicates, that the charge transferred at threshold or the charge injection capacity per se does not determine stimulation efficacy.

  18. PEDOT-CNT coated electrodes stimulate retinal neurons at low voltage amplitudes and low charge densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samba, R.; Herrmann, T.; Zeck, G.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare two different microelectrode materials—the conductive polymer composite poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT)-carbon nanotube(CNT) and titanium nitride (TiN)—at activating spikes in retinal ganglion cells in whole mount rat retina through stimulation of the local retinal network. Stimulation efficacy of the microelectrodes was analyzed by comparing voltage, current and transferred charge at stimulation threshold. Approach. Retinal ganglion cell spikes were recorded by a central electrode (30 μm diameter) in the planar grid of an electrode array. Extracellular stimulation (monophasic, cathodic, 0.1-1.0 ms) of the retinal network was performed using constant voltage pulses applied to the eight surrounding electrodes. The stimulation electrodes were equally spaced on the four sides of a square (400 × 400 μm). Threshold voltage was determined as the pulse amplitude required to evoke network-mediated ganglion cell spiking in a defined post stimulus time window in 50% of identical stimulus repetitions. For the two electrode materials threshold voltage, transferred charge at threshold, maximum current and the residual current at the end of the pulse were compared. Main results. Stimulation of retinal interneurons using PEDOT-CNT electrodes is achieved with lower stimulation voltage and requires lower charge transfer as compared to TiN. The key parameter for effective stimulation is a constant current over at least 0.5 ms, which is obtained by PEDOT-CNT electrodes at lower stimulation voltage due to its faradaic charge transfer mechanism. Significance. In neuroprosthetic implants, PEDOT-CNT may allow for smaller electrodes, effective stimulation in a safe voltage regime and lower energy-consumption. Our study also indicates, that the charge transferred at threshold or the charge injection capacity per se does not determine stimulation efficacy.

  19. Three applications of a bonus relation for gravity amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia; Wen, Congkao

    2009-01-01

    Arkani-Hamed et al. have recently shown that all tree-level scattering amplitudes in maximal supergravity exhibit exceptionally soft behavior when two supermomenta are taken to infinity in a particular complex direction, and that this behavior implies new non-trivial relations amongst amplitudes in addition to the well-known on-shell recursion relations. We consider the application of these new 'bonus relations' to MHV amplitudes, showing that they can be used quite generally to relate (n-2)!-term formulas typically obtained from recursion relations to (n-3)!-term formulas related to the original BGK conjecture. Specifically we provide (1) a direct proof of a formula presented by Elvang and Freedman, (2) a new formula based on one due to Bedford et al., and (3) an alternate proof of a formula recently obtained by Mason and Skinner. Our results also provide the first direct proof that the conjectured BGK formula, only very recently proven via completely different methods, satisfies the on-shell recursion.

  20. Indium Phosphide Window Layers for Indium Gallium Arsenide Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.

    2005-01-01

    Window layers help in reducing the surface recombination at the emitter surface of the solar cells resulting in significant improvement in energy conversion efficiency. Indium gallium arsenide (In(x)Ga(1-x)As) and related materials based solar cells are quite promising for photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic applications. The flexibility of the change in the bandgap energy and the growth of InGaAs on different substrates make this material very attractive for multi-bandgap energy, multi-junction solar cell approaches. The high efficiency and better radiation performance of the solar cell structures based on InGaAs make them suitable for space power applications. This work investigates the suitability of indium phosphide (InP) window layers for lattice-matched In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As (bandgap energy 0.74 eV) solar cells. We present the first data on the effects of the p-type InP window layer on p-on-n lattice-matched InGaAs solar cells. The modeled quantum efficiency results show a significant improvement in the blue region with the InP window. The bare InGaAs solar cell performance suffers due to high surface recombination velocity (10(exp 7) cm/s). The large band discontinuity at the InP/InGaAs heterojunction offers a great potential barrier to minority carriers. The calculated results demonstrate that the InP window layer effectively passivates the solar cell front surface, hence resulting in reduced surface recombination and therefore, significantly improving the performance of the InGaAs solar cell.

  1. Experimental study of window-ejected flame and plume on glass curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an experimental study to investigate the performance of glass curtain walls exposed to exterior flame and plume ejected from windows. A test facility with 3-storey in height was constructed using steel frame to perform full-scale tests. Ventilation-controlled fire scenarios were designed to generate exterior flame and plume ejected from the burning room through a window opening. To characterize potential threats from window-ejected flame and plume to the glass curtain walls of upper floors, temperature, heat flux and air velocity at different heights above the opening upon curtain walls were measured during each test. The effects of window aspect ratio, horizontal projection were studied. It was found that the window with large aspect ratio provided more severe threat to the curtain walls on upper floors. A horizontal projection of 0.5m in depth was able to protect the glass on the upper floor from breaking.

  2. Experimental analysis of single sided ventilation through a centre pivot roof window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Heiselberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    In the present study bidirectional airflow characteristics of a centre-pivot roof window were analysed in-situ. Both wind and temperature differences were present at the time of measurements. Tracer gas technique using N2O gas was used to estimate the air change rates in the experimental space....... Leakages through the experimental space were estimated using the blower door tests. Air-change rates increased with increase in the window sash opening angle. When the window was open all the way, with an average wind speed of 4 m/s, the average air-change rate was 2. Flow factor was used to characterise...... the bidirectional airflow rates through window. The flow factor of the window increased with increase in the sash opening angle....

  3. Planck 2015 results: IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.

    2016-01-01

    are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated from both main beam and sidelobe contributions, and accounts for the radiometer band shapes. The total uncertainties in the effective beam window functions are 0.7% and 1% at 30......This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam...... normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30...

  4. Bird feeders and their effects on bird-window collisions at residential houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding wild birds creates an important link between homeowners and conservation. The effects of bird feeders and year-round feeding on birds have not been well studied, however, particularly in relationship to bird-window collisions. We determined effects of bird feeder presence and placement on bird-window collisions at residential homes. Paired month-long trials in which a feeder was either present or absent for one month and then removed or added for the second month were completed at 55 windows at 43 houses. In each trial, homeowners were asked to search their study window daily for evidence of a bird-window collision. During the study there were 51 collisions when there was no bird feeder and 94 when the feeder was present. The season when each trial was set up was the best individual predictor of bird-window collisions. The largest number of collisions was observed during fall migration and the lowest during the winter months. There were no collisions at 26 of the study windows. High variance was observed in the number of collisions at different houses, indicating that effects of bird feeders are context dependent. Changing the occurrence, timing, and placement of feeders can alter collision rates but is only one of many factors that influence whether a residential house is likely to have a bird window-collision or not.

  5. Imaging windows for long-term intravital imaging: General overview and technical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Maria; Ritsma, Laila; Giedt, Randy J; Weissleder, Ralph; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is increasingly used to visualize and quantitate dynamic biological processes at the (sub)cellular level in live animals. By visualizing tissues through imaging windows, individual cells (e.g., cancer, host, or stem cells) can be tracked and studied over a time-span of days to months. Several imaging windows have been developed to access tissues including the brain, superficial fascia, mammary glands, liver, kidney, pancreas, and small intestine among others. Here, we review the development of imaging windows and compare the most commonly used long-term imaging windows for cancer biology: the cranial imaging window, the dorsal skin fold chamber, the mammary imaging window, and the abdominal imaging window. Moreover, we provide technical details, considerations, and trouble-shooting tips on the surgical procedures and microscopy setups for each imaging window and explain different strategies to assure imaging of the same area over multiple imaging sessions. This review aims to be a useful resource for establishing the long-term intravital imaging procedure.

  6. Praktek Window Dressing pada Reksa Dana Saham di Indonesia Selama Periode 2001-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kapugu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During maintaining their assets, there is an indication those days surrounding every reporting date, which is the date at each year end; fund manager behaves differently from any other dates. Some researchers and analysts conclude this behavior as what-so-called window dressing, which is a practice to present the report in favor of the investors’ expectation. This study is intended to examine the existence of such behavior in Indonesia. Some of the signals that aid in proving the existence of window dressing are the turn-of-year factor, lagged returns, and fund’s objectives. The result of this study exhibits indications of turn-of-year factor and lagged return inclined to window dressing. This study fails to verify the indications of fund’s objective inclined to window dressing because of the changing objectives during the portfolio management. Abstract in Bahasa Indoensia: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ketidakwajaran yang terjadi di sekitar tanggal pelaporan dibandingkan dengan periode lainnya atau yang disebut praktek window dressing yang terjadi di Indonesia. Melalui penelitian ini investor lebih mengetahui dampak-dampak penempatan dananya, khususnya pada instrumen investasi reksa dana. Beberapa peneliti menyimpulkan ada praktek window dressing untuk membuat laporan keuangan tampak menjanjikan bagi investor. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh tanda bahwa terdapat praktek window dressing di sekitar tanggal pelaporan berdasarkan residual aktual dan pengaruh lagged return Kata kunci: window dressing, lagged return, reksa dana

  7. Designing for Windows 8 fundamentals of great design in Windows Store apps

    CERN Document Server

    Schooley, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Designing for Windows 8 is a fast-paced, 150-page primer on the key design concepts you need to create successful Windows 8 apps. This book will help you design a user interface that is both delightful and effective, feels 'right' to your users, and encapsulates a great Windows 8 experience. In this book, you will: Meet the building blocks of solid Windows 8 UI design in a well-designed sample app. Learn how to incorporate key design elements into your apps, such as the app bar, charms and subtle animations from the animation library. Find out how to deliver the core experience that your users

  8. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  9. Study on modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on FPGA in atomic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Quan, Wei; Duan, Lihong

    2017-10-01

    Atomic magnetometer which uses atoms as sensitive elements have ultra-high precision and has wide applications in scientific researches. The photoelastic modulation method based on photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used in the atomic magnetometer to detect the small optical rotation angle of a linearly polarized light. However, the modulation amplitude of the PEM will drift due to the environmental factors, which reduces the precision and long-term stability of the atomic magnetometer. Consequently, stabilizing the PEM's modulation amplitude is essential to precision measurement. In this paper, a modulation amplitude stabilization method for PEM based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is proposed. The designed control system contains an optical setup and an electrical part. The optical setup is used to measure the PEM's modulation amplitude. The FPGA chip, with the PID control algorithm implemented in it, is used as the electrical part's micro controller. The closed loop control method based on the photoelastic modulation detection system can directly measure the PEM's modulation amplitude in real time, without increasing the additional optical devices. In addition, the operating speed of the modulation amplitude stabilization control system can be greatly improved because of the FPGA's parallel computing feature, and the PID control algorithm ensures flexibility to meet different needs of the PEM's modulation amplitude set values. The Modelsim simulation results show the correctness of the PID control algorithm, and the long-term stability of the PEM's modulation amplitude reaches 0.35% in a 3-hour continuous measurement.

  10. Environment, susceptibility windows, development, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert O

    2017-04-01

    To illustrate the role of the exposome in child health while highlighting unique aspects of this research pertinent to children, such as the time dependency of environmental exposures on fetal programming, as well as the time-dependent nature of child behavior, diet, and motor function, which alter the probability of exposure to different compounds. Future environmental health research will be more hypothesis generating but will also need to heed lessons learned from other 'omic' sciences. The NIH Child Health Environmental Analysis Resource (CHEAR) is a major step toward providing the infrastructure needed to study the exposome and child health. Environmental exposures have overlapping mechanisms such as endocrine disruption and oxidative stress, among others. The nature of the long-term health impact of an exposure is dependent not only on dose, but also on the timing of exposure. Advances in exposure science, toxicology, and biostatistics will create new opportunities to identify and better define windows of susceptibility to environmental exposures. As exposure science matures, we will better understand the role of environment on health. Linking the exposome with genomics will unlock the root origins of multiple complex diseases.

  11. Temporal integration windows for naturalistic visual sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L Fairhall

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that the brain possesses mechanisms to integrate incoming sensory information as it unfolds over time-periods of 2-3 seconds. The ubiquity of this mechanism across modalities, tasks, perception and production has led to the proposal that it may underlie our experience of the subjective present. A critical test of this claim is that this phenomenon should be apparent in naturalistic visual experiences. We tested this using movie-clips as a surrogate for our day-to-day experience, temporally scrambling them to require (re- integration within and beyond the hypothesized 2-3 second interval. Two independent experiments demonstrate a step-wise increase in the difficulty to follow stimuli at the hypothesized 2-3 second scrambling condition. Moreover, only this difference could not be accounted for by low-level visual properties. This provides the first evidence that this 2-3 second integration window extends to complex, naturalistic visual sequences more consistent with our experience of the subjective present.

  12. Optical Characterization and Energy Simulation of Glazing for High-Performance Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on one important component of the energy system - the window. Windows are installed in buildings mainly to create visual contact with the surroundings and to let in daylight, and should also be heat and sound insulating. This thesis covers four important aspects of windows: antireflection and switchable coatings, energy simulations and optical measurements. Energy simulations have been used to compare different windows and also to estimate the performance of smart or switchable windows, whose transmittance can be regulated. The results from this thesis show the potential of the emerging technology of smart windows, not only from a daylight and an energy perspective, but also for comfort and well-being. The importance of a well functioning control system for such windows, is pointed out. To fulfill all requirements of modern windows, they often have two or more panes. Each glass surface leads to reflection of light and therefore less daylight is transmitted. It is therefore of interest to find ways to increase the transmittance. In this thesis antireflection coatings, similar to those found on eye-glasses and LCD screens, have been investigated. For large area applications such as windows, it is necessary to use techniques which can easily be adapted to large scale manufacturing at low cost. Such a technique is dip-coating in a sol-gel of porous silica. Antireflection coatings have been deposited on glass and plastic materials to study both visual and energy performance and it has been shown that antireflection coatings increase the transmittance of windows without negatively affecting the thermal insulation and the energy efficiency. Optical measurements are important for quantifying product properties for comparisons and evaluations. It is important that new measurement routines are simple and applicable to standard commercial instruments. Different systematic error sources for optical measurements of patterned light diffusing samples using

  13. From correlation functions to scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Burkhard; Korchemsky, Gregory P.; Sokatchev, Emery

    2011-12-01

    We study the correlation functions of half-BPS protected operators in mathcal{N} = {4} super-Yang-Mills theory, in the limit where the positions of adjacent operators become light-like separated. We compute the loop corrections by means of Lagrangian insertions. The divergences resulting from the light-cone limit are regularized by changing the dimension of the integration measure over the insertion points. Switching from coordinates to dual momenta, we show that the logarithm of the correlation function is identical with twice the logarithm of the matching MHV gluon scattering amplitude. We present a number of examples of this new relation, at one and two loops.

  14. Inlaying vertex function and scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, S.

    1997-01-01

    Scattering processes among strings are analyzed by using fundamental equations of three types, which divide the whole complex z-plane into various types of N punctured ring domains plus various unpunctured ring domains, where internal strings freely propagate. In order to calculate scattering amplitudes (among physical particles) in Witten close-quote s quantum string field theory, we derive and apply the open-quotes Gluing theorem,close-quote close-quote mathematical proof of which is given (in operator forms) by constructing various (inlint) conformal mapping operators. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Multiloop integrand reduction for dimensionally regulated amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Mirabella, Edoardo; Ossola, Giovanni; Peraro, Tiziano

    2013-12-01

    We present the integrand reduction via multivariate polynomial division as a natural technique to encode the unitarity conditions of Feynman amplitudes. We derive a recursive formula for the integrand reduction, valid for arbitrary dimensionally regulated loop integrals with any number of loops and external legs, which can be used to obtain the decomposition of any integrand analytically with a finite number of algebraic operations. The general results are illustrated by applications to two-loop Feynman diagrams in QED and QCD, showing that the proposed reduction algorithm can also be seamlessly applied to integrands with denominators appearing with arbitrary powers.

  16. The Nature and Incidence of Software Piracy: Evidence from Windows

    OpenAIRE

    Athey, Susan; Stern, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the nature, relative incidence and drivers of software piracy. In contrast to prior studies, we analyze data that allows us to measure piracy for a specific product - Windows 7 - which was associated with a significant level of private sector investment. Using anonymized telemetry data, we are able to characterize the ways in which piracy occurs, the relative incidence of piracy across different economic and institutional environments, and the impact of enforcement effort...

  17. A variable thickness window: Thermal and structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the finite difference formulations for variable thickness thermal analysis and variable thickness plane stress analysis are presented. In heat transfer analysis, radiation effects and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity are taken into account. While in thermal stress analysis, the thermal expansion coefficient is considered as temperature dependent. An application of the variable thickness window to an Advanced Photon Source beamline is presented

  18. Ocular pulse amplitude measurement using pascal dynamic contour tonometer in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsimpris, J M; Theoulakis, P E; Papadopoulos, G E; Katsimpris, A; Lepidas, J; Petropoulos, I K

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to measure and compare the ocular pulse amplitude using Pascal dynamic contour tonometry in normal persons and in glaucoma patients. 20 patients (40 eyes) with primary open angle glaucoma (Group A), 8 patients (16 eyes) with normal tension glaucoma (Group B), and 12 patients (24 eyes) with ocular hypertension (Group C) were included in the study. Control group (Group D) comprised 25 normal volunteers (50 eyes). Intraocular pressure was measured using both Goldmann applanation tonometry in the slit-lamp and Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Ocular pulse amplitude was evaluated with Pascal dynamic contour tonometry. Statistical evaluation of the differences in ocular pulse amplitude and intraocular pressure among the different groups was performed using Student's t-test. Mean ocular pulse amplitude values expressed in mmHg were 3.66 ± 1.00, 2.46 ± 0.60, 4.04 ± 1.47, and 2.52 ± 0.52, for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The ocular pulse amplitude was significantly higher in Group A (primary open angle glaucoma) and Group C (ocular hypertension) when compared with Group D (control group) and Group B (normal tension glaucoma). No statistically significant difference was detected between Group D (control group) and Group B (normal tension glaucoma). Although we can measure the intraocular pressure with Goldmann applanation tonometry, no information can be derived regarding the ocular pulse amplitude. The use of Pascal dynamic contour tonometry in intraocular pressure estimation provides useful clinical information also about the magnitude of the ocular pulse amplitude in different types of glaucoma. Pascal dynamic contour tonometry discloses an elevation of ocular pulse amplitude in primary open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients. On the contrary, the ocular pulse amplitude is within normal limits in normal tension glaucoma patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Ultrasound-guided identification of cardiac imaging windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Garry; Qi, Xiu-Ling; Robert, Normand; Dick, Alexander J; Wright, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    Currently, the use of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify cardiac quiescent periods relative to the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is insufficient for producing submillimeter-resolution coronary MR angiography (MRA) images. In this work, the authors perform a time series comparison between tissue Doppler echocardiograms of the interventricular septum (IVS) and concurrent biplane x-ray angiograms. Our results indicate very close agreement between the diastasis gating windows identified by both the IVS and x-ray techniques. Seven cath lab patients undergoing diagnostic angiograms were simultaneously scanned during a breath hold by ultrasound and biplane x-ray for six to eight heartbeats. The heart rate of each patient was stable. Dye was injected into either the left or right-coronary vasculature. The IVS was imaged using color tissue Doppler in an apical four-chamber view. Diastasis was estimated on the IVS velocity curve. On the biplane angiograms, proximal, mid, and distal regions were identified on the coronary artery (CA). Frame by frame correlation was used to derive displacement, and then velocity, for each region. The quiescent periods for a CA and its subsegments were estimated based on velocity. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis, the authors compared the start and end times of the diastasis windows as estimated from the IVS and CA velocities. The authors also estimated the vessel blur across the diastasis windows of multiple sequential heartbeats of each patient. In total, 17 heartbeats were analyzed. The range of heart rate observed across patients was 47-79 beats per minute (bpm) with a mean of 57 bpm. Significant correlations (R > 0.99; p windows. The mean difference in the starting times between IVS and CA quiescent windows was -12.0 ms. The mean difference in end times between IVS and CA quiescent windows was -3.5 ms. In contrast, the correlation between RR interval and both the start and duration of the x

  20. Getting superstring amplitudes by degenerating Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matone, Marco; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We explicitly show how the chiral superstring amplitudes can be obtained through factorisation of the higher genus chiral measure induced by suitable degenerations of Riemann surfaces. This powerful tool also allows to derive, at any genera, consistency relations involving the amplitudes and the measure. A key point concerns the choice of the local coordinate at the node on degenerate Riemann surfaces that greatly simplifies the computations. As a first application, starting from recent ansaetze for the chiral measure up to genus five, we compute the chiral two-point function for massless Neveu-Schwarz states at genus two, three and four. For genus higher than three, these computations include some new corrections to the conjectural formulae appeared so far in the literature. After GSO projection, the two-point function vanishes at genus two and three, as expected from space-time supersymmetry arguments, but not at genus four. This suggests that the ansatz for the superstring measure should be corrected for genus higher than four.