WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind wasser nachwachsende

  1. Der Strahlenkranz im sonnigen Wasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Hans Joachim

    2000-01-01

    Wie in der Kunst gibt es auch in der Natur neben dem kreisförmigen Heiligenschein einen strahlenförmigen Nimbus um den Kopfschatten "auserwählter" Personen. Er ist in leicht getrübtem Wasser zu beobachten.

  2. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  3. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  4. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  5. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  6. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2011/2012; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants in Germany. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented for the fiscal year 2011/2012.

  7. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual Report 1997/98; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1997/98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, A. [comp.

    1998-12-31

    In the period of report, funding of 81 projects in a total amount of 47 million marks was granted by the federal ministry of science and technology (BMBF). Most of the sponsored projects deal with the harnessing of renewable feedstocks (e.g. production and processing of renewable feedstocks and production of renewable energy sources from biomass).(orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im Berichtszeitraumwurden 81 Projekte mit einem Foerdervolumen von 47 Mio. DM durch das BML bewilligt. Der ueberwiegende Anteil der gefoerderten Vorhaben liegt im Bereich der stofflichen Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe (z.B. Erzeugung und Verarbeitung von umweltfreundlichen Biorohstoffen sowie Gewinnung erneuerbarer Energie aus Biomasse). (orig./SR)

  8. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2014/2015; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2014/2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    With the ''Support Programme Renewable Resources'' which came into force in May 2015 and the published main points the BmEL newly aligns the promotion of research and development of renewable resources. The future state support promotes the objectives of the ''National Policy Strategy Bioeconomy'' of the federal government and sets new standards to reflect current developments in renewable raw materials. With the new program the changed social expectations to the cultivation and use of renewable resources is stronger taken into account, also questions about sustainability, efficiency and greater international cooperation will be increasingly in the focus. [German] Mit dem im Mai 2015 in Kraft getretenen ''Foerderprogramm Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' und den dazu veroeffentlichten Schwerpunkten richtet das BMEL die Foerderung von Forschung und Entwicklung bei nachwachsenden Rohstoffen neu aus. Die kuenftige Foerderung unterstuetzt die Ziele der ''Nationalen Politikstrategie Biooekonomie'' der Bundesregierung und setzt neue Akzente unter Beruecksichtigung aktueller Entwicklungen bei nachwachsenden Rohstoffen. Mit dem neuen Programm wird den geaenderten gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen an den Anbau und die Nutzung nachwachsender Rohstoffe staerker Rechnung getragen, ebenso werden Fragen zu Nachhaltigkeit, Effizienz und einer staerkeren internationalen Zusammenarbeit zunehmend im Mittelpunkt stehen.

  9. Analyse eines Druckwasserreaktors mit überkritischem Wasser als Kühlmittel

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Bastian

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird ein mit überkritischem Wasser gekühlter Druckwasserreaktor (SDWR) konzipiert und bezüglich seiner Wirtschaftlichkeit, Effizienz und technischen Machbarkeit untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt liegt dabei auf der Entwicklung der dazu notwendigen Auslegungs- und Analysemethoden. Im SDWR soll überkritisches Wasser bei einem Systemdruck von 25~MPa als Kühlmittel im Primärkreislauf Verwendung finden. Die Aufheizung im Reaktorkern erfolgt ausgehend von einer Eintrittstemperatu...

  10. 20 Years of engagement for renewable resources in Germany. 20 Years FNR; 20 Jahre Einsatz fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in Deutschland. 20 Jahre FNR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-01

    The Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) presents an survey on the thematically widespread field of 'Renewable resources in Germany'. The main part of this magazine includes a specialist article of a guest author as well as a report to the main sub-themes: bio-energy, material use, and some superior aspects. The last part of this magazine is devoted to the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. and its history of origin, its structure and tasks in the course of time. A survey by the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) completes this topic.

  11. Der Süßwasser-Reservoireffekt in der 14C-Datierung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    Der Süßwasser-Reservoireffekt kann dafür sorgen, dass Proben, die aus einem Süßwassersystem stammen, bei der 14C-Datierung einige hundert bis tausend Jahre "zu alt" erscheinen. Dies gilt zB auch für Knochen von Menschen, die viel Süßwasserfisch gegessen haben, oder für Speisekrusten auf Keramik...

  12. New construction. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.. A documentation for the construction with renewable raw materials in the public area; Neubau. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.. Eine Dokumentation zum Bauen mit nachwachsenden Rohstoffen im oeffentlichen Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-06

    Immediately next to the old manor house in Guelzow (Federal Republic of Germany) and at the beginning of April 2010, the work begins on a new building of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany) on a 35 m wide and 36 m long building plot. This plot is part of the manor house site in Guelzow and is dominated by the manor house. On the north side, the existing outbuildings flank the manor house. Close to the south side of the manor house there are the old buildings of the institute (southeastern direction) and the new institute (southwestern direction). A modern office building for 31 employees arises with the support of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the financing from the economic improvement package II. A mix of single offices, double offices and large offices shall support an effective as well as a communicative working atmosphere.

  13. Small water courses for electric power generation; Mit wenig Wasser zum Fliessen bringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossberger, K.F.; Wirth, D. [Ossberger Turbinenfabrik GmbH und Co, Weissenburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    In principle, no one nowadays doubts the usefulness of small hydroelectric installations. Hydro power is a renewable energy source. Contrary to oil, gas or coal, the energy source is not consumed. Hydroelectric power generation neither gives rise to atmospheric pollution nor does it cause residual products; it is environment-friendly. Moreover, the energy used is a native one. These arguments no doubt advocate the broadest possible use of hydro power, especially also in the form of small hydroelectric installations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Grundsaetzlich gibt es heutzutage keinen Zweifel am Nutzen von Kleinkraftwerken. Die Wasserkraft ist eine regenerierbare Energiequelle. Im Gegensatz etwa zu Oel, Gas oder Kohle wird der Energietraeger Wasser beim Nutzungsvorgang nicht aufgebraucht. Die Stromerzeugung aus Wasserkraft belastet die Umwelt weder durch Luftschadstoffe noch Rueckstaende, sie ist umweltfreundlich. Und man nutzt damit einheimische Energie. Gewichtige Argumente zweifellos, die fuer eine moeglichst weitgehende Wasserkraftnutzung, gerade auch in Kleinkraftwerken, sprechen. (orig.)

  14. New Danish standards for water treatment in district heating systems; Neue daenische Vorschriften fuer die Behandlung von Wasser in Fernwaermesystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, O. [Hydro-X A/S, Hjallerup (Denmark)

    2000-12-01

    In 1999 Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening (Danish District Heating Association) updated the recommendations for water treatment for the third time which applied to feed and circulation water in at district heating plants in Denmark. It must however be stressed that no aluminium should be allowed in the system. The following recommended values apply. (orig.) [German] In Daenemark sind viele Fernwaermesysteme von energieverschwendender Kesselsteinbildung oder zerstoerender Korrosion der Rohre betroffen. Dies wurde von unzulaenglicher oder mangelhafter Behandlung des Wassers verursacht. Bei der Modernisierung aelterer Fernwaermesysteme stand die Verbesserung der Wasserqualitaet oft an erster Stelle, noch bevor irgendwelche Reparaturen an Teilabschnitten der Anlage durchgefuehrt wurden. Denn eine lange Leistungszeit kann nur dann erwartet werden, wenn die Qualitaet des Wassers die notwendigen Anforderungen erfuellt. (orig.)

  15. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  16. Testing of highly stressed floor anchoring bolts in river dams for unterwater cracks; Pruefung hochbeanspruchter Sohlverankerungslaschen in Wehranlagen auf Rissanzeigen unter Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimche, Wilfried; Bruchwald, Oliver; Zwoch, Stefan; Bach, F. Wilhelm [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Kolbusch, Rudolf [KWE Ingenieurbuero, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In the context of tests of floor anchoring bolts of the Petershagen and Drakenburg Weser river dams that were ordered by the Verden water and river transport authority, an eddy current test method was developed and tested successfully in the specific test conditions. The test unit comprised two hermetically sealed, miniaturized eddy current difference probes with premagnetisation for surface and radius testing in orthogonal tracks in order to ensure 100 percent inspection of all floor anchoring bold surfaces accessible from outside. The underwater inspection was carried out in the form of manual scans with hand-held units operated by a diver-engineer, while coordination, data recording and analysis were carried out by another inspection engineer on board a river barge. [German] Im Zuge der vom Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Verden in Auftrag gegeben Pruefung von Sohlverankerungslaschen unter Wasser auf Rissanzeigen in den Weserwehren Petershagen und Drakenburg wurde ein an die Pruefbedingungen angepasstes Wirbelstrom-Pruefsystem entwickelt und erfolgreich eingesetzt. Zum Einsatz kamen dabei zwei hermetisch geschlossene, miniaturisierte Wirbelstromdifferenzsensoren mit Vormagnetisierung fuer die Flaechen- und Radienpruefung in orthogonalen Spuren um die geforderte 100%-Pruefung aller von aussen zugaenglichen Oberflaechen der Sohlverankerungslaschen zu gewaehrleisten. Die Pruefung unter Wasser erfolgte handgefuehrt in Scantechnik, ausgefuehrt durch einen Pruefingenieur als Taucher, waehrend die Koordination, Messwertaufnahme und erste Bewertung durch einen weiteren Pruefingenieur an Bord einer Barke ueber Wasser erfolgte.

  17. Microbial degradation. Mass transfer in the system pollutant - water - sediment; Mikrobieller Abbau. Massentransfer im System Schadstoff - Wasser - Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiehm, Andreas [Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Umweltbiotechnologie und Altlasten; Kranzioch, Irene; Stoll, Claudia

    2011-09-15

    The microbial degradation of pollutants in the aquatic environment essentially is influenced by the prevailing redox conditions and mass exchange processes (bioavailability). Within a new project, the Technologiezentrum Wasser TZW (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) deals with the microbial conversion under dynamic conditions such as those expected in the area of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River. In particular, molecular-biological methods (PCR, polymerase chain reaction and DGGE Denatured gradient gel electrophoresis) are used for a targeted monitoring and further developed. The focus of the investigation initially focuses on the degradation of halogenated substances which are used as main substances for understanding the mass exchange between sediment and water as well as the microbial conversion processes. An enhanced understanding of the process and the compilation of the dynamic sales performance can be defined as a target.

  18. Influencing parameters of water and methanol transport in a big direct methanol fuel cell; Einflussgroessen auf den Wasser- und Methanoltransport einer groesseren Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonert, Morten

    2008-07-01

    . There was no effect of cathode water on the cell voltage. However, the influence of different catalysts could be clearly identified and is a major influencing factor of MEA performance. The stability of the cell voltage, on the other hand, is strongly dependent on the flow distribution structure. For example, with a single meander operation at the low air volume flows required for water autonomy is possible. Methanol permeation can be influenced and minimized via the methanol concentration on the anode as a function of current density. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden die Einflussgroessen auf den Wasser- und Methanoltransport einer groesseren Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzelle (Pel > 1 kW) untersucht. Hintergrund ist ein angestrebter wasserautarker Betrieb eines Direkt-Methanol Brennstoffzellensystems. Da bei der elektrochemischen Reaktion auf der Anode Wasser verbraucht wird und auf der Kathode dabei mehr Wasser entsteht, muss diese Differenz ueber die Luft ausgetragen werden. Alles weiter auf der Kathode anfallende Wasser muss kondensiert und der Anode zurueckgefuehrt werden. Mit zunehmender Umgebungstemperatur muss dabei der Luftvolumenstrom reduziert werden, da ansonsten mehr Wasser als erlaubt ausgetragen wuerde. Des Weiteren fuehren niedrigere Luftvolumenstroeme auf der Kathode zu einer instabilen Zellspannung, was auch einem uebermaessigen Anfall von Wasser zugeschrieben wird. Es ist daher von der Seite der Systemtechnik gewollt, die Menge des auf der Kathode anfallenden Wassers zu reduzieren. Es zeigte sich, dass die Wasserpermeation durch die Membran-Elektroden-Einheit (MEA) bei den fuer das Erreichen der Wasserautarkie notwendigen geringen Luftvolumenstroemen vorrangig von der Aufnahmekapazitaet und der Verweilzeit der Luft ueber der Kathode abhaengig ist und weniger von der Art des auf der Kathode verwendeten Materials. Die Wasserpermeation kommt bei einem Ausgleich des Konzentrationsgradienten zum Stillstand. Neben der Wasserpermeation kommt

  19. The Green scenario 2010 for a fundamental change of energy economy. Sun, wind, and water. Das Gruene Energiewende-Szenario 2010. Sonne, Wind und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, E.; Taeubner, L.; Busch, M.; Damm, W.

    1989-01-01

    This book is a joint product of the work-group energy of the parliamentary party The Greens and the Oeko-Institute Freiburg/Darmstadt. The scientific foundations for the scenario, its modelling, and its editorial treatment were elaborated by the Oeko-Institute Freiburg/Darmstadt. During numerous meetings with the authors of the Oeko-Institute and in close coordination with the work-group coal of the Greens in North-Rhine Westphalia and the Saarland, the energy work-group of the Green parliamentary party has debated the intermediate results of the investigation and has modified and more closely specified the political prerequisites. The final report by the Oeko-Institute was presented in the summer 1988 and is contained in part A of the book in revised form. Part B of the book deals with the political prerequisites and the political realization of the scenario. Chapter I is concerned with the structural aspects of a policy aiming at a fundamental change in energy matters (making energy again a concern of the municipal administration, energy services as a municipally owned enterprise). In chapter II, concrete proposals are evolved on the basis of five energy-political guidelines for bringing the scenario of the Greens on the new energy policy under way. These guidelines contain, for the first time, a comprehensive and consistent description of the political positions of the Greens regarding (brown and black) coal (3rd guideline). At the same time guideline 5, 'establishment of the solar energy economy', gives an outlook on the post-fossile energy age - a perspective, though, that exceeds by far the period of the present scenario (until 2010). (orig./UA).

  20. Thermally coated heat exchanger for the evaporation of water at low pressures; Thermisch-beschichtete Waermeuebertrager zur Verdampfung von Wasser bei niedrigen Druecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzerath, Franz; Tebruegge, Gerrit; Bardow, Andre [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik; Kalawrytinos, Stephan [PALLAS GmbH und Co.KG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Water is a refrigerant that makes high demands on heat exchangers in adsorption refrigerators, where temperature differences available for evaporation are low. Also, the evaporation properties of water are poorer at low pressures than at ambient pressure, so that nucleate boiling, for one thing, will not occur. Modern evaporators therefore have optimized tube geometries. Relevant publications as a rule suggest low-finned tubes for water evaporation as these will make use of the capillary effect to enhance heat transfer. As an alternative, this study investigates thermally coated tubes. The influence of coatings on plain and finned tubes is investigated. As heat transfer during evaporation depends strongly on wetting of the tubes, the heat transfer coefficient (k-value) is continually balanced on the basis of the water level inside the evaporator, i.e. from completely water-filled tubes to completely dry tubes. A novel test stand concept was used for this which enables easy identification of the optimum operating point. With the coatings developed, the hat transfer coefficient in plain tubes can be enhanced by a factor of 8, i.e. up to 4100 W/m{sup 2}K. By coating finned tubes, which already have good heat transfer properties, heat transfer can be enhanced by another 55% to 125%. As the new test stand concept also enables quantitative analyses of the influence of the water level on the k-value, it could be shown that k-values of less than 1000 W/m{sup 2}K can be increased up to 5500 W/m{sup 2}K by choosing optimum fluid levels. [German] Das Kaeltemittel Wasser stellt hohe Anforderungen an Waermeuebertrager in Adsorptionskaelteanlagen. Dort stehen nur geringe Temperaturdifferenzen fuer den Verdampfungsprozess zur Verfuegung. Zudem sind die Verdampfungseigenschaften von Wasser im niedrigen Druckbereich deutlich schlechter als bei Umgebungsdruck, sodass z.B. Blasensieden nicht zu erwarten ist. In modernen Verdampfern werden daher optimierte Rohrgeometrien verwendet. In

  1. Phase stability and phase equilibria in mixtures of hydrocarbons, alcohols and water; Phasenstabilitaet und Phasengleichgewichte in Gemischen aus Kohlenwasserstoffen, Alkoholen und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hradetzky, G.

    1992-07-10

    Multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons, alcohols and water are of great practical import, for example in serving as alcoholic carburettor fuels. Such applications require an exact delineation of the liquid-liquid stability bounds as a function of temperature and composition as well as of the liquid-liquid equilibria that occur after phase separation. In this study the modelling methods developed for the phase stability of complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, alcohols and water and for the LL phase equilibria of such mixtures were transposed into computer programmes. Based on a large quantity of experimental data these programmes, then, constitute condensed, materialized experience. They permit a sound calculational estimation of the majority of problems relating to the phase stability of carburettor fuels containing methanol. Beyond this the programme algorithms are principally suitable for dealing with other chemical systems. (orig./BBR) [Deutsch] Vielstoffgemische aus Kohlenwasserstoffen, Alkoholen und Wasser sind - beispielsweise unter dem Gesichtspunkt alkoholhaltiger Vergaserkraftstoffe - von hohem praktischen Interesse. Hier sind exakte Beschreibungen der Fluessig-Fluessig-Stabilitaetsgrenze in Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur und Zusammensetzung sowie der sich bei eingetretener Phasentrennung einstellenden Fluessig-Fluessig-Gleichgewichte gefordert. Die in dieser Arbeit entwickelten Modellierungsmethoden fuer die Phasenstabilitaet komplexer Gemische aus Kohlenwasserstoffen, Alkoholen und Wasser sowie fuer die LL-Phasengleichgewichte solcher Gemische wurden in Computerprogramme umgesetzt, die - basierend auf einem umfangreichen experimentellen Material - komprimierte, vergegenstaendlichte Erfahrung darstellen. Diese Programme ermoeglichen eine solide rechnerische Abschaetzung eines Grossteils aller Probleme, die mit der Phasenstabilitaet methanolhaltiger Vergaserkraftstoffe zusammenhaengen. Darueber hinaus sind die Programmalgorithmen prinzipiell auch fuer die

  2. Bionic energy system based on an air breathing chemoelectric converter (fuel cell) with biomass-derived glucose as hydrogen transfer medium and assessment of renewable glucose production; Bionisches Energiesystem auf der Basis eines luftatmenden chemoelektrischen Wandlers (Brennstoffzelle) mit Glucose aus Biomasse als Wasserstoffuebertraeger sowie Abschaetzung des Potentials an nachwachsender Glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radebold, R.; Radebold, W.

    2001-07-01

    The fundamental principles and thermodynamics of the biological energy system as well as the role of glucose and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the photosynthesis and breathing processes are briefly explained. Transposition of the principles in a bionic energy system is discussed, and resulting engineering aspects and advantages of a bionic energy system based on renewable biomass-derived glucose are shown and compared with conventional energy systems based on fossil fuels. The potential of inland production of suitable biomass is assessed. (orig./CB) [German] Funktion und Thermodynamik des biologischen Energiesystems sowie die Rollen von Glucose und H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in Photosynthese und Atmung werden kurz erlaeutert, ueber die Umsetzung dieser Prinzipien zu einem bionischen Energiesystem wird berichtet. Technische Konsequenzen und Vorteile eines bionischen Energiesystems mit Glucose aus nachwachsender Biomasse werden im Vergleich zum heutigen technischen Energiesystems mit fossilen Brennstoffen eroertert. Eine Schaetzung des heimischen Potentials an nachwachsender, fuer diese Zwecke geeigneter Biomasse wird vorgelegt: rund die Haelfte der heutigen Nutzenergie koennte ueber ein bionisches Energiesystem bereitgestellt werden. (orig.)

  3. Corrosion experiments of potential construction materials for the supercritical water oxidation of hazardous waste at 500 C, 270 bar; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Korrosion potentieller Anlagen-Werkstoffe fuer die oxidative Schadstoffzersetzung in ueberkritischem Wasser bei 500 C, 270 bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasbrenner, H.; Kraft, R.; Leistikow, S.; Casal, V.; Gegenheimer, M.; Schmidt, H.

    1994-10-01

    Different metallic materials were exposed in a refreshed autoclave system to oxygen containing supercritical water (500 h, 500 C, 270 bar) to evaluate basically their general corrosion behavior when applied as pressure tube material within an oxidation waste destruction process. Thus seventeen coupons consisting of CrNi steels, nickel base alloys, various reactive metals, and six differently coated Inconel 600 specimens were tested. The best behavior was shown by the Nickel base alloys and the hot-dip aluminium coated Inconel 600 specimens. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zum Zweck der Eignungspruefung als Behaelterwerkstoff fuer die oxidative Schadstoffzersetzung in ueberkritischem Wasser wurden verschiedene metallische Werkstoffe dem Korrosionsangriff von Druckwasser in einem Autoklavensystem mit kontinuierlichem Durchsatz von Wasser waehrend 500 h bei 500 C, 270 bar unterworfen. Dabei kamen siebzehn Blechproben aus austenitischen CrNi-Staehlen, Nickelbasislegierungen und Sonderwerkstoffen sowie sechs beschichtete Inconel 600-Proben zur Untersuchung. Beste Korrosionsbestaendigkeit zeigten die Nickelbasislegierungen und die im Tauch-Verfahren Aluminium-beschichteten Proben aus Inconel 600. (orig.)

  4. Optimisation of pollutant separation and tenside recovery from water/tenside/pollutant mixtures; Optimierung der Schadstoffabtrennung sowie der Rueckgewinnung von Tensiden aus Wasser-Tensid-Schadstoff Mischungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memminger, B.

    2001-01-01

    Arbeit effektivere und kostenguenstigere Alternativen aufgezeigt werden. Hierzu wurden mit Wasser-Tensid-Schadstoff Mischungen, welche als Modellschadstoffe Polycyclische Aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) enthielten, drei verschiedene Trenntechniken untersucht: ein Membranverfahren unter Verwendung eines permeatseitigen Schleppmittels (Petraktion), die Solventextraktion mit Petrolether als Solvens und die Adsorption mit verschiedenen Sorptionsmaterialien. (orig.)

  5. Development of biodegradable materials on the basis of renewable materials, starch, vegetable oils and natural fibres. Part 3: Derivation of starch of DS = 0.3 to 2.5. Final report; Entwicklung biologisch abbaubarer Werkstoffe auf der Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe, Staerke, Pflanzenoel und Naturfasern. T. 3: Derivatisierung der Staerke von DS=0,3 bis 2,5. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, G.; Lang, J.; Rafler, G.

    2002-01-01

    The last few years have seen rapid developments in the field of starch use in the polymer sector. Destructured starch, with suitable modifiers, can be processed into foils and formed parts by thermoplastic methods. Their properties during processing and use differ from those of conventional plastics, however. The main reason for this is the structural hydrophilia of starch and starch products, which reduces their technical applications. In this project, the fundamentals for starch-based materials with better material characteristics are to be developed in order to improve the chances of these economically and ecologically attractive materials on the market and enhance their range of applications. [German] In den letzten Jahren haben die Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Staerkeeinsatzes im Polymersektor erhebliche Fortschritte gemacht. Destrukturierte Staerken lassen sich heute unter Zusatz geeigneter Modifikatoren nach bekannten Formgebungsverfahren thermoplastisch zu Folien und Formkoerpern verarbeiten. Das Eigenschaftsprofil der staerkebasierenden Materialien entspricht jedoch nicht demjenigen konventioneller Kunststoffe. Dies betrifft sowohl die Gebrauchs- als auch die Verarbeitungseigenschaften. Wesentliche Ursache dieser fuer viele Applikationen unzureichenden Materialeigenschaften ist die strukturbedingte Hydrophilie von Staerken und daraus hergestellten Produkten. Diese Hydrophilie fuehrt dann zu einer hohen Feuchtigkeitsempfindlichkeit von staerkebasierenden Materialien, die ihre Einsatzmoeglichkeiten in technischen Bereichen erheblich einschraenkt. In dem durch die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe gefoerderten Verbundprojekt ''Entwicklung bioabbaubarer Werkstoffe auf der Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe, Staerke und Pflanzenoel'' sollen deshalb Grundlagen fuer staerkebasierende Werkstoffe bzw. Werkstoffkomponenten mit deutlich verbesserten Materialeigenschaften erarbeitet werden, um die Chancen dieser wirtschaftlich und oekologisch

  6. Rail travel with water and wind. Alternatives for more renewable energies with Germany's largest electricity consumer; Bahn fahren mit Wasser und Wind. Wege fuer mehr regenerative Energien beim groessten Stromverbraucher Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horenburg, Peter

    2012-07-01

    It is a core problem of the energy revolution: the fluctuating yields from renewable energy sources have to be integrated into the electricity supply without endangering its safety and economic feasibility. Here the Deutsche Bahn railway company provides a prime example: by 2020, the company intends to draw more than one third of the 12 billion kilowatthours it consumes each year from green electricity. Researchers have calculated that doubling the green electricity used today will increase the electricity costs by around five per cent. The German railway power grid is distinguished, however, by many unique features. (orig.)

  7. Wind Structure and Wind Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature...... of windhe interaction between wind and structures, where it is shown that wind loading depends strongly on this interaction...

  8. Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, J.C. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This evaluation of wind turbines is part of a series of Technology Evaluations of possible components and subsystems of community energy systems. Wind turbines, ranging in size from 200 W to 10 MW, are discussed as candidates for prime movers in community systems. Estimates of performance characteristics and cost as a function of rated capacity and rated wind speed are presented. Data concerning material requirements, environmental effects, and operating procedures also are given and are represented empirically to aid computer simulation.

  9. Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  10. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  11. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel Energy...

  12. Calm winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge of calm winds is of societal importance in connection with distribution pollution from natural sources (dust, volcanic gases and ash) as well as antropogenic sources. Time series from a multitude of automatic weather stations in Iceland have been explored and the climatology of calmness is established. This climatology underlines the importancec of not only abscence of large scale winds, but more importantly, the presence of surface inversions. Calmness is most frequent in summer, with secondary maxima in autumn and winter. The autumn calmness coincides with a period when frequency of synoptic scale cyclones does not increase, while the frequency of surface inversions increases rapidly. There is a very strong diurnal cycle in frequency of calm winds in the summer. The data indiates strongly that the nocturnal calmness is a result of a surface inversion, not the abscence of sea breeze. The frequency of calm winds is not only low at the coast, but also in the mountains, in spite of higher surface roughness away from the sea. The frequency of calm winds is much greater inside valleys and fjords than anywhere else. There are indications that open water in fjords has limited effect on the frequecy of calm winds along the fjord.

  13. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII...

  14. WIND TURBINES FOR WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barladean A.S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of wind turbine choice for wind power stations is examined in this paper. It is shown by comparison of parameters and characteristics of wind turbines, that for existing modes and speeds of wind in territory of Republic of Moldova it is necessary to use multi-blade small speed rotation wind turbines of fan class.

  15. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  16. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  17. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  18. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  19. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  20. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  1. Prospecting for Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  2. Careers in Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  3. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind II...

  4. Water 2010. Abstracts; Wasser 2010. Kurzreferate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the Annual Conference 2010 of the Wasserchemischen Gesellschaft (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) from 10th to 12th May, 2010, in Bayreuth (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Retention and fouling in submerged membranes and hybrid procedure (F. Saravia); (2) Fouling of organic membranes in the ultrafiltration of municipal sewage sludges (J. Haberkamp); (3) Arsenic meets NOM - On the abiotic interactions of a toxic element with natural organic material (M. Bauer); (4) Application possibilities of modern bio-analytic methods in the water chemistry? (U. Billitewski); (5) Discussion of the applicability of new reporter cell test systems for the detection of pharmaceutical active substances in water (D. Sokolis); (6) Analytics of chlorine paraffines - a priority group of materials of the European Water Framework Directive (Preparation of ISO 12010) (S. Geiss); (7) Investigation of the disinfection side products in the chlorinbation of N,N-dimethyl sulfamid (DMS) (O. Happel); (8) Development of a photometric analysis method for polyfluorinated chemicals (PFC) as a basis for a cost-effective process monitoring analytics in the galvanic industry (A. Emmel), (9) An investigation of the elution of organic trace contaminants from artificial turf into the groundwater by means of HPTLC/AMD in combination with LC-MS (S.C. Weiss); (10) From the alchemy to contaminated sites - The chemical factory Marktredwitz: It began with the production of gold, at the end it cost million Euro (R. Roeder); (11) An investigation of the influence of the water quality on the effort for drinking water purification - a statistic model (B. Skibinski); (12) Phosphate adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide: isotherm and fixed-bed column studies (A. Sperlich); (13) Advantages of an upstream bank filtration in the combination of ozonation and groundwater recharge (U. Huebner); (14) An oxidative treatment of barrage water in the purification of drinking water - Comparison of pre-ozonation, intermediar ozonation and intermediar Advanced Oxidation Process O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (H. Lutze); (15) Ozonation and Advanced Oxidation of NOM - Effect on the fouling of ceramic membranes (J. Winter); (16) The relevance of lowland moors in the material balance of watersheds (S. Pfeiffer); (17) Hydrologic control of biogeochemistry and trace gas fluxes of a minerotrophic fen (H. Knorr); (18) Dynamics of mass transport from lowland moors (C. Weyer); (19) The relevance of the hydrologic residence time in the biogeochemical processes in lowland moors (S. Frei); (20) Mobilization of solved organic carbon from wooded watersheds (S. Strohmeier); (21) Antiviral compounds in the aquatic environment - Analysis and appearance (C. Prasse); (22) Appearance and behaviour of artificial sweeteners in the waste water purification and in the drinking water purification (M. Scheurer); (23) Properties and distribution of perfluorinated substances in the environment - Models and reality (V. Gellrich); (24) Identification of odorants and flavorings after the reaction of amino acid derived DOC with chlorine (A. Gruebel); (25) Polyoxomethylene solid phase extraction for studying the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (M. Kah); (26) Specifying of chromium in waste materials and aqueous eluats (M. Delay); (27) Determination of anthropogenic markers carbamazepin in the circulation of waters by means of newly developed immuno assays (ELISA) (A. Bahlmann); (28) The behaviour, transport and toxicity of nanoparticles in te aquatic environment (S. Ottofuelling).

  5. Mit Wasser aushärtende Alginatzusammensetzungen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippel, D.; Timmerman, G.; Timmermans, J.W.; Soest, van J.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Water-hardenable alginate compositions contain as filler a combination comprising (A) cellulose or a water-insoluble derivative and (B) starch or a water-insoluble derivative, optionally together with a diatomaceous earth, perlite, talc or argillaceous earth filler. Water-hardenable alginate

  6. Tower Winds - Cape Kennedy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from Wind Gust Charts. Record contains hourly wind directions and speed with a peak wind recorded at the end of each day. Sorted by: station,...

  7. Wind Farm Power Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Haouas, Nabiha; Bertrand, Pierre R.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting annual wind power production is useful for the energy industry. Until recently, attention has only been paid to the mean annual wind power energy and statistical uncertainties on this forecasting. Recently, Bensoussan et al. (2012) have pointed that the annual wind power produced by one wind turbine is a Gaussian random variable under a reasonable set of assumptions. Moreover, they can derive both mean and quantiles of annual wind power produced by one wind ...

  8. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  9. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Yunying Pan; Danhzen Gu

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends ...

  10. Wind Power Today: Federal Wind Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-04-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  11. Wind flow through shrouded wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    THROUGH SHROUDED WIND TURBINES by Jonathan P. Scheuermann March 2017 Thesis Advisor: Muguru Chandrasekhara Second Reader: Kevin Jones THIS......CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Wall pressure distributions and cross section flow distribution on wind turbine shroud designs, determined

  12. Advanced structural wind engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work.

  13. Wind energy bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  14. Emergency wind erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  15. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data...

  16. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  17. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    wind causes the bladed -rotor turbine to rotate at low speed about the hori- zontal drive shaft that is always parallel to the force of the wind . The...current meter. Another form of a vertical axis wind turbine is a vertically straight- bladed wind turbine with cyclically pitched blades (see Figure 4.15...The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine

  18. An Icelandic wind atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  19. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  20. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  1. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  2. Wind power today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  3. Wind turbines acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Iannace, Gino

    2017-07-01

    The importance of wind turbines has increased over the last few years throughout the European Community. The European energy policy guidelines state that for the year 2020 20% of all energy must be produced by alternative energy sources. Wind turbines are an important type of energy production without petrol. A wind speed in a range from 2.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s is needed. One of the obstacles to the widespread diffusion of wind turbine is noise generation. This work presents some noise measurements of wind turbines in the South of Italy, and discusses the noise problems for the people living near wind farms.

  4. Arctic wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.)

  5. Wind Power Career Chat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Flowers

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  6. Wind energy information guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  7. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data.

  8. BOEM Wind Planning Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the most recent changes for the Wind Development Planning Areas in the Atlantic. Wind Planning Areas in this dataset represent up to six...

  9. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of airfoil profiles specifically designed for wind turbine application was initiated in the late 80’s [67, 68, 30, 15]. The first attempts to reduce airfoil noise for wind turbines made use of airfoil trailing edge serration. Themodification of airfoil shapes targeted at noise...... reduction is more recent. An important effort was produced in this direction within the SIROCCO project. This latter work involved measurements on full size wind turbines and showed that trailing edge serration may proved a viable solution for mitigating wind turbine noise though it has not been implemented...... on commercial wind turbine yet. It should be mentioned here that the attenuation of turbulent inflow noise using wavy leading edge has recently been investigated [55], but this technique has still to be further validated for practical applications. In this paper, it is proposed to optimize an airfoil which...

  10. The Irish Wind Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R. [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L. [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au)

  11. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital...... and operating expenditures, which, along with the energy produced, determine the cost of energy. A better system-level understanding of wind farms is hence of critical importance to the wind-energy industry....

  12. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  13. Denmark Wind Energy Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization....

  14. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  15. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination . Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented.

  16. Wind power outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  17. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table....

  18. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar...

  19. Power from the Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  20. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  1. Offshore wind energy developments

    OpenAIRE

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kiil, Søren; Holbøll, Joachim; Piirainen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.

  2. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    2000-01-01

    ), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

  3. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  4. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...

  5. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...

  6. Offshore wind energy developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services....

  7. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  8. Wind tipping point[Wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.

    2006-07-15

    In this article the author looks at how in five years wind energy has rapidly evolved into a mainstream industry. The United States has begun to look at wind differently - from a macroeconomic perspective.'This country is going to become increasingly committed to renewable energy, and it's not about altruism', said Alan Waxman, managing director of Goldman Sachs and Co., a financial giant that has invested $1 billion in the resource. Wind is seen not just as an environmentally benign alternative, but also as a means to solve some large problems plaguing the energy business and ultimately the United States as a whole. The last year brought record-breaking electricity rate increases, in some cases doubling consumer costs, and escalating the flight of large enterprises out of high-cost energy regions - or out of business altogether. The rate hikes were caused by hurricanes that hit the southern states and disrupted natural gas and oil operations. Adding wind power to the grid is increasingly seen as a way to limit the price shock caused by such events. Wind power reduces reliance on gas and oil-fired generation and, in particular, creates a hedge against spikes in natural gas, a fuel that increasingly sets the marginal price. Large energy users, too, are becoming aware of wind's hedging benefits. The author looks at the cost issues and how the future of wind energy in the country can be sustained as a reliable alternative fuel.

  9. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  10. Wind energy; Energia eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius Gusmao do; Lima, Jorge H. Greco; Francescutti, Fabio Gino; Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Silva, Patricia de Castro; Giannini, Marcio; Vianna Junior, Affonso [Centro de Pesquisa de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from wind energy, presenting a panoramic approaching on the state-of-art of wind energy, the evolution of the technological dynamics of the sector in Brazil, description of the wind energy technology, the environment and the wind energy, analysis of the economic viability, the strategy for the development of a Brazilian wind energy technology, the estimative for the necessary financial resources, the identification of the present barriers to the penetration of the technology, the mechanisms for the viabilization of the technology introduction.

  11. Wind energy applications guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  12. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  13. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2012-01-01

    This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high...

  14. Wind tower service lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  15. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  16. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  17. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  18. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    of innovative concepts, with proven technology for both generators and power electronics [4]. The continuously increased and concentrated electrical penetration of large wind turbines into electrical power systems inspires the designers to develop both custom generators and power electronics [5......The wind turbine technology is a very complex technology involving multidisciplinary and broad technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, mechanics, structure dynamics, meteorology as well as electrical engineering addressing the generation, transmission, and integration of wind turbines...... into the power system. Wind turbine technology has matured over the years and become the most promising and reliable renewable energy technology today. It has moved very fast, since the early 1980s, from wind turbines of a few kilowatts to today’s multimegawatt-sized wind turbines [13]. Besides their size...

  19. Offshore Wind Power Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Zeni, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Wind power development scenarios are critical when trying to assess the impact of the demonstration at national and European level. The work described in this report had several objectives. The main objective was to prepare and deliver the proper input necessary for assessing the impact of Demo 4...... – Storm management at national and European level. For that, detailed scenarios for offshore wind power development by 2020 and 2030 were required. The aggregation level that is suitable for the analysis to be done is at wind farm level. Therefore, the scenarios for offshore wind power development offer...... details about the wind farms such as: capacity and coordinates. Since the focus is on the impact of storm fronts passage in Northen Europe, the offshore wind power scenarios were estimated only for the countries at North and Baltic Sea. The sources used are public sources, mentioned in the reference list...

  20. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both......, a study made by the Danish think tank CEPOS claimed the opposite, i.e. that most of the Danish wind power has been exported in recent years. However, this claim is based on an incorrect interpretation of statistics and a lack of understanding of how the international electricity markets operate...

  1. Session: Offshore wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  2. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  3. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  4. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify...... the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases...... which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator...

  5. Research on wind energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Stefan Szewczuk Date: 10 October 2012 ? Based on its aerospace capabilities, CSIR demonstrated in 1986 on its Pretoria campus that a worthwhile amount of energy can be extracted from the wind in regions... turbines Howden?s 300 kW wind turbine on Orkney Island, Scotland ? Further CSIR?s aerospace technology demonstrators formed basis to investigate wind turbines ? CSIR was offered Howdens 300 & 750 kW turbines on Orkney & Shetland Islands...

  6. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  7. Wind and Yaw correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

  8. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Schubel; Richard J. Crossley

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection ...

  9. Wind Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2017-02-01

    This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

  10. Wind Turbine Blade Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Crossley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed review of the current state-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented, including theoretical maximum efficiency, propulsion, practical efficiency, HAWT blade design, and blade loads. The review provides a complete picture of wind turbine blade design and shows the dominance of modern turbines almost exclusive use of horizontal axis rotors. The aerodynamic design principles for a modern wind turbine blade are detailed, including blade plan shape/quantity, aerofoil selection and optimal attack angles. A detailed review of design loads on wind turbine blades is offered, describing aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, gyroscopic and operational conditions.

  11. South Baltic Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m......A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles...

  12. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  13. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  14. Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  15. Urban Wind Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Beller, Christina

    2011-01-01

    New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings. However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver a...

  16. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  17. Wind Power in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development

  18. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.; Morris, V.R.; Tomich, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites. 9 refs., 10 figs.,

  19. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  20. Wind Power Today: (2002) Wind Energy Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2002 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2002, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  1. Sensing the wind profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, A.

    2009-03-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions

  2. Wind Braking of Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Song, L. M.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L_x{<}-\\dot{E}_rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  3. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  4. Wind speed dynamical model in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model for wind speed in a wind farm. The basic purpose of the paper is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine in a farm. In this regard the governing equations of flow will be solved for the whole wind farm. In ideal circumstances......, the dynamic model for wind flow will be established. The state space variables are determined based on a fine mesh defined for the farm. The end goal of this method is to assist the development of a dynamical model of a wind farm that can be engaged for better wind farm control strategies....

  5. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  6. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  7. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  8. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  9. Nova Scotia wind atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    In order to stimulate growth of the wind energy sector in the province of Nova Scotia and to optimize the development of an important renewable energy source in the province, the Nova Scotia Department of Energy has launched the Nova Scotia wind atlas project. The atlas provides valuable information regarding the identification of the optimal locations to install wind farm turbines, both at the large utility scale level and at the private or small business levels. This article presented information on the wind atlas website and on wind resource maps. Background information on the project was presented. The wind resource maps were developed in partnership by the K.C, Irving Chair in Sustainable Development at Moncton University and the Applied Geomatics Research Group at the Nova Scotia Community College. The wind resource maps are available for viewing on the website where users can click on tile section to obtain enlarged versions of wind resource maps for different parts of the province of Nova Scotia. The maps were developed using computer modelling. 7 figs.

  10. Small Wind Information (Postcard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative maintains a website section devoted to information about small wind turbines for homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource.

  11. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  12. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  13. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  14. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...

  15. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions...

  16. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...

  17. Offshore Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis

    The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power...... system considering conventional power plants, distributed generation based on wind energy and CHP technology as well as the load and transmission facilities. In particular, the different models are used to represent two well-known test systems, the RBTS and the IEEE-RTS, and to calculate...

  18. Wind power forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Rui [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. Systems and Development System Operator; Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Delgado Domingos, Jose [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Seccao de Ambiente e Energia

    2012-07-01

    Accurate wind power forecast are needed to reduce integration costs in the electric grid caused by wind inherent variability. Currently, Portugal has a significant wind power penetration level and consequently the need to have reliable wind power forecasts at different temporal scales, including localized events such as ramps. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies used by REN to forecast wind power at national level, based on statistical and probabilistic combinations of NWP and measured data with the aim of improving accuracy of pure NWP. Results show that significant improvement can be achieved with statistical combination with persistence in the short-term and with probabilistic combination in the medium-term. NWP are also able to detect ramp events with 3 day notice to the operational planning. (orig.)

  19. Urban Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beller, Christina

    New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant...... for the installation of wind turbines in cities, with Copenhagen, DK, as example. Focus is taken on turbine with a swept area of maximum 5m2, since turbines of this size are relatively easy to be integrated in the urban space and are in the financial range for small companies as well as for private persons. Elements...

  20. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further......Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...

  1. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...... conditions. So, a new aeroelastic blade model has been derived, which includes important features of large wind turbines, yet simple enough to be suitable for analytical analysis and control design....

  2. Insuring wind energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an insurance contract that the supplier of wind energy may subscribe in order to immunize the production of electricity against the volatility of the wind speed process. The other party of the contract may be any dispatchable energy producer, like gas turbine or hydroelectric generator, which can supply the required energy in case of little or no wind. The adoption of a stochastic wind speed model allows the computation of the fair premium that the wind power supplier has to pay in order to hedge the risk of inadequate output of electricity at any time. Recursive type equations are obtained for the prospective mathematical reserves of the insurance contract and for their higher order moments. The model and the validity of the results are illustrated through a numerical example.

  3. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  4. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  5. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

    1999-08-01

    The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

  6. Satellite winds as a tool for offshore wind resource assessment: The Great Lakes Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new observational wind atlas for the Great Lakes, and proposes a methodology to combine in situ and satellite wind observations for offshore wind resource assessment. Efficient wind energy projects rely on accurate wind resource estimates, which are complex to obtain offshore...... the North American Regional Reanalysis. Generalized wind climates are obtained for each buoy and coastal site with the wind model WAsP, and combined into a single wind speed estimate for the Great Lakes region. The method of classes is used to account for the temporal sparseness in the SAR data set...

  7. Marine wind data presentation using wind transition matrix

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.J.; Gouveia, A.D.; Desai, R.G.P.

    One of the methods to simulate the random wind behaviour through time is to use historical wind data presented in the form of wind transition matrix. Here it is assumed that, the probability that the wind will shift from one direction to another...

  8. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  9. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  10. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  11. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  12. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    the DWMmodel is to model the in- stationary wind farm flow characteristics by considering wind turbine wakes as passive tracers continuously emitted from the wind farm turbines each with a downstream transport pro- cess dictated by large scale turbulent eddies (lateral and ver- tical transportation; i......]. A very satisfactory agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed. This paper finally includes additionally an analysis of the production impact caused by atmospheric stability effects. For this study, atmospheric stability conditions are defined in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length....... Three different stability classes, including stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric stratification, have been investigated....

  13. Autocorrelation of wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, D. P.; Hinton, B. B.; Howland, M. R.; Lord, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Autocorrelation and variance statistics are calculated for cloud motion measurements from four different sources, rawinsonde wind reports, synoptic land station reports, ship reports, aircraft reports, automatic aircraft reports gathered during the Global Weather Experiment, and Seasat scatterometer winds from September 1978. The last of these data sources exhibited the highest autocorrelations and lowest standard deviations over short distances. Structure function plots of autocovariances against separation distance between observations indicated that Seasat was most sensitive to wind field structure by having low autovariance at short distances.

  14. Extreme winds in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-02-01

    Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites are, from west, Skjern (15 years), Kegnaes (7 years), Sprogoe (20 years), and Tystofte (15 years). The data are ten minute averages of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The last two quantities are used to determine the air density {rho}. The data are cleaned for terrain effects by means of a slightly modified WASP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree. Assuming geotropic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity u{sub *} and direction at standard conditions by means of the geotropic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30 deg. sectors are obtained through ranking of the largest values of the friction velocity pressure 1/2{rho}u{sub *}{sup 2} taken both one every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind velocity is significantly larger at Skjern, close to the west coast of Jutland, than at any of the other sites. Irrespective of direction, the present standard estimates of 50-year wind are 25 {+-} 1 m/s at Skern and 22 {+-} 1 m/s at the other three sites. These results are in agreement with those obtained by Jensen and Franck (1970) and Abild (1994) and supports the conclusion that the wind climate at the west coast of Jutland is more extreme than in any other part of the country. Simple procedures to translate in a particular direction sector the standard basic wind velocity to conditions with a different roughness length and height are presented. It is shown that a simple scheme makes it possible to calculate the total 50-year extreme load on a general structure without

  15. Modelling of Wind Turbine Loads nearby a Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, B.; Werkmeister, A.; Jacobs, G.; Schelenz, R.

    2017-05-01

    Each wind turbine experiences a variety of loads during its lifetime, especially inside a wind farm due to the wake effect between the turbines. This paper describes a possibility to observe a load spectrum while considering wake effects in a wind farm by through the turbulence intensity. The turbulence intensity is distributed along the wind rose of Alpha Ventus. For each turbulence intensity, a Weibull characteristic is calculated. The resulting wind fields are used to determine the loads through a multibody simulation of an imaginary wind turbine located at FINO-1, representing a closely placed wind turbine at the outer edge of a wind farm. These loads are analyzed and summed up. As expected, the change of the turbulence intensity due to the wake effect has an impact on the internal loading of a wind turbine inside a wind farm. Based on the assumed loading conditions, the maximum loads increased by a factor of almost 2.5.

  16. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...... and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...

  17. Wind power plant potentials in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Safo, Prince

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the wind energy technology and the wind technology transfer to Ghana. The thesis analyses some market achievements of wind energy in the world, types and components of the wind energy technology, cooperation involved in manufacturing of the component of the wind turbine, best areas for wind turbine, types of the wind energy construction, applications of wind energy, arrangement of wind farm, environmental impact of the technology and assessment of wind energy resources in ...

  18. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  19. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Nielsen, Torben S.

    This poster presents the Public Service Obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464 "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project goal is to integrate a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model with statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on short term...... forecasting for existing wind farms, as well as long term power system planning for future wind farms....

  20. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    based on combined efficiency of the rotor and the reciprocating pump was used to estimate the performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, ...

  1. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  2. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  3. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  4. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  5. Wind Measurement LIDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wind Measurement LIDAR whose sensor assembly is composed of SPEC Gen IV LIDAR seeker, with 12.8...

  6. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate......Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...

  7. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  8. Wind Tunnel Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NASA Ames Research Center is pleased to offer the services of our premier wind tunnel facilities that have a broad range of proven testing capabilities to customers...

  9. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...

  10. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  11. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  12. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...

  13. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  14. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  15. Danish wind power in Brazil. Part 3. Brazilian wind conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, M.E.; Farias, G. [Federal Univ. of Pernambuco, Wind Energy Group (Brazil)

    1996-01-01

    The report is prepared by the Wind Energy Group/Federal University of Pernambuco for the Folkecenter/Denmark. Its principle objective is to give representative wind data measured in several parts of Brazil. Topography analysis and other factors are also included. The Wind Energy Group at the Federal University of Pernambuco works for several state utility companies with the aim of the future production of a precise wind map of several regions in Brazil; Ceara, Para, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Bahia, Minas, Gerais and Parana, and in this report wind data from these areas are presented. The wind maps are analyzed using the `Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program` (WASP) developed at Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, and the accuracy of the wind speed measurements are guaranteed by calibration of the cup anemometers. A paper about, and giving data on, trade winds in Brazil is presented in the form of an appendix. Here it is concluded that wind characteristics in the Brazilian state of Ceara are unique and that the winds are very steady indeed, there are no gusts and winds have a low turbulence intensity. The variation of direction is limited to 1/4 of the wind rose. These winds are different from those encountered in Western Europe and North America and this necessitates a new design philosophy for the rotor, yaw mechanism and control system of any wind turbines to be installed in the region. (AB)

  16. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  17. Perspectives on wind shear flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Wu, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    Wind shears originating from downbursts have been the cause of many aircraft accidents in the past two decades. In turn, this has led to considerable research on wind shear avoidance systems and wind shear recovery systems. This paper reviews recent advances in wind shear recovery systems. It summarizes the work done at Rice University on trajectory optimization and trajectory guidance for two basic flight conditions: takeoff and abort landing. It appears that, in the relatively near future, an advanced wind shear control system can be developed, that is, capable of functioning in different wind models and covering the spectrum of flight conditions having interest in a wind shear encounter.

  18. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  19. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  20. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  1. Database on Wind Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

  2. Wind interviewet til politikken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Fredag d. 29. september blev centerleder og professor ved Center for Europæisk Politik Marlene Wind interviewet til Politiken i forbindelse med det tyske forbundsvalgs betydning for EU's fremtid. Mange har spekuleret i om FDP (Freie Demokratische Partei) med deres unægtelige indflydelse på en...... kommende tysk koalition, kommer til at påvirke den tysk-franske alliance i EU-regi. Ikke hvis man spørger Marlene Wind:...

  3. Wind energy handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

    2011-01-01

    Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<

  4. Small wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Castellano, Didier

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to develop a project on installing a small wind turbine at the University of Glyndwr in Wrexham Wales. Today are immersed in a world seeking clean energy for reduce greenhouse gases because this problem is becoming a global reality. So installing a small wind turbine at the university would provide large quantity of clean energy to supply a workshop and also reduce the expulsion of CO2 into the atmosphere. The main characteristic of the turbine under...

  5. Wind turbine state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has the...

  6. Wind turbine reliability analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Pérez, Jesús María; García Márquez, Fausto Pedro; Tobias, Andrew Mark; Papaelias, Mayorkinos

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of steadily increasing wind power generation worldwide, wind turbine manufacturers are continuing to develop a range of configurations with different combinations of pitch control, rotor speeds, gearboxes, generators and converters. This paper categorizes the main designs, focusing on their reliability by bringing together and comparing data from a selection of major studies in the literature. These are not particularly consistent but plotting failure rates against hour...

  7. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

    The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

  8. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  9. Wind turbines and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C. [National Colaborating Centre for Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  11. Sensing the wind profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining...... observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Høvsøre, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed...... measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Høvsøre, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled...

  12. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  13. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  14. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  15. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  16. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  17. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm...

  18. Dynamical downscaling of wind fields for wind power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengelkamp, H.-T.; Huneke, S.; Geyer, J.

    2010-09-01

    Dynamical downscaling of wind fields for wind power applications H.-T. Mengelkamp*,**, S. Huneke**, J, Geyer** *GKSS Research Center Geesthacht GmbH **anemos Gesellschaft für Umweltmeteorologie mbH Investments in wind power require information on the long-term mean wind potential and its temporal variations on daily to annual and decadal time scales. This information is rarely available at specific wind farm sites. Short-term on-site measurements usually are only performed over a 12 months period. These data have to be set into the long-term perspective through correlation to long-term consistent wind data sets. Preliminary wind information is often asked for to select favourable wind sites over regional and country wide scales. Lack of high-quality wind measurements at weather stations was the motivation to start high resolution wind field simulations The simulations are basically a refinement of global scale reanalysis data by means of high resolution simulations with an atmospheric mesoscale model using high-resolution terrain and land-use data. The 3-dimensional representation of the atmospheric state available every six hours at 2.5 degree resolution over the globe, known as NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data, forms the boundary conditions for continuous simulations with the non-hydrostatic atmospheric mesoscale model MM5. MM5 is nested in itself down to a horizontal resolution of 5 x 5 km². The simulation is performed for different European countries and covers the period 2000 to present and is continuously updated. Model variables are stored every 10 minutes for various heights. We have analysed the wind field primarily. The wind data set is consistent in space and time and provides information on the regional distribution of the long-term mean wind potential, the temporal variability of the wind potential, the vertical variation of the wind potential, and the temperature, and pressure distribution (air density). In the context of wind power these data are used

  19. Wind power today: 1999 Wind Energy program highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, Pat

    2000-04-06

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview for the Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy for the 21st century. Content objectives include: Educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain DOE wind energy program objectives and goals; describe program accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  20. Wind Atlas of Bay of Bengal with Satellite Wind Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadi, Navila Rahman

    The objective of this study is to obtain appropriate offshore location in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh for further development of wind energy. Through analyzing the previous published works, no offshore wind energy estimation has been found here. That is why, this study can be claimed as the first...... footstep towards offshore wind energy analysis for this region. Generally, it is difficult to find offshore wind data relative to the wind turbine hub heights, therefore a starting point is necessary to identify the possible wind power density of the region. In such scenario, Synthetic aperture radars (SAR......) have proven useful. In this study, SAR based dataset- ENVISAT ASAR has been used for Wind Atlas generation. Furthermore, a comparative study has been performed with Global Wind Atlas (GWA) to determine a potential offshore wind farm. Additionally, the annual energy production of that offshore windfarm...

  1. ValidWind applications: wind power prospecting, aerosol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, T.; Marchant, A.; Apedaile, T.; Scholes, D.; Simmons, J.; Bradford, B.

    2010-10-01

    The ValidWind™ system employs an XL200 laser rangefinder to track small, lightweight, helium-filled balloons (0.33 meters, 0.015 kg). We record their trajectories (range resolution 0.5 meters) and automatically produce local wind profiles in real time. Tracking range is enhanced beyond 2 km by applying retro-reflector tape to the balloons. Aerodynamic analysis shows that ValidWind balloon motion is well coupled to the local wind within relaxation times { 1 second, due to drag forces at subcritical Reynolds numbers Re wind as opposed to being fixed in space. In a field campaign involving many balloons, slight variations in ground level winds at launch lead to trajectory patterns that we analyze to derive 3D maps of the vertical and horizontal wind profiles downwind of the launch area. Field campaigns are focused on likely sites for wind power generation and on facilities from which airborne particulates are emitted. We describe results of wind measurements in Utah near the cities of Clarkston, Logan, and Ogden. ValidWind is a relatively inexpensive wind sensor that is easily and rapidly transported and deployed at remote sites. It is an ideal instrument for wind prospecting to support early decisions required, for example, in siting meteorology towers. ValidWind provides high-resolution, real time characterization of the average and changing 3D wind fields in which wind power turbines and other remote sensors must operate.

  2. When real life wind speed exceeds design wind assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther-Jensen, M.; Joergensen, E.R. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Most modern wind turbines are designed according to a standard or a set of standards to withstand the design loads with a defined survival probability. Mainly the loads are given by the wind conditions on the site defining the `design wind speeds`, normally including extreme wind speeds given as an average and a peak value. The extreme wind speeds are normally (e.g. in the upcoming IEC standard for wind turbine safety) defined as having a 50-year recurrence period. But what happens when the 100 or 10,000 year wind situation hits a wind turbine? Results on wind turbines of wind speeds higher than the extreme design wind speeds are presented based on experiences especially from the State of Gujarat in India. A description of the normal approach of designing wind turbines in accordance with the standards in briefly given in this paper with special focus on limitations and built-in safety levels. Based on that, other possibilities than just accepting damages on wind turbines exposed for higher than design wind speeds are mentioned and discussed. The presentation does not intend to give the final answer to this problem but is meant as an input to further investigations and discussions. (au)

  3. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...... be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due...

  4. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  5. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  6. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  7. Wind energy: Overcoming inadequate wind and modeling uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Vivek

    2010-09-15

    'Green Energy' is the call of the day, and significance of Wind Energy can never be overemphasized. But the key question here is - What if the wind resources are inadequate? Studies reveal that the probability of finding favorable wind at a given place on land is only 15%. Moreover, there are inherent uncertainties associated with wind business. Can we overcome inadequate wind resources? Can we scientifically quantify uncertainty and model it to make business sense? This paper proposes a solution, by way of break-through Wind Technologies, combined with advanced tools for Financial Modeling, enabling vital business decisions.

  8. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    is minimized. The controller is practically feasible. Yet, the results on load reduction in this approach are not very significant. In the second strategy, the wind farm control problem has been divided into below rated and above rated wind speed conditions. In the above rated wind speed pitch angle and power....... Distributed controller design commences with formulating the problem, where a structured matrix approach has been put in to practice. Afterwards, an H2 control problem is implemented to obtain the controller dynamics for a wind farm such that the structural loads on wind turbines are minimized.......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage...

  9. Environmental impact of wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative...... ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions...... are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric...

  10. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  11. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richarz, W. [Aerocoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Richarz, H.

    2009-07-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  13. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...... to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  14. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  15. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    established from the on-site distribution functions of the horizontal mean wind speeds, the 90% quantile of turbulence along with average values of vertical wind shear and air density and the maximum flow inclination. This paper investigates the accuracy of fatigue loads estimated using this equivalent wind...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...... and Høvsøre in Denmark have been used to estimate the natural variation in the wind conditions between 10 min time periods. The structural wind turbine loads have been simulated using the aero-elastic model FAST. The results show that using a 90% quantile for the turbulence leads to an accurate assessment...

  16. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  17. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Alaska) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-02-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  18. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...... considering a number of foreseen real-time scenarios. The results indicate that strategic wind producer is more likely to exercise market power having a mid-mean or low-mean forecast distribution, rather than having a high-mean one. Furthermore, it is observed that its offering strategy varies considerably...

  19. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  20. Wind Power Today: 2000 Wind Energy Program Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis-Taylor, W.

    2001-05-08

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry.

  1. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure......: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...

  2. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the present mainstream development of the wind turbine technology at present. The turbine technology development trend is characterized by up-scaling to turbines with larger capacity for both onshore and offshore applications, larger rotors and new drivetrain solution...... turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  4. WindAlert

    OpenAIRE

    Raméntol Teys, David

    2016-01-01

    WindAlert és una aplicació per a dispositius Apple iPhone destinada als aficionats al Windsurf i/o al Kitesurf. La finalitat de l'aplicació és mantenir informats als seus usuaris de les condicions de vent a diferents punts del litoral, necessàries per a la pràctica de les activitats esmentades. WindAlert es una aplicación para dispositivos Apple iPhone destinada a los aficionados al Windsurf y/o al Kitesurf. La finalidad de la aplicación es mantener informados a sus usuarios de las condici...

  5. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  6. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  7. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  8. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  9. Footprints in the wind? Environmental impacts of wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoha, P. [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Cayman Islands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews the environmental impacts of wind power development and examines noise generated by wind turbines, noise control methods, visual impacts and visibility, and the impact on wildlife and natural habitat. Details are given of other impacts such as electromagnetic interference and the disposal of materials used in the manufacture of parts of wind energy converters. Political issues and social costs of wind energy are considered.

  10. 77 FR 40608 - Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC; Exelon Wind 3, LLC; Exelon Wind 4, LLC; Exelon Wind 5, LLC; Exelon Wind 6, LLC; Exelon Wind 7, LLC; Exelon Wind 8, LLC; Exelon Wind 9, LLC; Exelon Wind 10, LLC; Exelon Wind 11, LLC...

  11. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda | Sarari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any decision for the installation of wind energy infrastructures and planning for relating projects. This paper presents a branch of a composite analysis whose objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda. Statistical ...

  12. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry-standard...

  13. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  14. Wind Power Today: Wind Energy Program Highlights 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    Wind Power Today is an annual publication that provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Energy Program accomplishments for the previous year. The purpose of Wind Power Today is to show how DOE's Wind Energy Program supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2001 edition of Wind Power Today also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2001, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed regions through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  15. Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Evaluating wind power potential for a site is indispensable before making any decision for the installation of wind energy infrastructures and planning for relating projects. This paper presents a branch of a composite analysis whose objective was to investigate the potential of wind energy resource in Rwanda.

  16. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verelst, D.R.S.; Larsen, T.J.; Van Wingerden, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off the

  17. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…

  18. ACCUWIND - Accurate wind speed measurements in wind energy - Summary report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dahlberg, J.-Å.; Cuerva, A.

    2006-01-01

    The cup anemometer is at present the standard instrument used for mean wind speed measurement in wind energy. It is being applied in high numbers around the world for wind energy assessments. It is also applied exclusively for accredited power performancemeasurements for certification...

  19. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  20. Far offshore wind conditions in scope of wind energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Far offshore atmospheric conditions are favourable for wind energy purposes since mean wind speeds are relatively high (i.e., high power production) while turbulence levels are relatively low (i.e., less fatigue loads) compared to onshore conditions. Offshore wind energy, however, is still expensive

  1. 2016 Offshore Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Spitsen, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The 2016 Offshore Wind Technologies Market Report is intended to provide stakeholders with quantitative information about the offshore wind market, technology, and cost trends in the United States and worldwide.

  2. Wind energy a reference handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, PhD, David E

    2014-01-01

    While covering the fascinating history of wind power as a whole, this timely handbook focuses on current technological developments and the promise--and pitfalls--of wind energy as part of the world's energy future.

  3. VT Act 174 Wind Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The statewide wind potential layer used in the Act 174 effort represents three combined wind resource layers: Potential Residential and Small and...

  4. 2016 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the distributed wind market, along with insight into its trends and characteristics.

  5. Wind/water energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  6. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, John [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Haynes, Todd [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Seifert, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  7. Development of arctic wind technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Antikainen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The climatic conditions of Lapland set special technical requirements for wind power production. The most difficult problem regarding wind power production in arctic regions is the build-up of hard and rime ice on structures of the machine

  8. Strong winds and waves offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2016-01-01

    This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report is on the ......This report is prepared for Statoil, with the intention to introdu e DTU Wind Energy's ongoing resear h a tivities on o shore extreme wind and wave onditions. The purpose is to share our re ent ndings and to establish possible further ollaboration with Statoil. The fo us of this report...... is on the meteorologi al and o eani onditions related to storm winds and waves over the North Sea. With regard to the o shore wind energy appli ation, the parameters addressed here in lude: extreme wind and extreme waves, storm wind and waves and turbulen e issues for o shore onditions....

  9. Wind Technologies and Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robi Robichaud

    2014-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview of wind energy research being conducted at the National Wind Technology Center, market and technology trends in wind energy, and opportunities for wind technology.

  10. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  11. An Appropriate Wind Model for Wind Integrated Power Systems Reliability Evaluation Considering Wind Speed Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Karki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse environmental impacts of carbon emissions are causing increasing concerns to the general public throughout the world. Electric energy generation from conventional energy sources is considered to be a major contributor to these harmful emissions. High emphasis is therefore being given to green alternatives of energy, such as wind and solar. Wind energy is being perceived as a promising alternative. This source of energy technology and its applications have undergone significant research and development over the past decade. As a result, many modern power systems include a significant portion of power generation from wind energy sources. The impact of wind generation on the overall system performance increases substantially as wind penetration in power systems continues to increase to relatively high levels. It becomes increasingly important to accurately model the wind behavior, the interaction with other wind sources and conventional sources, and incorporate the characteristics of the energy demand in order to carry out a realistic evaluation of system reliability. Power systems with high wind penetrations are often connected to multiple wind farms at different geographic locations. Wind speed correlations between the different wind farms largely affect the total wind power generation characteristics of such systems, and therefore should be an important parameter in the wind modeling process. This paper evaluates the effect of the correlation between multiple wind farms on the adequacy indices of wind-integrated systems. The paper also proposes a simple and appropriate probabilistic analytical model that incorporates wind correlations, and can be used for adequacy evaluation of multiple wind-integrated systems.

  12. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  13. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Lange, Julia

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  14. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  15. Wind quantification in urban environments

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    There is today a real lack of scientific studies and simple design tools to understand wind flows around buildings. This research is based on a great number of CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations carried out with FLUENT software to evaluate wind comfort at pedestrian level. This paper describes first the wind comfort criteria chosen. It then develops the process used for validating FLUENT software for wind studies in dense urban environments by comparing our simulations results wit...

  16. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...

  17. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    on the HTS field winding performance were examined and verified throughout a series of Locked Armature experiments. The interaction have been defined in the terms of two (direct and quadrature) axis machine theory (Park transformation), where significant reduction of ~ 20% was observed for the rated armature...

  18. A Changing Wind Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Yaël; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Pittard, Julian M.; Parkin, Elliot Ross; Rauw, Gregor; Corcoran, Michael F.; Hillier, D. John

    2018-02-01

    We report on the first detection of a global change in the X-ray emitting properties of a wind–wind collision, thanks to XMM-Newton observations of the massive Small Magellenic Cloud (SMC) system HD 5980. While its light curve had remained unchanged between 2000 and 2005, the X-ray flux has now increased by a factor of ∼2.5, and slightly hardened. The new observations also extend the observational coverage over the entire orbit, pinpointing the light-curve shape. It has not varied much despite the large overall brightening, and a tight correlation of fluxes with orbital separation is found without any hysteresis effect. Moreover, the absence of eclipses and of absorption effects related to orientation suggests a large size for the X-ray emitting region. Simple analytical models of the wind–wind collision, considering the varying wind properties of the eruptive component in HD 5980, are able to reproduce the recent hardening and the flux-separation relationship, at least qualitatively, but they predict a hardening at apastron and little change in mean flux, contrary to observations. The brightness change could then possibly be related to a recently theorized phenomenon linked to the varying strength of thin-shell instabilities in shocked wind regions. Based on XMM-Newton and Chandra data.

  19. Extreme winds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O.

    1999-01-01

    by means of a slightly modified WAsP technique where the sector speed-up factors and roughness lengths are linearly smoothed with a direction resolution of one degree.Assuming geostrophic balance, all the wind-velocity data are transformed to friction velocity ¤u_x¤ and direction at standard conditions...

  20. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... the vibration of the whole construction, as well as the time varying loads and global case studies....

  1. Wind-energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  2. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  3. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  4. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...

  5. Offshore wind development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Offshore wind (OSW) development is a new undertaking in the US. This project is a response to : New Jerseys 2011 Energy Master Plan that envisions procuring 22.5% of the states power : originating from renewable sources by 2021. The Offshore Wi...

  6. Wind turbines and environment management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaneck, P.; Koekebakker, P.

    1983-05-01

    The environment protection and management aspects of small and large scale wind turbines are examined. Legal aspects on municipal level are discussed. The relation with regional and national management is illustrated by investigations for a planned wind energy park. It is argued that because of environment effects and long term management procedures, the establishment of wind energy generators causes many problems.

  7. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  8. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  9. Identification of wind energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the next decades wind energy is expected to secure a firm share of the total energy production capacity in many countries. To increase competitiveness of wind power with other power sources it is essential to lower the cost of wind energy. Given the design of a turbine, this objective can be

  10. The wind power of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Escobedo, Q. [Gerencia de Energias No Convencionales, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Reforma 113 Col. Palmira, C. P. 62490, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manzano-Agugliaro, F.; Zapata-Sierra, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Rural, Universidad de Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The high price of fossil fuels and the environmental damage they cause have encouraged the development of renewable energy resources, especially wind power. This work discusses the potential of wind power in Mexico, using data collected every 10 min between 2000 and 2008 at 133 automatic weather stations around the country. The wind speed, the number of hours of wind useful for generating electricity and the potential electrical power that could be generated were estimated for each year via the modelling of a wind turbine employing a logistic curve. A linear correlation of 90.3% was seen between the mean annual wind speed and the mean annual number of hours of useful wind. Maps were constructed of the country showing mean annual wind speeds, useful hours of wind, and the electrical power that could be generated. The results show that Mexico has great wind power potential with practically the entire country enjoying more than 1700 h of useful wind per year and the potential to generate over 2000 kW of electrical power per year per wind turbine installed (except for the Chiapas's State). Indeed, with the exception of six states, over 5000 kW per year could be generated by each turbine. (author)

  11. Wind Power: Options for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-03-01

    This six-page brochure outlines ways for industry to integrate wind power, including assessing wind power, building wind farms, using a developer, capitalizing on technology, enhancing the corporate image, and preparing RFPs. Company examples and information resources are also provided.

  12. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...

  13. Wind Resource Estimation using QuikSCAT Ocean Surface Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qing; Zhang, Guosheng; Cheng, Yongcun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the offshore wind resources in the East China Sea and South China Sea were estimated from over ten years of QuikSCAT scatterometer wind products. Since the errors of these products are larger close to the coast due to the land contamination of radar backscatter signal...... and the complexity of air-sea interaction processes, an empirical relationship that adjusts QuikSCAT winds in coastal waters was first proposed based on vessel measurements. Then the shape and scale parameters of Weibull function are determined for wind resource estimation. The wind roses are also plotted. Results...

  14. From local wind energy resource to national wind power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Gerrit Früh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is one of the most established renewable power resources yet it is also one of the most volatile resources. This poses a key challenge for successfully integrating wind power at a large scale into the power grid. Here we present an analysis of the time scales associated with wind power from hourly to seasonal fluctuations and how combining spatially distributed wind power sources helps to reduce its volatility. The analysis, based on observed wind speeds, is then generalised in a simple statistical model to develop a tool which can estimate the power output profile from a particular consortium of wind power sources. As the estimator only uses the local, or the mean national, wind resource and the mean distance between the sites to estimate the joint power output profile, it can be used by developers to estimate the reliability of their joint power output and to form the most effective consortium.

  15. Thuega. Wind in the forest; Thuega. Wind im Wald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the wind farms Biebersdorf and Neuerkirch. The wind farm Biebersdorf was built by Windpark Biebersdorf GmbH (Maerkische Heide, Federal Republic of Germany). It consists of fourteen wind turbines with an output of 28 MW. The annual production of this wind farm is approximately 62.4 million kWh. With this, approximately 15,600 households were supplied with clean electricity, and emissions of 50,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} were avoided. The wind farm Neuerkirch (Neuerkirch, Federal Republic of Germany) consists of eight wind turbines of Enercon E-82 E2 with a capacity of 2.3 MW, a rotor diameter of 82 meters and a hub height of 138 meters. It was built by juwi Holding AG (Woerrstadt, Federal Republic of Germany). Thuega Erneuerbare Energie GmbH and Co. KG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) acquired both wind farms.

  16. Fault tolerant wind speed estimator used in wind turbine controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Advanced control schemes can be used to optimize energy production and cost of energy in modern wind turbines. These control schemes most often rely on wind speed estimations. These designs of wind speed estimators are, however, not designed to be fault tolerant towards faults in the used sensors....... In this paper a fault tolerant wind speed estimator is designed based on a set of unknown input observers, each designed to the different sets of non-faulty sensors. Faults in the rotor, generator and wind speed sensors are considered. The designed wind speed estimator is passive tolerant towards faults...... in the wind speed sensors, and faults in the generator and rotor speed sensors are accommodated by an active fault tolerant observer scheme in which the faults are detected and identified, and the observer corresponding to the non-faulty sensors are used. The potential of the scheme is shown by applying...

  17. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori [Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  18. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2014-08-01

    This annual report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2013. This 2013 edition updates data presented in previous editions while highlighting key trends and important new developments. The report includes an overview of key installation-related trends; trends in wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States.

  19. Wind energy. Technology and Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    On this bilingual CD-ROM (English and German), we would like to offer you information on all different aspects of wind energy utilisation. Our aim is the worldwide spread of know-how on wind energy - one basic aim of WWEA. The CD-ROM and the correspondent website www.world-wind-energy.info addresses all who are interested in wind energy, especially on students and learners, staff members of administrations, companies, associations, etc, who want to inform themselves and further their education of wind energy. We hope that this CD-ROM may be use to you and we would appreciate your feedback and comments. (orig.)

  20. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  1. Electrical Aspects of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    This is the most authoritative single volume on offshore wind power yet published. Distinguished experts, mainly from Europe's leading universities, have contributed a collection of peer reviewed papers on the interfaces between wind power technology and marine engineering. The range of issues...... covered by the book include: wind as a resource; wind power generation; connection to the grid; the marine environment and engineering issues particular to it. This book is essential for academic departments of mechanical engineering/energy engineering/ renewable energy. Offshore wind power generation...

  2. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  3. Index Bioclimatic "Wind-Chill"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoreanu Elena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an important bioclimatic index which shows the influence of wind on the human body thermoregulation. When the air temperature is high, the wind increases thermal comfort. But more important for the body is the wind when the air temperature is low. When the air temperature is lower and wind speed higher, the human body is threatening to freeze faster. Cold wind index is used in Canada, USA, Russia (temperature "equivalent" to the facial skin etc., in the weather forecast every day in the cold season. The index can be used and for bioclimatic regionalization, in the form of skin temperature index.

  4. Wind Power Today and Tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-03-01

    Wind Power Today and Tomorrow is an annual publication that provides an overview of the wind research conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program. The purpose of Wind Power Today and Tomorrow is to show how DOE supports wind turbine research and deployment in hopes of furthering the advancement of wind technologies that produce clean, low-cost, reliable energy. Content objectives include: educate readers about the advantages and potential for widespread deployment of wind energy; explain the program's objectives and goals; describe the program's accomplishments in research and application; examine the barriers to widespread deployment; describe the benefits of continued research and development; facilitate technology transfer; and attract cooperative wind energy projects with industry. This 2003 edition of the program overview also includes discussions about wind industry growth in 2003, how DOE is taking advantage of low wind speed region s through advancing technology, and distributed applications for small wind turbines.

  5. Wind vanes in the antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgrén, S.; Neumann, J.

    1983-06-01

    Mesopotamia: An Akkadian tablet, the original of which was incised between about 1800 and 1600 B.C., makes explicit mention of a wind vane. Further three Sumero-Akkadian “dictionaries” have three different names for the single Akkadian name for wind vane. Since the latest period of flourishing of the Sumerian civilization took place between about 2 100 and 2000 B.C., wind vanes must have been in use in ancient Mesopotamia already about 4000 years ago, i.e. about 2000 years before the Chinese and Greeks had wind vanes. The Mesopotamian wind vanes were made of wood. China: It appears from the old Chinese literature that streamers were in use about the 2nd century B.C. in China for wind vanes. Shortly thereafter, a wind vane in the shape of a bird made of bronze is mentioned in the literature. Greece: The wind vane in the shape of a triton that was fixed, according to Vitruvius, to the top of the Tower of Winds at Athens, must have disappeared before A.D. 1436. Roman Empire: According to a passage in Dio Chrysostom's writtings, streamers appear to have been used for wind vanes. What seems to be the first wind vane in the shape of a cock, was erected in the 2nd century A.D. on the top of the mausoleum of the Flavians, in a North African province of the Roman Empire.

  6. Modeling of Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spacil, D.; Santarius, P. [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Department of Electrical Measurement, FEECS, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava- Poruba (Czech Republic); Dobrucky, B. [University of Zilina, Department of Mechatronics and Electronics, FEE, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01

    The electrical power produced by the wind power plant has increased in the last years in the world and probably will increase further in the future. Therefore, wind power plants have a significant influence on the power production. In this article the connection of the wind turbine to a grid is described in order to determine the impact of the existing wind turbines as well as planned wind turbines on the grid and ensure the proper functioning of the wind turbine. The purpose of the presented work is to find an analytical generator model for the simulation of the wind power plant and determine the influence on the grid by programming with Matlab/Simulink.

  7. Assessing high wind energy penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tande, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In order to convincingly promote installing wind power capacity as a substantial part of the energy supply system, a set of careful analyses must be undertaken. This paper applies a case study concentrated on assessing the cost/benefit of high wind energy penetration. The case study considers...... expanding the grid connected wind power capacity in Praia, the capital of Cape Verde. The currently installed 1 MW of wind power is estimated to supply close to 10% of the electric energy consumption in 1996. Increasing the wind energy penetration to a higher level is considered viable as the project...... with the existing wind power, supply over 30% of the electric consumption in 1996. Applying the recommended practices for estimating the cost of wind energy, the life-cycle cost of this 2.4 MW investment is estimated at a 7% discount rate and a 20 year lifetime to 0.26 DKK/kW h....

  8. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  9. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orell, A; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  10. Assembling Markets for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine

    This project studies the making of a market for wind power in France. Markets for wind power are often referred to as ‘political markets: On the one hand, wind power has the potential to reduce CO2-emissions and thus stall the effects of electricity generation on climate change; and on the other...... hand, as an economic good, wind power is said to suffer from (techno-economic) ‘disabilities’, such as high costs, fluctuating and unpredictable generation, etc. Therefore, because of its performance as a good, it is argued that the survival of wind power in the market is premised on different...... instruments, some of which I will refer to as ‘prosthetic devices’. This thesis inquires into two such prosthetic devices: The feed-in tariff and the wind power development zones (ZDE) as they are negotiated and practiced in France, and also the ways in which they affect the making of markets for wind power....

  11. Wind Data Analysis and Wind Flow Simulation Over Large Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terziev Angel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the share of renewable energy sources is one of the core policies of the European Union. This is because of the fact that this energy is essential in reducing the greenhouse gas emissions and securing energy supplies. Currently, the share of wind energy from all renewable energy sources is relatively low. The choice of location for a certain wind farm installation strongly depends on the wind potential. Therefore the accurate assessment of wind potential is extremely important. In the present paper an analysis is made on the impact of significant possible parameters on the determination of wind energy potential for relatively large areas. In the analysis the type of measurements (short- and long-term on-site measurements, the type of instrumentation and the terrain roughness factor are considered. The study on the impact of turbulence on the wind flow distribution over complex terrain is presented, and it is based on the real on-site data collected by the meteorological tall towers installed in the northern part of Bulgaria. By means of CFD based software a wind map is developed for relatively large areas. Different turbulent models in numerical calculations were tested and recommendations for the usage of the specific models in flows modeling over complex terrains are presented. The role of each parameter in wind map development is made. Different approaches for determination of wind energy potential based on the preliminary developed wind map are presented.

  12. Estimation of wind characteristics at potential wind energy conversion sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    A practical method has been developed and applied to the problem of determining wind characteristics at candidate wind energy conversion sites where there are no available historical data. The method uses a mass consistent wind flow model (called COMPLEX) to interpolate between stations where wind data are available. The COMPLEX model incorporates the effects of terrain features and airflow. The key to the practical application of COMPLEX to the derivation of wind statistics is the model's linearity. This allows the input data sets to be resolved into orthogonal components along the set of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The solution for each eigenvector is determined with COMPLEX; the hourly interpolated winds are then formed from linear combinations of these solutions. The procedure requires: acquisition and merger of wind data from three to five stations, application of COMPLEX to each of the seven to 11 (depending on the number of stations for which wind data are available) eigenvectors, reconstruction of the hourly interpolated winds at the site from the eigenvector solutions, and finally, estimating the wind characteristics from the simulated hourly values. The report describes the methodology and the underlying theory. Possible improvements to the procedure are also discussed.

  13. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms.

  14. Peigans plan wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The Peigan Nation of southwest Alberta will have four one-MW Nordex wind turbines installed on its land by October 1998, as the first step in a $200 million 101 MW grid-connected wind farm. The installation is a joint venture between Peigan Utilities Inc., Advanced Thermodynamics, the licencees to market the Nordex turbines, and the Sault Ste. Marie`s Batchawana Band. The joint venture is named `Weather-Dancer`. The test turbine is scheduled to be installed in August, with three more planned in October. Each turbine has a rotor of 54 metres in diameter, atop a 60-metre tower. Initially, the power will be used on the reserve through a Peigan-administered rural electrification association. The remainder of the turbines will be added as purchase contracts are signed with the Alberta Power Pool.

  15. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  16. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  17. Educational Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes an educational wind tunnel produced by the Department of Building Energetics (DBE of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. The equipment could be used for performing laboratory works and simple research. The article presents the projection of inflow and outlet velocity in the working chamber of DBE wind tunnel and carries out actual noise level measurement. The received data are compared with information on the level of noise generated by the fan considering instructions provided by the manufacturer. In order to assess the reliability of the computer program, simulation applying PHOENICS software has been conducted. The aim of modeling is to simulate a pilot model and to compare the obtained results with those of an analogous test presented in scientific articles.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Database on wind characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Fluid Mechanics Section, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Wind data with high temporal resolution exist from a variety of sites, and is in demand by windturbine designers and wind engineers. Unfortunately it has always been a problem to gain access to a suitable amount of this data, because they are available from many different sources in different formats and with very different levels of documentation and quality control. We are now in the process of gaining access to a large amount of this type of data, checking the quality of the data and putting the data at the disposition of the windturbine designer community through easy Internet access. Online search will use summary statistics calculated for each series to help in the selection of data. The selected data can then be downloaded directly to the user. 3 figs.

  19. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future......, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  20. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-07-01

    This wind energy resource atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in the country of Armenia. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. The maps portray the wind resource with high-resolution (1-km2) grids of wind power density at 50-m above ground. The wind maps were created at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using a computerized wind mapping system that uses Geographic Information System (GIS) software.

  1. In Search of the Wind Energy Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind-meteorology and w......The worldwide advancement of wind energy is putting high demands on a number of underlying technologies such as wind turbine aerodynamics, structural dynamics, gearbox design, electrical grid connections, and so on. As wind is the only fuel for wind power plants, naturally, wind...

  2. Maine coast winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  3. The Smart Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Halimi, Wissam; Salzmann, Christophe; Gillet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Remote experimentation is at the core of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics education supported by e-learning. The development and integration of remote labo- ratories in online learning activities is hindered by the inherited supporting infrastructure’s architecture and implementation. In this paper we present a remote experiment (The Smart Wind Tur- bine) built following the Smart Device Paradigm and integrated in an Inquiry Learning Space: the rich open educational resource def...

  4. Wind Energy Resource Assessment for Airborne Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Google, through its Makani project, is developing a new type of wind energy conversion device called an energy kite. Using a tethered airfoil flying in vertical loops, energy kites access stronger, more consistent wind resources at altitudes between 100-500m AGL. By eliminating mass and cost of the tower, nacelle, and gearbox of a conventional wind turbine, and by increasing the capacity factor of energy generation, energy kites promise to significantly reduce the levelized cost of wind energy. The focus of this presentation will be on the approach Makani has taken to characterize the wind resource at 100-500m, where far less study has taken place compared to the atmosphere accessed by conventional wind turbines.

  5. Dune formation under bimodal winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parteli, Eric J R; Durán, Orencio; Tsoar, Haim; Schwämmle, Veit; Herrmann, Hans J

    2009-12-29

    The study of dune morphology represents a valuable tool in the investigation of planetary wind systems--the primary factor controlling the dune shape is the wind directionality. However, our understanding of dune formation is still limited to the simplest situation of unidirectional winds: There is no model that solves the equations of sand transport under the most common situation of seasonally varying wind directions. Here we present the calculation of sand transport under bimodal winds using a dune model that is extended to account for more than one wind direction. Our calculations show that dunes align longitudinally to the resultant wind trend if the angle(w) between the wind directions is larger than 90 degrees. Under high sand availability, linear seif dunes are obtained, the intriguing meandering shape of which is found to be controlled by the dune height and by the time the wind lasts at each one of the two wind directions. Unusual dune shapes including the "wedge dunes" observed on Mars appear within a wide spectrum of bimodal dune morphologies under low sand availability.

  6. Wind farm controllers with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes wind farm controllers and wind turbine controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind farms to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet...... the conventional aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and to minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components....

  7. Wind farm controllers with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes wind farm controller and wind turbine controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind frams to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet...... the conventional aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components....

  8. Wind shear extremes at possible offshore wind turbine locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Positive and negative short-term extreme wind shear distributions (conditioned on the mean wind speed) are determined and compared for a number of offshore sites. The analysis is based on rapidly sampled field measurements (1-8 Hz) extracted from the "Database on Wind Characteristics" (www.windda...... seems to be rather conservative for an offshore location, compared to the estimated values based on measurements....

  9. Wind2050 – a transdisciplinary research partnership about wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian; Nyborg, Sophie; Clausen, Laura Tolnov

    2017-01-01

    to increase wind power installations. Another key issue is the emphasis on long-term societal interests and future possibilities regarding changes in the innovation sys-tem of wind power, i.e., how to take into account citizens’ multiple concerns regarding the impact of wind turbines on aspects...... based on an exhaustive contextual understanding of interplay, divergences and relationships between stakeholders and methods for transparent strategic priority setting in research....

  10. Development and validation of computational wind field model (Wind scape)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D.; Kim, B. -Y

    2012-01-01

    Wind field data is essential for the accurate prediction of forest fire spread. For the accurate prediction of local wind field we developed computational fluid dynamics simulation procedure. Using terrain and wind information as input data three dimensional computational mesh is automatically generated. GIS data of the format DEM(Digital Elevation Map) is directly converted to quad surface mesh and full hexahedral space mesh is automatically generated. Around this mesh we made extended compu...

  11. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens

    2012-07-15

    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Modeling wind speed and wind power distributions in Rwanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Bonfils [Department of Physics, National University of Rwanda, P.O. Box 117, Huye District, South Province (Rwanda)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of wind energy as an alternative energy source may offer many environmental and economical advantages compared to fossil fuels based energy sources polluting the lower layer atmosphere. Wind energy as other forms of alternative energy may offer the promise of meeting energy demand in the direct, grid connected modes as well as stand alone and remote applications. Wind speed is the most significant parameter of the wind energy. Hence, an accurate determination of probability distribution of wind speed values is very important in estimating wind speed energy potential over a region. In the present study, parameters of five probability density distribution functions such as Weibull, Rayleigh, lognormal, normal and gamma were calculated in the light of long term hourly observed data at four meteorological stations in Rwanda for the period of the year with fairly useful wind energy potential (monthly hourly mean wind speed anti v{>=}2 m s{sup -1}). In order to select good fitting probability density distribution functions, graphical comparisons to the empirical distributions were made. In addition, RMSE and MBE have been computed for each distribution and magnitudes of errors were compared. Residuals of theoretical distributions were visually analyzed graphically. Finally, a selection of three good fitting distributions to the empirical distribution of wind speed measured data was performed with the aid of a {chi}{sup 2} goodness-of-fit test for each station. (author)

  13. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    . The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy......This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off...

  14. Wind farm performance - Power Analysis of a wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Esquinas Herrera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Wind conditions from a wind farm situated in Ørland were analyzed based on a ten minute measurements in order to obtain the power and efficiency curves. The results from the analysis were compared with different curves provided from the company Vestas and with theoretical terms. Moreover, it was shown how is affected the power curve of the wind turbine by the wake effect of the other turbines. The different ways of plotting these curves based on wind speed either from the anemometer of the wi...

  15. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  16. 77 FR 61597 - Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Avalon Wind, LLC; Avalon Wind 2, LLC; Catalina Solar, LLC; Catalina Solar 2, LLC; Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Pacific Wind 2, LLC; Valentine Solar, LLC; EDF Renewable Development, Inc.; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on September 27, 2012, Avalon Wind...

  17. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    Decommissioning is usually the last stage of the offshore wind farm life cycle. Due to the challenges of the decommissioning process, such as the impact on the marine environment, severe weather conditions, vessel limitations and lack of operational experience, the decommissioning strategy should...... be planned to avoid complications, which ultimately can cause radical changes to the levelized cost of energy (LCoE) and the wind farm owner's business case. Instead of dismantling, repowering may be a sustainable alternative solution to extend the lifetime of a wind farm. In this paper, the research...... is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...

  18. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...

  19. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    to establish partial safety factors for design of such components against this failure mode, structuralreliability methods must be applied. This type of analysis accounts for the variability of the external (wind) loading (as addressed in the analyses of the general wind climate) - and thereby the induced......An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...

  20. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This annual report--now in its tenth year--provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation trends and then covers an array of industry and technology trends. The report also discusses project performance, wind turbine prices, project costs, operations and maintenance expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments, expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments.

  1. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    To achieve the optimal economic output from a wind farm over its lifetime, an optimal balance between capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, fatigue lifetime consumption of turbine components and power production is to be determined on a rational basis. This has implications both...... for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  2. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, M. H.; Giebel, Gregor; Nielsen, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the working title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The project commenced October 1, 2011, and the goal is to integrate a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely...... statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on long term power system planning for future wind farms as well as short term forecasting for existing wind farms. Currently, wind power fluctuation models are either purely statistical or integrated with NWP models of limited...... resolution. With regard to the latter, one such simulation tool has been developed at the Wind Energy Division, Risø DTU, intended for long term power system planning. As part of the PSO project the inferior NWP model used at present will be replaced by the state-of-the-art Weather Research & Forecasting...

  3. Intraday Trading of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Edlund, Kristian; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of a wind power producer participating in a short-term electricity market that allows for the continuous, but potentially illiquid, intraday trading of energy. Considering the realistic case of a wind farm operating in the western Danish price area of Nord Pool......, we build a simple but effective algorithm for the wind power producer to fully benefit from the Elbas intraday market. We then investigate the sensitivity of the obtained benefits to the maximum volume of energy the wind power producer is willing to trade in the intraday market, the ultimate aim...... of the trade (either to decrease energy imbalances or to increase profits) and to the installed capacity of the wind farm. Our numerical results reveal that the wind power producer can substantially increase his revenues by partaking in the intraday market but with diminishing returns to scale—a result that we...

  4. Wind Turbine Optimization with WISDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop explains the NREL wind energy systems engineering initiative-developed analysis platform and research capability to capture important system interactions to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. Topics include Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model (WISDEM) and multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization.

  5. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Wind power capacity in the United States experienced strong growth in 2016. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions have also been driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers.

  6. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus......-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  7. The winds of cataclysmic variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Lab. for Experimental Astrophysics; Raymond, J.C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-02-16

    The authors present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, they consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, they consider the properties of accretion disk wind models. Some of these models predict substantial angular momentum loss, which could affect both disk structure and binary evolution.

  8. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yin; Kong Xiangdong; Hao Li; Ai Chao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system ca...

  9. New high profitable wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Vrsalovic, Ivan [Rijekaprojekt d.o.o., Rijeka (Croatia)

    2001-11-01

    To generate more quantities of electric energy from wind it is necessary to use a new type of wind turbine built in the regulable mantle's nozzle. This wind turbine type replaces the free air stream from wind by a programmed, i.e. regulated, and partially concentrated stream of air. The nozzle shell is designed as an aerodynamically shaped ring with wings with its lower pressure side pointed towards the centre so that the lift force on each part of the wing is directed radially towards the centre. This induces centrifugal reaction force in the airflow that causes the stream field to expand strongly downstream of the rotor and includes a greater number of streamlines in the active stream in front of the rotor (upstream). Thus the nozzle forces a higher mass flow rate of air through the turbine. The higher mass flow and higher velocity reduction behind the rotor result in a higher energy output from the wind turbine in the nozzle. In this way the wind turbine efficiency is multiplied. New turbines induce more power from weaker and medium winds and their lasting time, because of the relation p = f(v{sup 3}) (i.e. the power corresponds to wind velocity raised to third power). Wind turbine nozzle produces three times more energy than conventional wind turbine. Short economic analysis for conditions of the island of Lastovo indicates that profit gained by new turbines is up to five times higher than by conventional turbines. The new wind turbine nozzle should generate interest and demand on an international market, even for regions with weaker winds. (Author)

  10. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  11. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H.-J.

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  12. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  13. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  14. Wind Power in Electrical Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, large number of wind turbines/wind farms have been installed and connected to power systems. In addition to the large centralised wind farms connected to transmission grids, many distributed wind turbines and wind farms are operated...... as distributed generators in distribution systems. This paper discusses the issues of wind turbines in distribution systems. Wind power conversion systems briefly introduced, the basic features and technical characteristics of distributed wind power system are described, and the main technical demands...

  15. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind

  16. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  17. The new European wind atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    European Wind Atlas” aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions; standing on three legs: A data bank from a series of intensive measuring campaigns; a thorough examination and redesign of the model chain from global, mesoscale to microscale models and creation of the wind atlas...... database. Although the project participants will come from the 27 member states it is envisioned that the project will be opened for global participation through test benches for model development and sharing of data – climatologically as well as experimental. Experiences from national wind atlases...... will be utilized, such as the Indian, the South African, the Finnish, the German, the Canadian atlases and others....

  18. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña, Alfredo; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy report provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind it began in year 2008 at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø) during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy...... colleagues in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Sections from DTU Wind Energy in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to continue adding more topics in future editions and to update and improve as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art ‘guideline’ available for people involved in Remote Sensing...

  19. Connecting Communities to Wind Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Edward I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-18

    WINDExchange is the platform for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Energy Technologies Office to disseminate credible wind energy information on a national level. Stakeholder engagement and outreach activities are designed to enable well-informed decisions about appropriate wind energy deployment. WINDExchange focuses on wind energy outreach at the national level while managing and supporting similar regional efforts through the implementation of DOE Regional Resource Centers (RRCs). This fact sheet provides an overview of DOE's WINDExchange initiative and the RRCs. Examples of RRC activities are provided.

  20. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  1. Wind energy prediction; Prediccion eolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiberta, B. J.; Florez, M. V. E.

    2004-07-01

    On March 12th, 2004 the Spanish Government modified the legal situation of the renewable energies following the approval of RD 436/2004. This makes necessary the development of wind energy prediction models for its entrance to the daily electricity market like the conventional energies. The improvement of physical models, meteorological models, or a combination of both, is necessary for the prediction of the wind generation. This will guarantee the wind energy full utilization and the participation in the electrical market, as well as the remuneration of the complementary services and the regulation of reactive electricity. In this way wind energy turns into a perfectly manageable one. (Author)

  2. Wind power assessment in Uruguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, J. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Mecanica de los Fluidos e Ingenieria Ambiental; Nunes, V. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Instituto de Ingeneria Electrica

    1996-09-01

    The wind power as a large alternative energy source appear in Uruguay. A nested method to obtain the mean wind velocity time series at complex terrain sites and describe the turbulence was developed. Sites with mean velocity over 9m/s and capacity factor over 40% were found. The aerodynamic interferences loss between wind generators using a numerical model were evaluated and a numerical model was developed to design an optimal cluster wind farm. As bulk result, an installed capacity of 300MW with a cost production less than 0.065U$S/kW.h can be estimated over the all studied Region. (author)

  3. Turbulent character of wind energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Patrick; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2013-03-29

    Wind turbines generate electricity from turbulent wind. Large fluctuations, and, more importantly, frequent wind gusts cause a highly fluctuating electrical power feed into the grid. Such effects are the hallmark of high-frequency turbulence. Here we show evidence that it is the complex structure of turbulence that dominates the power output for one single wind turbine as well as for an entire wind farm. We illustrate the highly intermittent, peaked nature of wind power fed into the grid. Multifractal scaling is observed, as described initially by Kolmogorov's 1962 theory of turbulence. In parallel, we propose a stochastic model that converts wind speed signals into power output signals with appropriate multifractal statistics. As more and more wind turbines become integrated into our electric grids, a proper understanding of this intermittent power source must be worked out to ensure grid stability in future networks. Thus, our results stress the need for a profound understanding of the physics of turbulence and its impact on wind energy.

  4. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  5. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, G.; Mills, A.; Rosa, A.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Tegen, S.; Musial, W.; Oteri, F.; Heimiller, D.; Rberts, B.; Belyeu, K.; Stimmel, R.

    2009-07-15

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the last year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry towards continued aggressive expansion. This rapid pace of development has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace. Yet, the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the third of an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2008. As with previous editions, this report begins with an overview of key wind power installation-related trends: trends in wind capacity growth in the U.S., how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources, the amount and percentage of wind in individual states and serving specific utilities, and the quantity of proposed wind capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind industry trends, including developments in turbine manufacturer market share, manufacturing and supply-chain investments, wind turbine and wind project size, project financing developments, and trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers. The report then turns to a discussion of wind project price, cost, and performance trends. In so doing, it reviews the price of wind power in the United States, and how those prices compare to the cost of fossil-fueled generation, as represented by wholesale power prices. It also describes trends in installed wind project costs, wind turbine transaction prices, project performance, and operations and maintenance expenses. Next, the report examines other policy and market factors impacting the

  6. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  7. Wind tunnel AVERT model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian DOBRE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The AVERT project aims to asses the oscillatory blowing on the flap for a high-lift configuration (wing with flap, and involves both experimental (low speed wind tunnel INCAS and numerical activities.At low speed the active flow control may lead to a reduction or elimination of the flow separation on the high-lift devices, such as flaps, and involves the introduction or re distribution of momentum within the boundary layer.High-lift systems utilized as particular profiles at a certain offset of the main wing may solve the disagreement between the requirements of cruise flight and landing, especially for low velocity take-off.

  8. SAT-WIND project. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Astrup, Poul; Nielsen, Niels Morten

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive...

  9. Overview of offshore wind farm configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Wu, B.; Xu, D.; Zargari, N. R.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind energy has been attracting great attention. Compared with onshore wind power systems, offshore wind power applications present significantly greater economic challenges mainly due to the required bulky and costly offshore substation. To lower the cost of offshore wind power systems, various configurations are proposed in both industry and academia. The present work investigates existing offshore wind farm configurations.

  10. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; McCarthy, E.

    2001-03-06

    This report contains the results of a wind resource analysis and mapping study for the Philippine archipelago. The study's objective was to identify potential wind resource areas and quantify the value of those resources within those areas. The wind resource maps and other wind resource characteristic information will be used to identify prospective areas for wind-energy applications.

  11. Wind and ecosystem response at the GLEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Gene L. Wooldridge; William J. Massman; Richard A. Sommerfeld

    1995-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine wind patterns and snow deposition at a high elevation alpine/subalpine ecotone site using deformation response of trees to prevailing winds. The research has provided detailed maps of wind speed, wind direction, and snow depth as determined from tree deformation. The effects of prevailing wind on tree blowdown at the site have also...

  12. Data-driven wind plant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebraad, P.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Each wind turbine in a cluster of wind turbines (a wind power plant) can influence the performance of other turbines through the wake that forms downstream of its rotor. The wake has a reduced wind velocity, since the turbine extracts energy from the flow, and the obstruction by the wind turbine

  13. Effect of Wind Direction on ENVISAT ASAR Wind Speed Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeyama, Yuko; Ohsawa, Teruo; Kozai, Katsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of effects of wind directions (NCEP, MANAL, QuickSCAT and WRF) on the sea surface wind speed retrieval from 75 ENVISAT ASAR images with four C-band Geophysical model functions, CMOD4, CMOD_IFR2, CMOD5 and CMOD5N at two target areas, Hiratsuka and Shirahama...

  14. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  15. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    and tower side-side motion, including gyroscopic effects. The models support a model-based design that includes estimators for wind speed and wave frequency. The design is applied to a number of examples representing different wind and wave conditions and successfully demonstrates a reduction...

  16. Anholt offshore wind farm winds investigated from satellite images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Volker, Patrick

    at this particular moment and the backscatter from the wind turbines is much higher than that from the sea. Therefore the wind turbines are contrasted clearly as yellow/orange dots at the Anholt wind farm. Along the Swedish coast several ships (red dots) are visible. The SAR-based wind speeds can be trusted...... at around 1 km distance from any coastline except in grid cells with wind turbines, ships and other hard targets. The grid resolution is 1 km by 1 km. The wind direction is from the south west. The satellite SAR analysis is based on ~1.000 SAR images from Envisat ASAR recorded from August 2002 to April 2012......, i.e. before the wind farm was constructed. Based on these data the wind resource is estimated. Concurrent Sentinel-1 SAR data and available SCADA and lidar data, kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners, for the period January 2013 to June 2015 account for ~70 images, while ~300 images...

  17. Aerodynamic damping of nonlinearily wind-excited wind turbine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Male, P.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first step of the derivation of an aerodynamic damping matrix that can be adopted for the foundation design of a wind turbine. A single turbine blade is modelled as a discrete mass-spring system, representing the flap and edge wise motions. Nonlinear wind forcing is applied,

  18. Database on wind characteristics - Analyses of wind turbine design loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, K.S.

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of IEA R and D Wind Annex XVII - Database on Wind Characteristics - has been to provide wind energy planners, designers and researchers, as well as the international wind engineering community in general, with a source of actual wind field data (time series and resource data) observed in a wide range of different wind climates and terrain types. Connected to an extension of the initial Annex period, the scope for the continuation was widened to include also support to the international wind turbine standardisation efforts.. The project partners are Sweden, Norway, U.S.A., The Netherlands and Denmark, with Denmark as the Operating Agent. The reporting of the continuation of Annex XVII falls in two separate parts. Part one accounts in details for the available data in the established database bank, and part two describes various data analyses performed with the overall purpose of improving the design load cases with relevance for to wind turbine structures. The present report constitutes the second part of the Annex XVII reporting. Both fatigue and extreme load aspects are dealt with, however, with the main emphasis on the latter. The work has been supported by The Ministry of Environment and Energy, Danish Energy Agency, The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM), The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE), The Swedish National Energy Administration (STEM) and The Government of the United States of America. (au)

  19. Offshore wind speed and wind power characteristics for ten ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At Athos and Mykonos, increasing linear trends were estimated. At all the stations the chosen wind turbine could produce energy for more than 70% of the time. The wind speed distribution was found to be well represented by Weibull parameters obtained using Maximum likelihood method compared to WAsP and Method of ...

  20. Improved Estimates of Moments and Winds from Radar Wind Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmus, Jonathan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ghate, Virendra P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) operates nine radar wind profilers (RWP) across its sites. These RWPs operate at 915 MHz or 1290 MHz frequency and report the first three moments of the Doppler spectrum. The operational settings of the RWP were modified in summer, 2015 to have single pulse length setting for the wind mode and two pulse length settings for the precipitation mode. The moments data collected during the wind mode are used to retrieve horizontal winds. The vendor-reported winds are available at variable time resolution (10 mins, 60 mins, etc.) and contain a significant amount of contamination due to noise and clutter. In this data product we have recalculated the moments and the winds from the raw radar Doppler spectrum and have made efforts to mitigate the contamination due to instrument noise in the wind estimates. Additionally, the moments and wind data has been reported in a harmonized layout identical for all locations and sites.

  1. Wind Energy in Poland - economic analysis of wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatowska Renata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power generation is the most dynamically developing branch of renewable energy sector in Poland. The high price of coal and its negative environmental impact result in ever growing support for the renewable energy in the energy sector. Wind power industry produces clean energy, but costs of investments are very high. Process of creating a wind farm is very long and complicated. It requires the knowledge of many disciplines such as law, economics, energetic. The aim of this paper was study the state and the development of the wind power sector, especially wind farm in Poland. The economic analysis on investment in wind farm in Poland according to a new act on renewable energy sources was presented. The subject of this analysis was to estimate profitability of wind farm project 40 MW capacity. The analysis includes the comparison of various support systems - the system of green certificates and the new - auction model on the profitability of investment in wind farm. This aims to show how important is appropriate government support for producers of green energy words.

  2. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    OpenAIRE

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    1986-01-01

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural dynamics, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission.

  3. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  4. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural...

  5. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Knudsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due to the partly unconstrained movement of the platform and ocean wave excitation. If this additional complexity is not dealt with properly, this may lead to a significant increase in the structural loads and, potentially, instability of the controlled system. In this paper, the wave excitation is investigated, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system and tower side-side motion, including gyroscopic effects. The models support a model-based design that includes estimators for wind speed and wave frequency. The design is applied to a number of examples representing different wind and wave conditions and successfully demonstrates a reduction in the structural oscillations, while improving power performance.

  6. Validation Campaigns for Sea Surface Wind and Wind Profile by Ground-Based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhishen; Wu, Songhua; Song, Xiaoquan; Liu, Bingyi; Li, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    According to the research frame of ESA-MOST DRAGON Cooperation Program (ID5291), Chinese partners from Ocean Remote Sensing Institute of Ocean University of China have carried out a serial of campaigns for ground-based lidar validations and atmospheric observations. ORSI/OUC Doppler wind lidar has been developed and deployed to accurately measure wind speed and direction over large areas in real time -- an application useful for ADM-Aeolus VAL/CAL, aviation safety, weather forecasting and sports. The sea surface wind campaigns were successfully accomplished at the Qingdao sailing competitions during the 29th Olympic Games. The lidar located at the seashore near the sailing field, and made a horizontal scan over the sea surface, making the wind measurement in real time and then uploading the data to the local meteorological station every 10 minutes. In addition to the sea surface wind campaigns, ORSI/OUC Doppler wind lidar was deployed on the wind profile observations for the China's Shenzhou 7 spacecraft landing zone weather campaigns in September 2008 in Inner Mongolia steppe. Wind profile was tracked by the mobile Doppler lidar system to help to predict the module's landing site. During above ground tests, validation lidar is tested to be able to provide an independent and credible measurement of radial wind speed, wind profile, 3D wind vector, aerosol- backscattering ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient, extinction-to-backscatter ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer and troposphere, sea surface wind vectors, which will be an independent and very effective validation tool for upcoming ADM-Aeolus project.

  7. Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Suganthi

    A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also

  8. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  9. INCAS SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu STOICA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The INCAS Subsonic Wind Tunnel is a closed circuit, continuous, atmospheric pressure facility with a maximum speed of 110 m/s. The test section is octagonal ,of 2.5 m wide, 2.0 m high and 4 m long. The tunnel is powered by a 1200 kW, air cooled variable speed DC motor which drives a 12 blade, 3.5 m diameter fan and is equipped with a six component pyramidal type external mechanical balance with a 700 Kgf maximum lift capacity.The angle of attack range is between -45º and +45º while the yaw angle range is between -140º and +216º .The data acquisition system has been modified recently to allow the recording of all test data on a PC - type computer using LABVIEW and a PXI – type chassis containing specialized data acquisition modules.The tunnel is equipped with a variable frequency electrical supply system for powered models and a 10 bar compressed air supply for pneumatic flow control applications.In the recent years the subsonic wind tunnel has been intensively used for tests within several European projects (AVERT, CESAR and others.

  10. Modelling pulsar wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In view of the current and forthcoming observational data on pulsar wind nebulae, this book offers an assessment of the theoretical state of the art of modelling them. The expert authors also review the observational status of the field and provide an outlook for future developments. During the last few years, significant progress on the study of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) has been attained both from a theoretical and an observational perspective, perhaps focusing on the closest, more energetic, and best studied nebula: the Crab, which appears in the cover. Now, the number of TeV detected PWNe is similar to the number of characterized nebulae observed at other frequencies over decades of observations. And in just a few years, the Cherenkov Telescope Array will increase this number to several hundreds, actually providing an essentially complete account of TeV emitting PWNe in the Galaxy. At the other end of the multi-frequency spectrum, the SKA and its pathfinder instruments, will reveal thousands of new pulsa...

  11. The new IEA Wind Task 36 on Wind Power Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind...... Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, …), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement...... of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power...

  12. High resolution climatological wind measurements for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    Measurements with a combined cup anemometer/wind vane instrument, developed at the Department of Meteorology in Uppsala, is presented. The instrument has a frequency response of about 1 Hz, making it suitable not only for mean wind measurements, but also for studies of atmospheric turbulence. It is robust enough to be used for climatological purposes. Comparisons with data from a hot-film anemometer show good agreement, both as regards standard deviations and the spectral decomposition of the turbulent wind signal. The cup anemometer/wind vane instrument is currently used at three sites within the Swedish wind energy research programme. These measurements are shortly described, and a few examples of the results are given. 1 ref, 10 figs

  13. Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields (nonsteady winds)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques to predict the dynamic response and the structural dynamic loads of flat plate photovoltaic arrays due to wind turbulence were analyzed. Guidelines for use in predicting the turbulent portion of the wind loading on future similar arrays are presented. The dynamic response and the loads dynamic magnification factor of the two array configurations are similar. The magnification factors at a mid chord and outer chord location on the array illustrated and at four points on the chord are shown. The wind tunnel test experimental rms pressure coefficient on which magnification factors are based is shown. It is found that the largest response and dynamic magnification factor occur at a mid chord location on an array and near the trailing edge. A technique employing these magnification factors and the wind tunnel test rms fluctuating pressure coefficients to calculate design pressure loads due to wind turbulence is presented.

  14. Analysis of Wind Energy Potential and Optimum Wind Blade Design for Jamshoro Wind Corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED UMAID ALI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is facing energy crisis since last decade. This crisis can be effectively handled by utilizing alternative energy resources. Pakistan has a huge wind energy potential of about 50,000MW. The contribution of costal area of Sindh, Pakistan in the total wind energy potential is about 43000MW. The Jamshoro wind corridor has the highest wind potential of all coastal areas of Sindh. In this paper a wind blade design has been developed and optimized for Jamshoro wind corridor. The theoretical blade design include the airfoil selection, appropriate chord length selection and optimization of twist angle. The designed blade has been analyzed using Q-blade. Considering the Jamshorowind conditions, blade of around 43 meters have been designed and optimized theoretically. Then the theoretical design is also been checked and verified in Q-blade. Theoretical optimization includes using different combinations of NACA profiles and using exhaustive iterative method to get optimized twist angle. This ensures the design with maximum power output with respect to wind speed of Jamshoro. For low wind speeds, theoretical results and simulated results in Q-blade were almost same but for high wind speeds, results were significantly different due to limitation of iterations in theoretical design

  15. Offshore wind power in the Aegean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    winds (SDW). It is planned to combine the Envisat wind fields with Sentinel-1a and Sentinel-1b wind fields to further detail the offshore wind resource within the New European Wind Atlas. The work is in progress. Sentinel-1a images are processed at DTU Wind Energy near-real-time and we are updating our...... wind resource software. A service-based on satellite SAR-derived winds for wind resource estimation is available at DTU Wind Energy. The project was supported by ESA ResGrow and satellite data from ESA Envisat and Copernicus Sentinel-1....... hub heights at around 100 m using a combination of satellite wind fields and the long-term climate of atmospheric stability from the mesoscale model (Badger et al. 2016). The result of the mean wind speed at hub-height for the Aegean Sea is shown in Figure 1. The map shows the stability dependent...

  16. Wind Program Newsletter: October 2014 Edition (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program Newsletter, supported by the EERE Wind and Water Power Technologies office, highlights the Wind Program's key activities, events, and funding opportunities.

  17. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  18. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  19. Macrobenthos in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Robbert; Glorius, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farms potentially have an effect on the benthic ecosystem. Given the plans for large-scale development of offshore wind farms on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS), understanding these effects is relevant for policy and regulations regarding these developments. Because studying the

  20. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  1. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R; Bolinger, M.

    2015-08-01

    According to the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report, total installed wind power capacity in the United States grew at a rate of eight percent in 2014, bringing the United States total installed capacity to nearly 66 gigawatts (GW), which ranks second in the world and meets 4.9 percent of U.S. end-use electricity demand in an average year. In total, 4,854 MW of new wind energy capacity were installed in the United States in 2014. The 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report also finds that wind energy prices are at an all-time low and are competitive with wholesale power prices and traditional power sources across many areas of the United States. Additionally, a new trend identified by the 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report shows utility-scale turbines with larger rotors designed for lower wind speeds have been increasingly deployed across the country in 2014. The findings also suggest that the success of the U.S. wind industry has had a ripple effect on the American economy, supporting 73,000 jobs related to development, siting, manufacturing, transportation, and other industries.

  2. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...

  3. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  4. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  5. Spatial planning of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes guidelines for spatial planning for wind power, based on experience with spatial planning in Belgium, Denmark, France and the Netherlands. In addition experiences from Germany and Ireland have been used. This guidelines quotes all decisive criteria for successful implementation of wind energy: landscape integration, stakeholders involvement, noise and distance from buildings. (author)

  6. An Experiment on Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Vincenzo; Fiordilino, Emilio; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Aglieco, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We discuss an experiment on wind energy performed with home-made apparatus. The experiment reproduces a laboratory windmill, which can pump water from a lower level to a higher one. By measuring the gain of the gravitational potential energy of the pumped water, one can determine the power extracted from the wind. The activity was carried out with…

  7. A combinatorial wind field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This report is the deliverable 2.4 in the project Distributed Control of Large-Scale Oshore Wind Farms with the acronym Aeolus. The objective of this deliverable is to provide an understanding of the wind eld model and dynamic variations superimposed on the mean eld. In this report a dynamical mo...

  8. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...

  9. MCMC for Wind Power Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Klöckl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for the direct generation of synthetic time series of wind power output. It is shown that obtaining a stochastic model directly in the wind power domain leads to reduced number of states and to lower order of the Markov chain at equal

  10. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. W...

  11. Health impact of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further

  12. Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind...... speed outside the wind field. The results show that the method is able to provide estimations which explain more than 50% of the wind turbulence from the distance of about 300 meters....

  13. Flatback airfoil wind tunnel experiment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, Edward A. (University of California, Davis, CA); van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Chao, David D. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.

    2008-04-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study of thick wind turbine section shapes in the test section of the UC Davis wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of one million is presented. The goals of this study are to validate standard wind tunnel wall corrections for high solid blockage conditions and to reaffirm the favorable effect of a blunt trailing edge or flatback on the performance characteristics of a representative thick airfoil shape prior to building the wind tunnel models and conducting the experiment. The numerical simulations prove the standard wind tunnel corrections to be largely valid for the proposed test of 40% maximum thickness to chord ratio airfoils at a solid blockage ratio of 10%. Comparison of the computed lift characteristics of a sharp trailing edge baseline airfoil and derived flatback airfoils reaffirms the earlier observed trend of reduced sensitivity to surface contamination with increasing trailing edge thickness.

  14. Wind energy conversion - An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, P. J.

    1983-12-01

    System integration studies indicate that existing utility grid systems could accept a contribution of about 20 percent of their total power from wind turbines. Similar percentages in fuel savings are envisioned for wind/diesel electricity generation systems in remote areas. An assessment of recent wind turbine development advancements indicates that 20-40 m diameter turbines, with 50-500 kW power ratings, offer the most attractive economics for land-based applications in the near future, yielding energy costs of the order of 2.8-5.6 p/kWh at sites where the annual average wind speed is 5.5 m/sec. In windier locations, the cost will be even lower. Further operational experience is required, however, to demonstrate that reliable operation can be sustained over periods of many years. As experience accumulates and economies of scale associated with mass production become available, the wind turbine market is expected to grow rapidly.

  15. Basic DTU Wind Energy controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    This report contains a description and documentation, including source code, of the basic DTU Wind Energy controller applicable for pitch-regulated, variable speed wind turbines. The controller features both partial and full load operation capabilities as well as switching mechanisms ensuring...... in the feedback. The controller relies on generator speed as the primary feedback sensor. Additionally, the reference generator power is used as a feedback term to smoothen the switching between partial and full load operation. Optionally, a low-pass filtered wind speed measurement can be used for wind speed...... dependent minimum blade pitch in partial load operation. The controller uses the collective blade pitch angle and electromagnetic generator torque to control the wind turbine. In full load operation a feedback term from the collective blade pitch angle is used to schedule the gains of the proportional...

  16. Offshore Wind Turbine Foundation Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passon, Patrik

    continued into 2015 it is even more important to drive down the costs of energy for renewable energy sources such as offshore wind energy in order to arrive at a sustainable future on a global level.Cost of energy reductions for offshore wind turbines (OWTs) can be achieved by optimizations on different......-wave correlations are typically subjected to sequential load calculation approaches in an iterative and collaborative process between foundation designer and wind turbine manufacturer. Involvement of these different design parties may be motivated by various aspects such as introduction of state-of-the-art design......Offshore wind energy has greatly matured during the last decade with an annually installed energy capacity exceeding 1 GW. A key factor for further large-scale development of offshore wind energy is a cost of energy reduction. Given for example the drop in oil price since summer 2014, which has...

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Wind Farm Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of wind farm controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind farms to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet the conventional...... aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and to minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components. To meet these aims, the idea is that the wind farm controllers use wind speed predictions....

  18. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... turbine farm based on a dynamic programming type of method....

  19. Calculation of depleted wind resources near wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wind resource maps include wind distribution, energy density and potential power production without wake effects. Adding wake effect to such maps is feasible by means of a new method based on Fourier transformation,and the extra computational work is comparable to that of the basic wind...... resource map. The method is mainly intended for mapping inter-farm wake effects. It will work for all linear wake models and may even be extended to complex terrain by certain simplifying assumptions. The method is implemented for the Park model and Fuga models. A test example shows that these models...

  20. CFD in Wind Energy: The Virtual, Multiscale Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon Sumner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, computational fluid dynamics and particularly the finite volume method have been increasingly used to predict the performance of wind turbines within their environment. Increases in available computational power has led to the application of RANS-based models to more and more complex flow problems and permitted the use of LES-based models where previously not possible. The following article reviews the development of CFD as applied by the wind energy community from small to large scale: from the flow around 2D airfoils to the flow through an entire wind farm.

  1. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, J.; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2016-01-01

    , MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users.The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely...... the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD...

  2. Offshore wind resources at Danish measurement sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Courtney, M.S.; Lange, B.; Nielsen, M.; Sempreviva, A.M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Svenson, J.; Olsen, F. [SEAS, Haslev (Denmark); Christensen, T. [Elsamprojekt, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    In order to characterise wind and turbulence characteristics at prospective offshore wind energy sites, meteorological observations from a number of purpose-built offshore monitoring sites have been analyzed and compared with long wind speed time series. New analyses have been conducted on the data sets focussing on meteorology, turbulence, extreme winds and wind and wave interactions. Relationships between wind speed, turbulence and fetch are highly complex. Minimum turbulence intensity offshore is associated with wind speeds of about 12 m/s. At lower wind speeds, stability effects are important while at higher winds speeds wind and wave interactions appear to dominate. On average, turbulence intensity offshore at 48 m height is approximately 0.08 if no coastal effects are present. However, the effect of the coastal discontinuity persists in wind speed and turbulence characteristics for considerable distances offshore. The majority of the adjustment of appears to occur within 20 km of the coast. (au)

  3. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  4. 2014 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hansen, Dana [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-06

    Wind power capacity additions in the United States rebounded in 2014, and continued growth through 2016 is anticipated. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—which is available for projects that began construction by the end of 2014. Wind additions are also being driven by recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, which have resulted in the lowest power sales prices ever seen in the U.S. wind sector. Growing corporate demand for wind energy and state-level policies play important roles as well. Expectations for continued technological advancements and cost reductions may further boost future growth. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond 2016 are uncertain. The PTC has expired, and its renewal remains in question. Continued low natural gas prices, modest electricity demand growth, and limited near-term demand from state renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have also put a damper on growth expectations. These trends, in combination with increasingly global supply chains, have limited the growth of domestic manufacturing of wind equipment. What they mean for wind power additions through the end of the decade and beyond will be dictated in part by future natural gas prices, fossil plant retirements, and policy decisions.

  5. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  6. Analysis of wind energy potential and vibrations caused by wind turbine on its basement

    OpenAIRE

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Hanslian, David; Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with study of wind energy potential and experimental measurement of vibrations caused by wind turbine. Study area was wind park Horní Loděnice – Lipina. To obtain frequency distribution of wind speed, two models were used for calculation. Experimental seismological measurement was performed in near surroundings of the wind turbine. At low wind speed without significant wind gust, only negligible vibrations were measured. Web of Science 19 3 159 151

  7. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  8. High resolution wind measurements for offshore wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son Van (Inventor); Neumann, Gregory (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, article of manufacture, and computer readable storage medium provide the ability to measure wind. Data at a first resolution (i.e., low resolution data) is collected by a satellite scatterometer. Thin slices of the data are determined. A collocation of the data slices are determined at each grid cell center to obtain ensembles of collocated data slices. Each ensemble of collocated data slices is decomposed into a mean part and a fluctuating part. The data is reconstructed at a second resolution from the mean part and a residue of the fluctuating part. A wind measurement is determined from the data at the second resolution using a wind model function. A description of the wind measurement is output.

  9. Gone with the wind? The Norwegian licencing process for wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Blindheim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (MoPE manages the licencing system for Norwegian wind power. Balancing relevant concerns in this process could be considered as Environmental Policy Integration (EPI in practical wind power policy. Wind power investments have been limited in Norway, investors have left the market and those remaining are jittery towards making investments. This article argues that the licencing system is partially responsible for this situation; the system has, over time, introduced an extra risk element for investors, challenged their patience and hampered investments. Especially MoPE’s handling of appeals has been time consuming and difficult to predict regarding final outcome. The problem is probably lack of common understanding between MoPE and Ministry of Environment (MoE on how EPI works in practical wind power policy. To speed up investments the pace in the licencing process must be increased and the criteria for balancing relevant interest must be clarified.

  10. Hurricane Wind Vector Estimates from WindSat Polarimetric Radiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Ian S; Hennon, Christopther C; Jones, W. L; Ahmad, Khalil

    2005-01-01

    .... In late 2004, the first preliminary oceanic wind vector results were released, and this paper presents the first evaluation of this product for several Atlantic hurricanes during the 2003 season...

  11. Wind biodiesel for Bonaire island; Wind-Biodiesel fuer Bonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-07-01

    Bonaire, an island of the Netherlands Antilles, will be the first Caribbean island to be supplied exclusively with power from renewable energy sources. A combined wind-biodiesel system will generate just about 14 MW from 2009. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic behavior of parked wind turbine at extreme wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totsuka, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yde, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In wind turbine design process, a series of load analysis is generally performed to determine ultimate and fatigue loads under various design load cases (DLCs) which is specified in IEC 61400. These design load scenario covers not only normal operating condition but also startup, shutdown, parked...... and other scenario which is assumed to occur during the expected lifetime of wind turbine. This research focus on vibration problem under 50-year storm conditions while rotor is parked and blades are feathered. In this parked scenario, effect of a wind direction change of up to ± 180 degrees for both cases...... of standstill and idling is analyzed by time domain simulations using two different coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic codes. Trend in modern wind turbines is development of bigger, lighter and more flexible rotors where vibration issues may cause aero-elastic instabilities which have a serious impact...

  13. Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed...... for two Tjæreborg 2 MW wind turbines in tandem with separation distances of 4D, 5D, 6D, 7D, 8D and 10D at the design wind speed of 10 m/s. The power performance of the wake turbine showed to be about 23% of the first turbine at a separation distance of 4D while its performance reached about 50% at 7D due...... to the turbulence mixing. This study hints that the optimal separation distance between neighboring turbines for offshore wind farms should be 7 rotor diameters....

  14. Grid integration of wind energy

    CERN Document Server

    Heier, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    This timely update provides detailed treatment of the integration of wind power into electrical power systems, including brand new material on offshore wind power farms and technologies This third English edition is based on new material from the fourth and fifth German editions (Windkraftanlagen: Systemauslegung, Netzintegration und Regelung, 5. Auflage, published by Teubner B.G. Gmbh, July 2009). It answers the question of how, with the proper control and direction, wind turbines can be made to operate more similarly to conventional power plants. The revised third edition addresses the engin

  15. Offshore wind power in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holttinen, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The objectives of the project were to estimate the technical offshore wind power potential of the Gulf of Bothnia, with cost assessments, to study icing conditions and ice loads, and to design a foundation suitable for the environmental conditions. The technical offshore potential from Vaasa to Tornio is huge, more than 40 TWh/a, although the cost of offshore wind power is still higher than on land. Wind turbines have not previously been designed for the icing conditions found in Gulf of Bothnia and the recommendations for load cases and siting of megawatt-class turbines are an important result of the project. (orig.)

  16. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner H.-J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  17. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  18. Introduction to wind energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner H.-J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the basic concepts of wind energy and deals with the physics and mechanics of operation. It describes the conversion of wind energy into rotation of turbine, and the critical parameters governing the efficiency of this conversion. After that it presents an overview of various parts and components of windmills. The connection to the electrical grid, the world status of wind energy use for electricity production, the cost situation and research and development needs are further aspects which will be considered.

  19. Wind energy impact of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Hölling, Michae; Ivanell, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the results of the seminar ""Wind Energy and the Impact of Turbulence on the Conversion Process"" which was supported from three societies, namely the EUROMech, EAWE and ERCOFATC and took place in Oldenburg, Germany in spring 2012.The seminar was one of the first scientific meetings devoted to the common topic of wind energy and basic turbulence. The established community of researchers working on the challenging puzzle of turbulence for decades met the quite young community of researchers, who face the upcoming challenges in the fast growing field of wind energy application

  20. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    OpenAIRE

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    1986-01-01

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical behaviour of the turbine, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission.

  1. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical...... behaviour of the turbine, loads at cut-in and braking, rotor torque at stopped condition, and noise emission....

  2. 2016 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Wind Technologies Market Report provides an annual overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market. You can find the report, a presentation, and a data file on the Files tab, below. Additionally, several data visualizations are available in the Data Visualizations tab. Highlights of this year’s report include: -Wind power additions continued at a rapid clip in 2016: $13 billion was invested in new wind power plants in 2016. In 2016, wind energy contributed 5.6% of the nation’s electricity supply, more than 10% of total electricity generation in fourteen states, and 29% to 37% in three of those states—Iowa, South Dakota, and Kansas. -Bigger turbines are enhancing wind project performance: Increased blade lengths, in particular, have dramatically increased wind project capacity factors, one measure of project performance. For example, the average 2016 capacity factor among projects built in 2014 and 2015 was 42.6%, compared to an average of 32.1% among projects built from 2004 to 2011 and 25.4% among projects built from 1998 to 2001. -Low wind turbine pricing continues to push down installed project costs: Wind turbine prices have fallen from their highs in 2008, to $800–$1,100/kW. Overall, the average installed cost of wind projects in 2016 was $1,590/kW, down $780/kW from the peak in 2009 and 2010. -Wind energy prices remain low: After topping out at nearly 7¢/kWh for power purchase agreements (PPAs) executed in 2009, the national average price of wind PPAs has dropped to around 2¢/kWh—though this nationwide average is dominated by projects that hail from the lowest-priced Interior region of the country (such as Texas, Iowa, Oklahoma). These prices, which are possible in part due to federal tax support, compare favorably to the projected future fuel costs of gas-fired generation. -The supply chain continued to adjust to swings in domestic demand for wind equipment: Wind sector employment reached a new high of

  3. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Electricity Markets and Policy Group; Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-03

    Annual wind power capacity additions in the United States surged in 2015 and are projected to continue at a rapid clip in the coming five years. Recent and projected near-term growth is supported by the industry’s primary federal incentive—the production tax credit (PTC)—having been extended for several years (though with a phase-down schedule, described further on pages 68-69), as well as a myriad of state-level policies. Wind additions are also being driven by improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technologies, yielding low power sales prices for utility, corporate, and other purchasers. At the same time, the prospects for growth beyond the current PTC cycle remain uncertain: growth could be blunted by declining federal tax support, expectations for low natural gas prices, and modest electricity demand growth. This annual report—now in its tenth year—provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation-related trends: trends in U.S. wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development; and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind power industry trends: developments in turbine manufacturer market share; manufacturing and supply-chain developments; wind turbine and component imports into and exports from the United States; project financing developments; and trends among wind power project owners and power purchasers. The report then turns to a summary of wind turbine technology trends: turbine size, hub height, rotor diameter, specific power, and IEC Class. After that, the report discusses wind power performance, cost, and pricing trends. In so doing, it describes

  4. Optimal Operation Planning of Wind Farm Installed BESS Using Wind Power Forecast Data of Wind Turbine Generators Considering Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Kazuki; Kamiyama, Shota; Palmer, Michael; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    2013-06-01

    In order to solve the problems of global warming and depletion of energy resource, renewable energy systems such as wind generation are getting attention. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed, and it is difficult to perfectly forecast wind power. This paper describes a method to use power forecast data of wind turbine generators considering wind power forecast error for optimal operation. The purpose in this paper is to smooth the output power fluctuation of a wind farm and to obtain more beneficial electrical power for selling.

  5. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  6. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

    2003-04-01

    The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine design the wind shear of the marine surface layer is an important design parameter, especially since the growing rotor diameter makes turbines more vulnerable for spatial wind speed variations. Compared to land surfaces the roughness of water is very low. It is commonly described either as a constant (as in the wind resource estimation program WAsP) or by means of the Charnock approach, relating sea surface roughness and friction velocity. While this relation works well for the open oceans it has been found inappropriate for coastal areas where waves are not fully developed. Information about the wave field is needed to model the sea surface roughness more accurately (see e.g. Johnson et al. (1998)). The atmospheric stability differs greatly between land and water areas. It is more important offshore compared to land sites due to the low surface roughness of water. The main influence of the atmospheric stability is on the vertical momentum transport, which is reflected in the vertical wind speed profile. It is usually described with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, other effects not described by this approach might also play an important role: For offshore flow the flow regime at coastal sites is affected by the land-sea discontinuity (Højstrup, 1999). An internal boundary layer develops at the coastline and an inhomogeneous flow field might develop in the coastal zone, especially in stable stratification (see e.g. (Smedman et al. (1997)) Recent data from the measurement at Rødsand, 10 km off the Danish coast in the Baltic Sea, include simultaneous wind and wave data from

  7. New England Wind Forum: A Wind Powering America Project, Newsletter #5 -- January 2010, Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, R. C.; Gifford, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind Powering America program launched the New England Wind Forum (NEWF) in 2005 to provide a single comprehensive source of up-to-date, Web-based information on a broad array of wind energy issues pertaining to New England. The NEWF newsletter provides New England stakeholders with updates on wind energy development in the region. In addition to regional updates, Issue #5 offers an interview with Angus King, former governor of Maine and co-founder of Independence Wind.

  8. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  9. Modelling Wind Turbine Inflow: The Induction Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    A wind turbine decelerates the wind in front of its rotor by extracting kinetic energy. The wind speed reduction is maximal at the rotor and negligible more than five rotor radii upfront. By measuring wind speed this far from the rotor, the turbine’s performance is determined without any rotor bi...

  10. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  11. WindVisions: first phase final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to develop a Wind and Visibility Monitoring System (WindVisions) at Mainport Schiphol. WindVisions will consist of a crosswind scintillometer, which is a horizontal long range wind and visibility sensor, and a SODAR (Sound Detecting And Ranging), a vertical

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  13. Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. S. Wagenbrenner; M. J. Germino; B. K. Lamb; R. B. Foltz; P. R. Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are largely unstudied in the post-wildfire environment, but recent studies have shown that wind erosion can play a major role in burned landscapes. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned area (Figure 1). This paper...

  14. SAT-WIND project. Final report[Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Astrup, P.; Nielsen, M. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    The SAT-WIND project 'Winds from satellites for offshore and coastal wind energy mapping and wind-indexing' was a research project funded by STVF/DSF in the years 2003 to 2006 (Sagsnr. 2058-03-0006). The goal of the project was to verify the applicability of satellite wind maps derived from passive microwave, altimeter, scatterometer and imaging Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technologies for wind energy tools for wind resources and wind-indexing. The study area was the Danish Seas including the North Sea, interior seas and the Baltic Sea. The report describes technical details on the satellite data sources including: 1) passive microwave (SSM/I, AMSR-E), 2) passive microwave polarimetric (WindSat), 3) scatterometer (ERS, QuikSCAT, Midori-2 and NSCAT), 4) altimeter (ERS, Topex, Poseidon, GFO-1, Jason-1), 5) SAR (ERS, Envisat). The SAR wind maps were treated in S-WAsP developed by Risoe National Laboratory in cooperation with GRAS A/S in the innovative project SAT-WIND-SMV (Sagsnr. 2104-05-0084) in the years 2005 and 2006 in parallel with SAT-WIND. The results from the SAT-WIND project are presented. These include ocean wind statistics, offshore wind resource estimates and comparison results for wind-indexing. (au)

  15. Optimal siting and sizing of wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinay-Iyicil, H.; Kuipers, F.A.; Guven, A. Nezih

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique to determine the optimal placement of wind farms, thereby taking into account wind characteristics and electrical grid constraints. We model the long-term variability of wind speed using a Weibull distribution according to wind direction intervals, and

  16. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...

  17. Dynamics Analysis of Wind Energy Production Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, V. I.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the introduction experience and dynamics development of the world wind energy production. Calculated the amount of wind energy sources investments and the production capacity growth dynamics of the wind turbines. The studies have shown that the introduction dynamics of new wind energy sources is higher than any other energy source.

  18. Wind Program Newsletter, May 2016 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program Newsletter provides wind industry stakeholders and the public with information about the Wind Program R&D efforts funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office. The newsletter comes out twice a year and is sent electronically to subscribers and distributed in hard copy to conference attendees.

  19. Validation of wind loading codes by experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.

    1998-01-01

    Between 1994 and 1997, full scale measurements of the wind and wind induced pressures were carried out on the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. Simultaneously, a comparative wind tunnel experiment was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. In this paper, the

  20. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned

  1. Wind loads on solar energy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, B.J.M. van; Geurts, C.P.W.; Borsboom, W.A.; Blackmore, P.

    2005-01-01

    Wind loads on solar energy systems are not covered by current wind loading standards. This paper describes results of a parametric study into the wind loads 0on solar energy systems,. which are placed on flat roofs. Wind tunnel measurements have been carried out on a number of configurations. The

  2. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  3. Aeronautical Wind Tunnels, Europe and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    site: http://sop25.kaist.ac.kr/index.html. February 2006 Page 117 of 308 European and Asian Wind Tunnels KAIST Anechoic Wind Tunnel, Korea Advanced... KAIST Anechoic Wind Tunnel.” <http://acoustic.kaist.ac.kr/research/wind.php> Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology. “Low Turbulence Open

  4. Current limiting characteristics of transformer type SFCL with coupled secondary windings according to its winding direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Dept. of Aero Materials Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this paper, the current limiting characteristics of the transformer type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with the two coupled secondary windings due to its winding direction were analyzed. To analyze the dependence of transient fault current limiting characteristics on the winding direction of the additional secondary winding, the fault current limiting tests of the SFCL with an additional secondary winding, wound as subtractive polarity winding and additive polarity winding, were carried out. The time interval of quench occurrence between two superconducting elements comprising the transformer type SFCL with the additional secondary winding was confirmed to be affected by the winding direction of the additional secondary winding. In case of the subtractive polarity winding of the additional secondary winding, the time interval of the quench occurrence in two superconducting elements was shorter than the case of the additive polarity winding.

  5. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    between Denmark and Germany when it comes to innovation pathways, both in technological and organisational innovation. In turbine technology, the similarities are the constant increase in turbine size and quality. The key difference to be found is the relative importance of different turbine designs...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing......Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...

  6. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  7. Remote Sensing for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Remote Sensing in Wind Energy Compendium provides a description of several topics and it is our hope that students and others interested will learn from it. The idea behind this compendium began in year 2008 at Risø DTU during the first PhD Summer School: Remote Sensing in Wind Energy. Thus...... in the Meteorology and Test and Measurements Programs from the Wind Energy Division at Risø DTU in the PhD Summer Schools. We hope to add more topics in future editions and to update as necessary, to provide a truly state-of-the-art compendium available for people involved in Remote Sensing in Wind Energy....

  8. COOP Wind and Radiation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and radiation data from stations in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observers Network. Some precipitation and pressure forms are mistakenly placed in...

  9. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...

  10. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry is facing uncertain times. With 2011 capacity additions having risen from 2010 levels and with a further sizable increase expected in 2012, there are – on the surface – grounds for optimism. Key factors driving growth in 2011 included continued state and federal incentives for wind energy, recent improvements in the cost and performance of wind power technology, and the need to meet an end-of-year construction start deadline in order to qualify for the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. At the same time, the currently-slated expiration of key federal tax incentives for wind energy at the end of 2012 – in concert with continued low natural gas prices and modest electricity demand growth – threatens to dramatically slow new builds in 2013.

  11. Energy from Offshore Wind: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Ram, B.

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the nascent offshore wind energy industry including a status of the commercial offshore industry and the technologies that will be needed for full market development.

  12. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  13. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...... (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...

  14. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...... (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...

  15. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  16. Starting to Explore Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Described is a simple, cheap and versatile homemade windmill and electrical generator suitable for a school class to use to explore many aspects and practicalities of using wind to generate electrical power. (Contains 8 figures.)

  17. 2009 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. wind power industry experienced yet another record year in 2009, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, 2009 was a year of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting the wind power industry and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. The year 2010, meanwhile, is anticipated to be one of some retrenchment, with expectations for fewer wind power capacity additions than seen in 2009. The rapid pace of development and change within the industry has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace, yet the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the fourth in an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the United States wind power market, with a particular focus on 2009.

  18. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have wind data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use only*...

  19. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination...... and conical scanning. The predictions are compared with the measurements from the ZephIR, WindCube, and sonic anemometers at a flat terrain test site under different atmospheric stability conditions. The sonic measurements are used at several heights on a meteorological mast in combination with lidars...... that are placed on the ground. Results show that the systematic errors are up to 90% for the vertical velocity variance, whereas they are up to 70% for the horizontal velocity variance. For the ZephIR, the systematic errors increase with height, whereas for the WindCube, they decrease with height. The systematic...

  20. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  1. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid...... correcting its wind forecast errors in a specific onshore balancing group. An analytical approach with a transmission system operator and a wind farm as stakeholders illustrates resulting incentives for strategic behaviour. Depending on the regulatory regime, they may be inclined to announce more or less......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  2. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This hasbeen done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model....... The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated throughcomparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind...

  3. Husum wind `97. Amiable and powerful. Proceedings; Husum Wind `97. Liebenswert und leistungsstark. Kongressband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Husum Fair and Congress on Wind Energy 97 wants to inform on and demonstrate the state of the art of wind energy and its potentials of development. This conference volume contains 21 papers in seven sections: Wind energy - society and environment; forum of the wind power plant manufacturers represented at the Husum Wind 97; foreign markets for wind power plants; development prospects for wind power; wind power in retrospective and relevant operating experience; panel discussion ``The amendment to the act on remuneration for power fed into the mains - wind power in the lull``; excursion to the test field WINDTEST, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. (AKF)

  4. Theory of wind accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakura N.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of wind accretion in high-mass X-ray binaries is presented. We focus attention to different regimes of quasi-spherical accretion onto the neutron star: the supersonic (Bondi accretion, which takes place when the captured matter cools down rapidly and falls supersonically toward NS magnetospghere, and subsonic (settling accretion which occurs when plasma remains hot until it meets the magnetospheric boundary. Two regimes of accretion are separated by an X-ray luminosity of about 4 × 1036 erg/s. In the subsonic case, which sets in at low luminosities, a hot quasi-spherical shell must be formed around the magnetosphere, and the actual accretion rate onto NS is determined by ability of the plasma to enter the magnetosphere due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We calculate the rate of plasma entry the magnetopshere and the angular momentum transfer in the shell due to turbulent viscosity appearing in the convective differentially rotating shell. We also discuss and calculate the structure of the magnetospheric boundary layer where the angular momentum between the rotating magnetosphere and the base of the differentially rotating quasi-spherical shell takes place. We show how observations of equilibrium X-ray pulsars Vela X-1 and GX 301-2 can be used to estimate dimensionless parameters of the subsonic settling accretion theory, and obtain the width of the magnetospheric boundary layer for these pulsars.

  5. Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosgaard, Martin; Giebel, Gregor; Skov Nielsen, Torben; Hahmann, Andrea; Sørensen, Poul; Madsen, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    This poster presents the current state of the public service obligation (PSO) funded project PSO 10464, with the title "Integrated Wind Power Planning Tool". The goal is to integrate a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model with purely statistical tools in order to assess wind power fluctuations, with focus on long term power system planning for future wind farms as well as short term forecasting for existing wind farms. Currently, wind power fluctuation models are either purely statistical or integrated with NWP models of limited resolution. Using the state-of-the-art mesoscale NWP model Weather Research & Forecasting model (WRF) the forecast error is sought quantified in dependence of the time scale involved. This task constitutes a preparative study for later implementation of features accounting for NWP forecast errors in the DTU Wind Energy maintained Corwind code - a long term wind power planning tool. Within the framework of PSO 10464 research related to operational short term wind power prediction will be carried out, including a comparison of forecast quality at different mesoscale NWP model resolutions and development of a statistical wind power prediction tool taking input from WRF. The short term prediction part of the project is carried out in collaboration with ENFOR A/S; a Danish company that specialises in forecasting and optimisation for the energy sector. The integrated prediction model will allow for the description of the expected variability in wind power production in the coming hours to days, accounting for its spatio-temporal dependencies, and depending on the prevailing weather conditions defined by the WRF output. The output from the integrated short term prediction tool constitutes scenario forecasts for the coming period, which can then be fed into any type of system model or decision making problem to be solved. The high resolution of the WRF results loaded into the integrated prediction model will ensure a high accuracy

  6. Wind Energy: Trends And Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Alam, Mansoor; Boyapati, Premchand; Chandna, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Lack, Lewis; Nims, Douglas; Wang, Lingfeng

    2010-09-15

    With attention now focused on the damaging impact of greenhouse gases, wind energy is rapidly emerging as a low carbon, resource efficient, cost-effective sustainable technology in many parts of the world. Despite higher economic costs, offshore appears to be the next big step in wind energy development alternative because of the space scarcity for installation of onshore wind turbine. This paper presents the importance of off-shore wind energy, the wind farm layout design, the off-shore wind turbine technological developments, the role of sensors and the smart grid, and the challenges and future trends of wind energy.

  7. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Oaxaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Oaxaca Wind Resource Atlas, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group, is the result of an extensive mapping study for the Mexican State of Oaxaca. This atlas identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Oaxaca. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  8. Long-Range WindScanner System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola; Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The technical aspects of a multi-Doppler LiDAR instrument, the long-range WindScanner system, are presented accompanied by an overview of the results from several field campaigns. The long-range WindScanner system consists of three spatially-separated, scanning coherent Doppler LiDARs and a remote......-rangeWindScanner system measures the wind field by emitting and directing three laser beams to intersect, and then scanning the beam intersection over a region of interest. The long-range WindScanner system was developed to tackle the need for high-quality observations of wind fields on scales of modern wind turbine...

  9. Wind energy in Bavaria; Windenergie in Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    For centuries we use the wind for our purposes. Previously, the wind was almost exclusively important for the economy, and propels windmills and merchant ships. During the 20th century, wind was used especially in leisure such as sailing, surfing and flying. Now we remind ourselves to use the wind energy to our livelihoods - in the power generation by means of wind turbines. Thanks to the financial support from the Renewable Energy Law, wind energy is utilized more and more for ten years. Meanwhile, Germany is internationally ranked third in terms of installed capacity in wind energy.

  10. 2015 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas A.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, Scott L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) annual Distributed Wind Market Report provides stakeholders with statistics and analysis of the market along with insights into its trends and characteristics. By providing a comprehensive overview of the distributed wind market, this report can help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry, utilities, federal and state agencies, and other interested parties.

  11. Active damper wind tunnel test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Active damper wind tunnel test in support of the development of Constellation/Ares. Testing of the 1% and .548% models for active damper and wall interference assessment in support of the Ares/CLV integrated vehicle. This test occurred at the 11 foot wind tunnel at the Ames Research Center, California. This image is extracted from high definition video file and is the highest resolution available.

  12. Wind Development on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Haukaas; Dale Osborn; Belvin Pete

    2008-01-18

    Background: The Rosebud Sioux Tribe (RST) is located in south central South Dakota near the Nebraska border. The nearest community of size is Valentine, Nebraska. The RST is a recipient of several Department of Energy grants, written by Distributed Generation Systems, Inc. (Disgen), for the purposes of assessing the feasibility of its wind resource and subsequently to fund the development of the project. Disgen, as the contracting entity to the RST for this project, has completed all the pre-construction activities, with the exception of the power purchase agreement and interconnection agreement, to commence financing and construction of the project. The focus of this financing is to maximize the economic benefits to the RST while achieving commercially reasonable rates of return and fees for the other parties involved. Each of the development activities required and its status is discussed below. Land Resource: The Owl Feather War Bonnet 30 MW Wind Project is located on RST Tribal Trust Land of approximately 680 acres adjacent to the community of St. Francis, South Dakota. The RST Tribal Council has voted on several occasions for the development of this land for wind energy purposes, as has the District of St. Francis. Actual footprint of wind farm will be approx. 50 acres. Wind Resource Assessment: The wind data has been collected from the site since May 1, 2001 and continues to be collected and analyzed. The latest projections indicate a net capacity factor of 42% at a hub height of 80 meters. The data has been collected utilizing an NRG 9300 Data logger System with instrumentation installed at 30, 40 and 65 meters on an existing KINI radio tower. The long-term annual average wind speed at 65-meters above ground level is 18.2 mph (8.1 mps) and 18.7 mph (8.4 mps) at 80-meters agl. The wind resource is excellent and supports project financing.

  13. How wind power landscapes change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    Following 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind energy landscapes are going to face changes. Ceased on-shore construction, unresolved re-powering and stalled regional planning characterize the situation overshadowed by off-shore development. One of the factors inhibiting development...... in general. However, the pattern of visibility will become askew, and the present homogenous distribution of visibility will disappear. This skewness, together with changing ownership and receding local involvement, could eventually lead to lower popular acceptance of wind power....

  14. 2008 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, once again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the past year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with significant federal policy changes enacted to push the industry toward continued aggressive expansion. This report examines key trends.

  15. On the Escarpment Wind Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Peterson, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that miscellaneous theories for flow over low ridges give results consistent with each other and that these results can be used to quantify certain observed features of the wind profile downwind from an escarpment......It is shown that miscellaneous theories for flow over low ridges give results consistent with each other and that these results can be used to quantify certain observed features of the wind profile downwind from an escarpment...

  16. Maintenance – Wind Energy Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaranarayanan, Vairamayil

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates issues like maintenance problems, key factors, maintenance challenges, maintenance solutions and practical difficulties in wind energy. In this case, surveys and interviews have been taken from several companies and maintenance experts, to find most prevailing problems and problem-solving methods since last few years. It helps to show, how the energy maintenance has been developed in past few years. Also it analyses the impact of fourth generation maintenance in wind ...

  17. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  18. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  19. Benchmarking U.S. Small Wind Costs with the Distributed Wind Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The objective of this report is to benchmark costs for small wind projects installed in the United States using a distributed wind taxonomy. Consequently, this report is a starting point to help expand the U.S. distributed wind market by informing potential areas for small wind cost-reduction opportunities and providing a benchmark to track future small wind cost-reduction progress.

  20. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling...

  1. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    is high, wake losses are proportionally larger and decrease to be virtually undetectable at wind speeds above rated wind speeds. Wind direction is also critical. Not only does it determine the effective spacing between turbines but also the wind speed distribution is primarily determined by synoptic......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...... forcing and typically has a predominant direction from which wind speeds tend to be higher (from southwest for much of the central United States and northern Europe). Two other interlinked variables, turbulence intensity (TI), and atmospheric stability also dictate wake losses. Quantifying, understanding...

  2. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  3. Wind Extraction for Natural Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Tadeu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Kumar, Rajan; Ordonez, Juan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the depletion of energy resources and the environmental impact of pollution and unsustainable energy resources, energy consumption has become one of the main concerns in our rapidly growing world. Natural ventilation, a traditional method to remove anthropogenic and solar heat gains, proved to be a cost-effective, alternative method to mechanical ventilation. However, while natural ventilation is simple in theory, its detailed design can be a challenge, particularly for wind-driven ventilation, which its performance highly involves the buildings' form, surrounding topography, turbulent flow characteristics, and climate. One of the main challenges with wind-driven natural ventilation schemes is due to the turbulent and unpredictable nature of the wind around the building that impose complex pressure loads on the structure. In practice, these challenges have resulted in founding the natural ventilation mainly on buoyancy (rather than the wind), as the primary force. This study is the initial step for investigating the physical principals of wind extraction over building walls and investigating strategies to reduce the dependence of the wind extraction on the incoming flow characteristics and the target building form.

  4. Foundations for offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, B W; Houlsby, G T

    2003-12-15

    An important engineering challenge of today, and a vital one for the future, is to develop and harvest alternative sources of energy. This is a firm priority in the UK, with the government setting a target of 10% of electricity from renewable sources by 2010. A component central to this commitment will be to harvest electrical power from the vast energy reserves offshore, through wind turbines or current or wave power generators. The most mature of these technologies is that of wind, as much technology transfer can be gained from onshore experience. Onshore wind farms, although supplying 'green energy', tend to provoke some objections on aesthetic grounds. These objections can be countered by locating the turbines offshore, where it will also be possible to install larger capacity turbines, thus maximizing the potential of each wind farm location. This paper explores some civil-engineering problems encountered for offshore wind turbines. A critical component is the connection of the structure to the ground, and in particular how the load applied to the structure is transferred safely to the surrounding soil. We review previous work on the design of offshore foundations, and then present some simple design calculations for sizing foundations and structures appropriate to the wind-turbine problem. We examine the deficiencies in the current design approaches, and the research currently under way to overcome these deficiencies. Designs must be improved so that these alternative energy sources can compete economically with traditional energy suppliers.

  5. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models for unce......Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  6. Manzanita Wind Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trisha Frank

    2004-09-30

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. Manzanita has explored the wind resource potential on tribal land and developed a business plan by means of this wind energy feasibility project, which enables Manzanita to make informed decisions when considering the benefits and risks of encouraging large-scale wind power development on their lands. Technical consultant to the project has been SeaWest Consulting, LLC, an established wind power consulting company. The technical scope of the project covered the full range of feasibility assessment activities from site selection through completion of a business plan for implementation. The primary objectives of this feasibility study were to: (1) document the quality and suitability of the Manzanita Reservation as a site for installation and long-term operation of a commercially viable utility-scale wind power project; and, (2) develop a comprehensive and financeable business plan.

  7. China Wind Power Outlook 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li; Pengfei, Shi; Hu, Gao [Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA, Beijing (China)

    2010-10-15

    China's wind power can reach 230 GW of installed capacity by 2020, which is equal to 13 times the current capacity of the Three Gorges Dam; its annual electricity output of 464.9 TWh could replace 200 coal fire power plants. In 2009, China led the world in newly installed wind-energy devices, reaching a capacity of 13.8 GW (10,129 turbines) - a rate of one new turbine every hour. In terms of overall capacity, China ranks second, at 25.8 GW. The report projects that by 2020, China's total wind power capacity will reach at least 150GW, possibly up to 230GW, which, if realized, could cut 410 million tons of CO2 emission, or 150 million tons of coal consumption. Compared to multinationals, many Chinese companies are young and lack a strong basis for research and development. Despite a renewable energy policy requiring grid companies to purchase all electricity from wind farms, access to wind power for the grid is frequently lagging behind an unstable, out-dated grid infrastructure. There is also the problem of a lack of incentives and penalties for grid companies, and slow progress in more wind energy technologies.

  8. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  9. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  10. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and three-turbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  11. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T.; Brask, M.H. [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F.V.; Raben, N. [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J. [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L. [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P.E. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  12. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2011-02-15

    A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)

  13. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  14. An Overview of Offshore Wind Farm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    For offshore wind energy to be viable, the design of wind turbines is not the only important factor—rather, the design of wind farms is also crucial. The current chapter discusses the challenges of designing an optimum wind farm and identifies the various factors that need to be considered. Lastly......, the chapter presents the novel EERA-DTOC tool for designing offshore wind farm clusters....

  15. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind...... to power system security. An overview of ancillary services provided by wind turbine technology nowadays is provided, i.e., fault ride-through capability, reactive power supply and frequency-active power control....

  16. Modeling and Control of Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Arturo Soriano; Wen Yu; Jose de Jesus Rubio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the energy production by wind turbines has been increasing, because its production is environmentally friendly; therefore, the technology developed for the production of energy through wind turbines brings great challenges in the investigation. This paper studies the characteristics of the wind turbine in the market and lab; it is focused on the recent advances of the wind turbine modeling with the aerodynamic power and the wind turbine control with the nonlinear, fu...

  17. Downscaling of Airborne Wind Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fechner, U.; Schmehl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne wind energy systems provide a novel solution to harvest wind energy from altitudes that can not be reached by wind turbines with a similar nominal generator power. The use of a lightweight but strong tether in place of an expensive tower provides an additional cost advantage, next to the higher capacity factor and much lower total mass. This paper investigates the scaling eects of airborne wind energy systems. The energy yield of airborne wind energy systems, that work in pumping mod...

  18. Wind farm repowering: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva, L. [Renewable Energy Eng. (Spain); Canas, M.; Gomez, E.; Pujante, A [Renewable Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Control Eng. (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Wind farm repowering involves the replacement of smaller and middle sized wind turbines, with state-of-the-art multi-megawatt turbines. In this paper, a detailed study of the repowering of a wind farm is presented, by computing the generated active power from existing wind turbines and the new ones. The active power generated with the wind turbines are totalized to obtain the yearly generated energy and analyzed, thus economic studies take the repowering cost into account too. (au)

  19. Data mining for wind power forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Fugon, Lionel; Juban, Jérémie; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Short-term forecasting of wind energy production up to 2-3 days ahead is recognized as a major contribution for reliable large-scale wind power integration. Increasing the value of wind generation through the improvement of prediction systems performance is recognised as one of the priorities in wind energy research needs for the coming years. This paper aims to evaluate Data Mining type of models for wind power forecasting. Models that are examined include neural netw...

  20. SMES for wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium