WorldWideScience

Sample records for wind turbine developed

  1. Learning in wind turbine development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Linda Manon

    2002-01-01

    Both the Netherlands and Denmark started to develop wind energy in the 1970s. Reasons were the oil crisis and the Club of Rome report, which warned of imminent shortages of traditional energy sources like oil and gas. Both countries started this development around 1975 and their governments gave

  2. Status of large scale wind turbine technology development abroad?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LI; Lei DUAN

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the large scale (multi-megawatt) wind turbine development in China, the foreign e?orts and achievements in the area are reviewed and summarized. Not only the popular horizontal axis wind turbines on-land but also the o?shore wind turbines, vertical axis wind turbines, airborne wind turbines, and shroud wind turbines are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive comment and assessment about the basic work principle, economic aspects, and environmental impacts of turbines.

  3. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Ecodesign framework for developing wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Skelton, Kristen; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    such as workshops, pilots, interviews and life cycle assessment were applied. The ecodesign framework was aligned with the company's formal product lifecycle management process. When combined with life cycle assessment, the framework can identify potential environmental improvements and contribute to coherent......Despite a wind turbines perceived environmental benefits, there are still many improvements that can be made in the product development process to improve its environmental performance across life cycles. This is especially important as the wind power industry continues to grow, both in volume...... and size, in response to increasing global market demands. Planning, implementing, monitoring, documenting and communicating product related environmental activities of wind turbines in a life cycle management context is the focal point of this article. The development and application of an ecodesign...

  5. Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges......, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines...... to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines...

  6. Wind Turbine Development at Montana State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Douglas S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Riddle, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Nelson, Jared [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.; Peterson, William [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-23

    A survey of wind turbine blade manufacturers, repair companies, wind farm operators, and third party investigators has directed the focus of this investigation on several types of flaws commonly found in wind turbine blades: waviness and porosity/voids. Several commercial scale wind turbine blades were inspected for the development of metrics for the identification, analysis and disposition. Analysis of flaw geometries yielded metrics which utilize specific parameters to physically characterize a defect. Data as it relates flaw parameters to frequencies of occurrence have been complied. Basic statistical analysis shows that the frequency of flaw parameters generally follows standard distributions. A testing program was then developed around this flaw data. Results from static testing indicate that there is strong correlation between flaw parameters and mechanical response. Preliminary results from the in-field data collection effort and coupon level testing have established a protocol by which a defect in a blade can be characterized quantifiably. With this data it is possible to develop probabilistic analysis, damage progression models and criticality assessment tools that will enable improved blade design methodology and the development of a risk management framework which describes the probability of failure for blades with defects.

  7. Economic feasibility of developing wind turbines in Aligoodarz, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Kasra; Mostafaeipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Three hourly long term measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 for city of Aligoodarz in Iran was analyzed. • Wind power density and wind energy density of the region were estimated using Weibull distribution. • Performance of six different wind turbine models were analyzed. • Economic evaluation was performed and installing of E-3120 (50 kW) model turbine was suggested. - Abstract: This study evaluates the economic feasibility of electricity generation using wind turbines in city of Aligoodarz situated in the west part of Iran. For this purpose, the wind energy potential and its characteristics were assessed in terms of diurnal, monthly and annual analysis using five years measured wind speed data from 2005 to 2009 at 10 m height. The analysis results specified a nearly stable wind pattern in different hours and months of the year which demonstrated more suitability of the region for wind energy harnessing to meet the electricity demand in all time intervals throughout the year. According to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) wind power classification, the wind resource in Aligoodarz falls in class 3 and the location was recognized as a moderate location for wind energy development. The economic feasibility of six different wind turbines with rated powers ranging from 20 to 150 kW was evaluated. Among all turbines examined, the E-3120 wind turbine was introduced as the most attractive option for installation

  8. Landscape impact assessment for wind turbine development in Dyfed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, C.; White, S.; Thomas, B.; Osment, F.

    1994-01-01

    The study aims to identify those areas in Dyfed where, in terms of landscape impact, local authorities might seek to exclude or encourage wind turbine development, provide guidelines which will assist local authorities in judging the impact of wind turbine developments on the landscape and provide a basis and framework for the preparation of planning policy guidelines for acceptable wind turbine and wind farm developments in Dyfed. The study context reviews current Government energy and planning policies for the encouragement of wind turbine developments. Dyfed County Council's relevant Structure Plan policies are also considered, as are the new draft policies relating directly to wind energy released by other authorities. The sizes and status of planning applications are summarised and the landscape implications and precedent set by the test case at Mynydd-y-Cemais is discussed. Public perception of wind power is reviewed in the context of research in Europe and the USA. (author)

  9. Development of superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors......; and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are, however, not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down to somewhere...

  10. Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors (LTS); one is based on high temperature superconductors...... (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down...

  11. Power control for wind turbines in weak grids: Concepts development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    will make wind power more firm and possible to connect to weaker grids. So, when the concept is matured, theexpectation is that for certain wind power installations, the cost of the power control is paid back as added wind power capacity value and saved grid reinforcement costs. Different systems...... and analyze methods and technologies for making it viable to utilize more of the wind potential in remote areas. The suggestion is to develop a power control concept for wind turbines which will even out thepower fluctuations and make it possible to increase the wind energy penetration. The main options...... are to combine wind power with a pumped hydro power storage or with an AC/DC converter and battery storage. The AC/DC converter can either be an "add-on" typeor it can be designed as an integrated part of a variable speed wind turbine. The idea is that combining wind power with the power control concept...

  12. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 2: Power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gerdes, G.

    2001-01-01

    The present report describes the work done in the power quality subtask of the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments project funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality subtask has been to make recommendations andprovide background for new standards...... for measurement and testing of wind turbine power quality. The focus in the work has been to support the ongoing standardisation work in IEC with a new standard IEC61400-21 for measurement and assessment of powerquality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines. The work has also been based on the power...... quality measuremnet procedure in the Measnet cooperation of European test stations for wind turbines. The first working item of the project has been toverify the state of the art of the measurement procedures by analyses and comparisons of the measurements and data processing software of the participating...

  13. U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliore, P.G.; Calvert, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind-turbine development activities in the Unites States and relates those activities to market conditions and projections. Several factors are responsible for a surge in wind energy development in the United States, including a federal production tax credit, ''green power'' marketing, and improving cost and reliability. More development is likely, as approximately 363 GW of new capacity will be needed by 2020 to meet growing demand and replace retiring units. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is helping two companies develop next-generation turbines intended to generate electricity for $0.025/kWh or less. We expect to achieve this objective through a combination of improved engineering methods and configuration advancements. This should ensure that wind power will compete effectively against advanced combined-cycle plants having projected generating costs of $0.031/kWh in 2005. To address the market for small and intermediate-size wind turbines, DOE is assisting five companies in their attempts to develop new turbines having low capital cost and high reliability. Additional information regarding U.S. wind energy programs is available on the internet site www.nrel.gov/wind/. E-mail addresses for the turbine manufacturers are found in the Acknowledgements

  14. Prospects for development of wind turbines with orthogonal rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D. N.; Krivospitsky, V. P.

    2008-03-01

    The experimental data obtained previously on the investigation of power characteristics and the possibility of the self-start of the Darrieus rotor are anlysed. These results are used at the design of new two-tier wind turbines with straight blades. The full-scale tests of two design variants showed the prospects for the development of wind turbines with the Darrieus rotor. At a reasonable design, they do not need any devices for the rotor orientation and start-up, are little sensitive to wind gusts and can have a high level of power characteristics, which is not inferior to the best samples of the units of propeller type.

  15. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  16. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  17. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  18. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  19. Wind Turbine and Power Production, the Danish Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjems, Joergen; Oester, Flemming

    2007-07-01

    The progress within the Danish wind energy sector in Denmark is reviewed. Excluding minor intermission periods the R and D development of electricity producing wind turbines has taken place continuously for more than 100 years in Denmark. After the first oil crisis in 1973 this development accelerated and has led to a remarkable scientific and commercial success. For a few years turbines in Denmark have been producing electricity corresponding to almost 20% of the Danish demand. Danish manufacturers produce components and export turbines in large quantities, amounting in 2005 to a total capacity of about 3.8 GW which is about one third of the world market. Important present day R&D topics are offshore technology and interaction between turbines and the grid, including the ability of turbines to contribute to regulation and stabilization of the power system. These questions are crucial when handling fluctuating electricity production in networks with large fractions of wind energy and CHP power production. In the future, a main point may be storage of wind energy, e.g. in the form of hydrogen produced by fuel cells. (auth)

  20. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  1. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  2. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  3. A REVIEW ON COUNTER-ROTATING WIND TURBINES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPRINA G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On a dynamic energy market characterized by the constant energy demand increase and economic as well as environmental constraints, the study and development of efficient conversion systems of wind’s energy has been approached by a considerable number of researchers. Given the modern economic and environmental challenges regarding the energy production and consumption, an advance in the research of innovative or improved wind energy conversion solutions has been registered. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive, but not exhaustive overview of research achievements in counter-rotating wind turbine systems development, characterization and use. The review presents the first theoretical results that led to the counterrotating wind turbines development as well as the related methods used for investigating their performance. Valuable results have been found within various studies, which are carried out for different testing systems and conditions. Furthermore, there is still need of extensive studies, taking into account that the counter-rotating wind turbines have to prove their reliability in real operating conditions.

  4. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  5. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  6. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Electronics Engineering, Prof. ... In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion ... the wind turbine simulator is used as a necessary tool in research laboratories.

  7. Design and development of nautilus whorl-wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Pramod; Kumar, G. B. Veeresh; Harsha, P. Sai Sri; Kumar, K. A. Udaya

    2017-07-01

    Our life is directly related to energy and its consumption, and the issues of energy research are extremely important and highly sensitive. Scientists and researchers attempt to accelerate solutions for wind energy generation, design parameters under the influence of novel policies adopted for energy management and the concerns for global warming and climate change. The objective of this study is to design a small wind turbine that is optimized for the constraints that come with residential use. The study is aimed at designing a wind turbine for tapping the low speed wind in urban locations. The design process includes the selection of the wind turbine type and the determination of the blade airfoil, finding the maximum drag model and manufacturing of the turbine economically. In this study, the Nautilus turbine is modeled, simulated and the characteristic curves are plotted. The cutting in wind speed for the turbine is around 1m/s. The turbine rotates in a range of 20 rpm to 500 rpm at wind speeds 1m/s to 10m/s On a below average day at noon where the wind speed are usually low the turbine recorded an rpm of 120 (average value) at 4m/s wind speeds. This study focuses on a computational fluid dynamics analysis of compressible radially outward flow.

  8. Developments of the offshore wind turbine wake model Fuga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    features to Fuga and turn it into a useful tool for offshore wind farm developers. The new features consist in - Flexibility. Including the ability to cope with several types of turbines in the same project, thus making it possible to predict inter farm interactions. The graphical user interface has been...... from Horns Rev has been made in order to quantify the impact of non-stationarity of the wind direction. The results are generalized so as to account for the uncertainties imposed by a ten minute mean value trend as well as by the distance between turbines and the met mast. The old model has been...... validated against a number of data sets. Some of these tests have been repeated in order to demonstrate and validate the new model features. Production data from Horns Rev 1 have been re-analysed using well defined selection criteria for which the developed uncertainty models apply, and a comparison...

  9. European wind turbine catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

  10. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different...... of the blades and turbines. It was further demonstrated that the low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a promising and viable option for the decentralized energy production in developing countries, which also opens new areas for businesses....

  11. Alcoa wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  12. Design and development of direct drive generators for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses various options for wind generators in modern wind turbines without any gearbox. Various power converter configurations are also discussed. The design of modern and efficient variable speed generators is also proposed. The design of a novel permanent magnet generator is also given. (author)

  13. Vertical-axis wind turbine development in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, R. J.; Rangi, R. S.

    1983-12-01

    Recent Canadian progress in the development of the curved-blade Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is described. Cooperation between government, industry and power utilities in the conduct of field trials, over several years, has demonstrated improved performance and reliability of grid-coupled turbines of this type. The rated power of the VAWTs currently under test ranges from 30 kW, in a wind/diesel powerplant, to 230 kW, in an installation on an island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Progress has also been made in understanding the basic aerodynamic behavior of the VAWT and theoretical methods for performance and load prediction have correspondingly improved. A brief description is given of 'Project EOLE', a cooperative project between the federal government and the utility Hydro-Quebec to develop and test, during the next two to three years, a 4 MW VAWT prototype, which will be coupled to the power grid at a location on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River.

  14. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Rasekhi Nejad, Amir; Guo, Yi; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the ...

  15. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  16. Engineering handbook on the atmospheric environmental guidelines for use in wind turbine generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Long, B. H.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The guidelines are given in the form of design criteria relative to wind speed, wind shear, turbulence, wind direction, ice and snow loading, and other climatological parameters which include rain, hail, thermal effects, abrasive and corrosive effects, and humidity. This report is a presentation of design criteria in an engineering format which can be directly input to wind turbine generator design computations. Guidelines are also provided for developing specialized wind turbine generators or for designing wind turbine generators which are to be used in a special region of the United States.

  17. Great expectations: large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on wind turbine product development, and traces the background to wind turbines from the first generation 1.5 MW machines in 1995-6, plans for the second generation 3-5 MW class turbines to meet the expected boom in offshore wind projects, to the anticipated installation of a 4.5 MW turbine, and offshore wind projects planned for 2000-2002. The switch by the market leader Vestas to variable speed operation in 2000, the new product development and marketing strategy taken by the German Pro + Pro consultancy in their design of a 1.5 MW variable speed pitch control concept, the possible limiting of the size of turbines due to logistical difficulties, opportunities offered by air ships for large turbines, and the commissioning of offshore wind farms are discussed. Details of some 2-5 MW offshore wind turbine design specifications are tabulated

  18. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...

  19. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  20. Development of an anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades in multibody system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Branner, Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades is developed and implemented into the aeroelastic nonlinear multibody code, HAWC2, intended to be used to investigate if use of anisotropic material layups in wind turbine blades can be tailored for improved...

  1. Development of CFD-based icing model for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Cecilie; Martinez, Benjamin; Yin, Chungen

    2015-01-01

    Operation of wind turbines in cold climate areas is challenged by icing-induced problems, such as loss of production, safety issues and blade fatique. Production losses are especially a big issue in Sweden, and due to difficulties with on-site measurements, simulations are often used to get an un...

  2. Industrial Wind Turbine Development and Loss of Social Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the loss of social justice reported by individuals living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs). References indicate that some individuals residing in proximity to IWT facilities experience adverse health effects. These adverse health effects are severe enough that some families have abandoned their homes.…

  3. China's experimental pragmatics of "Scientific development" in wind power: Algorithmic struggles over software in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julia

    2016-01-01

    . This increased focus on quality, to ensure the sustainable and scientific development of China's wind energy market, requires improved indigenous Chinese innovation capabilities in wind turbine technology. To shed light on how the turn to quality impacts upon the industry and global competition, this study......This article presents a case study on the development of China's wind power market. As China's wind industry has experienced a quality crisis, the Chinese government has intervened to steer the industry towards a turn to quality, indicating a pragmatist and experimental mode of market development...... unfold over issues associated with intellectual property rights (IPRs), certification and standardisation of software algorithms. The article concludes that the use of this STS lens makes a fresh contribution to the often path-dependent, structuralist and hierarchical China literature, offering instead...

  4. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  5. Low Wind Speed Turbine Developments in Convoloid Gearing: Final Technical Report, June 2005 - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genesis Partners LP

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by Genesis Partners LP as part of the United States Department of Energy Wind Energy Research Program to develop wind technology that will enable wind systems to compete in regions having low wind speeds. The purpose of the program is to reduce the cost of electricity from large wind systems in areas having Class 4 winds to 3 cents per kWh for onshore systems or 5 cents per kWh for offshore systems. This work builds upon previous activities under the WindPACT project, the Next Generation Turbine project, and Phase I of the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) project. This project is concerned with the development of more cost-effective gearing for speed increasers for wind turbines.

  6. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  7. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard

    During the last decades, wind turbines have been continuously developed with the aim of maximizing the life cycle benefits (production of electricity) minus the costs of planning, materials, installation, operation & maintenance as well as possible failure. In order to continue this development...... turbines and the central topics considered are statistical load extrapolation of extreme loads during operation and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades. Wind turbines differ from most civil engineering structures by having a control system which highly influences the loading. In the literature......, methods for estimating the extreme load-effects on a wind turbine during operation, where the control system is active, have been proposed. But these methods and thereby the estimated loads are often subjected to a significant uncertainty which influences the reliability of the wind turbine...

  8. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify the res...

  9. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  10. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  11. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  12. Development and Verification of a Fully Coupled Simulator for Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J. M.; Buhl, M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This report outlines the development of an analysis tool capable of analyzing a variety of wind turbine, support platform, and mooring system configurations.The simulation capability was tested by model-to-model comparisons to ensure its correctness.

  13. Wind turbine aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

    2010-07-01

    The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

  14. High-resolution computational algorithms for simulating offshore wind turbines and farms: Model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderer, Antoni [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Yang, Xiaolei [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Angelidis, Dionysios [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Feist, Chris [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Guala, Michele [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Ruehl, Kelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guo, Xin [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Boomsma, Aaron [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Shen, Lian [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Sotiropoulos, Fotis [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    The present project involves the development of modeling and analysis design tools for assessing offshore wind turbine technologies. The computational tools developed herein are able to resolve the effects of the coupled interaction of atmospheric turbulence and ocean waves on aerodynamic performance and structural stability and reliability of offshore wind turbines and farms. Laboratory scale experiments have been carried out to derive data sets for validating the computational models.

  15. The development and manufacture of wood composite wind turbine rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuteck, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties, operational experience, and construction methods of the wood/epoxy composite MOD 0A wind turbine blades are considered. Blades of this type have accumulated over 10,000 hours of successful operation at the Kahuku, Hawaii and Block Island, Rhode Island test sites. That body of experience is summarized and related to the structural concepts and design drivers which motivated the original design and choice of interior layout. Actual manufacturing experience and associated low first unit costs for these blades, as well as projections for high production rates, are presented. Application of these construction techniques to a wide range of other blade sizes is also considered.

  16. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skovmose Kallesoee, B.

    2007-12-14

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very

  17. Megawatt wind turbines gaining momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, K.; Madsen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    Through the short history of the modern wind turbine, electric utilities have made it amply clear that they have held a preference for large scale wind turbines over smaller ones, which is why wind turbine builders through the years have made numerous attempts develop such machines - machines that would meet the technical, aesthetic and economic demands that a customer would require. Considerable effort was put into developing such wind turbines in the early 1980s. There was the U.S. Department of Energy's MOD 1-5 program, which ranged up to 3.2 MW, Denmark's Nibe A and B, 630 kW turbine and the 2 MW Tjaereborg machine, Sweden's Naesudden, 3 MW, and Germany's Growian, 3 MW. Most of these were dismal failures, though some did show the potential of MW technology. (au)

  18. Assessing noise from wind farm developments in Ireland: A consideration of critical wind speeds and turbine choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, E.A.; Pilla, F.; Mahon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms are becoming increasingly popular in Ireland in an effort to increase the production of green energy within the state. As with any infrastructural development, wind farms must consider potential environmental impacts prior to construction. One particular issue that must be examined is the emission of noise from the development. In Ireland wind farm developments must adhere to planning conditions that usually outline permissible noise levels for both the construction and operational phases of the development. The critical wind speed is often cited as the wind speed at which these limits apply. This paper examines how the critical wind speed is determined and investigates its relationship with background noise levels and turbine choice. The study consisted of ten one-week monitoring periods during which meteorological conditions and background noise levels were simultaneously recorded. It was found that the critical wind speed is non-transferable, i.e. it depends on both the turbine choice and background noise environment and is specific to that particular turbine/site combination. Furthermore the critical wind speed during the night-time is often different to the overall critical wind speed suggesting that future noise studies should consider a range of critical wind speeds, particularly for night-time noise assessments. - Highlights: ► This paper considers the use of the critical wind speed when assessing noise impacts from wind farms. ► It was found that the critical wind speed could vary depending on the time of the day. ► The critical wind speed was found to be a non-transferable value. ► Noise assessments for wind farms should be developed over a range of critical wind speeds.

  19. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  20. Composite wind turbine towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzois, D. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed experiments conducted to optimized the advanced composite materials such as fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) used to fabricate wind turbine towers. FRP materials are used in tubular steel, lattice, guyed, and reinforced concrete towers. The towers and turbine blades are transported in segments and assembled on-site, sometimes in offshore or remote locations.The FRP composites are used to build towers with a high strength-to-weight ratio as well as to provide resistance to chemical attacks and corrosion. Use of the materials has resulted in towers that do not require heavy installation equipment. Experimental programs were conducted to verify the structural behaviour of the tower structure's individual-scaled cells as well as to evaluate the performance of multi-cell assemblies. Joint assembly designs were optimized, and a filament winding machine was used to conduct the experimental study and to test individual cells. Failure mode analyses were conducted to determine local buckling and shear rupture. Tension, compression, and shear properties of the FRP materials were tested experimentally, and data from the test were then used to develop finite element models of the composite towers as well as to obtain load deflection curves and tip oscillation data. A case study of a 750 kW wind turbine in Churchill, Manitoba was used to test the design. tabs., figs.

  1. Development of a 5 MW reference gearbox for offshore wind turbines: 5 MW reference gearbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Amir Rasekhi [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Guo, Yi [National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Gao, Zhen [Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Moan, Torgeir [Norwegian Research Center for Offshore Wind Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway; Center for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim Norway

    2015-07-27

    This paper presents detailed descriptions, modeling parameters and technical data of a 5MW high-speed gearbox developed for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory offshore 5MW baseline wind turbine. The main aim of this paper is to support the concept studies and research for large offshore wind turbines by providing a baseline gearbox model with detailed modeling parameters. This baseline gearbox follows the most conventional design types of those used in wind turbines. It is based on the four-point supports: two main bearings and two torque arms. The gearbox consists of three stages: two planetary and one parallel stage gears. The gear ratios among the stages are calculated in a way to obtain the minimum gearbox weight. The gearbox components are designed and selected based on the offshore wind turbine design codes and validated by comparison to the data available from large offshore wind turbine prototypes. All parameters required to establish the dynamic model of the gearbox are then provided. Moreover, a maintenance map indicating components with high to low probability of failure is shown. The 5 MW reference gearbox can be used as a baseline for research on wind turbine gearboxes and comparison studies. It can also be employed in global analysis tools to represent a more realistic model of a gearbox in a coupled analysis.

  2. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  3. Wind turbine supply in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodin, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study reported on wind turbine supplies to the Canadian market. The report was written to address concerns for Canada's supply outlook in the near future due to the booming wind energy market. Turbine shortages have arisen as a result of continued growth in both European and North American markets. Long lead-times on turbine orders are now increasing the pressure to lock in turbine supply during the initial phases of the development process. Future growth of the wind energy industry will be impacted if turbine supply difficulties continue to contribute to uncertainties in the development process. The report provided an overview of the North American and global wind energy markets, as well as a summary of telephone interviews conducted with turbine suppliers. The implications for the future of turbine supply to the Canadian market were also analyzed. It was concluded that policy-makers should focus on supporting the expansion of manufacturing facilities for small wind turbines and control infrastructure in Canada 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  5. Wind turbines and infrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  6. New guidelines for wind turbine gearboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States); Errichello, R. [GEARTECH, Townsend, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The American Gear Manufacturers Association in cooperation with the American Wind Energy Association will soon be publishing AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 {open_quotes}Recommended Practices for Design and Specification of Gearboxes for Wind Turbine Generator Systems.{close_quotes} Much has been learned about the unique operation and loading of gearboxes in wind turbine applications since the burgeoning of the modern wind turbine industry in the early 1980`s. AGMA/AWEA 921-A97 documents this experience in a manner that provides valuable information to assist gear manufacturers and wind turbine designers, operators, and manufacturers in developing reliable wind turbine gearboxes. The document provides information on procurement specification development, wind turbine architecture, environmental considerations, and gearbox load determination, as well as the design, manufacturing, quality assurance, lubrication, operation and maintenance of wind turbine gearboxes. This paper presents the salient parts of the practices recommended in AGMA/AWEA 921-A97.

  7. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  8. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  9. Canadian Wind Energy Association small wind conference proceedings : small wind policy developments (turbines of 300 kW or less)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The small wind session at the Canadian Wind Energy Association's (CanWEA) annual conference addressed policies affecting small wind, such as net metering, advanced renewable tariffs and interconnections. It also addressed CanWEA's efforts in promoting small wind turbines, particularly in remote northern communities, small businesses and within the residential sector. Small wind systems are typically installed in remote communities to offset utility supplied electricity at the retail price level. In certain circumstances, small wind and hybrid systems can produce electricity at less than half the cost of traditional electricity sources, which in remote communities is typically diesel generators. Small wind turbines require different materials and technologies than large wind turbines. They also involve different local installation requirements, different by-laws, tax treatment and environmental assessments. Small wind turbines are typically installed for a range of factors, including energy independence, energy price stability and to lower environmental impacts of traditional power generation. The small wind session at the conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Aerodynamic Model for a Novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Shires

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a resurgence of interest in the development of vertical axis wind turbines which have several inherent attributes that offer some advantages for offshore operations, particularly their scalability and low over-turning moments with better accessibility to drivetrain components. This paper describes an aerodynamic performance model for vertical axis wind turbines specifically developed for the design of a novel offshore V-shaped rotor with multiple aerodynamic surfaces. The model is based on the Double-Multiple Streamtube method and includes a number of developments for alternative complex rotor shapes. The paper compares predicted results with measured field data for five different turbines with both curved and straight blades and rated powers in the range 100–500 kW. Based on these comparisons, the paper proposes modifications to the Gormont dynamic stall model that gives improved predictions of rotor power for the turbines considered.

  11. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  12. The use of wind data with an operational wind turbine in a research and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadter, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that in 1976, 17 candidate sites were identified for detailed evaluation as potential sites for installation of large, horizontal axis Wind Turbines (WT). Attention is given to the Mod-OA, a 200 kW WT located in Clayton, New Mexico. The discussion covers the meteorological data collected, some of the analyses based on these wind data as well as additional areas currently being investigated in relation to these data.

  13. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  14. Vertical axis wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  15. Design of Wind Turbine Vibration Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure safety of wind turbine operation and to reduce the occurrence of faults as well as to improve the reliability of wind turbine operation, a vibration monitoring for wind turbine is developed. In this paper, it analyses the enlargement of all the parts of the structure and the working mechanism, the research method of wind turbine operation vibration is introduced, with the focus being the use of the sensor principle. Finally the hardware design and software of this system is introduced and the main function of this system is described, which realizes condition monitoring of the work state of wind turbines.

  16. Wind turbines and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

    2010-01-01

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  17. Sound wave contours around wind turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beek, A.; Van Blokland, G.J.

    1993-02-01

    Noise pollution is an important factor in selecting suitable sites for wind turbines in order to realize 1000 MW of wind power as planned by the Dutch government for the year 2000. Therefore an accurate assessment of wind turbine noise is important. The amount of noise pollution from a wind turbine depends on the wind conditions. An existing standard method to assess wind turbine noise is supplemented and adjusted. In the first part of the investigation the method was developed and applied for a solitary sound source. In the second part attention is paid to the use of the method for wind turbine arrays. It appears that the adjusted method results in a shift of the contours of the permitted noise level. In general the contours are 15-25% closer to the wind farm, which means that the minimal permitted distance between houses and wind turbine arrays can be reduced. 14 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices, 7 refs

  18. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  19. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  20. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  1. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... and uncertainties are quantified. Further, estimation of annual failure probability for structural components taking into account possible faults in electrical or mechanical systems is considered. For a representative structural failure mode, a probabilistic model is developed that incorporates grid loss failures...

  2. Development of a Bamboo-Based Composite as a Sustainable Green Material for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2009-01-01

    Bamboo has many engineering and environmental attributes that make it an attractive material for utilization in wind turbine blades. This paper examines the mechanical properties of a novel bamboo-poplar epoxy laminate which is being developed for wind turbine blades. Information provided...... in this paper includes an overview of the laminate construction and initial data for the monotonic tensile and compressive stress-strain behavior and tension-tension fatigue life of panels formed by hot-pressing. In addition, a discussion of fracture resistance of the bamboo-poplar laminate, under Mode I...

  3. Developments in blade shape design for a Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwill, T. D.; Leonard, T. M.

    1986-09-01

    A new computer program package has been developed that determines the troposkein shape for a Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade with any geometrical configuration or rotation rate. This package allows users to interact and develop a buildable blade whose shape closely approximates the troposkein. Use of this package can significantly reduce flatwise mean bending stresses in the blade and increase fatigue life.

  4. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We...... investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number...... of wind turbines

  5. Development, construction and testing of a vertical axis 200 kW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-20

    It is proposed to design and develop a large vertical axis wind turbine that will generate economically 200 kilowatts of power at a wind speed of about 30 miles per hour. The scope of this proposal is to carry out studies, build, erect and test an electrical power generation plant that will feed into existing power grids. Preliminary technical studies indicate that the power of the turbine increases with the third power of the the wind speed. The rotor power loading should be as high as the prevailing winds allow; thus it would always be advisable to let the rotor run at as high an rpm as the economics will allow. For turbines up to about 100 ft in diameter, an extruded blade seems to be the best solution for economic rotor design. A 300 ft/s runaway tip speed seems to be acceptable as an rpm limit. Structurally, it is advantageous to increase the blade airfoil section to 18%. The proposed program has a very high probability of success in that each element of the total system involves a very low technical risk. The manufacturing methods rely on existing technology, and preliminary research indicates that readily available commercial materials can be used. There will be no involvement with highly stressed, fatigue-sensitive components. The total unit energy cost will be about fifty percent less for the proposed 90 ft. turbine than for the 15 ft. turbine produced for the National Research Council. 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Active control: Wind turbine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, Henrik

    1999-07-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project `Active Control of Wind Turbines`. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs.

  7. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  8. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  10. Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.

    1997-01-01

    The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is

  11. Wind turbines, is it just wind?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    2012-01-01

    The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France

  12. RBI Optimization of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    methods for oil & gas installations, a framework for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines considered are the fatigue loading characteristics where usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coming years. Offshore wind turbines with an electricity production of 5-10 MW are planned. Typically, the wind turbine...... support structure is a steel structure consisting of a tower and a monopile, tripod or jacket type foundation. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod type of wind turbine support structures. Based on risk-based inspection planning...

  13. On the Fatigue Analysis of Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    1999-06-01

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. Operational experiences with these large rotating machines indicated that their components (primarily blades and blade joints) were failing at unexpectedly high rates, which led the wind turbine community to develop fatigue analysis capabilities for wind turbines. Our ability to analyze the fatigue behavior of wind turbine components has matured to the point that the prediction of service lifetime is becoming an essential part of the design process. In this review paper, I summarize the technology and describe the ''best practices'' for the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine component. The paper focuses on U.S. technology, but cites European references that provide important insights into the fatigue analysis of wind turbines.

  14. Annoyance rating of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iredale, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple criterion for noise limitation of wind turbines: 'The La A50 from a Wind Farm should not exceeding the L A50 of the wind generated background plus 5dB at any place of potential complaint'. This criterion is then examined and developed in the light of experience to date with turbine noise complaint and procedures. (author)

  15. Development and application of incrementally complex tools for wind turbine aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundling, Christopher H.

    Advances and availability of computational resources have made wind farm design using simulation tools a reality. Wind farms are battling two issues, affecting the cost of energy, that will make or break many future investments in wind energy. The most significant issue is the power reduction of downstream turbines operating in the wake of upstream turbines. The loss of energy from wind turbine wakes is difficult to predict and the underestimation of energy losses due to wakes has been a common problem throughout the industry. The second issue is a shorter lifetime of blades and past failures of gearboxes due to increased fluctuations in the unsteady loading of waked turbines. The overall goal of this research is to address these problems by developing a platform for a multi-fidelity wind turbine aerodynamic performance and wake prediction tool. Full-scale experiments in the field have dramatically helped researchers understand the unique issues inside a large wind farm, but experimental methods can only be used to a limited extent due to the cost of such field studies and the size of wind farms. The uncertainty of the inflow is another inherent drawback of field experiments. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions, strategically validated using carefully performed wind farm field campaigns, are becoming a more standard design practice. The developed CFD models include a blade element model (BEM) code with a free-vortex wake, an actuator disk or line based method with large eddy simulations (LES) and a fully resolved rotor based method with detached eddy simulations (DES) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). To create more realistic simulations, performance of a one-way coupling between different mesoscale atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) models and the three microscale CFD solvers is tested. These methods are validated using data from incrementally complex test cases that include the NREL Phase VI wind tunnel test, the Sexbierum wind farm and the

  16. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  17. Social assessment of wind power. Part 4: International position and development conditions of the Danish wind turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnoee, P.; Joergensen, U.

    1995-12-01

    Today, the Danish wind turbine industry is positioned as a global market leader on a fast growing international market. The conclusion and observation of this report are: 1. The international market for wind power is likely to grow fast over the next 5 years (a self-reinforcing development) and the Danish wind turbine industry has the potential to increase export from the present DKK 2 billion per year to DKK 4 billion per year. 2. The leading market position is achieved after the collapse of the California market in 1987. The last four years have been export-driven growth together with the development of complementary assets to support a strong product technology. 3. The Danish position might be threatened by the new competitors, but it is our view that it takes 2-3 years before they have equivalent competences, and since the Danish companies are presently also mobilizing resources and competences it is not likely that they are easily outperformed. 4. A continued installation of wind power in Denmark is important to support the sustaining of the international position in the coming years. Through, it is not the volume size of the domestic market, but rather a stable market which serves as a home base for the industry. Not only for the reference and testing of new wind turbines, but also the knowledge networks between manufacturers and suppliers and between manufacturers and the Test Station for Windmills at Risoe. (EG) 51 refs

  18. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  19. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  20. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  1. Development of passive-controlled HUB (teetered brake & damper mechanism) of horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    For the purpose of the improvement of reliability of the Mega-Watt wind turbine, this paper indicates the development of an original mechanism for the passive-controlled hub, which has the effects of braking and damping on aerodynamic forces. This mechanism is useful for variable speed control of the large wind turbine. The passive-controlled hub is the combination of two mechanisms. One is the passive-teetered and damping mechanism, and the other is the passive-variable-pitch mechanism. These mechanism are carried out by the combination of the teetering and feathering motions. When the wind speed exceeds the rated wind speed, the blade is passively teetered in a downwind direction and, simultaneously, a feathering mechanism, which is linked to the teetering mechanism through a connecting rods, is activated. Testing of the model horizontal axis wind turbine in a wind tunnel showed that the passive-controlled hub mechanism can suppress the over-rotational speed of the rotor. By the application of the passive-controlled hub mechanism, the maximum rotor speed is reduced to about 60%.

  2. Wind conditions for wind turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B.

    1999-04-01

    Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS)

  3. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maolin; Wang, Yixuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Shi, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  4. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maolin CAI; Yixuan WANG; Zongxia JIAO; Yan SHI

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines.The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described,and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results.Finally,the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated.Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  5. Active control: Wind turbine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project 'Active Control of Wind Turbines'. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to designcontrollers. This report describes the model...... validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending,a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models...

  6. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study.

  7. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study

  8. Tornado type wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  9. Design evolution of large wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

  10. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  11. Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade that may be produced by an advanced manufacturing process for producing a blade with high quality structural components. Particularly, the structural components, which are preferably manufactured from fibre reinforced...

  12. Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely

  13. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady......-state design code, aeroelastic simulations were performed in turbulent wind conditions to simulate the pitch system dynamics. Physical testing of the full turbine was not completed, however the hub sub-assembly was tested on its own to validate the passive pitch characteristics and showed good agreement...

  14. Hywind floating wind turbine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crome, Tim

    2010-07-01

    The Hywind floating wind turbine concept was developed by StatoilHydro. Technip was awarded the contract for engineering, fabrication and installation of a demonstration unit in May 2008 and the completed wind turbine was installed mid June 2009 at the west coast of Norway on 220 m water depth. The demonstration unit will generate 2,3 MW and is equipped with instrumentation for monitoring mooring forces, strains and motions. The fabrication of the SPAR type steel substructure was performed at Technip Offshore Finland facilities in Pori and was towed horizontally from Finland to Norway, where it was upended to a vertical position by water filling. The completed floating wind turbine was towed vertically to the final location west of Karmoey and connected to the pre-installed three legged anchor system using an Anchor Handling Tug type vessel. The wind turbine test period is scheduled to start in September 2009. Statoil will monitor the performance of the system for two years before decision will be taken for further development. The paper will present the main challenges and lessons learned through design, fabrication and installation of this first of its kind structure. Main emphasis will be on the special challenges experienced for this floating, catenary moored, slender unit which is highly exposed for wind induced forces in addition to current and waves in hostile North Sea environments. (Author)

  15. Urban wind turbines. Guidelines for small wind turbines in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cace, J.; Ter Horst, E.; Syngellakis, K.; Niel, M.; Clement, P.; Heppener, R.; Peirano, E.

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the WINEUR project (Wind Energy Integration in the Urban Environment) is to determine the deployability of small wind turbines in built environments while identifying the current significant constraints and possible solutions. The purpose of this document is to Inform the stakeholders about the state of the development of small wind turbines for the built environment; Provide practical guidelines to actors dealing with installation of small wind turbines in urban areas; and Provide recommendations for future products and for market development

  16. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

    2005-09-01

    This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

  17. Development of wind turbines for safe operation in alpine environments - Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, S.; Abhari, R.

    2009-08-15

    prevention systems could be substantially more efficient if their effectiveness was tailored for the outboard 5% of the blade (measured from the blade tip). Additionally, a new dedicated Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe measuring system has been installed at the test facility. Initial measurements prove its ability to resolve key flow features behind the wind turbine rotor. Part (3) of the project involves the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of the defined ice geometries on the rotor blades. The changes in performance match well with the experimental measurements. It is found that flow separation over the entire blade span is the cause for the major losses in power measured for the 'extreme' ice shape. A predictive tool that developers of wind energy projects located in regions that are highly susceptible to icing can use for project development, which identifies the locations where 'extreme' ice formation is a risk, would be highly beneficial to wind farm developers in Switzerland. It is recommended that heating systems should specifically target the outboard 5% of the blade in a localised manner such as with electric heating. (authors)

  18. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  19. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  20. Wind Turbine With Concentric Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhonen, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Wind Turbine device is relatively compact and efficient. Converging inner and outer ducts increase pressure difference across blades of wind turbine. Turbine shaft drives alternator housed inside exit cone. Suitable for installation on such existing structures as water towers, barns, houses, and commercial buildings.

  1. Using wind turbines in sky scrapers to develop the stable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily increasing and irregular consumption of fossil fuels as the limited energy source and its destructive effect on the environment has attracted all people attention to use the renewable energies and in this extend, application of renewable energies like wind is one of the frequent options in all around the world in order ...

  2. Noise annoyance from wind turbines a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja

    2003-08-01

    This study summarises present knowledge on noise perception and annoyances from wind turbines in areas were people live or spend recreation time. There are two main types of noise from a wind turbine: mechanical noise and aerodynamic noise. The aerodynamic noise emits from the rotor blades passing the air. It has a swishing character with a modulation that makes it noticeable from the background noise. This part of the wind turbine noise was found to be the most annoying. Field studies performed among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines showed that there was a correlation between sound pressure level and noise annoyance, but annoyance was also influenced by visual factors such as the attitude to wind turbines' impact on the landscape. Noise annoyance was found at lower sound pressure levels than in studies of annoyance from traffic noise. There is no scientific evidence that noise at levels created by wind turbines could cause health problems other than annoyance. No studies on noise from wind turbines in wilderness areas have been found, but the reaction to other noise sources such as aircraft have been studied. In recreational areas, the expectation of quietness is high among visitors, but wind turbines are, in contrary to aircraft, stationary and could be avoided by recreationists. The visual impact of wind turbines might though be the dominant source of annoyance. Regulations on noise from wind turbines are based on different principles. Some states, e.g. Denmark, have a special legislation concerning wind turbines, while others, like Sweden, have used recommendations originally developed for a different noise source. The noise level could either be absolute, as in Germany, or related to the background noise level as in France. This background noise level could be standardised, measured or related to wind speed

  3. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  4. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

  5. Advanced Wind Turbine Drivetrain Concepts. Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-12-01

    This report presents key findings from the Department of Energy’s Advanced Drivetrain Workshop, held on June 29-30, 2010, to assess different advanced drivetrain technologies, their relative potential to improve the state-of-the-art in wind turbine drivetrains, and the scope of research and development needed for their commercialization in wind turbine applications.

  6. Airfoils for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  7. Climate change drives wind turbines in China: case study of market based wind power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming Yang [EET Consulting, Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    This paper aims at quantifying the impact of government policy and clean development mechanism (CDM) on wind power development in China. Firstly we review the background of Chinese wind power development and policy, as well as literature of climate change and CDM. We then present methodology, scenarios and data of a case study for the development of a large-scale grid-connected wind farm. We undertake project financial analysis under three scenarios. Our analysis results show that the project FIRR is 8.31% if CDM benefit is not taken into account, 8.72% if CDM benefit is considered with the price of the certified emission reduction (CER) at US dollars 4, and 10.28% if both the CDM benefit and government policy on cutting value added tax (VAT) by 50% are taken into account. This paper concludes that CDM and government preferential policy on value added tax will make wind power development financially viable in China. (author)

  8. Cumulative effects of wind turbines. A guide to assessing the cumulative effects of wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guidance provides advice on how to assess the cumulative effects of wind energy developments in an area and is aimed at developers, planners, and stakeholders interested in the development of wind energy in the UK. The principles of cumulative assessment, wind energy development in the UK, cumulative assessment of wind energy development, and best practice conclusions are discussed. The identification and assessment of the cumulative effects is examined in terms of global environmental sustainability, local environmental quality and socio-economic activity. Supplementary guidance for assessing the principle cumulative effects on the landscape, on birds, and on the visual effect is provided. The consensus building approach behind the preparation of this guidance is outlined in the annexes of the report.

  9. Wind Turbine Acoustic Day 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper; Søndergaard, Bo; Hünerbein, Sabine Von

    The bi-annual event entitled Wind Turbine Acoustic Day dealing with wind turbine noise issues organized by DTU Wind Energy took place on May, 17th 2018 as its third edition. The abstracts and slides for the presentations are reported....

  10. LQR Feedback Control Development for Wind Turbines Featuring a Digital Fluid Power Transmission System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2016-01-01

    with a DFP motor, which has been combined with the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine model. A classical variable speed control strategy for wind speeds below rated is proposed for the turbine, where the pump displacement is fixed and the digital motor displacement is varied for pressure control. The digital...... for such digital systems are complicated by its non-smooth behavior. In this paper a control design approach for a digital displacement machine® is proposed and a performance analysis of a wind turbine using a DFP transmission is presented. The performance evaluation is based on a dynamic model of the transmission...... invariant model. Using full-field flow wind profiles as input, the design approach and control performance is verified by simulation in the dynamic model of the wind turbine featuring the DFP transmission. Additionally, the performance is compared to that of the conventional NREL reference turbine...

  11. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  13. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical......A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...

  14. Small wind turbines - Technical sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    This publication first proposes an overview of the technical context of small wind turbines (from less than 1 kW to 36 kW). It discusses issues related to mast height, indicates the various technologies in terms of machine geometry (vertical or horizontal axis), of mast and foundations, of mechanism of orientation with respect to the wind. It also outlines that power curves are not always reliable due to a lack of maturity of techniques and technologies. Other issues are discussed: wind characteristics, and the assessment of the national potential source. The next parts address the regulatory and economic context, environmental impacts (limited impact on landscape, noise), propose an overview of actors and market (supply and demand of small wind turbines in the USA and in France, actors involved in the chain value in France), and give some recommendations for the development of small wind turbines in France. The last part proposes a technical focus on self-consumption by professional in rural areas (production and consumption in farms)

  15. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  16. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  17. The development and testing of a novel cross axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, W. T.; Muzammil, W. K.; Gwani, M.; Wong, K. H.; Fazlizan, A.; Wang, C. T.; Poh, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    A novel cross axis wind turbine (CAWT) which comprises of a cross axis blades arrangement was presented and investigated experimentally. The CAWT is a new type of wind turbine that extracts wind energy from airflow coming from the horizontal and vertical directions. The wind turbine consists of three vertical blades and six horizontal blades arranged in a cross axis orientation. Hubs in the middle of the CAWT link the horizontal and vertical blades through connectors to form the CAWT. The study used a 45° deflector to guide the oncoming airflow upward (vertical wind direction). The results from the study showed that the CAWT produced significant improvements in power output and rotational speed performance compared to a conventional straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT).

  18. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  19. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  20. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind energy is gaining critical ground in the area of renewable energy, with wind energy being predicted to provide up to 8% of the world’s consumption of electricity by 2021. Advances in wind turbine blade design and materials reviews the design and functionality of wind turbine rotor blades...... as well as the requirements and challenges for composite materials used in both current and future designs of wind turbine blades. Part one outlines the challenges and developments in wind turbine blade design, including aerodynamic and aeroelastic design features, fatigue loads on wind turbine blades......, and characteristics of wind turbine blade airfoils. Part two discusses the fatigue behavior of composite wind turbine blades, including the micromechanical modelling and fatigue life prediction of wind turbine blade composite materials, and the effects of resin and reinforcement variations on the fatigue resistance...

  1. Model Development and Loads Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine on a Tension Leg Platform with a Comparison to Other Floating Turbine Concepts: April 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matha, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents results of the analysis of a 5-MW wind turbine located on a floating offshore tension leg platform (TLP) that was conducted using the fully coupled time-domain aero-hydro-servo-elastic design code FAST with AeroDyn and HydroDyn. The report also provides a description of the development process of the TLP model. The model has been verified via comparisons to frequency-domain calculations. Important differences have been identified between the frequency-domain and time-domain simulations, and have generated implications for the conceptual design process. An extensive loads and stability analysis for ultimate and fatigue loads according to the procedure of the IEC 61400-3 offshore wind turbine design standard was performed with the verified TLP model. This report compares the loads for the wind turbine on the TLP to those of an equivalent land-based turbine. Major instabilities for the TLP are identified and described.

  2. Unsteady boundary layer development on a wind turbine blade: an experimental study of a surrogate problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadel, Daniel R.; Zhang, Di; Lowe, K. Todd; Paterson, Eric G.

    2018-04-01

    Wind turbines with thick blade profiles experience turbulent, periodic approach flow, leading to unsteady blade loading and large torque fluctuations on the turbine drive shaft. Presented here is an experimental study of a surrogate problem representing some key aspects of the wind turbine unsteady fluid mechanics. This experiment has been designed through joint consideration by experiment and computation, with the ultimate goal of numerical model development for aerodynamics in unsteady and turbulent flows. A cylinder at diameter Reynolds number of 65,000 and Strouhal number of 0.184 is placed 10.67 diameters upstream of a NACA 63215b airfoil with chord Reynolds number of 170,000 and chord-reduced frequency of k=2π fc/2/V=1.5. Extensive flow field measurements using particle image velocimetry provide a number of insights about this flow, as well as data for model validation and development. Velocity contours on the airfoil suction side in the presence of the upstream cylinder indicate a redistribution of turbulent normal stresses from transverse to streamwise, consistent with rapid distortion theory predictions. A study of the boundary layer over the suction side of the airfoil reveals very low Reynolds number turbulent mean streamwise velocity profiles. The dominance of the high amplitude large eddy passages results in a phase lag in streamwise velocity as a function of distance from the wall. The results and accompanying description provide a new test case incorporating moderate-reduced frequency inflow for computational model validation and development.

  3. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  4. Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tavner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

  5. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  6. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Tim [Mackintosh Environmental Architecture Research Unit (MEARU), Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, G3 6RQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Proven, Gordon [Proven Energy Ltd. Wardhead Park, Stewarton, Ayrshire, KA3 5LH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  7. Crossflex: Concept and early development of a true building integrated wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Tim; Proven, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the concept development and work to date, of an innovative 'true' building integrated wind turbine. The context for this is the role of small-scale renewable energy in addressing climate change. In the UK a number of small wind turbines have reached the market, however, in almost all cases, these are existing HAWT or VAWT tower mounted systems. Due to their inherent design qualities, and issues such as planning requirements, these have much reduced output due to their form and siting and are unable to take advantage of augmented airflow around buildings. The Crossflex proposal is a radical new development of a Darrieus turbine form. As well as having a technically innovative flexible blade system, it also utilises a lightweight cowling system that can provide both augmented airflow and improved visual integration into new and existing building forms. It is a modular form that can be sited on ridges and corners of buildings to provide useful levels of generation. (author)

  8. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so...

  9. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. The VGOT Darrieus wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, F.L.; Otero, A.D.; Lago, L. [University of Buenos Aires (Argentina). College of Engineering

    2004-07-01

    We present the actual state of development of a non-conventional new vertical-axis wind turbine. The concepts introduced here involve the constructive aspects of variable-geometry oval-trajectory (VGOT) Darrieus wind turbines. The key feature of a VGOT machine is that each blade slides over rails mounted on a wagon instead of rotating around a central vertical axis. Each wagon contains its own electrical generation system coupled to the power-wheels and the electricity is collected by a classical third rail system. The VGOT concept allows increasing the area swept by the blades, and hence the power output of the installation, without the structural problems and the low rotational speed associated with a classical Darrieus rotor of large diameter. We also propose some engineering solutions for the VGOT design and present a brief economic analysis of the feasibility of the project. (author)

  11. Development of Self-Powered Wireless Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for Wind Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Won

    Wind turbine blade failure can lead to unexpected power interruptions. Monitoring wind turbine blades is important to ensure seamless electricity delivery from power generation to consumers. Structural health monitoring (SHM) enables early recognition of structural problems so that the safety and reliability of operation can be enhanced. This dissertation focuses on the development of a wireless SHM system for wind turbine blades. The sensor is comprised of a piezoelectric energy harvester (EH) and a telemetry unit. The sensor node is mounted on the blade surface. As the blade rotates, the blade flexes, and the energy harvester captures the strain energy on the blade surface. Once sufficient electricity is captured, a pulse is sent from the sensing node to a gateway. Then, a central monitoring algorithm processes a series of pulses received from all three blades. This wireless SHM, which uses commercially available components, can be retrofitted to existing turbines. The harvested energy for sensing can be estimated in terms of two factors: the available strain energy and conversion efficiency. The available strain energy was evaluated using the FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) simulator. The conversion efficiency was studied analytically and experimentally. An experimental set-up was designed to mimic the expected strain frequency and amplitude for rotor blades. From a series of experiments, the efficiency of a piezoelectric EH at a typical rotor speed (0.2 Hz) was approximately 0.5%. The power requirement for sending one measurement (280 muJ) can be achieved in 10 minutes. Designing a detection algorithm is challenging due to this low sampling rate. A new sensing approach-the timing of pulses from the transmitter-was introduced. This pulse timing, which is tied to the charging time, is indicative of the structural health. The SHM system exploits the inherent triple redundancy of the three blades. The timing data of the three blades are

  12. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  13. Design Load Basis for Offshore Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Wang, Shaofeng

    2016-01-01

    DTU Wind Energy is not designing and manufacturing wind turbines and does therefore not need a Design Load Basis (DLB) that is accepted by a certification body. However, to assess the load consequences of innovative features and devices added to existing offshore turbine concepts or new offshore...... turbine concept developed in our research, it is useful to have a full DLB that follows the current design standard and is representative of a general DLB used by the industry. It will set a standard for the offshore wind turbine design load evaluations performed at DTU Wind Energy, which is aligned...... with the challenges faced by the industry and therefore ensures that our research continues to have a strong foundation in this interaction. Furthermore, the use of a full DLB that follows the current standard can improve and increase the feedback from the research at DTU Wind Energy to the international...

  14. Mobile measurement system for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildemoes Moeller, T.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)

  15. Proceedings: Small Wind Turbine Systems, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Small wind turbine technology is discussed. Systems development, test programs, utility interface issues, safety and reliability programs, applications, and marketing are discussed. For individual titles, see N83-23723 through N83-23741.

  16. Power Electronics as key technology in wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper discuss the development in wind turbines in a two-decade perspective looking at the technology based on track records. Different power electronic topologies for interfacing the wind turbine to the grid are discussed and related to the possibility for the wind turbine to act as a power...

  17. Development of an aeroelastic code based on three-dimensional viscous–inviscid method for wind turbine computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    Aerodynamic and structural dynamic performance analysis of modern wind turbines are routinely estimated in the wind energy field using computational tools known as aeroelastic codes. Most aeroelastic codes use the blade element momentum (BEM) technique to model the rotor aerodynamics and a modal......, multi-body or the finite-element approach to model the turbine structural dynamics. The present work describes the development of a novel aeroelastic code that combines a three-dimensional viscous–inviscid interactive method, method for interactive rotor aerodynamic simulations (MIRAS...... Code Comparison Collaboration Project. Simulation tests consist of steady wind inflow conditions with different combinations of yaw error, wind shear, tower shadow and turbine-elastic modeling. Turbulent inflow created by using a Mann box is also considered. MIRAS-FLEX results, such as blade tip...

  18. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Tor Anders

    1999-07-01

    The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

  19. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  20. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solverEllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel...... method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which airfoils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. Theairfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental...... data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible forthe poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads...

  1. Small Wind Turbine Applications: Current Practice in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Numerous small wind turbines are being used by homeowners in Colorado. Some of these installations are quite recent while others date back to the federal tax-credit era of the early 1980s. Through visits with small wind turbine owners in Colorado, I have developed case studies of six small wind energy applications focusing on the wind turbine technology, wind turbine siting, the power systems and electric loads, regulatory issues, and motivations about wind energy. These case studies offer a glimpse into the current state-of-the-art of small-scale wind energy and provide some insight into issues affecting development of a wider market

  2. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  3. Fatigue strength ofcomposite wind turbine blade structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardila, Oscar Gerardo Castro

    Wind turbines are normally designed to withstand 20-30 years of life. During this period, the blades, which are the main rotating structures of a wind turbine, are subjected to high fluctuating load conditions as a result of a combination of gravity, inertia, and aeroelastic forces. For this reason......, fatigue is one of the foremost concerns during the design of these structures. However, current standard fatigue methods used for designing wind turbine blades seem not to be completely appropriate for these structures because they are still based on methods developed for metals and not for composite...... materials from which the blades are made. In this sense, the aim of this work is to develop more accurate and reliable fatigue-life prediction models for composite wind turbine blades. In this project, two types of fatigue models are implemented: fatigue-life models and damage mechanics models. In the first...

  4. Development of a Fast Fluid-Structure Coupling Technique for Wind Turbine Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sessarego, Matias; Ramos García, Néstor; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Fluid-structure interaction simulations are routinely used in the wind energy industry to evaluate the aerodynamic and structural dynamic performance of wind turbines. Most aero-elastic codes in modern times implement a blade element momentum technique to model the rotor aerodynamics and a modal......, multi-body, or finite-element approach to model the turbine structural dynamics. The present paper describes a novel fluid-structure coupling technique which combines a threedimensional viscous-inviscid solver for horizontal-axis wind-turbine aerodynamics, called MIRAS, and the structural dynamics model...... used in the aero-elastic code FLEX5. The new code, MIRASFLEX, in general shows good agreement with the standard aero-elastic codes FLEX5 and FAST for various test cases. The structural model in MIRAS-FLEX acts to reduce the aerodynamic load computed by MIRAS, particularly near the tip and at high wind...

  5. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages

  6. Small Wind Turbine Installation Compatibility Demonstration Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    wind turbine (HAWT) and one 2.9-kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), we planned to measure radar, acoustic and seismic, turbulence, bird and...non-issue for small turbines . The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind turbines are for large turbines (BPA 2002; Whittam...et al. 2010). The majority of studies of bat and bird interactions with wind energy facil- ities are for utility-scale turbines (> 1 MW) with

  7. Reliability of wind turbine blades: An overview of materials testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2007-01-01

    an understanding of how damage develops in composite structures, composite materials and adhesives. Designing reliable wind turbine blades also requires the further development of laboratory scale and full scale test methods to evaluate the structural response and durability of new materials under various loading......The structural reliability of wind turbine components can have a profound impact on both the profitability and reputation of a wind turbine manufacturer or supplier of wind turbine components. The issue of reliability is of critical concern when large wind farm co-operatives are considered......, and when wind turbines are located in remote regions where the cost of inspections and repairs can be very high. From a structural viewpoint, wind turbine blades are subjected to very complex loading histories with coupled deformation modes. The long-term reliability of wind turbine blades requires...

  8. Assessment of wind turbine load measurement instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfiadakis, E; Papadopoulos, K [CRES (Greece); Borg, N van der [ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Petersen, S M [Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Seifert, H [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    In the framework of Sub-Task3 `Wind turbine load measurement instrumentation` of EU-project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development`, the load measurement techniques have been assessed by laboratory, full scale and numerical tests. The existing methods have been reviewed with emphasis on the strain gage application techniques on composite materials and recommendations are provided for the optimisation of load measurement techniques. (au) EU. 14 refs.

  9. The system design and performance test of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyantoro, Bambang Arip; Suphandani, Vivien

    2017-04-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a tool that is being developed to generate energy from wind. One cause is still little use of wind energy is the design of wind turbines that are less precise. Therefore in this study will be developed the system design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine and tested performance with experimental methods. The design of hybrid turbine based on a straight bladed Darrieus turbine along with a double step Savonius turbine. The method used to design wind turbines is by studying literature, analyzing the critical parts of a wind turbine and the structure of the optimal design. Wind turbine prototype of the optimal design characteristic tests in the wind tunnel experimentally by varying the speed of the wind. From the experimental results show that the greater the wind speed, the greater the wind turbine rotation and torque is raised. The hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has much better self-starting and better conversion efficiency.

  10. Effect of chord-to-diameter ratio on vertical-axis wind turbine wake development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Araya, Daniel B.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2017-12-01

    The wake structure of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is strongly dependent on the tip-speed ratio, λ, or the tangential speed of the turbine blade relative to the incoming wind speed. The geometry of a turbine can influence λ, but the precise relationship among VAWT geometric parameters and VAWT wake characteristics remains unknown. To investigate this relationship, we present the results of an experiment to characterize the wakes of three VAWTs that are geometrically similar except for the ratio of the turbine diameter ( D), to blade chord ( c), which was chosen to be D/c = 3, 6, and 9. For a fixed freestream Reynolds number based on the blade chord of Re_c = 1.6× 10^3, both two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) and single-component hot-wire anemometer measurements are taken at the horizontal mid-plane in the wake of each turbine. PIV measurements are ensemble averaged in time and phase averaged with each rotation of the turbine. Hot-wire measurement points are selected to coincide with the edge of the shear layer of each turbine wake, as deduced from the PIV data, which allows for an analysis of the frequency content of the wake due to vortex shedding by the turbine.

  11. Integrated analysis of wind turbines - The impact of power systems on wind turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barahona Garzón, Braulio

    Megawatt-size wind turbines nowadays operate in very complex environmental conditions, and increasingly demanding power system requirements. Pursuing a cost-effective and reliable wind turbine design is a multidisciplinary task. However nowadays, wind turbine design and research areas...... conditions that stem from disturbances in the power system. An integrated simulation environment, wind turbine models, and power system models are developed in order to take an integral perspective that considers the most important aeroelastic, structural, electrical, and control dynamics. Applications...... of the integrated simulation environment are presented. The analysis of an asynchronous machine, and numerical simulations of a fixedspeed wind turbine in the integrated simulation environment, demonstrate the effects on structural loads of including the generator rotor fluxes dynamics in aeroelastic studies. Power...

  12. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbahs A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  13. Development and Assessment of Planetary Gear Unit for Experimental Prototype of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbahs, A.; Urbaha, M.; Carjova, K.

    2017-10-01

    The theoretical calculation for development of planetary gear unit of wind turbine (WT) and its experimental tests are presented in the paper. Development of experimental prototypes from composite materials is essential to determine capability of element and its impact on feature. Two experimental scale prototypes of planetary gear unit for WT were developed for such purposes. Hall transducer, servomechanisms and optical tachometers were used to obtain results, comparison analysis of theoretical and actual data was performed as well as quality assessment of experimental prototypes of planetary gear unit. After kinematic and load analysis as well as control of rotation frequency, it is possible to declare that the unit is able to operate at designated quality. Theoretical calculations and test results obtained are used for industrial WT prototype development.

  14. Probabilistic Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Toft, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Probabilistic design of wind turbines requires definition of the structural elements to be included in the probabilistic basis: e.g., blades, tower, foundation; identification of important failure modes; careful stochastic modeling of the uncertain parameters; recommendations for target reliability....... It is described how uncertainties in wind turbine design related to computational models, statistical data from test specimens, results from a few full-scale tests and from prototype wind turbines can be accounted for using the Maximum Likelihood Method and a Bayesian approach. Assessment of the optimal...... reliability level by cost-benefit optimization is illustrated by an offshore wind turbine example. Uncertainty modeling is illustrated by an example where physical, statistical and model uncertainties are estimated....

  15. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  16. Progress in wind tunnel experimental techniques for wind turbine?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingping XIAO; Li CHEN; Qiang WANG; Qiao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on the unsteady aerodynamics experiment (UAE) phase VI and the model experiment in controlled conditions (MEXICO) projects and the related research carried out in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC), the recent progress in the wind tunnel experimental techniques for the wind turbine is sum-marized. Measurement techniques commonly used for di?erent types of wind tunnel ex-periments for wind turbine are reviewed. Important research achievements are discussed, such as the wind tunnel disturbance, the equivalence of the airfoil in?ow condition, the three-dimensional (3D) e?ect, the dynamic in?ow in?uence, the ?ow ?eld structure, and the vortex induction. The corresponding research at CARDC and some ideas on the large wind turbine are also introduced.

  17. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  18. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  19. The aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels

    2013-01-01

    In the paper we present state-of-the-art of research in wind turbine aerodynamics. We start be giving a brief historical review and a survey over aerodynamic research in wind energy. Next, we focus on some recent research results obtained by our wind energy group at Department of Mechanical...... Engineering at DTU. In particular, we show some new results on the classical problem of the ideal rotor and present a series of new results from an on-going research project dealing with the modelling and simulation of turbulent flow structures in the wake behind wind turbines....

  20. Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan; LeBlanc, Bruce Philip; Berg, Jonathan Charles; Bryant, Joshua; Johnson, Wesley D.; Paquette, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility, operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Water Power Program, is a wind energy research site with multiple wind turbines scaled for the experimental study of wake dynamics, advanced rotor development, turbine control, and advanced sensing for production-scale wind farms. The SWiFT site currently includes three variable-speed, pitch-regulated, three-bladed wind turbines. The six volumes of this manual provide a detailed description of the SWiFT wind turbines, including their operation and user interfaces, electrical and mechanical systems, assembly and commissioning procedures, and safety systems. Further dissemination only as authorized to U.S. Government agencies and their contractors; other requests shall be approved by the originating facility or higher DOE programmatic authority. 111 UNCLASSIFIED UNLIMITED RELEASE Sandia SWiFT Wind Turbine Manual (SAND2016-0746 ) approved by: Department Manager SWiFT Site Lead Dave Minster (6121) Date Jonathan White (6121) Date SWiFT Site Supervisor Dave Mitchell (6121) Date Note: Document revision logs are found after the title page of each volume of this manual. iv

  1. CFD analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Pricop, M. V.; Pepelea, D.; Dumitrache, A.; Crunteanu, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    The Darrieus wind turbine has some advantages over the horizontal-axis wind turbine. Firstly, its tip speed ratio is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine and, therefore, its noise is smaller, privileging their placement near populated areas. Secondly, the Darrieus wind turbine does needs no orientation mechanism with respect to wind direction in contrast to the horizontal-axis wind turbine. However, the efficiency of the Darrieus wind turbine is lower than that of the horizontal-axis wind turbine since its aerodynamics is much more complex. With the advances in computational fluids and computers, it is possible to simulate the Darrieus wind turbine more accurately to understand better its aerodynamics. For these reasons, the present papers deals with the computational aerodynamics of a Darrieus wind turbine applying the state of the art of CFD methods (anisotropic turbulence models, transition from laminar to turbulent, scale adaptive simulation) to better understand its unsteady behavior.

  2. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, T; Brask, M H [DEFU (Denmark); Jensen, F V; Raben, N [SEAS (Denmark); Saxov, J [Nordjyllandsvaerket (Denmark); Nielsen, L [Vestkraft (Denmark); Soerensen, P E [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Lightning damage to wind turbines is a serious problem for Danish power companies, who have experienced some cases with very costly lightning damage and a large number of cases with minor damage. The most costly cases include one catastrophic damage to an entire wind turbine, and several cases of destruction of blades, main bearings, generators and control systems. Over the years there have been several hundreds of cases with minor damage - typically damage and interruptions of the control and communication systems, or the power systems. The Danish power companies anticipate that the lightning threat will be even bigger for the large off-shore wind turbine installations that are currently being planned in Denmark. Furthermore, it is known from the off-shore wind turbines at Vindeby in Denmark that the costs of inspection and particularly repair work must be expected to be much higher off-shore as compared to wind turbines on land. These considerations was the background for a two year project concerned with investigation of lighting damages and with the formulation of a DEFU Recommendation for lightning protection of wind turbines, which was published in January 1999. The project was funded by the Danish power companies Elsam, Eltra, Elkraft and by DEFU. (au)

  3. Wind power - research and development. The wind turbine industry's view of the promotion of state-supported research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, S.

    1995-10-01

    The windmill industry in Denmark is currently confronted with making a choice between competing technologies so that the role of the stimulus of state subsidies for research has lately increased in importance. The Ministry of Energy, it is claimed, must be aware of this as possibilities for making use of research results are dictated by the market and competition. The industry is not sympathetic to the idea of state research contracts with specified goals for which manufacturers must produce a technical solution. Consultancy firms should work towards solving general problems which could help the industry as a whole. Wind turbines which are cheap to produce and operate are of more interest to industry than those which are technologically advanced or of a lighter construction. It is not thought to be advantageous to concentrate the allocation of subsidies on one key project chosen by the Ministry itself, such as the current intense interest in turbine blades. Aerodynamics, noise pollution and materials are considered as more vital areas for research. A special interest in smaller windmills is not currently relevant. Evaluations of the quality of research projects demanding subsidies should be more critical. A detailed list of subjects within this field which are considered as being relevant for research is given. The Danish windmill industry advises a centralized wind power research institution and a gradual shift of the test station at Risoe National Laboratory to Jutland as wind conditions at Risoe are not considered satisfactory. A better communication between Risoe test station and the wind power industry is recommended. (AB)

  4. The influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine power curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honrubia, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E. [Castilla-La Mancha Univ., Albacete (Spain). Renewable Energy Research Inst.; Vigueras-Rodriguez, A. [Albacete Science and Technolgy Park, Albacete (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    To identify the influence of turbulence and vertical wind profile in wind turbine performance, wind speed measurements at different heights have been performed. Measurements have been developed using a cup anemometer and a LIDAR equipment, specifically a pulsed wave one. The wind profile has been recorded to study the effect of the atmospheric conditions over the energy generated by a wind turbine located close to the LIDAR system. The changes in the power production of the wind turbine are relevant. (orig.)

  5. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  6. Development of SMA Actuated Morphing Airfoil for Wind Turbine Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakalas, A.; Machairas, T.; Solomou, A.; Riziotis, V.; Saravanos, D.

    Wind turbine rotor upscaling has entered a range of rotor diameters where the blade structure cannot sustain the increased aerodynamic loads without novel load alleviation concepts. Research on load alleviation using morphing blade sections is presented. Antagonistic shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators are implemented to deflect the section trailing edge (TE) to target shapes and target time-series relating TE movement with changes in lift coefficient. Challenges encountered by the complex thermomechanical response of morphing section and the enhancement of SMA transient response to achieve frequencies meaningful for aerodynamic load alleviation are addressed. Using a recently developed finite element for SMA actuators [1], actuator configurations are considered for fast cooling and heating cycles. Numerical results quantify the attained ranges of TE angle movement, the moving time period and the developed stresses. Estimations of the attained variations of lift coefficient vs. time are also presented to assess the performance of the morphing section.

  7. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  8. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  9. Wind turbine airfoil catalogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.; Fuglsang, P.

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this work is two-sided. Firstly, experimental results obtained for numerous sets of airfoil measurements (mainly intended for wind turbine applications) are collected and compared with computational results from the 2D Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D, as well as results from the panel method code XFOIL. Secondly, we are interested in validating the code EllipSys2D and finding out for which air-foils it does not perform well compared to the experiments, as well as why, when it does so. The airfoils are classified according to the agreement between the numerical results and experimental data. A study correlating the available data and this classification is performed. It is found that transition modelling is to a large extent responsible for the poor quality of the computational results for most of the considered airfoils. The transition model mechanism that leads to these discrepancies is identified. Some advices are given for elaborating future airfoil design processes that would involve the numerical code EllipSys2D in particular, and transition modelling in general. (au)

  10. Concurrent Aeroservoelastic Design and Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo

    This work develops and investigates methods to integrate controllers in the wind turbine design process and to perform wind turbine optimization. These techniques can exploit the synergy between wind turbine components and generate new design solutions. Two frameworks to perform wind turbine...... optimization design are presented. These tools handle workflows to model a wind turbine and to evaluate loads and performances under specific conditions. Three approaches to evaluate loads are proposed and integrated in the optimization codes. The first method is based on time domain simulations, the second...... simulations, allows the selection of any controller parameter. The methods to evaluate loads and the pole-placement technique are then employed to carry out wind turbine optimization design from an aeroservoelastic prospective. Several analysis of the NREL 5 MW Reference Wind Turbine and the DTU 10 MW...

  11. Innovative multi rotor wind turbine designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, S.A.; Sapali, S.N. [College of Engineering. Mechanical Engineering Dept, Pune (India)

    2012-07-01

    Among the renewable energy sources, today wind energy is the most recognized and cost effective. Developers and researchers in this sector are optimistic and continuously working innovatively to improve the technology. The wind power obtained is proportional to the swept area of wind turbine. The swept area is increased by using a single rotor of large diameter or multi rotors in array. The rotor size is growing continuously with mature technology. Multi rotor technology has a long history and the multi rotor concept persists in a variety of modern innovative systems but the concept has fallen out of consideration in mainstream design from the perception that is complex and unnecessary as very large single rotor units are now technically feasible. This work addresses the evaluation of different multi rotor wind turbine systems. These innovative wind turbines are evaluated on the basis of feasibility, technological advantages, security of expected power performance, cost, reliability, impact of innovative system, comparison with existing wind turbine design. The findings of this work will provide guidelines for the practical and economical ways for further research on the multi rotor wind turbines. (Author)

  12. Simulation model of an active stall wind turbine controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.; Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Rosilde (Denmark); Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an active stall wind turbine controller. The objective is to develop a general model of an active stall controller in order to simulate the operation of grid connected active stall wind turbines. The active stall turbine concept and its control strategies are presented and evaluated on the basis of simulations. The presented controller is described for continuous operation under all wind speeds from start-up wind speed to shut doven wind speed. Due to its parametric implementation it is general i.e. it can represent different active stall wind turbine controllers and can be implemented in different simulation tools. (au)

  13. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  14. RELIABILITY OF MACHINE ELEMENTS IN WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi GRUENDER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide electrical energy production generated by wind turbines grows at a rate of 30 percent. This doubles the total production every three years. At the same time the power of individual stations goes up by 20 percent annually. Whereas today the towers, rotors and drive trains have to handle 5 MW, in about six to eight years they might produce up to fifteen MW. As a consequence, enormous pressure is put on the wind turbine manufacturers, the component suppliers and the operators. And because prototype and field testing is limited by its expense, the design of new turbines demands thorough analysis and simulation. Looking at the critical components of a wind turbine this paper describes advanced design tools which help to anticipate failures, but also assists in optimizing reliability and service life. Development of the software tools has been supported by research activities in many universities.

  15. Noise from offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard, B.; Plovsing, B.

    2005-07-01

    Noise assessment of wind turbines through calculations is based on sound power levels measured according to e.g. IEC 61400-11. With larger wind turbines and distances some of the calculation models give erroneous results. Noise propagation over water is different from propagation over land. For that reason it is important be able to make valid noise assessments for offshore wind farms. A suggestion for an offshore measurement method is described and a survey of models for noise propagation offshore has been made. (au)

  16. Extreme Response for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic load on wind turbines during operation are among others dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and type and settings of the control system. The characteristic load during operation is normally estimated by statistical extrapolation of a limited number...... of simulated 10min time series of the response according to the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. However, this method assumes that the individual 10min time series and the extracted peaks from the time series are independent. In the present paper is this assumption investigated based on field measurements...

  17. Computer control for remote wind turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; Rogers, A.L.; Abdulwahid, U.; Driscoll, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Light weight wind turbines located in harsh, remote sites require particularly capable controllers. Based on extensive operation of the original ESI-807 moved to such a location, a much more sophisticated controller than the original one has been developed. This paper describes the design, development and testing of that new controller. The complete control and monitoring system consists of sensor and control inputs, the control computer, control outputs, and additional equipment. The control code was written in Microsoft Visual Basic on a PC type computer. The control code monitors potential faults and allows the turbine to operate in one of eight states: off, start, run, freewheel, low wind shut down, normal wind shutdown, emergency shutdown, and blade parking. The controller also incorporates two {open_quotes}virtual wind turbines,{close_quotes} including a dynamic model of the machine, for code testing. The controller can handle numerous situations for which the original controller was unequipped.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  19. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  20. Methodology for wind turbine blade geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perfiliev, D.

    2013-11-01

    Nowadays, the upwind three bladed horizontal axis wind turbine is the leading player on the market. It has been found to be the best industrial compromise in the range of different turbine constructions. The current wind industry innovation is conducted in the development of individual turbine components. The blade constitutes 20-25% of the overall turbine budget. Its optimal operation in particular local economic and wind conditions is worth investigating. The blade geometry, namely the chord, twist and airfoil type distributions along the span, responds to the output measures of the blade performance. Therefore, the optimal wind blade geometry can improve the overall turbine performance. The objectives of the dissertation are focused on the development of a methodology and specific tool for the investigation of possible existing wind blade geometry adjustments. The novelty of the methodology presented in the thesis is the multiobjective perspective on wind blade geometry optimization, particularly taking simultaneously into account the local wind conditions and the issue of aerodynamic noise emissions. The presented optimization objective approach has not been investigated previously for the implementation in wind blade design. The possibilities to use different theories for the analysis and search procedures are investigated and sufficient arguments derived for the usage of proposed theories. The tool is used for the test optimization of a particular wind turbine blade. The sensitivity analysis shows the dependence of the outputs on the provided inputs, as well as its relative and absolute divergences and instabilities. The pros and cons of the proposed technique are seen from the practical implementation, which is documented in the results, analysis and conclusion sections. (orig.)

  1. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    Wind turbines play a major role in the transformation from a fossil fuel based energy production to a more sustainable production of energy. Total-cost-of-ownership is an important parameter when investors decide in which energy technology they should place their capital. Modern wind turbines...... the need for maintenance of the wind turbine. Either way, better total-cost-of-ownership for wind turbine operators can be achieved by improved control of the wind turbines. Wind turbine control can be improved in two ways, by improving the model on which the controller bases its design or by improving...

  2. Development and application of a dynamic stall model for rotating wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, B F; Yuan, Y; Wang, T G

    2014-01-01

    In unsteady conditions of wind turbines, both the dynamic stall phenomenon and the three-dimensional (3D) rotational effect affect the rotor aerodynamics. The dynamic stall mechanism for rotating wind turbine blades is first investigated. Through the comparison of the aerodynamic data between the rotating blade and the two-dimensional (2D) airfoil, the normal force slope in the attached flow and the separation point expression in the separated flow are modified in the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) dynamic stall model for rotating NREL wind turbine blades. The modified model is validated by the comparison between the calculation results and the experimental results of the lift and drag coefficients at different radial positions. Both the hysteresis loop shapes and the calculation values are closer to the experiment than the 2D dynamic stall model. The present dynamic stall model is then coupled to a free vortex wake model. The coupled model is used to calculate the unsteady blade aerodynamic loads and the low speed shaft torque of the NREL wind turbine in a yawed condition. The accuracy is greatly improved by the corrections presented in the paper

  3. Smart Wind Turbine: Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure, thereby driving the loads and the design of turbines in general and blades in particular. In response to this, several control mechanisms have been applied to wind turbines since the generation of s...

  4. Power Curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine correspondig to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar Large wind turbines. (Author) 7 refs

  5. Canadian Estimate of Bird Mortality Due to Collisions and Direct Habitat Loss Associated with Wind Turbine Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan. Zimmerling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimated impacts on birds from the development and operation of wind turbines in Canada considering both mortality due to collisions and loss of nesting habitat. We estimated collision mortality using data from carcass searches for 43 wind farms, incorporating correction factors for scavenger removal, searcher efficiency, and carcasses that fell beyond the area searched. On average, 8.2 ± 1.4 birds (95% C.I. were killed per turbine per year at these sites, although the numbers at individual wind farms varied from 0 - 26.9 birds per turbine per year. Based on 2955 installed turbines (the number installed in Canada by December 2011, an estimated 23,300 birds (95% C.I. 20,000 - 28,300 would be killed from collisions with turbines each year. We estimated direct habitat loss based on data from 32 wind farms in Canada. On average, total habitat loss per turbine was 1.23 ha, which corresponds to an estimated total habitat loss due to wind farms nationwide of 3635 ha. Based on published estimates of nest density, this could represent habitat for ~5700 nests of all species. Assuming nearby habitats are saturated, and 2 adults displaced per nest site, effects of direct habitat loss are less than that of direct mortality. Installed wind capacity is growing rapidly, and is predicted to increase more than 10-fold over the next 10-15 years, which could lead to direct mortality of approximately 233,000 birds / year, and displacement of 57,000 pairs. Despite concerns about the impacts of biased correction factors on the accuracy of mortality estimates, these values are likely much lower than those from collisions with some other anthropogenic sources such as windows, vehicles, or towers, or habitat loss due to many other forms of development. Species composition data suggest that < 0.2% of the population of any species is currently affected by mortality or displacement from wind turbine development. Therefore, population level impacts are unlikely

  6. Development of a Wind Turbine Test Rig and Rotor for Trailing Edge Flap Investigation: Static Flap Angles Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Johnson, David A

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies used to improve performance and increase the life-span of wind turbines is active flow control. It involves the modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine blade by means of moveable aerodynamic control surfaces. Trailing edge flaps are relatively small moveable control surfaces placed at the trailing edge of a blade's airfoil that modify the lift of a blade or airfoil section. An instrumented wind turbine test rig and rotor were specifically developed to enable a wide-range of experiments to investigate the potential of trailing edge flaps as an active control technique. A modular blade based on the S833 airfoil was designed to allow accurate instrumentation and customizable settings. The blade is 1.7 meters long, had a constant 178mm chord and a 6° pitch. The modular aerodynamic parts were 3D printed using plastic PC-ABS material. The blade design point was within the range of wind velocities in the available large test facility. The wind facility is a large open jet wind tunnel with a maximum velocity of 11m/s in the test area. The capability of the developed system was demonstrated through an initial study of the effect of stationary trailing edge flaps on blade load and performance. The investigation focused on measuring the changes in flapwise bending moment and power production for different trailing edge flap spanwise locations and deflection angles. The relationship between the load reduction and deflection angle was linear as expected from theory and the highest reduction was caused by the flap furthest from the rotor center. Overall, the experimental setup proved to be effective in measuring small changes in flapwise bending moment within the wind turbine blade and will provide insight when (active) flap control is targeted

  7. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Ohya Yuji; Karasudani Takashi; Nagai Tomoyuki; Watanabe Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW W...

  8. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee

    2018-04-02

    To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines.

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  10. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural...... composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed....

  11. Materials for Wind Turbine Blades: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Branner, Kim; Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Beauson, Justine; McGugan, Malcolm; Sørensen, Bent F

    2017-11-09

    A short overview of composite materials for wind turbine applications is presented here. Requirements toward the wind turbine materials, loads, as well as available materials are reviewed. Apart from the traditional composites for wind turbine blades (glass fibers/epoxy matrix composites), natural composites, hybrid and nanoengineered composites are discussed. Manufacturing technologies for wind turbine composites, as well their testing and modelling approaches are reviewed.

  12. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    2012-01-01

    and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

  13. A novel floating offshore wind turbine concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vita, Luca; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present a novel concept of a floating offshore wind turbine. The new concept is intended for vertical-axis wind turbine technology. The main purpose is to increase simplicity and to reduce total costs of an installed offshore wind farm. The concept is intended for deep water...... and large size turbines....

  14. Wind turbine with lightning protection system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a wind turbine comprising a lightning protection system comprising a waveguide interconnecting a communication device and a signal-carrying structure. In other aspects, the present invention relates to the use of a waveguide in a lightning protection system...... of a wind turbine, a power splitter and its use in a lightning protection system of a wind turbine....

  15. Behind the development of technology: The transition of innovation modes in China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru Peng; Zhi Qiang; Zhang Fang; Zhong Xiaotian; Li Jianqiang; Su Jun

    2012-01-01

    The market scale of China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry has grown immensely. Despite China still having a limited capacity in terms of technology innovation, the institutional support has promoted the technology capability development of the wind turbine manufacturing industry. This paper explores the driving forces underlying this development by reviewing the transition of the innovation modes and the dynamic interactions among the technology capability, innovation modes, market formation, and wind energy policy. The innovation mode in China began with imitative innovation, then transitioned to cooperative innovation, and has more recently set its sights on attaining truly indigenous innovation. Public policy serves as a key driving force for the evolution of innovation modes, as well as the development of the market. The policy focus has evolved in the following sequence: 1. building the foundation for technological innovation; 2. encouraging technology transfer; 3. enhancing local R and D and manufacturing capabilities; 4. enlarging the domestic market; and 5. cultivating an open environment for global competition and sustainable market development in China. - Highlights: ► New data were provided for China’s wind turbine manufacturing industry. ► The transition of innovation modes in the industry is reviewed. ► The interaction among the technology, market, policy, and innovation mode is explored. ► Public policies are the key driving forces for the transition.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harte, M.; Basu, B.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the along-wind forced vibration response of an onshore wind turbine. The study includes the dynamic interaction effects between the foundation and the underlying soil, as softer soils can influence the dynamic response of wind turbines. A Multi-Degree-of-Freedom (MDOF......) horizontal axes onshore wind turbine model is developed for dynamic analysis using an Euler–Lagrangian approach. The model is comprised of a rotor blade system, a nacelle and a flexible tower connected to a foundation system using a substructuring approach. The rotor blade system consists of three rotating...... for displacement of the turbine system are obtained and the modal frequencies of the combined turbine-foundation system are estimated. Simulations are presented for the MDOF turbine structure subjected to wind loading for different soil stiffness conditions. Steady state and turbulent wind loading, developed using...

  17. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    , connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine concepts, their performance in normal or fault operation being assessed and discussed by means of simulations. The described control......This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built...

  18. Icing losses on wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, T.; Fotsing, I.; Pearson, S. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the energy losses that can occur as a result of icing on wind turbines. Airfoil deterioration can occur in the presence of rime and glaze ice. Anemometers are also impacted by ice, and shut-downs can occur as a result of icing events. Availability deficits that occur during the winter months can lead to annual energy losses of 0.5 percent. The impact of icing events on total wind power energy production in Quebec is estimated at between 1.3 percent to 2.7 percent. Ice loss estimates are considered during the pre-construction phases of wind power projects. However, ice loss prediction methods are often inaccurate. Studies have demonstrated that preconstruction masts show a reasonable correlation with wind turbine icing, and that icing losses are site-specific. tabs., figs.

  19. The development of a prototype facility for a large diameter vertical axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made in this document for the design, construction, assembly and test of a demonstration wind turbine generator system. The specific objective of the program will be to demonstrate that the proposed system satisfies the need for cheap power generation at those remote meteorological stations which currently rely exclusively on fossil fuel that must be transported to the site at great cost. It intends to demonstrate that a large vertical axis wind turbine system is within the current state-of-art, is practical and is economically attractive. The program will include a conceptual design phase, a detail design phase, a construction and assembly phase at a selected site and a demonstration phase during which data will be gathered on operation at this large scale. A theory of operation of the proposed design is included. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  1. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  2. Wind tunnel testing of scaled models of a newly developed Darrieus-style vertical axis wind turbine with auxiliary straight blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scungio, M.; Arpino, F.; Focanti, V.; Profili, M.; Rotondi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wind tunnel investigations of Darrieus-style VAWT with auxiliary blades have been made. • Results have been compared with those from standard Darrieus VAWT. • Static and dynamic power and torque coefficients were measured and evaluated. • The auxiliary airfoils have demonstrated to give more torque at the lower wind speeds. • The proposed VAWT configuration is able to work in a wide range of wind speeds. - Abstract: Renewable sources of energy, needed because of the increasing price of fossil derivatives, global warming and energy market instabilities, have led to an increasing interest in wind energy. Among the different typologies, small scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) present the greatest potential for off grid power generation at low wind speeds. In the present work, wind tunnel investigations about the performance of an innovative configuration of straight-blades Darrieus-style vertical axis micro wind turbine, specifically developed for small scale energy conversion at low wind speeds, has been made on scaled models. The micro turbine under investigation consists of three pairs of airfoils. Each pair consists of a main and auxiliary airfoil with different chord lengths. A standard Darrieus configuration, consisting of three single airfoils, was also tested for comparison. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit open chamber wind tunnel facility available at the Laboratory of Industrial Measurements (LaMI) of the University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale (UNICLAM). Measured data were reported in terms of dimensionless power and torque coefficients for dynamic performance analysis and static torque coefficient for static performance analysis. The adoption of auxiliary airfoils has demonstrated to give more dynamic torque at the lower wind speeds with respect to a standard Darrieus rotor, resulting in better performance for all the wind speeds considered. In terms of dynamic power coefficient, the standard Darrieus

  3. Built Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinclair, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The market currently encourages BWT deployment before the technology is ready for full-scale commercialization. To address this issue, industry stakeholders convened a Rooftop and Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the National Wind Technology Center, located at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado. This report summarizes the workshop.

  4. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Shen, W.Z.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scal...

  5. Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynette, R. [FloWind Corp., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Radar-cross-section reduction of wind turbines. part 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, Billy C.; Loui, Hung; McDonald, Jacob J.; Paquette, Joshua A.; Calkins, David A.; Miller, William K.; Allen, Steven E.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Patitz, Ward E.

    2012-03-05

    In recent years, increasing deployment of large wind-turbine farms has become an issue of growing concern for the radar community. The large radar cross section (RCS) presented by wind turbines interferes with radar operation, and the Doppler shift caused by blade rotation causes problems identifying and tracking moving targets. Each new wind-turbine farm installation must be carefully evaluated for potential disruption of radar operation for air defense, air traffic control, weather sensing, and other applications. Several approaches currently exist to minimize conflict between wind-turbine farms and radar installations, including procedural adjustments, radar upgrades, and proper choice of low-impact wind-farm sites, but each has problems with limited effectiveness or prohibitive cost. An alternative approach, heretofore not technically feasible, is to reduce the RCS of wind turbines to the extent that they can be installed near existing radar installations. This report summarizes efforts to reduce wind-turbine RCS, with a particular emphasis on the blades. The report begins with a survey of the wind-turbine RCS-reduction literature to establish a baseline for comparison. The following topics are then addressed: electromagnetic model development and validation, novel material development, integration into wind-turbine fabrication processes, integrated-absorber design, and wind-turbine RCS modeling. Related topics of interest, including alternative mitigation techniques (procedural, at-the-radar, etc.), an introduction to RCS and electromagnetic scattering, and RCS-reduction modeling techniques, can be found in a previous report.

  7. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/3 SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Md. Hossain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the electrical power generation in Malaysia by the measurement of wind velocity acting on the wind turbine technology. The primary purpose of the measurement over the 1/3 scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. The electrical power produced by the wind turbine is influenced by its two major part, wind power and belt power transmission system. The blade and the drag area system are used to determine the powers of the wind that can be converted into electric power as well as the belt power transmission system. In this study both wind power and belt power transmission system has been considered. A set of blade and drag devices have been designed for the 1/3 scaled wind turbine at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL. Test has been carried out on the wind turbine with the different wind velocities of 5.89 m/s, 6.08 m/s and 7.02 m/s. From the experiment, the wind power has been calculated as 132.19 W, 145.40 W and 223.80 W. The maximum wind power is considered in the present study.

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/3 SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Hossain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the electrical power generation in Malaysia by the measurement of wind velocity acting on the wind turbine technology. The primary purpose of the measurement over the 1/3 scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. The electrical power produced by the wind turbine is influenced by its two major part, wind power and belt power transmission system. The blade and the drag area system are used to determine the powers of the wind that can be converted into electric power as well as the belt power transmission system. In this study both wind power and belt power transmission system has been considered. A set of blade and drag devices have been designed for the 1/3 scaled wind turbine at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL. Test has been carried out on the wind turbine with the different wind velocities of 5.89 m/s, 6.08 m/s and 7.02 m/s. From the experiment, the wind power has been calculated as 132.19 W, 145.40 W and 223.80 W. The maximum wind power is considered in the present study.

  9. Description and evaluation of foreign wind turbine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    It is stated that sales of Danish-manufactured wind turbines abroad are decreasing due to an increase in production, marketing and technology research in other countries. The aim was to give an account of this international development which could form the basis for the future strategies of the Danish Wind turbine industry. The study is based on a survey of relevant literature, interviews with experts on the subject and the collection of the latest data. The survey is limited to wind turbines with a larger capacity than 50 kW. Recommendations are given as to how to conserve and develop the market for Danish wind turbines. (AB) 17 refs

  10. Backup Mechanical Brake System of the Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.; Gandzha, S. A.; Kirpichnikova, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Paper clarifies the necessity of the emergency mechanical brake systems usage for wind turbines. We made a deep analysis of the wind turbine braking methods available on the market, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The electromechanical braking appeared the most technically reasonable and economically attractive. We described the developed combined electromechanical brake system for vertical axis wind turbine driven from electric drive with variable torque enough to brake over the turbine even on the storm wind speed up to 45 m/s. The progress was made due to the development of specific kinematic brake system diagram and intelligent control system managed by special operation algorithm.

  11. Development of a Fault Monitoring Technique for Wind Turbines Using a Hidden Markov Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hwan; Kim, SangRyul; Seo, Yun-Ho

    2018-06-02

    Regular inspection for the maintenance of the wind turbines is difficult because of their remote locations. For this reason, condition monitoring systems (CMSs) are typically installed to monitor their health condition. The purpose of this study is to propose a fault detection algorithm for the mechanical parts of the wind turbine. To this end, long-term vibration data were collected over two years by a CMS installed on a 3 MW wind turbine. The vibration distribution at a specific rotating speed of main shaft is approximated by the Weibull distribution and its cumulative distribution function is utilized for determining the threshold levels that indicate impending failure of mechanical parts. A Hidden Markov model (HMM) is employed to propose the statistical fault detection algorithm in the time domain and the method whereby the input sequence for HMM is extracted is also introduced by considering the threshold levels and the correlation between the signals. Finally, it was demonstrated that the proposed HMM algorithm achieved a greater than 95% detection success rate by using the long-term signals.

  12. Dynamic modeling and simulation of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari Seadat, M.H.; Kheradmand Keysami, M.; Lari, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using wind energy for generating electricity in wind turbines is a good way for using renewable energies. It can also help to protect the environment. The main objective of this paper is dynamic modeling by energy method and simulation of a wind turbine aided by computer. In this paper, the equations of motion are extracted for simulating the system of wind turbine and then the behavior of the system become obvious by solving the equations. The turbine is considered with three blade rotor in wind direction, induced generator that is connected to the network and constant revolution for simulation of wind turbine. Every part of the wind turbine should be simulated for simulation of wind turbine. The main parts are blades, gearbox, shafts and generator

  13. Lidar-Enhanced Wind Turbine Control: Past, Present, and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew; Fleming, Paul; Schlipf, David; Wright, Alan; Johnson, Kathryn; Wang, Na

    2016-08-01

    The main challenges in harvesting energy from the wind arise from the unknown incoming turbulent wind field. Balancing the competing interests of reduction in structural loads and increasing energy production is the goal of a wind turbine controller to reduce the cost of producing wind energy. Conventional wind turbines use feedback methods to optimize these goals, reacting to wind disturbances after they have already impacted the wind turbine. Lidar sensors offer a means to provide additional inputs to a wind turbine controller, enabling new techniques to improve control methods, allowing a controller to actuate a wind turbine in anticipation of an incoming wind disturbance. This paper will look at the development of lidar-enhanced controls and how they have been used for various turbine load reductions with pitch actuation, as well as increased energy production with improved yaw control. Ongoing work will also be discussed to show that combining pitch and torque control using feedforward nonlinear model predictive control can lead to both reduced loads and increased energy production. Future work is also proposed on extending individual wind turbine controls to the wind plant level and determining how lidars can be used for control methods to further lower the cost of wind energy by minimizing wake impacts in a wind farm.

  14. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  15. Scour around Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig

    Over the last decades several offshore wind farms have been installed and commissioned in the European waters. Typically the foundations of the wind turbines are protected against scour at the base by installing scour protection with rock dump. The Egmond aan Zee offshore wind farm located about 10...... the performance (stability) of the scour protection and to quantify the edge scour development at the circumference of the scour protection. The survey campaign showed considerable edge scour of up to 2.7 m, which was expected from design considerations. However, no clear information exists on the mechanisms...... causing the edge scour development around scour protections at offshore wind turbine foundations. The purpose of the present thesis is to investigate and explain the development of the edge scour in such applications, and describe the flow mechanism causing the scour. Furthermore, the dissertation also...

  16. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...... in polar coordinates. The developed algorithm is combined with a so-called actuator-line technique in which the loading is distributed along lines representing the blade forces. Computations are carried out for the 500kW Nordtank wind turbine equipped with three LM19 blades. ©2001 The American Institute...

  17. Rotor and wind turbine formalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The main conventions used in this book for the study of rotors are introduced in this chapter. The main assumptions and notations are provided. The formalism specific to wind turbines is presented. The forces, moments, velocities and dimensionless coefficients used in the study of rotors...

  18. Wind turbine blade waste in 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Barlow, Claire Y

    2017-04-01

    Wind energy has developed rapidly over the last two decades to become one of the most promising and economically viable sources of renewable energy. Although wind energy is claimed to provide clean renewable energy without any emissions during operation, but it is only one side of the coin. The blades, one of the most important components in the wind turbines, made with composite, are currently regarded as unrecyclable. With the first wave of early commercial wind turbine installations now approaching their end of life, the problem of blade disposal is just beginning to emerge as a significant factor for the future. This paper is aimed at discovering the magnitude of the wind turbine blade waste problem, looking not only at disposal but at all stages of a blade's lifecycle. The first stage of the research, the subject of this paper, is to accurately estimate present and future wind turbine blade waste inventory using the most recent and most accurate data available. The result will provide a solid reference point to help the industry and policy makers to understand the size of potential environmental problem and to help to manage it better. This study starts by estimating the annual blade material usage with wind energy installed capacity and average blade weight. The effect of other waste contributing factors in the full lifecycle of wind turbine blades is then included, using industrial data from the manufacturing, testing and in-service stages. The research indicates that there will be 43 million tonnes of blade waste worldwide by 2050 with China possessing 40% of the waste, Europe 25%, the United States 16% and the rest of the world 19%. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimal Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangel-Ramirez, Jose G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    , inspection and maintenance activities are developed. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod types of wind turbine support structures. Based oil risk-based inspection planning methods used for oil & gas installations, a framework......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coining years. The Support structure for offshore wind turbines is typically a steel structure consisting of a tower...... for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines are considered: usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake effects in wind farms are important and the reliability level is typically significantly lower than...

  20. A Reliability Based Model for Wind Turbine Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Rajeevan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A wind turbine generator output at a specific site depends on many factors, particularly cut- in, rated and cut-out wind speed parameters. Hence power output varies from turbine to turbine. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical relationship between reliability and wind power generation. The analytical computation of monthly wind power is obtained from weibull statistical model using cubic mean cube root of wind speed. Reliability calculation is based on failure probability analysis. There are many different types of wind turbinescommercially available in the market. From reliability point of view, to get optimum reliability in power generation, it is desirable to select a wind turbine generator which is best suited for a site. The mathematical relationship developed in this paper can be used for site-matching turbine selection in reliability point of view.

  1. Computational Aerodynamics and Aeroacoustics for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong

    and applied to laminar flows. An aero-acoustic formulation for turbulent flows was in [15] developed for Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulation (URANS) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). In [16] a collocated grid / finite volume method for aero-acoustic computations...... with Computational Aero-Acoustics (CAA). With the spread of wind turbines near urban areas, there is an increasing need for accurate predictions of aerodynamically generated noise. Indeed, noise has become one of the most important issues for further development of wind power, and the ability of controlling...... and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind...

  2. Public engagement with information on renewable energy developments: The case of single, semi-urban wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, J M; Theobald, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of public engagement with information on renewable energy developments. It draws on a case study of proposals by a major supermarket chain to construct single wind turbines in two semi-urban locations in the UK, analysing data from interviews with key actors in the planning process and focus groups with local residents. The paper concludes that key actors often had high expectations of how local people should engage with information, and sometimes implied that members of the public who were incapable of filtering or processing information in an organised or targeted fashion had no productive role to play in the planning process. It shows how the specific nature of the proposals (single wind turbines in semi-urban locations proposed by a commercial private sector developer) shaped local residents' information needs and concerns in a way that challenged key actors' expectations of how the public should engage with information.

  3. Smart Wind Turbine : Analysis and Autonomous Flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy. Unfortunately, this process is everything but constant, as the wind source shows large fluctuations with high and low frequencies. This turbulence, together with the wind shear and yawed inflow, excites the turbine structure,

  4. Applications of wind turbines in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P; Rangi, R S; Templin, R J

    1977-01-01

    There are differing views as to the role of wind energy in the overall requirements. While some people tend to ignore it there are others who think that wind could be a major source of energy. In this paper an effort has been made to determine the wind power potential and also the amount that is economically usable. From the existing wind data a map showing the distribution of wind power density has been prepared. This map shows that the maritime provinces and the west coast of Hudson Bay have high wind power potential. These figures show that the wind power potential is of the same order as the installed electrical generating capacity in Canada (58 x 10/sup 6/kW in 1974). However, in order to determine how much of this power is usable the economics of adding wind energy to an existing system must be considered. A computer program has been developed at NRC to analyze the coupling of wind turbines with mixed power systems. Using this program and making certain assumptions about the cost of WECS and fuel the maximum amount of usable wind energy has been calculated. It is shown that if an installed capacity of 420 megawatts of wind power was added to the existing diesel capacity it would result in a savings of 60,000,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. On the other hand it is shown that if the existing installed hydro electric capacity of 37,000 megawatts (1976) was increased to 60,000 megawatts without increasing the average water flow rate, an installed capacity of 60,000 megawatts of wind power could be added to the system. This would result in an average of 14,000 megawatts from the wind. Using projected manufacturing costs for vertical axis wind turbines, the average cost of wind energy could be in the range of 1.4 cents/kwh to 3.6 cents/kwh.

  5. Development of a Wireless System for Monitoring and Control of a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian M. Durán-Acevedo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the use of a wireless communication technology through the ZigBee protocol, by implementing XBee S2B. Wireless communication was implemented on a wind turbine prototype (i.e. wind power generation in order to controlling variables automatically, such as: Direction of the wind, temperature, humidity and velocity engine. The XBee were conditioned using a Mega ADK Arduino card, which the signals generated were acquired by several sensors and subsequently sent wirelessly. The programming and monitoring of Arduino module with each of the variables was performed through Labview software. The study was also conducted in order to explore new technologies for wireless communication, which is useful in interoperable systems to monitor, control and automate different processes. As a result, the performance test with the wireless system was stable and data transmission was reliable.

  6. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, J.H.B.; Berkhuizen, J.C.; De Graaff, R.J.; Postma, A.D.; Hendriks, J.H.W.

    1993-05-01

    An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs

  7. Impact of wind turbines on birdlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J H.B.; Berkhuizen, J C; De Graaff, R J; Postma, A D [Consultants on Energy and Environment CEA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hendriks, J H.W. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1993-05-01

    An overview of wind energy programmes is presented, as well as an analysis of recent studies on the title subject and data on the attitude of nature conservation organisations both from the USA and Europe. The studies were analyzed for legitimacy of assumptions and validity of the conclusions. Most of the wind energy programs and all European studies deal with bird kills and disturbance in coastal areas. The number of victims per turbine per year in this type of area appears to be acceptable. The disturbing effect of wind turbines on breeding birds appears to be negligible. The disturbance of resting and migrating birds by wind turbines however is reasonably clear. As a result of international concern several sites have been designated where siting of wind turbines is prohibited. Well known examples are wetlands of international importance (Ramsar-convention) and European Community Special Protection Areas. Major concern among conservationists is the location of many valuable and vulnerable environmental resources outside the protected areas. Negative attitudes towards wind energy projects are not particularly due to avian considerations, but rather to a general objective to protect landscapes and habitats, undisturbed by human infrastructures and disturbance. It is concluded that all new locations for wind energy projects should be weighed on the disturbance aspect. Reference data for such a weigh are available for coastal areas, although the impact on local migration between feeding grounds and high water refugee areas needs further research. Future research is also needed for application of wind energy both on off-shore locations, grasslands and farmlands. Wind energy developers and conservationists should have a close contact in order to establish consensus on how to deal with remaining uncertainties. 7 figs., 9 tabs., 5 appendices, 37 refs.

  8. Crack Monitoring of Operational Wind Turbine Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcus; McAlorum, Jack; Fusiek, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Pawel; McKeeman, Iain; Rubert, Tim

    2017-08-21

    The degradation of onshore, reinforced-concrete wind turbine foundations is usually assessed via above-ground inspections, or through lengthy excavation campaigns that suspend wind power generation. Foundation cracks can and do occur below ground level, and while sustained measurements of crack behaviour could be used to quantify the risk of water ingress and reinforcement corrosion, these cracks have not yet been monitored during turbine operation. Here, we outline the design, fabrication and field installation of subterranean fibre-optic sensors for monitoring the opening and lateral displacements of foundation cracks during wind turbine operation. We detail methods for in situ sensor characterisation, verify sensor responses against theoretical tower strains derived from wind speed data, and then show that measured crack displacements correlate with monitored tower strains. Our results show that foundation crack opening displacements respond linearly to tower strain and do not change by more than ±5 μ m. Lateral crack displacements were found to be negligible. We anticipate that the work outlined here will provide a starting point for real-time, long-term and dynamic analyses of crack displacements in future. Our findings could furthermore inform the development of cost-effective monitoring systems for ageing wind turbine foundations.

  9. Flutter of Darrieus wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, N. D.

    1978-01-01

    The testing of Darrieus wind turbines has indicated that under certain conditions, serious vibrations of the blades can occur, involving flatwise bending, torsion, and chordwise bending. A theoretical method of predicting the aeroelastic stability of the coupled bending and torsional motion of such blades with a view to determining the cause of these vibrations, and a means of suppressing them was developed.

  10. Review paper on wind turbine aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the development and description of the aerodynamic models used to estimate the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine constructions. This includes a status of the capabilities of computation fluid dynamics and the need for reliable airfoil data for the simpler engineering models...

  11. Results of a wind turbine FDI competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper some newly published methods for fault detection and isolation developed for a wind turbine benchmark model are tested, compared and evaluated. These methods have been presented as a part of an international competition. The tested methods cover different types of fault detection...... benchmark model....

  12. Power curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia, F.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine's power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the 'Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation' from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine corresponding to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar large windturbines. (author)

  13. The 1.5 MW wind turbine of tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wolff, T.J.; Sondergaard, H. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Danish company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2300 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 350 MW. This paper will describe two major wind turbine technology developments that Nordtank has accomplished during the last year: Site Optimization of Nordtank wind turbines: Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/600 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Nordtank`s 1.5 MW wind turbine: In September 1995, Nordtank was the first company to install a commercial 1.5 NM WTG. This paper will document the development process, the design as well as operations of the Nordtank 1.5 MW WTG.

  14. A review of damage detection methods for wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dongsheng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Liang; Li, Hongnan; Ho, Siu-Chun M

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources and many countries are predicted to increase wind energy portion of their whole national energy supply to about twenty percent in the next decade. One potential obstacle in the use of wind turbines to harvest wind energy is the maintenance of the wind turbine blades. The blades are a crucial and costly part of a wind turbine and over their service life can suffer from factors such as material degradation and fatigue, which can limit their effectiveness and safety. Thus, the ability to detect damage in wind turbine blades is of great significance for planning maintenance and continued operation of the wind turbine. This paper presents a review of recent research and development in the field of damage detection for wind turbine blades. Specifically, this paper reviews frequently employed sensors including fiber optic and piezoelectric sensors, and four promising damage detection methods, namely, transmittance function, wave propagation, impedance and vibration based methods. As a note towards the future development trend for wind turbine sensing systems, the necessity for wireless sensing and energy harvesting is briefly presented. Finally, existing problems and promising research efforts for online damage detection of turbine blades are discussed. (topical review)

  15. Numerical simulation methodologies for design and development of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbines – analysis and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Lipian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different numerical computation methods used to develop a methodology for fast, efficient, reliable design and comparison of Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT geometries are presented. The demand for such methods is evident, following the multitude of geometrical parameters that influence the flow character through ducted turbines. The results of the Actuator Disk Model (ADM simulations will be confronted with a simulation method of higher order of accuracy, i.e. the 3D Fully-resolved Rotor Model (FRM in the rotor design point. Both will be checked for consistency with the experimental results measured in the wind tunnel at the Institute of Turbo-machinery (IMP, Lodz University of Technology (TUL. An attempt to find an efficient method (with a compromise between accuracy and design time for the flow analysis pertinent to the DAWT is a novel approach presented in this paper.

  16. Transient LES of an offshore wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vollmer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the cost of energy of offshore wind farms has a high uncertainty, which is partly due to the lacking accuracy of information on wind conditions and wake losses inside of the farm. Wake models that aim to reduce the uncertainty by modeling the wake interaction of turbines for various wind conditions need to be validated with measurement data before they can be considered as a reliable estimator. In this paper a methodology that enables a direct comparison of modeled with measured flow data is evaluated. To create the simulation data, a model chain including a mesoscale model, a large-eddy-simulation (LES model and a wind turbine model is used. Different setups are compared to assess the capability of the method to reproduce the wind conditions at the hub height of current offshore wind turbines. The 2-day-long simulation of the ambient wind conditions and the wake simulation generally show good agreements with data from a met mast and lidar measurements, respectively. Wind fluctuations due to boundary layer turbulence and synoptic-scale motions are resolved with a lower representation of mesoscale fluctuations. Advanced metrics to describe the wake shape and development are derived from simulations and measurements but a quantitative comparison proves to be difficult due to the scarcity and the low sampling rate of the available measurement data. Due to the implementation of changing synoptic wind conditions in the LES, the methodology could also be beneficial for case studies of wind farm performance or wind farm control.

  17. Mechanical Properties of UHPFRC Joint for FORIDA Wind Turbine Tower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    FORIDA Development, Vestas and Aalborg University are currently undertaking the project “FORIDA Hybrid Towers – The towers for next generation of wind turbines”, aiming to develop a new wind turbine tower structure (The FORIDA Tower) for very tall turbines. The tower is going to be a hybrid of ma...

  18. Leasing wind turbines (and its alternatives)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Jonathan H.

    1999-01-01

    The financing of wind farms has historically consisted of a mixture of traditional debt and equity, with debt generally being provided by high street or specialist banks, through inter-company loans, or from International Funding Agencies (IFA's) via National Funding Agencies in developing countries. The use of more innovative financing methods has to date been limited. One possible methods of attracting finance for wind farms is the leasing of wind turbines, and this paper sets out the reasons leasing is particularly appropriate for renewable energy (RE) projects (in particular wind farms), the effect leasing may have on returns available to investors, and some of the obstacles that have to be overcome by the RE and wind industry to increase the utilisation of leasing. This paper concludes by discussing the possibility of using a pan-European leasing company as means of providing overseas aid to developing countries, thereby facilitating the implementation of wind energy in these important regions. (Author)

  19. Built-Environment Wind Turbine Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Forsyth, T.; Sinclair, K.; Oteri, F.

    2012-11-01

    Although only a small contributor to total electricity production needs, built-environment wind turbines (BWTs) nonetheless have the potential to influence the public's consideration of renewable energy, and wind energy in particular. Higher population concentrations in urban environments offer greater opportunities for project visibility and an opportunity to acquaint large numbers of people to the advantages of wind projects on a larger scale. However, turbine failures will be equally visible and could have a negative effect on public perception of wind technology. This roadmap provides a framework for achieving the vision set forth by the attendees of the Built-Environment Wind Turbine Workshop on August 11 - 12, 2010, at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The BWT roadmap outlines the stakeholder actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers identified. The actions are categorized as near-term (0 - 3 years), medium-term (4 - 7 years), and both near- and medium-term (requiring immediate to medium-term effort). To accomplish these actions, a strategic approach was developed that identifies two focus areas: understanding the built-environment wind resource and developing testing and design standards. The authors summarize the expertise and resources required in these areas.

  20. Market for wind turbines in italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Wind power utilization in Italy has not been very popular until the privatization of the ENEL and introduction of subsidies for private electricity producers. The greatest interest is concentrated around large wind turbines. Therefore the Danish manufacturers with know-how within large wind turbines can establish themselves on the Italian market. Cooperation with one of the four local wind turbine manufacturers is advisable. (EG)

  1. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu [Laguna Hills, CA; Teichmann, Ralph [Nishkayuna, NY; Avagliano, Aaron [Houston, TX; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Pesetsky, David Samuel [Greenville, SC; Gauchel, Peter [Muenster, DE

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  2. Development of a comprehensive database of scattering environmental conditions and simulation constraints for offshore wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hübler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For the design and optimisation of offshore wind turbines, the knowledge of realistic environmental conditions and utilisation of well-founded simulation constraints is very important, as both influence the structural behaviour and power output in numerical simulations. However, real high-quality data, especially for research purposes, are scarcely available. This is why, in this work, a comprehensive database of 13 environmental conditions at wind turbine locations in the North and Baltic Sea is derived using data of the FINO research platforms. For simulation constraints, like the simulation length and the time of initial simulation transients, well-founded recommendations in the literature are also rare. Nevertheless, it is known that the choice of simulation lengths and times of initial transients fundamentally affects the quality and computing time of simulations. For this reason, studies of convergence for both parameters are conducted to determine adequate values depending on the type of substructure, the wind speed, and the considered loading (fatigue or ultimate. As the main purpose of both the database and the simulation constraints is to compromise realistic data for probabilistic design approaches and to serve as a guidance for further studies in order to enable more realistic and accurate simulations, all results are freely available and easy to apply.

  3. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  4. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    cryostat design, where a concept with 20 W of heat transfer is achieved. Following the setup description, the focus turns to the electromagnetic design of the HTS machine. Particularly, an approach to increase the performance of HTS coils and the influence of the armature reaction to the HTS field winding...... magnetic characteristic with respect to the critical current. I have showed that the potential for the reduction of HTS conductor can be significant, if the coils are placed strategically, whereby the coils wound with BSCCO performed 40% better depending on the placement in the field winding. The 2G coils...... were less sensitive to the placement which made them particularly useful for high magnetic field regions in the eld winding. The second design approach proposed and tested was to use multiple current supplies which allowed each coil to operate close to its critical current. I have demonstrated...

  5. Practical experience and economic aspects of small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Workshop proceedings presented cover operating experience and development of wind turbines installed in the UK by Northern Engineering Industries plc companies, the Howden aerogenerator installed in Orkney, and the commissioning of a vertical-axis generator in a remote location. The National Wind Turbine Test Centre, the Caithness Wind Project, the South of Scotland Electricity Board's activities, economics of small scale wind power and commercialisation are discussed.

  6. Reduction of Environmental Impact Effect of Disposing Wind Turbine Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Wind power industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources inthe world. The growth specially focuses on growing industries and markets, because ofeconomical condition for wind power development besides political decisions.According to growth of wind turbine industries, wind turbine blades are growing fast in both sizeand number. The problem that now arises is how to deal with the blades at the end of their lifecycle. This Master Thesis describes existing methods...

  7. A Two-Bladed Concept Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the potential for reducing extreme loads with an innovative design of wind turbine, a partial pitch two-bladed concept turbine. The most extreme conditions to test a turbine are considered to be stand-still combined with a grid failure in which the wind comes from all directions...

  8. Ducted wind turbine optimization : A numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dighe, V.V.; De Oliveira Andrade, G.L.; van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The practice of ducting wind turbines has shown a beneficial effect on the overall performance, when compared to an open turbine of the same rotor diameter1. However, an optimization study specifically for ducted wind turbines (DWT’s) is missing or incomplete. This work focuses on a numerical

  9. FY 1998 Report on development of large-scale wind power generation systems. Research of wind turbines for storm worthy and easy construction; 1998 nendo ogata furyoku hatsuden system kaihatsu. Taikyofu kensetsu yoigata fusha ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The research and development statuses in various countries are surveyed, to have useful information to draw the future R and D directions for wind turbines resistant to storms and easy construction. Greece has sites suitable for wind power generation in mountainous districts, and is developing the systems while taking the characteristic weather conditions into consideration. The country provides information regarding aerodynamic/structural design methods for wind turbine blades applicable to turbulent wind generated by complex terrain, and wind assessment and analyses in complex terrain. In India, on-the-spot surveys are made at the cyclone-attacked wind farms. One of the areas on which the USA is putting emphasis is development of small-size wind turbines and wind-diesel hybrid systems for developing countries and independent grid systems in remote areas. Australia is constructing wind-diesel hybrid systems to be connected to a number of independent grid systems in its western area. In Europe, information is collected for the advanced aerodynamic analysis, construction of offshore wind turbines, and production engineering and facilities for blades and other components from Vestas and N.E.G. Micon as the leading wind turbine makers. (NEDO)

  10. Wind lens technology and its application to wind and water turbine and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind lens is a new type of wind power system consisting of a simple brimmed ring structure that surrounds the rotor causing greater wind to pass through the turbine. As a consequence, the turbine's efficiency of capturing energy from the wind gets dramatically increased. A Wind lens turbine can generate 2–5 times the power of an existing wind turbine given at the same rotor diameter and incoming wind speed. This fluid dynamical effect is also effective in the water. We have developed 1–3 kW Wind lens turbines and a 100 kW Wind lens turbine. In addition to the enhanced output power, Wind lens turbine is quiet. The technology is now used in an offshore experiment with a hexagonal float 18 meters in diameter set off the coast of Hakata Bay in Fukuoka City. Moreover, we are now pursuing larger size Wind lens turbines through multi-rotor design consisting of multiple Wind lens turbines in a same vertical plane to embody larger total power output.

  11. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Eja; Berg, Frits van den; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2010-01-01

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road traffic sound could mask wind turbine sound or, in contrast, increases annoyance due to wind turbine noise. Annoyance of road traffic and wind turbine noise was measured in the WINDFARMperception survey in the Netherlands in 2007 (n=725) and related to calculated levels of sound. The presence of road traffic sound did not in general decrease annoyance with wind turbine noise, except when levels of wind turbine sound were moderate (35-40 dB(A) Lden) and road traffic sound level exceeded that level with at least 20 dB(A). Annoyance with both noises was intercorrelated but this correlation was probably due to the influence of individual factors. Furthermore, visibility and attitude towards wind turbines were significantly related to noise annoyance of modern wind turbines. The results can be used for the selection of suitable sites, possibly favouring already noise exposed areas if wind turbine sound levels are sufficiently low.

  12. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States...

  13. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  14. Dynamic behavior of parked wind turbine at extreme wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Totsuka, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroshi; Yde, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of standstill and idling is analyzed by time domain simulations using two different coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic codes. Trend in modern wind turbines is development of bigger, lighter and more flexible rotors where vibration issues may cause aero-elastic instabilities which have a serious impact...

  15. Structural Reliability of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov

    turbine blades. The main purpose is to draw a clear picture of how reliability-based design of wind turbines can be done in practice. The objectives of the thesis are to create methodologies for efficient reliability assessment of composite materials and composite wind turbine blades, and to map...... the uncertainties in the processes, materials and external conditions that have an effect on the health of a composite structure. The study considers all stages in a reliability analysis, from defining models of structural components to obtaining the reliability index and calibration of partial safety factors...... by developing new models and standards or carrying out tests The following aspects are covered in detail: ⋅ The probabilistic aspects of ultimate strength of composite laminates are addressed. Laminated plates are considered as a general structural reliability system where each layer in a laminate is a separate...

  16. Meteorological Controls on Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Pryor, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    , modeling, and predicting this complex and interdependent system is therefore critical to understanding and modeling wind farm power losses due to wakes, and to optimizing wind farm layout. This paper quantifies the impact of these variables on the power loss due to wakes using data from the large offshore......The primary control on the magnitude of the power losses induced by wind turbine wakes in large wind farms is the hub-height wind speed via its link to the turbine thrust coefficient. Hence, at low to moderate wind speeds (between cut-in and rated turbine wind speeds) when the thrust coefficient...

  17. The sound power measurement and certification of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, A.; Henderson, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is anticipated that there will be a substantial growth in the exploitation of renewable energy from the wind over the next few years. A major factor in this expected growth is the environmental acceptance or otherwise of wind turbines and in particular their acoustic characteristics. It is generally accepted within the turbine community that reliable methods of measuring and quantifying a turbine's acoustic signature are essential if this exploitation is to be realised. This paper will seek to review current practice both in the UK and further afield and will describe the development of a practical and reliable test method, which will aid the wind turbine Manufacturer, Developer and Planner. (author)

  18. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ju; Sheng, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in strong wind conditions based on optimization method and standard PI feedback control, which can prevent the typical shutdowns of wind turbines when reaching the cut-out wind speed. In this paper, a new control strategy combing the standard PI feedback control with feedforward controls using the optimization results is investigated for the operation of variable-speed pitch-regulated wind turbines in strong wind conditions. It is shown that the developed control strategy is capable of smoothening the power output of wind turbine and avoiding its sudden showdown at high wind speeds without worsening the loads on rotor and blades

  19. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  20. Fault ride-through capability of DFIG wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Anca D. [Risoe National Laboratory, Wind Energy Department, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Michalke, Gabriele [Darmstadt University, Institute for Electrical Power Systems, Landgraf-Georg-Strasse 4, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This paper concentrates on the fault ride-through capability of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines. The main attention in the paper is, therefore, drawn to the control of the DFIG wind turbine and of its power converter and to the ability to protect itself without disconnection during grid faults. The paper provides also an overview on the interaction between variable-speed DFIG wind turbines and the power system subjected to disturbances, such as short circuit faults. The dynamic model of DFIG wind turbine includes models for both mechanical components as well as for all electrical components, controllers and for the protection device of DFIG necessary during grid faults. The viewpoint of the paper is to carry out different simulations to provide insight and understanding of the grid fault impact on both DFIG wind turbines and on the power system itself. The dynamic behaviour of DFIG wind turbines during grid faults is simulated and assessed by using a transmission power system generic model developed and delivered by the Danish Transmission System Operator Energinet.dk in the power system simulation toolbox PowerFactory DIgSILENT. The data for the wind turbines are not linked to a specific manufacturer, but are representative for the turbine and generator type used in variable-speed DFIG wind turbines with pitch control. (author)

  1. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, C.; Fuglsang, P.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    1999-01-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are basedon four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum...... theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotorwith LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall...... to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFDcomputations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived...

  2. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  3. Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW wind turbines for large offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nygaard Nielsen, Joergen; Thisted, Jan; Groendahl, Erik; Egedal, Per; Noertoft Frydensbjerg, Michael; Jensen, Kim Hoej [Siemens Wind Power A/S, Brande (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Siemens Wind power A/S is the key player on the offshore wind power market. The Siemens Wind Power 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine is among the word's largest, most advanced and competitive wind turbines with a solid portfolio of large offshore wind farms. Transmission system operators and developers require dynamic wind turbine models for evaluation of fault-ride-through capability and investigations of power system stability. The even larger size of the on- and offshore wind farms has entailed that the grid impact of the voltage and frequency control capability of the wind farm can be appropriated modelled and evaluated. Siemens Wind Power has developed a dynamic model of the 3.6 MW variable-speed wind turbine with the fault-ride-through sequences and models of the voltage and frequency controllers to be applied for large offshore wind farms. The dynamic models have been implemented in the commercially available simulation tools such as DIgSILENT PowerFactory and Siemens PTI PSS/E and successfully validated from measurements. (orig.)

  4. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  5. Load Extrapolation During Operation for Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In the recent years load extrapolation for wind turbines has been widely considered in the wind turbine industry. Loads on wind turbines during operations are normally dependent on the mean wind speed, the turbulence intensity and the type and settings of the control system. All these parameters...... must be taken into account when characteristic load effects during operation are determined. In the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1 a method for load extrapolation using the peak over threshold method is recommended. In this paper this method is considered and some of the assumptions are examined...

  6. Development and Testing of an Acoustoultrasonic Inspection Device for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGugan, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the wind energy industry has grown rapidly (23% per annum) to the stage where a modern turbine blade exceeds the wing span of an Airbus A380, where offshore wind farms of 300MW are a reality, and where an 800MW total level of European power production 15 years ago has become...... for this dynamic new industry. There is a need to understand the effect(s) of more advanced designs and manufacturing approaches, the prevalence and significance of production defects in material and structure, and the optimization of maintenance/inspection effort through monitoring. Described in this paper......-layered structure must meet the requirements of greater size and quality demanded by the industry, whilst matching the harsher environments of offshore placement, and providing improvements in reliability and an upgraded life-cycle maintenance approach. Non-destructive inspection technology is an important topic...

  7. Loads on Wind Turbines Access Platforms with Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with loads on wind turbine access platforms. The many planned new wind turbine parks together with the observed damages on platforms in several existing parks make the topic very important. The paper gives an overview of recently developed design formulae for different types...

  8. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2010-01-01

    This Wyoming wind-turbine data set represents locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 1, 2009. Each wind turbine is assigned to a wind farm. For each turbine, this report contains information about the following: potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, land ownership, county, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with its wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some attributes are estimates based on information that was obtained through the American Wind Energy Association and miscellaneous online reports. The locations are derived from August 2009 true-color aerial photographs made by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of approximately ?5 meters. The location of wind turbines under construction during the development of this data set will likely be less accurate than the location of turbines already completed. The original purpose for developing the data presented here was to evaluate the effect of wind energy development on seasonal habitat used by greater sage-grouse. Additionally, these data will provide a planning tool for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Science Team and for other wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey's Fort Collins Science Center. Specifically, these data will be used to quantify disturbance of the landscape related to wind energy as well as quantifying indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set was developed for the 2010 project 'Seasonal predictive habitat models for greater sage-grouse in Wyoming.' This project's spatially explicit seasonal distribution models of sage-grouse in Wyoming will provide resource managers with tools for conservation planning. These

  9. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  10. Full scale testing for investigation of wind turbine seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Veletzos, M.; Elgamal, A. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Structural Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, much of the growth in wind energy development was concentrated in North America and Asia, two regions which periodically experience strong earthquakes that may impact the final turbine design. As such, rational prediction of seismic hazards must be considered in order to maintain and enhance the ability of wind power to compete economically with other energy sources. In response to this challenge, researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have experimentally investigated wind turbines to gain an understanding of expected earthquake forces. This paper described the experimental setup for a full scale shake table test of a 65 kW wind turbine. The turbine was excited perpendicular to the axis of the rotor with a seismic base shaking record scaled to various levels. The data was analyzed using simple but effective procedures to provide insight into the observed structural damping of the wind turbine. The experimental investigation showed that full scale seismic testing of wind turbines is possible and can provide valuable insight into dynamic behaviour of wind turbines. The results can be used to develop a more accurate picture of how wind turbines are impacted by earthquakes. The data regarding the low observed super-structure damping provides a basis for calibration and further development of verified design procedures. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fault ride-through and voltage support of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalke, G.; Hartkopf, T. [Darmstadt Technical Univ., Dept. of Renewable Energies (Germany); Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a control strategy of direct driven multipole PMSG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. A dynamic simulation model of the turbine is implemented in the simulation software DIgSILENT. Simulation results approve the effectiveness of the developed control strategy. It is shown that PMSG wind turbines equipped with such control even enable nearby connected conventional wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. (au)

  12. Wind Turbine Rotors with Active Vibration Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann

    that the basic modes of a wind turbine blade can be effectively addressed by an in-blade ‘active strut’ actuator mechanism. The importance of accounting for background mode flexibility is demonstrated. Also, it is shown that it is generally possible to address multiple beam modes with multiple controllers, given...... in the targeted modes and the observed spill-over to other modes is very limited and generally stabilizing. It is shown that physical controller positioning for reduced background noise is important to the calibration. By simulation of the rotor response to both simple initial conditions and a stochastic wind......This thesis presents a framework for structural modeling, analysis and active vibration damping of rotating wind turbine blades and rotors. A structural rotor model is developed in terms of finite beam elements in a rotating frame of reference. The element comprises a representation of general...

  13. Optimal Structural Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The main failure modes of modern large wind turbines are fatigue failure of wings, hub, shaft and main tower, local buckling of main tower, and failure of the foundation. This paper considers reliability-based optimal design of wind turbines. Compared to onshore wind turbines and building...... structures, humans spent little time in the vicinity of offshore wind turbines and the probability of human injury during storm conditions is small. Further environmental pollution will also in general be small in case of failure. One could therefore argue that the reliability level of offshore wind turbines...... can be lower than for onshore wind turbines and other civil engineering structures and can be assessed by reliability-based cost-optimization. Specifically this paper considers the main tower and foundation. Both fatigue and ultimate strength failure modes are included. Different formulations...

  14. Discussion on mass concrete construction of wind turbine generator foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liang; Wu, Chaoxiang; Yin, Xiaoyong

    2018-04-01

    Wind power is one of the main power sources currently. China has rich wind power resources, wind power plants are developed faster and faster. However, China wind power construction started late, which is lack of relevant experience technology. It is easy to produce quality problems. The key to the construction quality of wind power plant is the construction quality of mass concrete construction. Therefore, construction technology and quality control of wind turbine generator foundation mass concrete are discussed and analyzed in the paper.

  15. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  16. Phase Angle Calculation Dynamics of Type 4 Wind Turbines in RMS Simulations during Severe Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    In order to conduct power system simulations with high shares of wind energy, standard wind turbine models, which are aimed to be generic rms models for a wide range of wind turbine types, have been developed. As a common practice of rms simulations, the power electronic interface of wind turbine...

  17. Small Wind Research Turbine: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Meadors, M.

    2005-10-01

    The Small Wind Research Turbine (SWRT) project was initiated to provide reliable test data for model validation of furling wind turbines and to help understand small wind turbine loads. This report will familiarize the user with the scope of the SWRT test and support the use of these data. In addition to describing all the testing details and results, the report presents an analysis of the test data and compares the SWRT test data to simulation results from the FAST aeroelastic simulation model.

  18. Market experiences with small wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deijl, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the marketing experiences of Lagerwey Windturbines with the exploitation of small wind turbines. Attention is paid to the market mechanisms which effect the sale and implementation of small wind turbines: payback of surplus power, provincial and regional subsidies, grid connection costs, energy prices, and flexible solutions for grid connections. Also problems with municipalities with regard to regulations or construction licenses are discussed. Some recommendations are given to stimulate the market for small wind turbines. 1 fig., 1 ref

  19. Safety standards for wind turbines; Sicherheitsnormen fuer Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, K. [Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States)

    2012-08-15

    As the global wind infrastructure sustains rapid growth, compliance with relevant standards provide validation of design principles and establish due diligence in addressing critical attributes such as safety. The IEC 61400 series of standards provides important information for addressing safety and performance of wind turbine systems. Efforts to address unique issues within the United States market has led to development of two safety standards, UL 6141 for large wind turbines and UL 6142 for small wind turbines. These standards, which are being published as American National Standards, contain key safety requirements for the electrical system, electrical safety and controls system, grid connection, and related safety issues. In the future, collaborative efforts will lead to continued exchange of best practices and opportunities for broader harmonization. Development of these standards, and their use by the manufacturing community in design and development of wind turbine products, supports maximal safety and performance of the burgeoning wind infrastructure. (orig.)

  20. Grid support capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Wind power has gained a significant penetration level in several power systems all over the world. Due to this reason modern wind turbines are requested to contribute to power system support. Power system operators have thus introduced grid codes, which specify a set of requirements for wind...... turbines, such as fault ride-through and reactive power supply during voltage sags. To date different wind turbine concepts exist on the market comprising different control features in order to provide ancillary services to the power system. In the first place the present chapter emphasizes the most...... important issues related to wind power grid integration. Then different wind turbine concepts are characterized and their grid support capabilities are analysed and compared. Simulation cases are presented in which the respective wind turbine concepts are subjected to a voltage dip specified in a grid code....

  1. Capturing the journey of wind from the wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbine design, control strategies often assume Taylor’s frozen turbulence where the fluctuating part of the wind is assumed to be constant. In practise, the wind turbine faces higher turbulence in case of gusts and lower turbulence in some cases. With Lidar technology, the frozen turbulence

  2. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Optimization design of blade shapes for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jin; Wang, Xudong; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2010-01-01

    For the optimization design of wind turbines, the new normal and tangential induced factors of wind turbines are given considering the tip loss of the normal and tangential forces based on the blade element momentum theory and traditional aerodynamic model. The cost model of the wind turbines...... and the optimization design model are developed. In the optimization model, the objective is the minimum cost of energy and the design variables are the chord length, twist angle and the relative thickness. Finally, the optimization is carried out for a 2 MW blade by using this optimization design model....... The performance of blades is validated through the comparison and analysis of the results. The reduced cost shows that the optimization model is good enough for the design of wind turbines. The results give a proof for the design and research on the blades of large scale wind turbines and also establish...

  4. Wind turbines: is there a human health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Roberts, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    The term "Wind Turbine Syndrome" was coined in a recently self-published book, which hypothesized that a multitude of symptoms such as headache and dizziness resulted from wind turbines generating low frequency sound (LFS). The objective of this article is to provide a summary of the peer-reviewed literature on the research that has examined the relationship between human health effects and exposure to LFS and sound generated from the operation of wind turbines. At present, a specific health condition has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature that has been classified as a disease caused by exposure to sound levels and frequencies generated by the operation of wind turbines. Communities are experiencing a heightened sense of annoyance and fear from the development and siting of wind turbine farms. High-quality research and effective risk communication can advance this course from one of panic to one of understanding and exemplification for other environmental advancements.

  5. Vertical axis wind turbines: a survey and bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramovich, H

    1987-01-01

    The stimulus for the development of modern, big wind turbines has been the world-wide oil crisis during the seventies. Although the horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) was the most popular type of wind turbine the Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) has been recognized as a machine with competitive economic potential. The state of the art of the VAWT is reviewed. The wind turbine carrying the name of Darrieus was first proposed by the French inventor in 1925. His original patent covered a range of vertical-axis configurations but the term 'Darrieus' is now generally associated with the curved-blade geometry. In 1966 two researchers at the Canadian NRC again raised the idea of both the straight and curved-blade versions of the Darrieus VAWT.

  6. Lightning discharges produced by wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.

    2014-02-01

    New observations with a 3-D Lightning Mapping Array and high-speed video are presented and discussed. The first set of observations shows that under certain thunderstorm conditions, wind turbine blades can produce electric discharges at regular intervals of 3 s in relation to its rotation, over periods of time that range from a few minutes up to hours. This periodic effect has not been observed in static towers indicating that the effect of rotation is playing a critical role. The repeated discharges can occur tens of kilometers away from electrically active thunderstorm areas and may or may not precede a fully developed upward lightning discharge from the turbine. Similar to rockets used for triggering lightning, the fast movement of the blade tip plays an important role on the initiation of the discharge. The movement of the rotor blades allows the tip to "runaway" from the generated corona charge. The second observation is an uncommon upward/downward flash triggered by a wind turbine. In that flash, a negative upward leader was initiated from a wind turbine without preceding lightning activity. The flash produced a negative cloud-to-ground stroke several kilometers from the initiation point. The third observation corresponds to a high-speed video record showing simultaneous upward positive leaders from a group of wind turbines triggered by a preceding intracloud flash. The fact that multiple leaders develop simultaneously indicates a poor shielding effect among them. All these observations provide some special features on the initiation of lightning by nonstatic and complex tall structures.

  7. Preview-based Asymmetric Load Reduction of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mathias; Filsø, Jakob; Soltani, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Controller (MPC) developed is based on a model with individual blade pitching to utilize the LIDAR measurements. The MPC must also maintain a given power reference while satisfying a set of actuator constraints. The designed controller was tested on a 5 MW wind turbine in the FAST simulator and compared......Fatigue loads on wind turbines caused by an asymmetric wind field become an increasing concern when the scale of wind turbines increases. This paper presents a model based predictive approach to reduce asymmetric loads by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) measurements. The Model Predictive...

  8. Damping Wind and Wave Loads on a Floating Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Søren; Bak, Thomas; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind energy capitalizes on the higher and less turbulent wind speeds at sea. To enable deployment of wind turbines in deep-water locations, structures are being explored, where wind turbines are placed on a floating platform. This combined structure presents a new control problem, due......, and we show the influence that both wind speed, wave frequencies and misalignment between wind and waves have on the system dynamics. A new control model is derived that extends standard turbine models to include the hydrodynamics, additional platform degrees of freedom, the platform mooring system...

  9. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2014-04-21

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine\\'s upgrade, the results may not be accurate because many other environmental factors in addition to wind speed, such as temperature, air pressure, turbulence intensity, wind shear and humidity, all potentially affect the turbine\\'s power output. Wind industry practitioners are aware of the need to filter out effects from environmental conditions. Toward that objective, we developed a kernel plus method that allows incorporation of multivariate environmental factors in a power curve model, thereby controlling the effects from environmental factors while comparing power outputs. We demonstrate that the kernel plus method can serve as a useful tool for quantifying a turbine\\'s upgrade because it is sensitive to small and moderate changes caused by certain turbine upgrades. Although we demonstrate the utility of the kernel plus method in this specific application, the resulting method is a general, multivariate model that can connect other physical factors, as long as their measurements are available, with a turbine\\'s power output, which may allow us to explore new physical properties associated with wind turbine performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Wind turbine optimal control during storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrović, V; Bottasso, C L

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control algorithm that enables wind turbine operation in high winds. With this objective, an online optimization procedure is formulated that, based on the wind turbine state, estimates those extremal wind speed variations that would produce maximal allowable wind turbine loads. Optimization results are compared to the actual wind speed and, if there is a danger of excessive loading, the wind turbine power reference is adjusted to ensure that loads stay within allowed limits. This way, the machine can operate safely even above the cut-out wind speed, thereby realizing a soft envelope-protecting cut-out. The proposed control strategy is tested and verified using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic simulation model

  11. Conceptual design and costs of large wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, E.; Harrison, R.; Cockerill, T.T.; Snel, H.

    1996-01-01

    The development of large wind turbines, with capacities in excess of 1 MW is reviewed. Despite statistical evidence to the contrary, there are some reasons to be optimistic that further development will render large machines economic for commercial uses. The direction in which such development should proceed is unclear, however. A cost model, founded on the principles of conceptual design, with the objective of evaluating large wind turbine design options is described. Use of the model allows conclusions to be drawn regarding the potential for development of certain large wind turbine configurations. (author)

  12. Aeroelastic Optimization of MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Zahle, Frederik

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project “Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine” (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beamelement forHAWC2 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis...... of controlled wind turbines 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given...

  13. Development of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind-turbine generator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R. S.; Lucas, W. C.

    1983-12-01

    The General Electric Company Advanced Energy Programs Department is designing, under DOE/NASA sponsorship through Contract DEN 3-153, the MOD-5A wind-turbine system, which must generate electricity for less than 3.75 cents/kWh (1980 dollars). During the conceptual and preliminary design phases, the basic features were established as a result of tradeoff and optimization studies driven by minimizing the system cost of energy. During the past year, the program has been in the final design phase, and a reassessment to minimize risk has received strong emphasis in the design process. The program has progressed to the point that an agreement of sale has been reached for the first unit.

  14. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  15. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  16. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind...... turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute...

  17. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1

  18. Electrical components library for HAWC2; Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutululis, N.A.; Larsen, Torben J.; Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D. (Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (DK)); Iov, F. (Aalborg Univ., Institute of Energy Technology (DK))

    2007-12-15

    The work presented in this report is part of the EFP project called ''A Simulation Platform to Model, Optimize and Design Wind Turbines'' partly funded by the Danish Energy Authority under contract number 1363/04-0008. The project is carried out in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory and Aalborg University. In this project, the focus is on the development of a simulation platform for wind turbine systems using different simulation tools. This report presents the electric component library developed for use in the aeroelastic code HAWC2. The developed library includes both steady state and dynamical models for fixed and variable speed wind turbines. A simple steady-state slip model was developed for the fixed speed wind turbine. This model is suitable for aeroelastic design of wind turbines under normal operation. A dynamic model of an induction generator for the fixed speed wind turbine was developed. The model includes the dynamics of the rotor fluxes. The model is suitable for a more detailed investigation of the mechanical-electrical interaction, both under normal and fault operation. For the variable speed wind turbine, a steadystate model, typically used in aeroelastic design, was implemented. The model can be used for normal and, to some extent, for fault operation. The reduced order dynamic model of a DFIG was implemented. The model includes only the active power controller and can be used for normal operation conditions. (au)

  19. Adhesive Joints in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeppe Bjørn

    to be determined in several different ways. The accuracy of different ways of measuring residual stresses in the adhesive was tested by applying five different methods on a single sandwich test specimen (laminate/adhesive/laminate) that was instrumented with strain gauges and fiber Bragg gratings. Quasi...... of the project is to develop new- and to improve the existing design rules for adhesive joints in wind turbine blades. The first scientific studies of adhesive joints were based on stress analysis, which requires that the bond-line is free of defects, but this is rarely the case for a wind turbine blade. Instead...... curing and test temperatures) on the formation of transverse cracks in the adhesive were tested experimentally. It was assumed that the transverse cracks evolved due to a combination of mechanical- and residual stresses in the adhesive. A new approach was developed that allows the residual stress...

  20. Aeroelastic optimization of MW wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig Hansen, M.; Zahle, F.

    2011-12-15

    This report contains the results from the Energy Development and Demonstration Project ''Aeroelastic Optimization of MW wind turbine'' (AeroOpt). The project has had the following five Work Packages: 1. Geometric non-linear, anisotropic beam element for HAWC2. 2. Closed-loop eigenvalue analysis of controlled wind turbines. 3. Resonant wave excitation of lateral tower bending modes. 4. Development of next generation aerodynamic design tools. 5. Advanced design and verification of airfoils. The purposes of these Work Packages are briefly described in the Preface and a summary of the results are given in Section 2. Thereafter, the results from each Work Package are described in eight subsequent chapters. (Author)

  1. Dynamic response of wind turbine towers in warm permafrost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Still; ZhaoHui Joey Yang; Simon Evans; FuJun Niu

    2014-01-01

    Wind is a great source of renewable energy in western Alaska. Consistent winds blow across the barren tundra underlain by warm permafrost in the winter season, when the energy demand is the highest. Foundation engineering in warm permafrost has always been a challenge in wind energy development. Degrading warm permafrost poses engineering issues to design, construction, and operation of wind turbines. This paper describes the foundation design of a wind turbine built in western Alaska. It presents a sys-tem for response monitoring and load assessment, and data collected from September 2013 to March 2014. The dynamic proper-ties are assessed based on the monitoring data, and seasonal changes in the dynamic properties of the turbine tower-foundation system and likely resonance between the spinning blades and the tower structure are discussed. These analyses of a wind turbine in warm permafrost are valuable for designing or retrofitting of foundations in warm permafrost.

  2. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G; Klosse, R; Santjer, F [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N; Davy, W [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M; Morfiadakis, E [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  3. Rule - based Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xiao-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the trend of increasing installed capacity of wind power, the intelligent fault diagnosis of wind turbine is of great significance to the safe and efficient operation of wind farms. Based on the knowledge of fault diagnosis of wind turbines, this paper builds expert system diagnostic knowledge base by using confidence production rules and expert system self-learning method. In Visual Studio 2013 platform, C # language is selected and ADO.NET technology is used to access the database. Development of Fault Diagnosis Expert System for Wind Turbine. The purpose of this paper is to realize on-line diagnosis of wind turbine fault through human-computer interaction, and to improve the diagnostic capability of the system through the continuous improvement of the knowledge base.

  4. Noise from wind turbines. Final report of project JOU2-CT92-0124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Borg, N.; Andersen, B.; Mackinnon, A.; Klug, H.; Theofiloyannakos, D.

    1995-04-01

    Part of the planning procedure for the erection of a wind turbine or a wind farm is the prediction of the acoustic noise due to the wind turbine(s) at the nearest dwelling. The noise is normally predicted using the acoustic characteristics of the regarded wind turbine as measured on a wind turbine of equal make and model and using a general noise propagation model. Both inputs introduce uncertainties in the predicted noise level: (a) turbines of equal make and model may have different acoustic characteristics; (b) the acoustic characteristics of a turbine may change in time - from day to day (repeatability of the measurement), - during the years (ageing of the turbine); (c) the general propagation model does not take into account the effects of source elevation and wind. The project aimed at the quantification of these uncertainties and at the development of a wind turbine noise propagation model. Statistical information has been collected on the individual differences of the sound power and tonality of turbines of equal make and model by measuring 6 different types of wind turbines. Of each type 5 individual turbines have been measured (total 30 turbines). Additionally the sound power of a series of 4 wind turbines and of a series of 29 wind turbines (from earlier measurements) have been introduced into the project. Statistical information has been collected on the day to day variations of the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by measuring 3 different turbines 5 times (total 15 measurements). Statistical information has been collected on the effect of ageing on the sound power and tonality of wind turbines by the repeated measurement of 5 wind turbines that have been measured in an identical situation 3 to 7 years earlier. A method for the prediction of wind turbine noise propagation has been developed based on measurements of sound propagation from an elevated noise source and theoretical calculations. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Online wind turbine measurement laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Helgesen Pedersen, K.O.; Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2006-01-01

    conditions, 3) electrical quantities and 4) mechanical loads in terms of strain gauge signals. The data acquisition system has been designed and implemented by Risø together with students and teachers from DTU. It is based on LabVIEW© combined with a MySQL database for data management. The system enables...... calculations and extreme loads estimation in basic wind turbine courses. Power quality analysis is carried out based on high speed sampled, three-phase voltage and current signals. The wide spectrum of sensors enables a detailed study of the correlation between meteorological, mechanical and electrical...

  6. Noise immission from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report is in itself a Summary of the entire NIWT project, JOR3-CT95-0065, which consisted of a jointly EC funded collaboration between nine European partners in six Countries which ran between January 1996 and December 1997. The primary aims of the project were to investigate a number of aspects associated with more precisely quantifying the uncertainties associated with the Measurement of Acoustic Noise Immission of wind turbines. The main findings of the report are contained in the technical reports issued by partners on individual tasks. Copies of individual reports can be obtained directly from the participating partners. (author)

  7. Seaside, mountain and... wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossement, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several courts have given a ruling considering that the law 'Montagne' (January 9., 1985) and the law 'Littoral' (January 3., 1986) are opposable to the building license of wind turbines. The law 'Littoral' imposes that any new construction in seaside areas has to be built in continuity of existing villages or hamlets. The law 'Montagne' imposes similar constraints to avoid the construction of isolated buildings in mountain areas but, contrary to the law 'Littoral', it allows some impairment for instance for the construction of certain public equipment. (A.C.)

  8. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    and the rotation speed is lowered in order to limit the tip speed of the blades. The ability of superconducting materials to carry high current densities with very small losses might facilitate a new class of generators operating with an air gap flux density considerably higher than conventional generators...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  10. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L H; Dannemand Andersen, P [Risoe Ntaional Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on `characteristic` rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  11. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on 'characteristic' rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  12. CSA guide to Canadian wind turbine codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian wind energy sector has become one of the fastest-growing wind energy markets in the world. Growth of the industry has been supported by various government agencies. However, many projects have experienced cost over-runs or cancellations as a result of unclear regulatory requirements, and wind energy developers are currently subject to a variety of approval processes involving several different authorities. This Canadian Standards Association (CSA) guide provided general information on codes and standards related to the design, approval, installation, operation, and maintenance of wind turbines in Canada. CSA codes and standards were developed by considering 5 new standards adopted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee on Wind Turbines. The standards described in this document related to acoustic noise measurement techniques; power performance measurements of electricity-producing wind turbines; lightning protection for wind turbine generator systems; design requirements for turbines; and design requirements for small wind turbines. The guide addressed specific subject areas related to the development of wind energy projects that involve formal or regulatory approval processes. Subject areas included issues related to safety, environmental design considerations, site selection, and mechanical systems. Information on associated standards and codes was also included

  13. Spatial mapping and attribution of Wyoming wind turbines, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael S.; Fancher, Tammy S.

    2014-01-01

    These data represent locations of wind turbines found within Wyoming as of August 2012. We assigned each wind turbine to a wind farm and, in these data, provide information about each turbine’s potential megawatt output, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, the status of the land ownership where the turbine exists, the county each turbine is located in, wind farm power capacity, the number of units currently associated with each wind farm, the wind turbine manufacturer and model, the wind farm developer, the owner of the wind farm, the current purchaser of power from the wind farm, the year the wind farm went online, and the status of its operation. Some of the attributes are estimates based on the information we found via the American Wind Energy Association and other on-line reports. The locations are derived from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2009 and 2012) true color aerial photographs and have a positional accuracy of approximately +/-5 meters. These data will provide a planning tool for wildlife- and habitat-related projects underway at the U.S. Geological Survey’s Fort Collins Science Center and other government and non-government organizations. Specifically, we will use these data to support quantifying disturbances of the landscape as related to wind energy as well as to quantify indirect disturbances to flora and fauna. This data set represents an update to a previous version by O’Donnell and Fancher (2010).

  14. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  15. Design Mining Interacting Wind Turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preen, Richard J; Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    An initial study has recently been presented of surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithms used to design vertical-axis wind turbines wherein candidate prototypes are evaluated under fan-generated wind conditions after being physically instantiated by a 3D printer. Unlike other approaches, such as computational fluid dynamics simulations, no mathematical formulations were used and no model assumptions were made. This paper extends that work by exploring alternative surrogate modelling and evolutionary techniques. The accuracy of various modelling algorithms used to estimate the fitness of evaluated individuals from the initial experiments is compared. The effect of temporally windowing surrogate model training samples is explored. A surrogate-assisted approach based on an enhanced local search is introduced; and alternative coevolution collaboration schemes are examined.

  16. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The New Mexico wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from 1-meter August 2009 true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  17. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Fancher, Tammy S.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne-Marie; Turner, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado wind-turbine data series provides geospatial data for all wind turbines established within the State as of August 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, and county. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, year the facility went online, and development status of wind facility. Turbine locations were derived from August 2009 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program; the photographs have a positional accuracy of about + or - 5 meters. The location of turbines under construction during August 2009 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas currently (2011) in development by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Energy Atlas will synthesize data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and will include additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools will be included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy Atlas will facilitate the integration of information about energy with key terrestrial and aquatic resources for evaluating resource values and minimizing risks from energy development.

  18. When wind turbines go to the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Land wind turbines are not designed to operate in the open seas. In order to enhance their reliability, facilitate their maintenance and increase their power, existing technologies are adapted to the offshore constraints (direct drive for the blades, maintenance optimization, etc.) while innovating designs (such as vertical axis wind turbines, floating platforms, etc.) are presently tested. Several of these new concepts are described

  19. Tjæreborg Wind Turbine (Esbjerg)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øye, Stig

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first measured timeseries for the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) Wind Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes.......This paper presents the first measured timeseries for the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) Wind Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes....

  20. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  1. Reliability-Based Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reliability-based optimization of the main tower and monopile foundation of an offshore wind turbine is considered. Different formulations are considered of the objective function including benefits and building and failure costs of the wind turbine. Also different reconstruction policies in case...

  2. The Electromagnetic Impact of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    Applied Project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC IMPACT OF WIND TURBINES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Gregory Sasarita and Charles R...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) The objective of this project was to investigate the impact that a wind turbine can have on

  3. Wind Turbine Aerodynamics from an Aerospace Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Garrel, Arne; ten Pas, Sebastiaan; Venner, Cornelis H.; van Muijden, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    The current challenges in wind turbine aerodynamics simulations share a number of similarities with the challenges that the aerospace industry has faced in the past. Some of the current challenges in the aerospace aerodynamics community are also relevant for today’s wind turbine aerodynamics

  4. Iterative feedback tuning of wind turbine controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solingen, E.; Mulders, S.P.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, wind turbine controllers are designed using first principles or linearized or identified models. The aim of this paper is to show that with an automated, online, and model-free tuning strategy, wind turbine control performance can be significantly increased. For this purpose,

  5. Dynamic Phase Compensation of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, P.; Skaarup, J.; Iov, Florin

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic phase compensation unit for a wind turbine with directly connected induction generators. The compensation unit is based on thyristor switched capacitors, where conventional wind turbine compensations use mechanical contactors to switch the capacitors. The unit modules...

  6. Discord amongst the wind turbine buyers with regard to Dutch wind turbine manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse, F.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands two medium-large manufacturers of wind turbines exist: NedWind (Hollandia Kloos) and Windmaster Nederland (Begemann Groep). Also Lagerwey, which constructs wind turbines for the private market (farmers, cooperatives), is important for the Dutch market and successfull in Germany. There is a tendency amongst the Dutch energy utilities, which cooperate in the foundation WindPlan, to buy wind turbines from foreign manufacturers. Some energy utilities want to take advantage of the most attractive offers, while others want to cooperate in building up a Dutch wind turbine industry. 5 ills

  7. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  8. Small power wind turbine (Type DARRIEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel STERE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on the calculation for small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT for an urban application. The fixed-pitch straight – bladed vertical axis wind turbine (SB-VAWT is one of the simplest types of wind turbine and accepts wind from any angle (no yaw system. This turbine is useful for moderate wind speeds (3 - 6 m/s. A case study is presented based upon the use of well documented symmetrical NACA 0012 turbine blade profile. We describe a solution for VAWT. To perform a linear static analysis in the structure, the commercial finite element analysis code ANSYS is used because of its flexibility for handling information in files written in a more or less free format.

  9. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers...... and a real-time data-acquisition system. The report concerns the in service performance of the wind turbine, with focus on estimation of the natural frequencies of the structure/foundation. The natural frequencies are initially estimated by means of experimental Output-only Modal analysis. The experimental...... estimates are then compared with numerical simulations of the suction caisson foundation and the wind turbine. The numerical model consists of a finite element section for the wind turbine tower and nacelle. The soil-structure interaction of the soil-foundation section is modelled by lumped-parameter models...

  10. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context....... This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...

  11. 'Wind turbine syndrome': fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farboud, A; Crunkhorn, R; Trinidade, A

    2013-03-01

    Symptoms, including tinnitus, ear pain and vertigo, have been reported following exposure to wind turbine noise. This review addresses the effects of infrasound and low frequency noise and questions the existence of 'wind turbine syndrome'. This review is based on a search for articles published within the last 10 years, conducted using the PubMed database and Google Scholar search engine, which included in their title or abstract the terms 'wind turbine', 'infrasound' or 'low frequency noise'. There is evidence that infrasound has a physiological effect on the ear. Until this effect is fully understood, it is impossible to conclude that wind turbine noise does not cause any of the symptoms described. However, many believe that these symptoms are related largely to the stress caused by unwanted noise exposure. There is some evidence of symptoms in patients exposed to wind turbine noise. The effects of infrasound require further investigation.

  12. Wind Turbine Optimization with WISDEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Veers, Paul S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-03

    This presentation for the Fourth Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop explains the NREL wind energy systems engineering initiative-developed analysis platform and research capability to capture important system interactions to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. Topics include Wind-Plant Integrated System Design and Engineering Model (WISDEM) and multidisciplinary design analysis and optimization.

  13. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  14. Risk-based Inspection Planning Optimisation of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Wind industry is substantially propelled and the future scenarios designate offshore locations as important sites for energy production. With this development, offshore wind farms represent a feasible option to accomplish the needed energy, bringing with it technical and economical challenges......, but considering the lower reliability level for wind turbines. This framework is addressing fatigue prone details in welded steel joints typically located in the wind turbine substructure. The increase of turbulence in-wind farms (IWF) due to wake effects is taken into account using a code-based turbulence model...

  15. 3D-PTV around Operational Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Ian; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory studies and numerical simulations of wind turbines are typically constrained in how they can inform operational turbine behavior. Laboratory experiments are usually unable to match both pertinent parameters of full-scale wind turbines, the Reynolds number (Re) and tip speed ratio, using scaled-down models. Additionally, numerical simulations of the flow around wind turbines are constrained by the large domain size and high Re that need to be simulated. When these simulations are preformed, turbine geometry is typically simplified resulting in flow structures near the rotor not being well resolved. In order to bypass these limitations, a quantitative flow visualization method was developed to take in situ measurements of the flow around wind turbines at the Field Laboratory for Optimized Wind Energy (FLOWE) in Lancaster, CA. The apparatus constructed was able to seed an approximately 9m x 9m x 5m volume in the wake of the turbine using artificial snow. Quantitative measurements were obtained by tracking the evolution of the artificial snow using a four camera setup. The methodology for calibrating and collecting data, as well as preliminary results detailing the flow around a 2kW vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT), will be presented.

  16. Rotating transformers in wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Engstroem, S. [Aegir konsult AB, Lidingoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The power consumption of rotating electrical components is often supplied via slip-rings in wind turbines. Slip-ring equipment is expensive and need maintenance and are prone to malfunction. If the slip-rings could be replaced with contact-less equipment better turbines could be designed. This paper presents the design, some FE calculations and some measurements on a prototype rotating transformer. The proposed transformer consists of a secondary rotating winding and a stationary exciting primary winding. The results indicate that this transformer could be used to replace slip-rings in wind turbines. 4 refs, 3 figs

  17. Diagnosis of wind turbine rotor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2016-01-01

    is based on available standard sensors on wind turbines. The method can be used both on-line as well as off-line. Faults or changes in the rotor system will result in asymmetries, which can be monitored and diagnosed. This can be done by using the multi-blade coordinate transformation. Changes in the rotor......This paper describes a model free method for monitoring and fault diagnosis of the elements in a rotor system for a wind turbine. The diagnosis as well as the monitoring is done without using any model of the wind turbine and the applied controller or a description of the wind profile. The method...

  18. Floating Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt

    The concept of harnessing the power of the wind dates all the way back to the first ships traversing the seas. Later, windmills enabled the use of wind power for industrial purposes. Since then, technology has allowed the production of clean renewable energy through the use of wind turbines....... These turbines have traditionally been placed on land, but several factors have urged a move to offshore locations. Now the boundaries are being pushed into deeper and deeper waters, where the idea of floating offshore wind turbines has emerged. In less than a decade, these have gone from scattered small...

  19. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  20. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines and wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Ali Emre; Meyers, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit

  1. Frequency Based Fault Detection in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain lower cost of energy for wind turbines fault detection and accommodation is important. Expensive condition monitoring systems are often used to monitor the condition of rotating and vibrating system parts. One example is the gearbox in a wind turbine. This system is operated...... in parallel to the control system, using different computers and additional often expensive sensors. In this paper a simple filter based algorithm is proposed to detect changes in a resonance frequency in a system, exemplified with faults resulting in changes in the resonance frequency in the wind turbine...... gearbox. Only the generator speed measurement which is available in even simple wind turbine control systems is used as input. Consequently this proposed scheme does not need additional sensors and computers for monitoring the condition of the wind gearbox. The scheme is evaluated on a wide-spread wind...

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei

    Wind energy is one of several energy sources in the world and a rapidly growing industry in the energy sector. When placed in offshore or onshore locations, wind turbines are exposed to wave excitations, highly dynamic wind loads and/or the wakes from other wind turbines. Therefore, most components...... in a wind turbine experience highly dynamic and time-varying loads. These components may fail due to wear or fatigue, and this can lead to unplanned shutdown repairs that are very costly. The design by deterministic methods using safety factors is generally unable to account for the many uncertainties. Thus......, a reliability assessment should be based on probabilistic methods where stochastic modeling of failures is performed. This thesis focuses on probabilistic models and the stochastic modeling of the fatigue life of the wind turbine drivetrain. Hence, two approaches are considered for stochastic modeling...

  3. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  4. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations...

  5. Harmonisation of wind turbine certification in Europe JOULE project EWTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, C [Germanischer Lloyd, Hamburg (Germany); Eriksson, C [Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark); Hulle, F van [Frans van Hulle, Petten (Netherlands); Skamris, C [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Stam, W [CIWI Holland, Arnheim (Netherlands); Vionis, P [CRES, Attki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    Wind turbine certification requirements are currently fairly divers within Europe. Therefore the leading European certification bodies initiated a JOULE project to harmonise the certification procedure on the basis of the current set of IEC/EN 61400 series standards. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of wind turbine certification in European countries and an outline of the sturcture of the project. The main steps of the project are (a) the collection of differences in certification practices by round robin certification of three wind turbine types; (b) assessment of the different certification results and (c) the development of a harmonised certification procedure. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 19 refs.

  6. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

  7. Large Wind Turbine Design Characteristics and R and D Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, S. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Detailed technical presentations on large wind turbine research and development activities sponsored by public and private organizations are presented. Both horizontal and vertical axis machines are considered with emphasis on their structural design.

  8. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    The wind energy industry has demonstrated its maturity and technical reliability. Because it will play an increasing role on the power generation market, the question of the cost and profitability of the wind energy has become of prime importance. Two main traps must be avoided: the first should be to deny the present and future economical interest of wind energy because of its supplementary cost with respect to conventional power generation techniques. The second trap should be to underestimate the economical progresses that wind energy must carry on to ensure its large scale development. Therefore, some advantageous pricing and regulatory conditions are necessary to allow the development of this emerging energy source. This document presents: the cost of a wind power project (initial investment, financial incentives); the profitability of a project (cost of a kWh of wind power origin, retail price, warranty of power supply capacity, indirect environmental costs, value of decentralized production); economical interest of wind power (energy efficiency, employment, financial advantages for the local economy); and who are the investors. (J.S.)

  9. Quantifying the hurricane risk to offshore wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen; Jaramillo, Paulina; Small, Mitchell J; Grossmann, Iris; Apt, Jay

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy has estimated that if the United States is to generate 20% of its electricity from wind, over 50 GW will be required from shallow offshore turbines. Hurricanes are a potential risk to these turbines. Turbine tower buckling has been observed in typhoons, but no offshore wind turbines have yet been built in the United States. We present a probabilistic model to estimate the number of turbines that would be destroyed by hurricanes in an offshore wind farm. We apply this model to estimate the risk to offshore wind farms in four representative locations in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal waters of the United States. In the most vulnerable areas now being actively considered by developers, nearly half the turbines in a farm are likely to be destroyed in a 20-y period. Reasonable mitigation measures--increasing the design reference wind load, ensuring that the nacelle can be turned into rapidly changing winds, and building most wind plants in the areas with lower risk--can greatly enhance the probability that offshore wind can help to meet the United States' electricity needs.

  10. Aerodynamic Optimization of a Wind Turbine Blade Designed for Egypt's Saharan Environment Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Yassin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to optimize the aerodynamic parameters (airfoil chord lengths and twist angles smoothed using Bezier curves of the NREL 5MW wind turbine and a wind turbine designed for site-specific wind conditions to increase the wind turbine's annual energy production (AEP under this site conditions. This optimization process is carried out using a Genetic Algorithm (GA developed in MATLAB and coupled with NREL's FAST Modularization Framework. The results shows that after optimizing the NREL 5MW wind turbine design, the AEP was improved by 5.9% of the baseline design AEP while a site-specific designed wind turbine using Schmitz equations shows 1.2% improvement in AEP. These results shows that optimization of wind turbine blade aerodynamic parameters for site-specific wind conditions leads to improvement in AEP and hence decreasing cost of energy generated by wind turbines.

  11. Effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. X.; Li, G. S.; Song, L.; Bai, Y. F.

    2017-11-01

    With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollution, more and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a four blades bionic wind turbine was proposed, and the outline of wind turbine was constructed by the fitted curve. This paper attempted to research the effects of setting angle and chord length on performance of four blades bionic wind turbine by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle and chord length of the bionic wind turbine has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, and within the range of wind speed from 7 m/s to 15 m/s, the wind turbine achieved maximum efficiency when the setting angle is 31 degree and the chord length is 125 mm. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design

  12. Separated Flow over Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David; Lewalle, Jacques

    2015-11-01

    The motion of the separation point on an airfoil under unsteady flow can affect its performance and longevity. Of interest is to understand and control the performance decrease in wind turbines subject to turbulent flow. We examine flow separation on an airfoil at a 19 degree angle of attack under unsteady flow conditions. We are using a DU-96-W180 airfoil of chord length 242 mm. The unsteadiness is generated by a cylinder with diameter 203 mm located 7 diameters upstream of the airfoil's leading edge. The data comes from twenty surface pressure sensors located on the top and bottom of the airfoil as well as on the upstream cylinder. Methods of analysis include Mexican hat transforms, Morlet wavelet transforms, power spectra, and various cross correlations. With this study I will explore how the differences of signals on the pressure and suction sides of an airfoil are related to the motion of the separation point.

  13. European wind turbine standards 2 (EWTS-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierik, J T.G.; Dekker, J W.M.; Braam, H [and others

    1999-03-01

    A summary is given of the main results of the European Wind Turbine Standards II project. EWTS-II was completed in 1998 and included investigations on: 1) wind farms-wind field and turbine loading; 2) complex terrain and fatigue loading; 3) extreme wind conditions; 4) quantification of failure probabilities; 5) integration of blade tests in design; 6) power performance in complex terrain; 7) site evaluation. In addition to these scientific evaluations, the EWTS-II participants established an organization of qualified measuring institute in the field of wind energy, the MEASNET organization. MEASNET unified measurement procedures of the participating institutes and guarantees qualified measurements and mutual acceptance among its members. (LN)

  14. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi

    2014-01-01

    Condition monitoring of wind turbines is a field of continu- ous research and development as new turbine configurations enter into the market and new failure modes appear. Systems utilising well established techniques from the energy and in- dustry sector, such as vibration analysis...

  15. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  16. Research status and trend of wind turbine aerodynamic noise?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong LI; Baohong BAI; Yingbo XU; Min JIANG

    2016-01-01

    The main components of the wind turbine aerodynamic noise are introduced. A detailed review is given on the theoretical prediction, experimental measurement, and numerical simulation methods of wind turbine noise, with speci?c attention to appli-cations. Furthermore, suppression techniques of wind turbine aerodynamic noise are discussed. The perspective of future research on the wind turbine aerodynamic noise is presented.

  17. Market Suitability and Performance Tradeoffs Offered by Commercial Wind Turbines across Differing Wind Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souma Chowdhury

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of turbine configurations to different wind resources has been traditionally restricted to considering turbines operating as standalone entities. In this paper, a framework is thus developed to investigate turbine suitability in terms of the minimum cost of energy offered when operating as a group of optimally-micro-sited turbines. The four major steps include: (i characterizing the geographical variation of wind regimes in the onshore U.S. market; (ii determining the best performing turbines for different wind regimes through wind farm layout optimization; (iii developing a metric to quantify the expected market suitability of available turbine configurations; and (iv exploring the best tradeoffs between the cost and capacity factor yielded by these turbines. One hundred thirty one types of commercial turbines offered by major global manufacturers in 2012 are considered for selection. It is found that, in general, higher rated power turbines with medium tower heights are the most favored. Interestingly, further analysis showed that “rotor diameter/hub height” ratios greater than 1.1 are the least attractive for any of the wind classes. It is also observed that although the “cost-capacity factor” tradeoff curve expectedly shifted towards higher capacity factors with increasing wind class, the trend of the tradeoff curve remained practically similar.

  18. Aeroelastic stability analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, D.

    1982-02-01

    An aeroelastic stability analysis was developed for predicting flutter instabilities on vertical axis wind turbines. The analytical model and mathematical formulation of the problem are described as well as the physical mechanism that creates flutter in Darrieus turbines. Theoretical results are compared with measured experimental data from flutter tests of the Sandia 2 Meter turbine. Based on this comparison, the analysis appears to be an adequate design evaluation tool.

  19. Aeroelastic stability analysis of a Darrieus wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popelka, D.

    1982-02-01

    An aeroelastic stability analysis has been developed for predicting flutter instabilities on vertical axis wind turbines. The analytical model and mathematical formulation of the problem are described as well as the physical mechanism that creates flutter in Darrieus turbines. Theoretical results are compared with measured experimental data from flutter tests of the Sandia 2 Meter turbine. Based on this comparison, the analysis appears to be an adequate design evaluation tool.

  20. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corten, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    the angle of attack. The art of designing stall rotors is to make the separated area on the blades extend in such a way, that the extracted power remains precisely constant, independent of the wind speed, while the power in the wind at cut-out exceeds the maximum power of the turbine by a factor of 8. Since the stall behaviour is influenced by many parameters, this demand cannot be easily met. However, if it can be met, the advantage of stall control is its passive operation, which is reliable and cheap. Problem Definition In practical application, stall control is not very accurate and many stall-controlled turbines do not meet their specifications. Deviations of the design-power in the order of tens of percent are regular. In the nineties, the aerodynamic research on these deviations focussed on: profile aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, rotational effects on separation and pressure measurements on test turbines. However, this did not adequately solve the actual problems with stall turbines. In this thesis, we therefore formulated the following as the essential question: "Does the separated blade area really extend with the wind speed, as we predict?" To find the answer a measurement technique was required, which 1) was applicable on large commercial wind turbines, 2) could follow the dynamic changes of the stall pattern, 3) was not influenced by the centrifugal force and 4) did not disturb the flow. Such a technique was not available, therefore we decided to develop it. Stall Flag Method For this method, a few hundred indicators are fixed to the rotor blades in a special pattern. These indicators, called "stall flags" are patented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). They have a retro-reflective area which, depending on the flow direction, is or is not covered. A powerful light source in the field up to 500m behind the turbine illuminates the swept rotor area. The uncovered reflectors reflect the light to the source, where a digital video

  1. Urban small wind turbine applications for reducing GHC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' There are advantages to power generation at or near the points of consumption and this is still true for low carbon sustainable power sources, including wind. Consequently, there is interest in wind power generation in cities and suburbs. The potential now exists for realistic power small-scale generation in building mounted turbines. This presentation provides the benefits and obstacles to their use, as well as details of such turbines and the design and operations requirements for them. The main issues associated with locating turbines in cities and suburbs are: the highly turbulent, unsteady wind in the urban/suburban environment produces lower power outputs; vibration is a large concern on mounting turbines on buildings, and safety (turbine failure or even just ice shedding) with pedestrians below. Past and current thinking has just been straightforward in that it is not worth it, and the previous attempts at simply mounting small-scale turbines on rooftops has done more harm than good to the reputation of the small wind, and wind in general, industries. Recently there has been a reconsideration of urban small wind led by reputable companies such as Quiet Revolution (UK), Turby (NL) and Cleanfield (Canada) combined with academic research. A common feature of all of these companies is the use of vertical axis turbines (VAWTs) to help deal with the highly turbulent, unsteady urban winds. Large-scale VAWTs enjoyed a brief flurry of interest in the 1970s and 80s with large amounts of research done at Sandia and NRC in Canada. Vibration and fatigue in the large-scale turbines were among the issues that led to their decline. These, particularly vibration, remain issues for small-scale turbines, but there are some mitigating strategies available. These are now leading to the development of reputable, practical and reliable turbines that can become part of the urban/suburban environment. (author)

  2. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  3. Ice accretion modeling for wind turbine rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocron, D.; Brahimi, T.; Paraschivoiu, I.; Bombardier, J.A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The increasing application of wind energy in northern climates implies operation of wind turbines under severe atmospheric icing conditions. Such conditions are well known in the Scandinavian countries, Canada and most of Eastern European countries. An extensive study to develop a procedure for the prediction of ice accretion on wind turbines rotor blades appears to be essential for the safe and economic operation of wind turbines in these cold regions. The objective of the present paper is to develop a computer code capable of simulating the shape and amount of ice which may accumulate on horizontal axis wind turbine blades when operating in icing conditions. The resulting code is capable to predict and simulate the formation of ice in rime and glaze conditions, calculate the flow field and particle trajectories and to perform thermodynamic analysis. It also gives the possibility of studying the effect of different parameters that influence ice formation such as temperature, liquid water content, droplet diameter and accretion time. The analysis has been conducted on different typical airfoils as well as on NASA/DOE Mod-0 wind turbine. Results showed that ice accretion on wind turbines may reduce the power output by more than 20%.

  4. On System Identification of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, B.J.

    Recently several methods have been proposed for the system identification of wind turbines which can be considered as a linear time-varying system due to the operating conditions. For the identification of linear wind turbine models, either black-box or grey-box identification can be used....... The operational model analysis (OMA) methodology can provide accurate estimates of the natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the systems as long as the measurements have a low noise to signal ratio. However, in order to take information about the wind turbine into account a grey...

  5. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leble, V.; Barakos, G.

    2016-09-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance.

  6. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leble, V; Barakos, G

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. (paper)

  7. Pitchcontrol of wind turbines using model free adaptivecontrol based on wind turbine code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming

    2011-01-01

    value is only based on I/O data of the wind turbine is identified and then the wind turbine system is replaced by a dynamic linear time-varying model. In order to verify the correctness and robustness of the proposed model free adaptive pitch controller, the wind turbine code FAST which can predict......As the wind turbine is a nonlinear high-order system, to achieve good pitch control performance, model free adaptive control (MFAC) approach which doesn't need the mathematical model of the wind turbine is adopted in the pitch control system in this paper. A pseudo gradient vector whose estimation...... the wind turbine loads and response in high accuracy is used. The results show that the controller produces good dynamic performance, good robustness and adaptability....

  8. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  9. Detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerlemans, S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the detection of aeroacoustic sound sources on aircraft and wind turbines using phased microphone arrays. First, the reliability of the array technique is assessed using airframe noise measurements in open and closed wind tunnels. It is demonstrated that quantitative acoustic measurements are possible in both wind tunnels. Then, the array technique is applied to characterize the noise sources on two modern large wind turbines. It is shown that practically all noise emitted to the ground is produced by the outer part of the blades during their downward movement. This asymmetric source pattern, which causes the typical swishing noise during the passage of the blades, can be explained by trailing edge noise directivity and convective amplification. Next, a semi-empirical prediction method is developed for the noise from large wind turbines. The prediction code is successfully validated against the experimental results, not only with regard to sound levels, spectra, and directivity, but also with regard to the noise source distribution in the rotor plane and the temporal variation in sound level (swish). The validated prediction method is then applied to calculate wind turbine noise footprints, which show that large swish amplitudes can occur even at large distance. The influence of airfoil shape on blade noise is investigated through acoustic wind tunnel tests on a series of wind turbine airfoils. Measurements are carried out at various wind speeds and angles of attack, with and without upstream turbulence and boundary layer tripping. The speed dependence, directivity, and tonal behaviour are determined for both trailing edge noise and inflow turbulence noise. Finally, two noise reduction concepts are tested on a large wind turbine: acoustically optimized airfoils and trailing edge serrations. Both blade modifications yield a significant trailing edge noise reduction at low frequencies, but also cause increased tip noise at high frequencies

  10. Technology Development and Innovation | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development and Innovation Technology Development Technology Center (NWTC) supports efforts to reduce bird and bat fatalities at wind energy projects and photo of wind turbines at the National Wind Technology Center. Wildlife technology research and

  11. Design, numerical modelling and analysis of a spar floater supporting the DTU 10MW wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Wenfei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, wind energy is one of the most promising, sustainable and clean energy solutions for the future. The wind industry in Europe experiences a very fast development these years, moving from onshore to offshore in shallow water and then in deep water. A floating wind turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where bottom-fixed towers are not accessible. However, the offshore wind energy still has...

  12. Assessment of new limit values for wind turbines. Influence of different limit values on exposure, annoyance and potential development locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, E.; Jabben, J.; Schreurs, E.; Koeman, T.; Van Poll, R.; Du Pon, B.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1500 people living in the close vicinity of wind turbines in the Netherlands run the risk of suffering severe annoyance effects due to noise exposure. New guidelines that limit new wind turbines to a maximum noise level of 45 dB can minimize any further increase in noise health effects. Noise levels above 45 dB will likely result in a further increase in annoyance effects and sleep disturbances. Compared to other noise sources, noise emitted from a wind turbine causes annoyance at relatively low noise levels. The amount of available land for the placement of new wind turbines depends on the limit value that is chosen. A limit value of 40 dB would enable an additional 7000 megawatt of renewable energy to be obtained from new turbines. A limit value of 45 dB, however, would enable wind turbines to be constructed on additional land, resulting in the production of approximately 25,000 megawatt. A new noise regulation for wind turbines is currently being prepared that sets limits on the noise levels experienced by residents of nearby dwellings. The regulation aims at limiting the effects of noise annoyance caused by new wind turbines within the framework of policy targets for renewable energy. This new regulation will be in line with existing ones for road- and railway traffic in setting both a preferable and maximum allowable value for the noise level (Lden) in nearby residences. Below the preferred value, there will be no noise restriction; above the maximum value, local authorities will not be allowed to issue building permits. For noise levels that fall in between, the decision for/against construction will be based on the results of a public inquiry process involving the major stakeholders. The National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM) has investigated the consequences of different choices for the preferred and maximum noise limits. Aspects of annoyance and health effects, amount of land available for new turbines within the

  13. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability...... and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determining factors of the wind turbine lifetime. As the energy production of the wind turbine is the product...... of its active power and lifetime, the energy production can be maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. In this study, the energy production of a 2 MW PMSG wind turbine is maximised by optimising its pitch angle and tip speed ratio. Moreover, taking into account the wake effect...

  14. Development of a representative model of a wind turbine in order to study the installation of several machines on a wind park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourieh, M.

    2007-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of aerodynamics in wind turbines. It is divided into two main parts, one is experimental, and the other deals with modelling and numerical simulation. The velocity field downstream from a three-bladed wind turbine with a horizontal axis is explored in the wind tunnel at ENSAM-Paris. Two measurement techniques are used: hot wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Experimental work gives a clear idea of the structure of the near wake and provides useful data to validate the numerical simulations and the hybrid models which are studied in this thesis. In the work concerning numerical simulation, two hybrid models are defined and implemented: a model of actuator disc and a model of actuator cylinder, coupled with a simulation based on the numerical resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations. These models are validated by the power of the wind turbine and on the velocity field in the near wake of the rotor. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data resulting from the tests carried out by the NREL for NREL phase II and VI cases. The experimental and numerical velocity fields are also compared in the wake of a wind turbine Rutland 503. In both validation cases, power and wake, the experimental data are in accordance with the results provided by the hybrid models. After this validation, the interaction between several wind turbines is studied and quantified. The tested hybrid models are also used to study the interaction between identical wind turbines placed one behind the other. The obtained results highlight the effect of spacing between the machines as well as the effect of free stream velocity. (author)

  15. The near wake structure and the development of vorticity behind a model horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, P.; Wood, D. [The Univ. of Newcastle, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Callaghan (Australia)

    1997-08-01

    The wake of a two bladed model HAWT operating at zero yaw angle and in a steady flow in a wind tunnel was measured using hot wire probes. By phase locked averaging and moving the probe axially and radially the full three dimensional mean flow file was determined. All measurements were within two chord lengths of the blades and at tip speed ratios giving high turbine power output, a condition approaching runaway, and a stalled condition. For all tip speed ratios the wakes were significantly three dimensional. Large velocity variations were associated with vortex structures in the wakes, and irrotational fluctuations caused by the blade bound circulation. The vorticity clearly defined the hub and tip vortices that traced helical paths downstream, with the constant tip vortex pitch inversely proportional to tip speed ratio. Close to the blades the flow was complicated, though vortex roll-up was completed within one chord length. Considerable changes in wake structure occurred with tip speed ratio. At high power output the wake showed tip and hub vortices connected by a diffuse vortex sheet of mostly radial vorticity from the blade boundary layers; blade bound circulation was almost constant. The structure approaching runaway was similar though the hub vortex was not well defined and formed a vortex sheet around the hub which lifted away and diffused. The stalled condition was more complicated, with evidence of incomplete tip and hub vortex formation. The stream-wise velocity of the tip vortex core decreased with increasing tip speed ratio, but this was never aligned with local streamlines. The core of the tip vortex was not circular but more elliptical. A phase locked averaged angular momentum analysis was undertaken, the extra terms introduced through phase locked averaging were small. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Airfoil characteristics for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C; Fuglsang, P; Soerensen, N N; Aagaard Madsen, H [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Shen, Wen Zhong; Noerkaer Soerensen, J [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Airfoil characteristics for use in the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method calculating the forces on Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) are derived by use of systematic methods. The investigation and derivation of the airfoil characteristics are based on four different methods: 1) Inverse momentum theory, 2) Actuator disc theory, 3) Numerical optimisation and 4) Quasi-3D CFD computations. The two former methods are based on 3D CFD computations and wind tunnel measurements on a 41-m full-scale rotor with LM 19.1 blades. The derived airfoil characteristics show that the lift coefficient in stall at the tip is low and that it is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. The use of these characteristics in aeroelastic calculations shows a good agreement in power and flap moments with measurements. Furthermore, a fatigue analysis shows a reduction in the loads of up to 15 % compared to a commonly used set of airfoil characteristics. The numerical optimisation is based on both the 3D CFD computations and measurements on a 41-m rotor with LM 19.1 and LM 19.0 blades, respectively. The method requires power and loads from a turbine and is promising since a set of lift and drag curves is derived that can be used to calculate mean values of power and loads. The lift in stall at the tip is low and at the root it is high compared to 2D airfoil characteristics. In particular the power curves were well calculated by use of the optimised airfoil characteristics. In the quasi-3D CFD computations, the airfoil characteristics are derived directly. This Navier-Stokes model takes into account rotational and 3D effects. The model enables the study of the rotational effect of a rotor blade at computing costs similar to what is typical for 2D airfoil calculations. The depicted results show that the model is capable of determining the correct qualitative behaviour for airfoils subject to rotation. The method shows that lift is high at the root compared to 2D airfoil

  17. Wind distribution and capacity factor estimation for wind turbines in the coastal region of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayodele, T.R.; Jimoh, A.A.; Munda, J.L.; Agee, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate capacity factor of some commercially available wind turbines. ► Wind speed in the sites studied can best be modelled using Weibull distribution. ► Site WM05 has the highest wind power potential while site WM02 has the lowest. ► More wind power can be harnessed during the day period compared to the night. ► Turbine K seems to be the best turbine for the coastal region of South Africa. - Abstract: The operating curve parameters of a wind turbine should match the local wind regime optimally to ensure maximum exploitation of available energy in a mass of moving air. This paper provides estimates of the capacity factor of 20 commercially available wind turbines, based on the local wind characteristics of ten different sites located in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Ten-min average time series wind-speed data for a period of 1 year are used for the study. First, the wind distribution that best models the local wind regime of the sites is determined. This is based on root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 ) which are used to test goodness of fit. First, annual, seasonal, diurnal and peak period-capacity factor are estimated analytically. Then, the influence of turbine power curve parameters on the capacity factor is investigated. Some of the key results show that the wind distribution of the entire site can best be modelled statistically using the Weibull distribution. Site WM05 (Napier) presents the highest capacity factor for all the turbines. This indicates that this site has the highest wind power potential of all the available sites. Site WM02 (Calvinia) has the lowest capacity factor i.e. lowest wind power potential. This paper can assist in the planning and development of large-scale wind power-generating sites in South Africa.

  18. Extrapolating Satellite Winds to Turbine Operating Heights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wind retrievals from satellite sensors are typically performed for the standard level of 10 m. This restricts their full exploitation for wind energy planning, which requires wind information at much higher levels where wind turbines operate. A new method is presented for the vertical...... extrapolation of satellitebased wind maps. Winds near the sea surface are obtained from satellite data and used together with an adaptation of the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory to estimate the wind speed at higher levels. The thermal stratification of the atmosphere is taken into account through a long...

  19. Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Sandra; Bernhoff, Hans; Leijon, Mats [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    Every year the number of installed wind power plants in the world increases. The horizontal axis wind turbine is the most common type of turbine but there exist other types. Here, three different wind turbines are considered; the horizontal axis wind turbine and two different concepts of vertical axis wind turbines; the Darrieus turbine and the H-rotor. This paper aims at making a comparative study of these three different wind turbines from the most important aspects including structural dynamics, control systems, maintenance, manufacturing and electrical equipment. A case study is presented where three different turbines are compared to each other. Furthermore, a study of blade areas for different turbines is presented. The vertical axis wind turbine appears to be advantageous to the horizontal axis wind turbine in several aspects. (author)

  20. Modelling and control of variable speed wind turbines for power system studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    and implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Important issues like the fault ride-through and grid support capabilities of these wind turbine concepts are addressed. The paper reveals that advanced control of variable speed wind turbines can improve power system stability. Finally......, it will be shown in the paper that wind parks consisting of variable speed wind turbines can help nearby connected fixed speed wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......Modern wind turbines are predominantly variable speed wind turbines with power electronic interface. Emphasis in this paper is therefore on the modelling and control issues of these wind turbine concepts and especially on their impact on the power system. The models and control are developed...

  1. Wind Resource Assessment and Requested Wind Turbine Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ken [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States); Wolar, John [Municipal Civil Corporation, Gas City, IN (United States)

    2012-10-22

    Alternate Energy Solutions, Inc. (“AESWR”) was engaged by the Town of Brookston (“Brookston”) to assemble, erect and maintain one 60 m XHD meteorological tower manufactured by NRG Systems, Inc.; for monitoring, recording and evaluating collected wind data. It is the opinion of AESWR staff that study results support the development of a wind turbine project at the Bol Family Farm provided: a) additional land is leased for the project; b) project construction costs are controlled; and c) a prudent power purchase agreement is negotiated with a power take-off entity. We believe that a project having an aggregate nameplate rating sized from 6.0 MW to 20 MW would be appropriate for this location. We recommend 100-125 acres of land per installed MW be used as a general rule for acquiring wind energy land lease agreements, total land lease holdings to be acquired would then approach 750 acres to 2,500 acres.

  2. Lubricants : the lifeblood of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Y. [Petro-Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    With the significant investments in wind turbine equipment, companies need to exercise due diligence when it comes to the types of lubricants and fluids used. Mechanical and equipment issues can often be eliminated with improved maintenance practices and the appropriate selection of lubricants. This presentation discussed lubricants as being the lifeblood of wind turbines. The presentation first provided an overview and discussed wind turbine trends and application trends. The technical aspects of fluid formation were presented. Lubrication maintenance practices and oil monitoring were discussed. Last, key industry tests, and OEM specifications for bearings, gearboxes, and wind turbines were identified. It was concluded that improved maintenance practices in combination with the correct lubricant selection can address several operating problems. figs.

  3. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers...... is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use ofaccelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded...... and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  4. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  5. LES investigation of infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-01-01

    The layouts of turbines affect the turbine wake interactions and thus the wind farm performance. The wake interactions in infinite staggered wind-turbine arrays are investigated and compared with infinite aligned turbine arrays in this paper. From the numerical results we identify three types of wake behaviours, which are significantly different from wakes in aligned wind-turbine arrays. For the first type, each turbine wake interferes with the pair of staggered downstream turbine wakes and the aligned downstream turbine. For the second type, each turbine wake interacts with the first two downstream turbine wakes but does not show significant interference with the second aligned downstream turbine. For the third type, each turbine wake recovers immediately after passing through the gap of the first two downstream turbines and has little interaction with the second downstream turbine wakes The extracted power density and power efficiency are also studied and compared with aligned wind-turbine arrays

  6. Actuator Line Modeling of Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains a comprehensive 3D Navier-Stokes computational study of the characteristics of wakes of wind turbines operating in various flow conditions including interacting wakes between a row of turbines. The computations were carried out using the actuator line technique combined...

  7. Tjæreborg Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øye, Stig

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents results from the fourth measurement camapign at the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) WInd Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes. The measurements cover one hour of operation at wind speeds between 7 and 10 m/s aceraging approximately 8.7 m/s.......This paper presents results from the fourth measurement camapign at the Tjæreborg (Tjaereborg) WInd Turbine during operation with stepwise pitch angle changes. The measurements cover one hour of operation at wind speeds between 7 and 10 m/s aceraging approximately 8.7 m/s....

  8. Wind turbine rotor aerodynamics : The IEA MEXICO rotor explained

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbines are operating under very complex and uncontrolled environmental conditions, including atmospheric turbulence, atmospheric boundary layer effects, directional and spatial variations in wind shear, etc. Over the past decades, the size of a commercial wind turbine has increased

  9. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James B.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 596. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in New Mexico, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/596/).This updated New Mexico wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 562 wind turbines established within the State of New Mexico as of June 2011, an increase of 155 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. The locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based June 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during June 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of the Energy

  10. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Fancher, Tammy; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Latysh, Natalie; Leib, Kenneth J.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This dataset represents an update to U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 597. Locations and attributes of wind turbines in Colorado, 2009 (available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/597/). This updated Colorado wind turbine Data Series provides geospatial data for all 1,204 wind turbines established within the State of Colorado as of September 2011, an increase of 297 wind turbines from 2009. Attributes specific to each turbine include: turbine location, manufacturer and model, rotor diameter, hub height, rotor height, potential megawatt output, land ownership, county, and development status of the wind turbine. Wind energy facility data for each turbine include: facility name, facility power capacity, number of turbines associated with each facility to date, facility developer, facility ownership, and year the facility went online. The locations of turbines are derived from 1-meter true-color aerial photographs produced by the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP); the photographs have a positional accuracy of about ±5 meters. Locations of turbines constructed during or prior to August 2009 are based on August 2009 NAIP imagery and turbine locations constructed after August 2009 were based on September 2011 NAIP imagery. The location of turbines under construction during September 2011 likely will be less accurate than the location of existing turbines. This data series contributes to an Online Interactive Energy Atlas developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (http://my.usgs.gov/eerma/). The Energy Atlas synthesizes data on existing and potential energy development in Colorado and New Mexico and includes additional natural resource data layers. This information may be used by decisionmakers to evaluate and compare the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with different energy development strategies or scenarios. Interactive maps, downloadable data layers, comprehensive metadata, and decision-support tools also are included in the Energy Atlas. The format of

  11. Aerodynamical noise from wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Andersen, B.

    1993-06-01

    Two extensive measurement series of noise from wind turbines have been made during different modifications of their rotors. One series focused on the influence from the tip shape on the noise, while the other series dealt with the influence from the trailing edge. The experimental layout for the two investigations was identical. The total A-weighted noise from the wind turbine was measured in 1/3 octave bands from 50 Hz to 10 kHz in 1-minute periods simultaneously with wind speed measurements. The microphone was mounted on a hard board on the ground about 40 m directly downwind of the wind turbine, and the wind speed meter was placed at the same distance upwind of the wind turbine 10 m above ground. Regression analysis was made between noise and wind speed in each 1/3 octave band to determine the spectrum at 8 m/s. During the measurements care was taken to avoid influence from background noise, and the influence from machinery noise was minimized and corrected for. Thus the results display the aerodynamic rotor noise from the wind turbines. By use of this measurement technique, the uncertainty has been reduced to 1.5 - 2 dB per 1/3 octave band in the relevant frequency range and to about 1 dB on the total A-weighted levels. (au) (10 refs.)

  12. Development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis wind turbine, phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekitsch, A.; Etzler, C. C.; Fritzsche, A.; Lorch, G.; Mueller, W.; Rogalla, K.; Schmelzle, J.; Schuhwerk, W.; Vollan, A.; Welte, D.

    1982-06-01

    In continuation of development of a 5.5 m diameter vertical axis windmill that consists in conception, building, and wind tunnel testing, a Darrieus rotor windpowered generator feeding an isolated network under different wind velocity conditions and with optimal energy conversion efficiency was designed built, and field tested. The three-bladed Darrieus rotor tested in the wind tunnel was equiped with two variable pitch Savonius rotors 2 m in diameter. By means of separate measures of the aerodynamic factors and the energy consumption, effect of revisions and optimizations on different elements was assessed. Pitch adjustement of the Savonius blades, lubrication of speed reducer, rotor speed at cut-in of generator field excitation, time constant of field excitation, stability conditions, switch points of ohmic resistors which combined with a small electric battery simulated a larger isolated network connected with a large storage battery, were investigated. Fundamentals for the economic series production of windpowered generators with Darrieus rotors for the control and the electric conversion system are presented.

  13. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juengert, A., E-mail: anne.juengert@mpa.uni-stuttgart.de [Univ. of Stuttgart, Materialpruefungsanstalt Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  14. Damage detection in wind turbine blades using acoustic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengert, A.

    2013-01-01

    Facing climate change, the use of renewable energy gains importance. The wind energy sector grows very fast. Bigger and more powerful wind turbines will be built in the coming decades and the safety and reliability of the turbines will become more important. Wind turbine blades have to be inspected at regular intervals, because they are highly stressed during operation and a blade breakdown can cause big economic damages. The turbine blades consist of fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP/CFRP) and sandwich areas containing wood or plastic foam. The blades are manufactured as two halves and glued together afterwards. Typical damages are delaminations within the GFRP or the sandwich and missing adhesive or deficient bond at the bonding surfaces. The regular inspections of wind turbine blades are performed manually by experts and are limited to visual appraisals and simple tapping tests. To improve the inspections of wind turbine blades non-destructive testing techniques using acoustic waves are being developed. To detect delaminations within the laminates of the turbine blade, a local resonance spectroscopy was used. To detect missing bond areas from the outside of the blade the impulse-echo-technique was applied. This paper is an updated reprint of an article published on ndt.net in 2008. (author)

  15. Variability of the Wind Turbine Power Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh M. Bandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine power curves are calibrated by turbine manufacturers under requirements stipulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission to provide a functional mapping between the mean wind speed v ¯ and the mean turbine power output P ¯ . Wind plant operators employ these power curves to estimate or forecast wind power generation under given wind conditions. However, it is general knowledge that wide variability exists in these mean calibration values. We first analyse how the standard deviation in wind speed σ v affects the mean P ¯ and the standard deviation σ P of wind power. We find that the magnitude of wind power fluctuations scales as the square of the mean wind speed. Using data from three planetary locations, we find that the wind speed standard deviation σ v systematically varies with mean wind speed v ¯ , and in some instances, follows a scaling of the form σ v = C × v ¯ α ; C being a constant and α a fractional power. We show that, when applicable, this scaling form provides a minimal parameter description of the power curve in terms of v ¯ alone. Wind data from different locations establishes that (in instances when this scaling exists the exponent α varies with location, owing to the influence of local environmental conditions on wind speed variability. Since manufacturer-calibrated power curves cannot account for variability influenced by local conditions, this variability translates to forecast uncertainty in power generation. We close with a proposal for operators to perform post-installation recalibration of their turbine power curves to account for the influence of local environmental factors on wind speed variability in order to reduce the uncertainty of wind power forecasts. Understanding the relationship between wind’s speed and its variability is likely to lead to lower costs for the integration of wind power into the electric grid.

  16. Research in Aeroelasticity EFP-2006[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C.

    2007-07-15

    This report contains the results from the Energy Research Project 'Program for Research in Applied Aeroelasticity, EFP-2006' covering the period from 1. April 2006 to 31. March 2007. A summary of the main results from the project is given in the following. The aerodynamics for rotors incl. spinner and winglets were clarified and the needed premises for an optimal rotor were explained. Also, the influence of viscous effects on rotor blades was investigated and the results indicated a range of optimum tip speed ratios. The use of winglets for wind turbine rotor was investigated and it was found that they can be used successfully, but that downwind and short winglets are most efficient. Investigating a strategy for reduction of loads and vibrations at extreme wind speeds showed that there are considerably uncertainties in the numerical models and that the main concluding remark is that measurements on a real blade or a real turbine are needed to further conclude the investigation. In the study of flutter and other torsional vibrations of blades at large deflections, modeling and analysis of the dynamics of a hydraulic pitch system for a 5 MW wind turbine was carried out. It was shown that the compressibility of the hydraulic oil introduced a dynamic mode in the pitch bearing degree of freedom. Also, investigating flutter for blades at large deflections showed that the flutter limit for a 5MW blade was moved significantly compared to blades without large deflections. The influence of modeling nacelle components was investigated by developing a generalized method to interface dynamic systems to the aeroelastic program HAWC2 and by exemplify by modeling the nacelle of an aeroelastic wind turbine model in a more detailed way by including a single planet stage of a gearbox. This simplified gearbox model captures in essence the splitting of the driving torque from the rotor shaft to the frame of the nacelle and to the generator. Investigating the influence of wind

  17. Computational aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.Z.

    2009-10-15

    The present thesis consists of 19 selected papers dealing with the development and use of CFD methods for studying the aerodynamics and aero-acoustics of wind turbines. The papers are written in the period from 1997 to 2008 and numbered according to the list in page v. The work consists of two parts: an aerodynamic part based on Computational Fluid Dynamics and an aero-acoustic part based on Computational Aero Acoustics for wind turbines. The main objective of the research was to develop new computational tools and techniques for analysing flows about wind turbines. A few papers deal with applications of Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to wind turbines. In most cases the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables (velocity-pressure formulation) are employed as the basic governing equations. However, since fluid mechanical problems essentially are governed by vortex dynamics, it is sometimes advantageous to use the concept of vorticity (defined as the curl of velocity). In vorticity form the Navier-Stokes equations may be formulated in different ways, using a vorticity-stream function formulation, a vorticity-velocity formulation or a vorticity-potential-stream function formulation. In [1] - [3] two different vorticity formulations were developed for 2D and 3D wind turbine flows. In [4] and [5] numerical techniques for avoiding pressure oscillations were developed when solving the velocity-pressure coupling system in the in-house EllipSys2D/3D code. In [6] - [8] different actuator disc techniques combined with CFD are presented. This includes actuator disc, actuator line and actuator surface techniques, which were developed to simulate flows past one or more wind turbines. In [9] and [10] a tip loss correction method that improves the conventional models was developed for use in combination with BEM or actuator/Navier-Stokes computations. A simple and efficient technique for determining the angle of attack for flow past a wind turbine rotor

  18. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    . We develop three methods for the direct calculation of the tip loss. The first is the computationally expensive calculation of the velocities induced by the helicoidal wake which requires the evaluation of infinite sums of products of Bessel functions. The second uses the asymptotic evaluation......The usual method to account for a finite number of blades in blade element calculations of wind turbine performance is through a tip loss factor. Most analyses use the tip loss approximation due to Prandtl which is easily and cheaply calculated but is known to be inaccurate at low tip speed ratio...

  19. Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and optimize tools for designing large wind farm arrays for deployment offshore. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make more accurate power output predictions for large offshore wind farms...

  20. Operating wind turbines in strong wind conditions by using feedforward-feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing penetration of wind energy into power systems, it becomes critical to reduce the impact of wind energy on the stability and reliability of the overall power system. In precedent works, Shen and his co-workers developed a re-designed operation schema to run wind turbines in s...

  1. IEA Wind Task 37 System Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykes, K; Sanchez Perez Moreno, S.; Zahle, Frederik; Ning, A; McWilliam, M.; Zaayer, M B

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common

  2. Site specific optimization of wind turbines energy cost: Iterative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei Mirghaed, Mohammad; Roshandel, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization model of wind turbine parameters plus rectangular farm layout is developed. • Results show that levelized cost for single turbine fluctuates between 46.6 and 54.5 $/MW h. • Modeling results for two specific farms reported optimal sizing and farm layout. • Results show that levelized cost of the wind farms fluctuates between 45.8 and 67.2 $/MW h. - Abstract: The present study was aimed at developing a model to optimize the sizing parameters and farm layout of wind turbines according to the wind resource and economic aspects. The proposed model, including aerodynamic, economic and optimization sub-models, is used to achieve minimum levelized cost of electricity. The blade element momentum theory is utilized for aerodynamic modeling of pitch-regulated horizontal axis wind turbines. Also, a comprehensive cost model including capital costs of all turbine components is considered. An iterative approach is used to develop the optimization model. The modeling results are presented for three potential regions in Iran: Khaf, Ahar and Manjil. The optimum configurations and sizing for a single turbine with minimum levelized cost of electricity are presented. The optimal cost of energy for one turbine is calculated about 46.7, 54.5 and 46.6 dollars per MW h in the studied sites, respectively. In addition, optimal size of turbines, annual electricity production, capital cost, and wind farm layout for two different rectangular and square shaped farms in the proposed areas have been recognized. According to the results, optimal system configuration corresponds to minimum levelized cost of electricity about 45.8 to 67.2 dollars per MW h in the studied wind farms

  3. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  4. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  5. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  6. DOE-EPRI distributed wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowin, C.; DeMeo, E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Calvert, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP). The goal of the program is to evaluate prototype advanced wind turbines at several sites developed by U.S. electric utility companies. Two six MW wind projects have been installed under the TVP program by Central and South West Services in Fort Davis, Texas and Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, Vermont. In early 1997, DOE and EPRI selected five more utility projects to evaluate distributed wind generation using smaller {open_quotes}clusters{close_quotes} of wind turbines connected directly to the electricity distribution system. This paper presents an overview of the objectives, scope, and status of the EPRI-DOE TVP program and the existing and planned TVP projects.

  7. Proceedings of a workshop on wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legerton, M.

    1993-08-01

    Noise generated by wind turbines is an environmental constraint on the exploitation of wind energy. It is a major consideration when seeking planning consent for the siting of machines due to the high population density in the UK and low levels of background noise in rural areas. There is, therefore, a need to identify the sources and characteristics of noise emitted by wind turbine generators, assess the influences on the propagation of noise through the atmosphere, and provide information to both wind farm developers and planning regulators on noise levels. A one day workshop was organised to provide an opportunity for experts in the field of wind turbine noise to present the current thoughts on the subject and so allow a wide ranging discussion of particular issues of interest. This volume contains the 10 papers presented at the workshop for each of which a separate abstract has been prepared. (author)

  8. Statistical fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain applied to a 5MW floating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Nejad, Amir R.; Blanke, Mogens; Gao, Zhen; Moan, Torgeir

    2016-09-01

    Deployment of large scale wind turbine parks, in particular offshore, requires well organized operation and maintenance strategies to make it as competitive as the classical electric power stations. It is important to ensure systems are safe, profitable, and cost-effective. In this regards, the ability to detect, isolate, estimate, and prognose faults plays an important role. One of the critical wind turbine components is the gearbox. Failures in the gearbox are costly both due to the cost of the gearbox itself and also due to high repair downtime. In order to detect faults as fast as possible to prevent them to develop into failure, statistical change detection is used in this paper. The Cumulative Sum Method (CUSUM) is employed to detect possible defects in the downwind main bearing. A high fidelity gearbox model on a 5-MW spar-type wind turbine is used to generate data for fault-free and faulty conditions of the bearing at the rated wind speed and the associated wave condition. Acceleration measurements are utilized to find residuals used to indirectly detect damages in the bearing. Residuals are found to be nonGaussian, following a t-distribution with multivariable characteristic parameters. The results in this paper show how the diagnostic scheme can detect change with desired false alarm and detection probabilities.

  9. Proposed Wind Turbine Aeroelasticity Studies Using Helicopter Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladkany, Samaan G.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced systems for the analysis of rotary wing aeroelastic structures (helicopters) are being developed at NASA Ames by the Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch, ARA. The research has recently been extended to the study of wind turbines, used for electric power generation Wind turbines play an important role in Europe, Japan & many other countries because they are non polluting & use a renewable source of energy. European countries such as Holland, Norway & France have been the world leaders in the design & manufacture of wind turbines due to their historical experience of several centuries, in building complex wind mill structures, which were used in water pumping, grain grinding & for lumbering. Fossil fuel cost in Japan & in Europe is two to three times higher than in the USA due to very high import taxes. High fuel cost combined with substantial governmental subsidies, allow wind generated power to be competitive with the more traditional sources of power generation. In the USA, the use of wind energy has been limited mainly because power production from wind is twice as expensive as from other traditional sources. Studies conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) indicate that the main cost in the production of wind turbines is due to the materials & the labor intensive processes used in the construction of turbine structures. Thus, for the US to assume world leadership in wind power generation, new lightweight & consequently very flexible wind turbines, that could be economically mass produced, would have to be developed [4,5]. This effort, if successful, would result in great benefit to the US & the developing nations that suffer from overpopulation & a very high cost of energy.

  10. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  11. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of

  12. Organizational forms promoting wind power development. Organizational and legal evaluation, energy- and environmental analysis and socio-economic analysis of wind turbine location along railways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    Modernization of the train material and transition from diesel-driven to el-driven trains result in reduced air pollution in Denmark. The purpose of this study is to define, concretize and compare organizational forms for use of wind power as the 'green' electric power for train operation. An investment into an wind turbine array with 500 kW wind turbines in roughness class 2 would be repaid in 7.9 year period. Air pollution abatement together with improved socio-economic structure due to growing employment would be achieved. Several models of 'green' electrification of the national railways are given, both for state- and privately owned wind power plants. (EG)

  13. Certificate for Safe Emergency Shutdown of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Svenstrup, Mikael; Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    To avoid damage to a wind turbine in the case of a fault or a large wind gust, a detection scheme for emergency shutdown is developed. Specifically, the concept of a safety envelope is introduced. Within the safety envelope, the system can be shutdown without risking structural damage to the turb...

  14. Load prediction of stall regulated wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, A.; Dahlberg, J.Aa. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Marine Structural Engineering; Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentua (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Measurements of blade loads on a turbine situated in a small wind farm shows that the highest blade loads occur during operation close to the peak power i.e. when the turbine operates in the stall region. In this study the extensive experimental data base has been utilised to compare loads in selected campaigns with corresponding load predictions. The predictions are based on time domain simulations of the wind turbine structure, performed by the aeroelastic code VIDYN. In the calculations a model were adopted in order to include the effects of dynamic stall. This paper describes the work carried out so far within the project and key results. 5 refs, 10 figs

  15. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  16. Aggregated wind power plant models consisting of IEC wind turbine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The common practice regarding the modelling of large generation components has been to make use of models representing the performance of the individual components with a required level of accuracy and details. Owing to the rapid increase of wind power plants comprising large number of wind...... turbines, parameters and models to represent each individual wind turbine in detail makes it necessary to develop aggregated wind power plant models considering the simulation time for power system stability studies. In this paper, aggregated wind power plant models consisting of the IEC 61400-27 variable...... speed wind turbine models (type 3 and type 4) with a power plant controller is presented. The performance of the detailed benchmark wind power plant model and the aggregated model are compared by means of simulations for the specified test cases. Consequently, the results are summarized and discussed...

  17. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, J. D.; Kablec, E. G.; Klimas, P. C.

    1983-09-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stal conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  18. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  19. Statistical fault diagnosis of wind turbine drivetrain applied to a 5MW floating wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghane, Mahdi; Nejad, Amir R.; Blanke, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    to prevent them to develop into failure, statistical change detection is used in this paper. The Cumulative Sum Method (CUSUM) is employed to detect possible defects in the downwind main bearing. A high fidelity gearbox model on a 5-MW spar-type wind turbine is used to generate data for fault-free and faulty...... conditions of the bearing at the rated wind speed and the associated wave condition. Acceleration measurements are utilized to find residuals used to indirectly detect damages in the bearing. Residuals are found to be nonGaussian, following a t-distribution with multivariable characteristic parameters...

  20. Vertical-axial component wind turbine with a high coefficient using for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yersin, Ch. Sh.; Manatbev, R.K.; Yersina, A. K.; Tulepbergenov, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the results of research and development on of promising wind units carousel type with a high ratio utilization of wind energy. This devices use a well-known invention – the wind turbine Darrieus. The rotation of the turbine is due to the action of ascensional power to aerodynamic well-streamlined symmetrical about the chord wing profiles of NASA, which are working wind turbine blades. The shaft rotation can be connected with the working blades of one of two ways: using the “swings” or the way “troposkino”. Darrieus turbine has a ratio utilization of wind energy xmax=045. Despite the fact that this is a good indicator of the efficiency of the turbine working, the proposed option allows us to significantly increase the value of this coefficient. The bases methodology of this research is a method of technical and technological research and development design of prospective wind energy construction (WES). Key words: wind turbine, the blade, coefficient utilization of wind energy

  1. Adaptive Controller for Drive System PMSG in Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanambal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG wind turbine and direct power control for grid side inverter for transformer less integration of wind energy. PMSG wind turbine with two back to back voltage source converters are considered more efficient, used to make real and reactive power control. The optimal control strategy has introduced for integrated control of PMSG Maximum Power Extraction, DC link voltage control and grid voltage support controls. Simulation model using MATLAB Simulink has developed to investigate the performance of proposed control techniques for PMSG wind turbine steady and variable wind conditions. This paper shows that the direct driven grid connected PMSG system has excellent performances and confirms the feasibility of the proposed techniques. While the wind turbine market continues to be dominated by conventional gear-driven wind turbine systems, the direct drive is attracting attention. PM machines are more attractive and superior with higher efficiency and energy yield, higher reliability, and power-to-weight ratio compared with electricity-excited machines.

  2. Dependency in State Transitions of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 IEEE. Turbine states and predicting the transition into failure states ahead of time is important in operation and maintenance of wind turbines. This study presents a method to monitor state transitions of a wind turbine based on the online inference on residuals. In a Bayesian framework...... be abstracted from generated data. Two models are presented: 1) assuming independence and 2) assuming dependence between states. In order to select the right models, machine learning is utilized to update hyperparameters on the conditional probabilities. Comparing fixed to learned hyperparameters points out...... the impact machine learning concepts have on the predictive performance of the presented models. In conclusion, a study on model residuals is performed to highlight the contribution to wind turbine monitoring. The presented algorithm can consistently detect the state transition under various configurations...

  3. Wind turbine remote control using Android devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat, C. L.; Panoiu, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the remote control of a wind turbine system over the internet using an Android device, namely a tablet or a smartphone. The wind turbine workstation contains a LabVIEW program which monitors the entire wind turbine energy conversion system (WECS). The Android device connects to the LabVIEW application, working as a remote interface to the wind turbine. The communication between the devices needs to be secured because it takes place over the internet. Hence, the data are encrypted before being sent through the network. The scope was the design of remote control software capable of visualizing real-time wind turbine data through a secure connection. Since the WECS is fully automated and no full-time human operator exists, unattended access to the turbine workstation is needed. Therefore the device must not require any confirmation or permission from the computer operator in order to control it. Another condition is that Android application does not have any root requirements.

  4. Simulation model of an active-stall fixed-speed wind turbine controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.; Hansen, A.D.; Sorensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an active-stall wind turbine controller. The objective is to develop a general model of an active stall controller in order to simulate the operation of grid connected active stall wind turbines. The active stall turbine concept and its control strategies are presented and evaluated by simulations. The presented controller is described for continuous operation under all wind speeds from start-up wind speed to shut down wind speed. Due to its parametric implementation it is general i. e. it can represent different active stall wind turbine controllers and can be implemented in different simulation tools. (author)

  5. Advanced Issues of Wind Turbine Modelling and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simani, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview about the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this topic represents a key point mainly for offshore wind turbines with very large rotors, since they are characterised by challenging modelling and control problems, as well as expensive and safety critical maintenance works. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are addressed, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are also outlined. (paper)

  6. Draft-circular on wind turbines. Concept-circulaire wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Criteria for providing licenses to build and operate a wind turbine are surveyed. Factors to consider are: characteristics of the landscape, density of population, town and country planning, environmental aspects (birds), safety and nuisance. National regulations for wind turbines will simplify licensing procedures and improve legal security.

  7. Wind Speed Preview Measurement and Estimation for Feedforward Control of Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simley, Eric J.

    the turbine are unknown, a Kalman filter-based wind speed estimator is developed that relies on turbine sensor outputs. Using simulated lidar measurements in conjunction with wind speed estimator outputs based on aeroelastic simulations of the NREL 5-MW turbine model, it is shown how the optimal prefilter can adapt to varying degrees of measurement quality.

  8. Chapter 10 - Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  9. Flow separation on wind turbines blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    In the year 2000, 15GW of wind power was installed throughout the world, producing 100PJ of energy annually. This contributes to the total electricity demand by only 0.2%. Both the installed power and the generated energy are increasing by 30% per year world-wide. If the airflow over wind turbine

  10. Wind turbine wake measurement in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Menke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SCADA data from a wind farm and high frequency time series measurements obtained with remote scanning systems have been analysed with focus on identification of wind turbine wake properties in complex terrain. The analysis indicates that within the flow regime characterized by medium to large dow...

  11. Reduced-order modelling of wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkington, K.; Slootweg, J.G.; Ghandhari, M.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter power system dynamics simulation(PSDS) isused to study the dynamics of large-scale power systems. It is necessary to incorporate models of wind turbine generating systems into PSDS software packages in order to analyse the impact of high wind power penetration on electrical power

  12. Chapter 10: Control of Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a main pillar of renewable energy supply, as it generates clean and climate-friendly electricity. Among the mainstream wind turbine systems, the configurations of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) are dominating and impor...

  13. Vortex system studies on small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomerie, Bjoern; Dahlberg, Jan-Aake [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Aeronautics, FFA

    2003-10-01

    The wind tunnel experiment reported included a small wind turbine setup and smoke to visualize the trailing tip vortices for different wind turbine configurations. Several combinations of tunnel wind speeds and tip speed ratios generated a database where the end result functions were radius and pitch, of the tip vortex spirals, versus the downstream coordinate. The Reynolds number in the experiment was very low compared to that of full size turbines. The results should therefore be seen as valid only for low Reynolds numbers. The models were 18 and 25 cm diameter turbines. This is thought to be complementary to the information obtained in similar wind tunnel investigations for much larger models. The database is meant to be a fundamental tool for the construction of practical aerodynamic induction methods. Such methods typically employ the Biot-Savart law has been shown to lead to a flow field, which deviates considerably from that of reality. E.g. concentration into tip vortices does not happen when the flow is simulated with Biot-Savart law only. Thus, a combination of the induction method and its modification, based on investigations such as the one reported, is foreseen to replace the widely used Blade Element Momentum method for wind turbine loads and performance prediction.

  14. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  15. Performance Investigation of A Mix Wind Turbine Using A Clutch Mechanism At Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamanun, M. J.; Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, M.; Muzammil, W. K.

    2017-07-01

    Wind energy is one of the methods that generates energy from sustainable resources. This technology has gained prominence in this era because it produces no harmful product to the society. There is two fundamental type of wind turbine are generally used this day which is Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) and Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The VAWT technology is more preferable compare to HAWT because it gives better efficiency and cost effectiveness as a whole. However, VAWT is known to have distinct disadvantage compared to HAWT; self-start ability and efficiency at low wind speed condition. Different solution has been proposed to solve these issues which includes custom design blades, variable angle of attack mechanism and mix wind turbine. A new type of clutch device was successfully developed in UMS to be used in a mix Savonius-Darrieus wind turbine configuration. The clutch system which barely audible when in operation compared to a ratchet clutch system interconnects the Savonius and Darrieus rotor; allowing the turbine to self-start at low wind speed condition as opposed to a standalone Darrieus turbine. The Savonius height were varied at three different size in order to understand the effect of the Savonius rotor to the mix wind turbine performance. The experimental result shows that the fabricated Savonius rotor show that the height of the Savonius rotor affecting the RPM for the turbine. The swept area (SA), aspect ratio (AR) and tip speed ratio (TSR) also calculated in this paper. The highest RPM recorded in this study is 90 RPM for Savonius rotor 0.22-meter height at 2.75 m/s. The Savonius rotor 0.22-meter also give the highest TSR for each range of speed from 0.75 m/s, 1.75 m/s and 2.75 m/s where it gives 1.03 TSR, 0.76 TSR, and 0.55 TSR.

  16. Heat generation by a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    It will be shown that an actuator disk operating in wind turbine mode extracts more energy from the fluid than can be transferred into useful energy. At the Lanchester-Betz limit the decrease of the kinetic energy in the wind is converted by 2 /3 into useful power and by 1 /3 into heat. Behind the wind turbine the outer flow and the flow that has passed the actuator disk will mix. In this process momentum is conserved but part of the kinetic energy will dissipate in heat via viscous shear. 7 refs.

  17. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  18. Preliminary Design of a Multi-Column TLP Foundation for a 5-MW Offshore Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Zhao; Jianmin Yang; Yanping He

    2012-01-01

    Currently, floating wind turbines (FWTs) may be the more economical and suitable systems with which to exploit offshore wind energy in deep waters. Among the various types of floating foundations for offshore wind farms, a tension leg platform (TLP) foundation can provide a relatively stable platform for currently available offshore wind turbines without requiring major modifications. In this study, a new multi-column TLP foundation (WindStar TLP) was developed for the NREL 5-MW offshore wind...

  19. Lightning protection for wind turbines in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuan Nguyen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy has become increasingly important in the total electrical energy supply mix in Vietnam over the last few years. Small, kW turbines were installed in isolated areas a decade ago, while wind farms of several MW to few hundred MW are now being connected directly to national grid, with many additional projects in planning or under construction to fulfill an objective of 6% of the total installed capacity by 2030 (approximately 6200 MW of wind energy component. The increase in wind farm generation results in increased damage from lightning. In this paper, the annual frequency of lightning strikes to wind turbines in Vietnam is calculated using electrogeometric model. Reported lightning incidents to three major wind farms in Vietnam are summarized. Possible causes of failure are discussed, and an EMTP simulation for each incident was performed accordingly. The simulations suggest the failure mechanisms as well the potential of improved grounding to reduce lightning induced damage in future windfarms.

  20. Electric power from vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touryan, K. J.; Strickland, J. H.; Berg, D. E.

    1987-12-01

    Significant advancements have occurred in vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology for electrical power generation over the last decade; in particular, well-proven aerodynamic and structural analysis codes have been developed for Darrieus-principle wind turbines. Machines of this type have been built by at least three companies, and about 550 units of various designs are currently in service in California wind farms. Attention is presently given to the aerodynamic characteristics, structural dynamics, systems engineering, and energy market-penetration aspects of VAWTs.

  1. Accelerated rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong

    . There are four chapters in the thesis. In chapter 1, a literature survey provides background information to the field. Topics discussed are the global wind energy development, possible wind turbine constructions, blade structures and materials, blade coatings, and liquid erosion mechanisms. In chapter 2......During operation, the fast-moving blades of wind turbines are exposed to continuous impacts with rain droplets, hail, insects, or solid particles. This can lead to erosion of the blades, whereby the electrical efficiency is compromised and expensive repairs may be required. One possible solution...

  2. Fuzzy regulator design for wind turbine yaw control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Stefanos; Kandris, Dionisis; Samarakou, Maria; Koulouras, Grigorios

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of an advanced fuzzy logic controller which aims to perform intelligent automatic control of the yaw movement of wind turbines. The specific fuzzy controller takes into account both the wind velocity and the acceptable yaw error correlation in order to achieve maximum performance efficacy. In this way, the proposed yaw control system is remarkably adaptive to the existing conditions. In this way, the wind turbine is enabled to retain its power output close to its nominal value and at the same time preserve its yaw system from pointless movement. Thorough simulation tests evaluate the proposed system effectiveness.

  3. Fuzzy Regulator Design for Wind Turbine Yaw Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Theodoropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an advanced fuzzy logic controller which aims to perform intelligent automatic control of the yaw movement of wind turbines. The specific fuzzy controller takes into account both the wind velocity and the acceptable yaw error correlation in order to achieve maximum performance efficacy. In this way, the proposed yaw control system is remarkably adaptive to the existing conditions. In this way, the wind turbine is enabled to retain its power output close to its nominal value and at the same time preserve its yaw system from pointless movement. Thorough simulation tests evaluate the proposed system effectiveness.

  4. Optimal sensor placement for modal testing on wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Andreas; Zierath, János; Rosenow, Sven-Erik; Bockhahn, Reik; Rachholz, Roman; Woernle, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    The mechanical design of wind turbines requires a profound understanding of the dynamic behaviour. Even though highly detailed simulation models are already in use to support wind turbine design, modal testing on a real prototype is irreplaceable to identify site-specific conditions such as the stiffness of the tower foundation. Correct identification of the mode shapes of a complex mechanical structure much depends on the placement of the sensors. For operational modal analysis of a 3 MW wind turbine with a 120 m rotor on a 100 m tower developed by W2E Wind to Energy, algorithms for optimal placement of acceleration sensors are applied. The mode shapes used for the optimisation are calculated by means of a detailed flexible multibody model of the wind turbine. Among the three algorithms in this study, the genetic algorithm with weighted off-diagonal criterion yields the sensor configuration with the highest quality. The ongoing measurements on the prototype will be the basis for the development of optimised wind turbine designs.

  5. Comparison of wind turbines based on power curve analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    In the study measured power curves for 46 wind turbines were analyzed with the purpose to establish the basis for a consistent comparison of the efficiency of the wind turbines. Emphasis is on wind turbines above 500 kW rated power, with power curves measured after 1994 according to international recommendations. The available power curves fulfilling these requirements were smoothened according to a procedure developed for the purpose in such a way that the smoothened power curves are equally representative as the measured curves. The resulting smoothened power curves are presented in a standardized format for the subsequent processing. Using wind turbine data from the power curve documentation the analysis results in curves for specific energy production (kWh/M{sup 2}/yr) versus specific rotor load (kW/M{sup 2}) for a range of mean wind speeds. On this basis generalized curves for specific annual energy production versus specific rotor load are established for a number of generalized wind turbine concepts. The 46 smoothened standardized power curves presented in the report, the procedure developed to establish them, and the results of the analysis based on them aim at providers of measured power curves as well as users of them including manufacturers, advisors and decision makers. (au)

  6. The design of wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysian wind characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Chong Wen Thong

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the study of a wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. In this research, the wind turbine is designs based on the local wind characteristics and tries to avoid the problems faced in the past (turbine design, access, manpower and technical). The new wind turbine rotor design for a medium speed wind speed turbine utilises the concept of open-close type of horizontal axis (up-wind) wind turbine is intended to widen the optimum performance range for electrical generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. The wind turbine has been designed to cut-in at a lower speed, and to provide the rotation speed that high enough to run a generator. The analysis and design of new low speed wind turbine blades and open-close turbine rotor and prediction of turbine performance are being detailed in this paper. (Author)

  7. Orthogonal Bases used for Feed Forward Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In optimizing wind turbines it can be of a large help to use information of wind speeds at upwind turbine for the control of downwind turbines, it is, however, problematic to use these measurements directly since they are highly influenced by turbulence behind the wind turbine rotor plane. In this....... In this paper an orthogonal basis is use to extract the general trends in the wind signal, which are forward to the down wind turbines. This concept controller is designed and simulated on a generic 4.8 MW wind turbine model, which shows the potential of this proposed scheme....

  8. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  9. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyang Zhu; Hailin Huang; Hao Shen

    2015-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter defi...

  10. Empirical investigation on using wind speed volatility to estimate the operation probability and power output of wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Heping; Shi, Jing; Qu, Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ten-minute wind speed and power generation data of an offshore wind turbine are used. ► An ARMA–GARCH-M model is built to simultaneously forecast wind speed mean and volatility. ► The operation probability and expected power output of the wind turbine are predicted. ► The integrated approach produces more accurate wind power forecasting than other conventional methods. - Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a quantitative methodology that performs the interval estimation of wind speed, calculates the operation probability of wind turbine, and forecasts the wind power output. The technological advantage of this methodology stems from the empowered capability of mean and volatility forecasting of wind speed. Based on the real wind speed and corresponding wind power output data from an offshore wind turbine, this methodology is applied to build an ARMA–GARCH-M model for wind speed forecasting, and then to compute the operation probability and the expected power output of the wind turbine. The results show that the developed methodology is effective, the obtained interval estimation of wind speed is reliable, and the forecasted operation probability and expected wind power output of the wind turbine are accurate

  11. Wind Turbine Blade Design System - Aerodynamic and Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Soumitr

    2011-12-01

    The ever increasing need for energy and the depletion of non-renewable energy resources has led to more advancement in the "Green Energy" field, including wind energy. An improvement in performance of a Wind Turbine will enhance its economic viability, which can be achieved by better aerodynamic designs. In the present study, a design system that has been under development for gas turbine turbomachinery has been modified for designing wind turbine blades. This is a very different approach for wind turbine blade design, but will allow it to benefit from the features inherent in the geometry flexibility and broad design space of the presented system. It starts with key overall design parameters and a low-fidelity model that is used to create the initial geometry parameters. The low-fidelity system includes the axisymmetric solver with loss models, T-Axi (Turbomachinery-AXIsymmetric), MISES blade-to-blade solver and 2D wing analysis code XFLR5. The geometry parameters are used to define sections along the span of the blade and connected to the CAD model of the wind turbine blade through CAPRI (Computational Analysis PRogramming Interface), a CAD neutral API that facilitates the use of parametric geometry definition with CAD. Either the sections or the CAD geometry is then available for CFD and Finite Element Analysis. The GE 1.5sle MW wind turbine and NERL NASA Phase VI wind turbine have been used as test cases. Details of the design system application are described, and the resulting wind turbine geometry and conditions are compared to the published results of the GE and NREL wind turbines. A 2D wing analysis code XFLR5, is used for to compare results from 2D analysis to blade-to-blade analysis and the 3D CFD analysis. This kind of comparison concludes that, from hub to 25% of the span blade to blade effects or the cascade effect has to be considered, from 25% to 75%, the blade acts as a 2d wing and from 75% to the tip 3D and tip effects have to be taken into account

  12. Power Curve of the AWEC-60 wind turbine; Curva de potencia del aerogenerador AWEC-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avia, F

    1992-07-01

    The experimental wind turbine AWEC-60 was developed to evaluate the possibilities of the Large Wind turbines, from the technical and economical point of view. The project was developed by a spanish-german group, integrated by Union Fenosa, Asinel, M.A.N. Neue Technologie and the Instituto de Energias Renovables from CIEMAT, starting the operation during the year 1990. In this paper, the obtention of the wind turbine power curve is presented, which has been obtained in agreement with the Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation from the Executive Committee for the Research and Development on Wind Energy, of the International Energy Agency (AIE). Using the functioning data of the wind turbine correspondig to the first quarter of the year 1991, the power curves have been obtained, and the results have been compared with the curves measured in other similar Large wind turbines. (Author) 7 refs.

  13. Effects of wind turbines on human health and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanan, G [RV College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Pandian, A; Gowda, G; Raghunandan, A [MS RAMAIAH Institute of Technology, Bangalore (India)

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change through global warming has been a concern for some time now. Targets are being set for ratifying countries to reduce their CO{sup 2} emissions. In order to achieve reduction in CO{sup 2} emissions, there must be sustained move in the production of electricity from renewable sources other than fossil fuel combustion. Of the renewable energy sources, the most realistic and economic is Wind Power. The Asian continent is developing into one of the main powerhouses of Wind Energy. The strongest market leader in Wind Energy in the continent is India. On the flip side, there are some effects of Wind Turbines which are hazardous to human health like noise generated. Such hazards are also likely and known to affect the migratory birds during transition. This paper will address the effects of Wind Turbine on Human Health and Environment. The paper will focus on the following questions: (1)What are the potential health and environmental impacts of Wind Turbines? (2)How is exposure to Wind Turbine Noise assessed? (3)What consultation process with the community is required before Wind Farms are constructed? (Author)

  14. Modern Control Design for Flexible Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A. D.

    2004-07-01

    Control can improve energy capture and reduce dynamic loads in wind turbines. In the 1970s and 1980s, wind turbines used classical control designs to regulate power and speed. The methods used, however, were not always successful. Modern turbines are larger, mounted on taller towers, and more dynamically active than their predecessors. Control systems to regulate turbine power and maintain stable, closed-loop behavior in the presence of turbulent wind inflow will be critical for these designs. This report applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering hub upwind machine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), which is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. Starting with simple control algorithms based on linear models, complexity is added incrementally until the desired performance is firmly established.

  15. Wind Turbine Test. Wind Matic WM 17S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 17S, 75 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, structural...

  16. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  17. Wind Turbine Test Wind Matic WM 15S

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels

    The report describes standard measurements performed on a Wind-Matic WM 15S, 55 kW wind turbine. The measurements carried out and reported here comprises the power output, system efficiency, energy production, transmission efficiency, rotor power, rotor efficiency, air-brakes efficiency, dynamical...

  18. Mars Technologies Spawn Durable Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    crews and their power requirements are less, says Bubenheim. In the summers, they bring in larger groups and photovoltaics could supply a lot of power. Using renewable energy technology could be a way of reducing the amount of fuel they have to fly in.Technology TransferTo advance wind turbine technology to meet the requirements of extremely harsh environments like that on Mars, Ames partnered with NSF and the Department of Energy. It was clear that a lot of the same features were also desirable for the cold regions of the Earth, says Bubenheim. NASA took the leadership on the team because we had the longest-term technology a Mars turbine. Years before, NSF had worked with a company called Northern Power Systems (NPS), based in Barre, Vermont, to deploy a 3-kilowatt wind turbine on Black Island off the coast of Antarctica.Sometimes referred to as regenerative life support systems, the concept includes an enclosed self-sufficient habitat that can independently support life for years on end. Such a system aims not only to produce its own food and water but to purify air and convert waste into useful byproducts. In the early 1990s, NASA was planning for an extended stay on Mars, and Bubenheim and his Ames colleagues were concentrating efforts on creating a complete ecological system to sustain human crewmembers during their time on the Red Planet. The main barrier to developing such a system, he says, is energy. Mars has no power plants, and a regenerative system requires equipment that runs on electricity to do everything from regulating humidity in the atmosphere to monitoring the quality of recycled water. The Ames group started looking at how to best make power on a planet that is millions of miles away from Earth and turned to a hybrid concept combining wind and solar power technologies. The reason was that Mars experiences frequent dust storms that can block nearly all sunlight. When there's a dust storm and the wind is blowing, the wind system could be the dominant

  19. Impact of wind turbines on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausager, I.; Nohr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

  20. Flow interaction of diffuser augmented wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göltenbott, U.; Ohya, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Jamieson, P.

    2016-09-01

    Up-scaling of wind turbines has been a major trend in order to reduce the cost of energy generation from the wind. Recent studies however show that for a given technology, the cost always rises with upscaling, notably due to the increased mass of the system. To reach capacities beyond 10 MW, multi-rotor systems (MRS) have promising advantages. On the other hand, diffuser augmented wind turbines (DAWTs) can significantly increase the performance of the rotor. Up to now, diffuser augmentation has only been applied to single small wind turbines. In the present research, DAWTs are used in a multi-rotor system. In wind tunnel experiments, the aerodynamics of two and three DAWTs, spaced in close vicinity in the same plane normal to a uniform flow, have been analysed. Power increases of up to 5% and 9% for the two and three rotor configurations are respectively achieved in comparison to a stand-alone turbine. The physical dynamics of the flows are analysed on the basis of the results obtained with a stand-alone turbine.

  1. Assessment and prediction of wind turbine noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowson, M.V.

    1993-01-01

    The significance of basic aerodynamic noise sources for wind turbine noise are assessed, using information on the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. Based on this analysis, a new model for prediction of wind turbine noise is presented and comparisons made between prediction and experiment. The model is based on well established aeroacoustic theory and published laboratory data for the two principal sources, inflow turbulence and boundary layer trailing edge interaction. The new method gives good agreement with experiment with the case studied so far. Parametric trends and sensitivities for the model are presented. Comparisons with previous prediction methods are also given. A consequence of the new model is to put more emphasis on boundary layer trailing edge interaction as a noise source. There are prospects for reducing noise from this source detail changes to the wind turbine design. (author)

  2. Industrial wind turbines and adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Roy D; Krogh, Carmen M E; Horner, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Some people living in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWTs) report experiencing adverse health and socioeconomic effects. This review considers the hypothesis that annoyance from audible IWTs is the cause of these adverse health effects. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles published since 2000 that included the terms "wind turbine health," "wind turbine infrasound," "wind turbine annoyance," "noise annoyance" or "low frequency noise" in the title or abstract. Industrial wind turbines produce sound that is perceived to be more annoying than other sources of sound. Reported effects from exposure to IWTs are consistent with well-known stress effects from persistent unwanted sound. If placed too close to residents, IWTs can negatively affect the physical, mental and social well-being of people. There is sufficient evidence to support the conclusion that noise from audible IWTs is a potential cause of health effects. Inaudible low-frequency noise and infrasound from IWTs cannot be ruled out as plausible causes of health effects.

  3. Optimal Wind Turbines Micrositing in Onshore Wind Farms Using Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast growth in the number and size of installed wind farms (WFs around the world, optimal wind turbines (WTs micrositing has become a challenge from both technological and mathematical points of view. An appropriate layout of wind turbines is crucial to obtain adequate performance with respect to the development and operation of the wind power plant during its life span. This work presents a fuzzy genetic algorithm (FGA for maximizing the economic profitability of the project. The algorithm considers a new WF model including several important factors to the design of the layout. The model consists of wake loss, terrain effect, and economic benefits, which can be calculated by locations of wind turbines. The results demonstrate that the algorithm performs better than genetic algorithm, in terms of maximum values of net annual value of wind power plants and computational burden.

  4. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Wind turbines in your environment? Wind turbines and energy context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    Renewable energy sources allow to anticipate the depletion of fossil energy reserves and to limit the use of fissile resources. Moreover, their use avoids the emission of enormous amounts of pollutants and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This document presents the French energy context (national resources, electricity production and uses); the international political commitments (Kyoto protocol); the position of nuclear power in France and the development of renewable energy sources; and the evolution of the share of wind power with respect to other energy sources in France, in Europe and in the rest of the world. (J.S.)

  6. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

  7. Wind tunnel tests of a free yawing downwind wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Larsen, Torben J.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    . The discussed test cases show that the turbine is stable while operating in free yawing conditions. Further, the effect of the tower shadow passage on the blade flapwise strain measurement is evaluated. Finally, data from the experiment is compared with preliminary simulations using DTU Wind Energy......This research paper presents preliminary results on a behavioural study of a free yawing downwind wind turbine. A series of wind tunnel tests was performed at the TU Delft Open Jet Facility with a three bladed downwind wind turbine and a rotor radius of 0.8 meters. The setup includes an off...... the shelf three bladed hub, nacelle and generator on which relatively flexible blades are mounted. The tower support structure has free yawing capabilities provided at the base. A short overview on the technical details of the experiment is given as well as a brief summary of the design process...

  8. Wind power production: from the characterisation of the wind resource to wind turbine technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beslin, Guy; Multon, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables, this article first describes the various factors and means related to the assessment of wind resource in the World, in Europe, and the factors which characterize a local wind resource. In this last respect, the authors indicate how local topography is taken into account to calculate wind speed, how time variations are taken into account (at the yearly, seasonal or daily level), the different methods used to model a local wind resource, how to assess the power recoverable by a wind turbine with horizontal axis (notion of Betz limit). In the second part, the authors present the different wind turbines, their benefits and drawbacks: vertical axis, horizontal axis (examples of a Danish-type wind turbine, of wind turbines designed for extreme conditions). Then, they address the technology of big wind turbines: evolution of technology and of commercial offer, aerodynamic characteristics of wind turbine and benefit of a varying speed (technological solutions, importance of the electric generator). They describe how to choose a wind turbine, how product lines are organised, how the power curve and energy capacity are determined. The issue of integration of wind energy into the power system is then addressed. The next part addressed the economy of wind energy production (annualized production cost, order of magnitude of wind electric power production cost). Future trends are discussed and offshore wind energy production is briefly addressed

  9. Detection of Wind Evolution and Lidar Trajectory Optimization for Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schlipf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in remote sensing are offering a promising opportunity to rethink conventional control strategies of wind turbines. With technologies such as lidar, the information about the incoming wind field - the main disturbance to the system - can be made available ahead of time. Initial field testing of collective pitch feedforward control shows, that lidar measurements are only beneficial if they are filtered properly to avoid harmful control action. However, commercial lidar systems developed for site assessment are usually unable to provide a usable signal for real time control. Recent research shows, that the correlation between the measurement of rotor effective wind speed and the turbine reaction can be modeled and that the model can be used to optimize a scan pattern. This correlation depends on several criteria such as turbine size, position of the measurements, measurement volume, and how the wind evolves on its way towards the rotor. In this work the longitudinal wind evolution is identified with the line-of-sight measurements of a pulsed lidar system installed on a large commercial wind turbine. This is done by staring directly into the inflowing wind during operation of the turbine and fitting the coherence between the wind at different measurement distances to an exponential model taking into account the yaw misalignment, limitation to line-of-sight measurements and the pulse volume. The identified wind evolution is then used to optimize the scan trajectory of a scanning lidar for lidar-assisted feedforward control in order to get the best correlation possible within the constraints of the system. Further, an adaptive filer is fitted to the modeled correlation to avoid negative impact of feedforward control because of uncorrelated frequencies of the wind measurement. The main results of the presented work are a first estimate of the wind evolution in front of operating wind turbines and an approach which manufacturers of

  10. Structural Reliability Aspects in Design of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    Reliability assessment, optimal design and optimal operation and maintenance of wind turbines are an area of significant interest for the fast growing wind turbine industry for sustainable production of energy. Offshore wind turbines in wind farms give special problems due to wake effects inside...... the farm. Reliability analysis and optimization of wind turbines require that the special conditions for wind turbine operation are taken into account. Control of the blades implies load reductions for large wind speeds and parking for high wind speeds. In this paper basic structural failure modes for wind...... turbines are described. Further, aspects are presented related to reliability-based optimization of wind turbines, assessment of optimal reliability level and operation and maintenance....

  11. Maximum Energy Yield Oriented Turbine Control in PMSG based Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    : In the modern power systems, with the fast integration of the wind power into the grid, it turns to develop large-scale offshore wind farms equipped with the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine. In large-scale offshore wind farms, the wind turbine operating reliability and the wake effect in the wind farm became important issues. The pitch angle and tip speed ratio are the two degrees of freedom for the PMSG wind turbine active power control, which are also the determ...

  12. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, C.

    1995-01-01

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  13. An optimization approach for wind turbine commitment and dispatch in a wind park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyano, Carlos F. [School of Engineering Systems, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia); Pecas Lopes, Joao A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-01-15

    This paper describes an operational optimization strategy to be adopted at the wind park control level, that enables defining the commitment of wind turbines and their active and reactive power outputs following requests from Wind Park Dispatch Centers, assuming that individual wind turbines short-term wind speed forecasts are known and are expressed as power availability. This operational strategy was also developed with a concern on the minimization of the connection/disconnection changes of the individual wind generators, for a given time horizon. When identifying the active/reactive dispatching policies, wind generators loading capabilities are also taken in account. This optimization tool is especially suited to manage large wind parks. (author)

  14. Vertical axis wind turbines : past initiatives and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.; Fartaj, A.; Ting, D. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical, Automotive and Materials Engineering

    2003-08-01

    Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are the two categories of modern wind turbines used for producing electricity and pumping water. While their popularity declined in the 1970s and 1980s to more economical fossil fuel resources, many countries have expressed a renewed interest in wind power in response to environmental concerns and energy security. Renewable energy sources supply more than 14 per cent of the total global energy demand, and wind energy plays the biggest role. In 2002, more than $7 billion was invested in wind technology. Canada has been a leader in VAWT technology. In 1966, Engineers at the Low Speed Aerodynamics Laboratory of the National Research Council devised a VAWT configuration with non-adjustable hoop-shaped airfoils that had greater efficiency that conventional high-solidity VAWT. In the early 1980s, a multi-megawatt VAWT was built in Quebec under the auspices of the EOLE project. The EOLE is the largest VAWT in the world. In 1980, Canada's national Atlantic Wind Test Site was developed for the purpose of testing and developing wind technology. Research at this facility has focused on dynamically soft Darrieus rotors, a concept which can reduce structural loads. Early development has shown that although VAWT is slightly less efficient than HAWT, it can be built larger and more cost effectively. This paper presents the outstanding features of VAWT products including the Solwind SW 10/4800 series VAWT, the Chinook 2000 wind turbine, the Ropatec Windrotor, the Windside Turbine, the VAWTEX, the Windstar VAWT, and Windtec. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  15. H∞ Based Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Pujana-Arrese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates a strategy to design multivariable and multi-objective controllers based on the H∞ norm reduction applied to a wind turbine. The wind turbine model has been developed in the GH Bladed software and it is based on a 5 MW wind turbine defined in the Upwind European project. The designed control strategy works in the above rated power production zone and performs generator speed control and load reduction on the drive train and tower. In order to do this, two robust H∞ MISO (Multi-Input Single-Output controllers have been developed. These controllers generate collective pitch angle and generator torque set-point values to achieve the imposed control objectives. Linear models obtained in GH Bladed 4.0 are used, but the control design methodology can be used with linear models obtained from any other modelling package. Controllers are designed by setting out a mixed sensitivity problem, where some notch filters are also included in the controller dynamics. The obtained H∞ controllers have been validated in GH Bladed and an exhaustive analysis has been carried out to calculate fatigue load reduction on wind turbine components, as well as to analyze load mitigation in some extreme cases. The analysis compares the proposed control strategy based on H∞ controllers to a baseline control strategy designed using the classical control methods implemented on the present wind turbines.

  16. Wind energy technology developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2014-01-01

    turbine blades and towers are very large series-produced components, which costs and quality are strongly dependent on the manufacturing methods. The industrial wind energy sector is well developed in Denmark, and the competitive advantage of the Danish sector and the potential for job creation...

  17. Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo

    The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...

  18. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Maizi [Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables (cder). Alger (Algeria); Rabah, Dizene [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Haouari Boumdienne (USTHB). Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes a hybrid approach forpredicting noise radiated from the rotating Wind Turbine (HAWT) blades, where the sources are extracted from an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged-Navier Stocks (URANS) simulation, ANSYS CFX 11.0, was used to calculate The near-field flow parameters around the blade surface that are necessary for FW-H codes. Comparisons with NREL Phase II experimental results are presented with respect to the pressure distributions for validating a capacity of the solver to calculate the near-field flow on and around the wind turbine blades, The results show that numerical data have a good agreement with experimental. The acoustic pressure, presented as a sum of thickness and loading noise components, is analyzed by means of a discrete fast Fourier transformation for the presentation of the time acoustic time histories in the frequency domain. The results convincingly show that dipole source noise is the dominant noise source for this wind turbine.

  19. Resonant vibration control of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Martin Nymann; Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2010-01-01

    . The efficiency of the resonant controller is demonstrated for a representative turbine blade exposed to turbulent wind loading. It is found that the present explicit tuning procedure yields close to optimal tuning, with very limited modal spill-over and effective reduction of the vibration amplitudes.......The paper deals with introduction of damping to specific vibration modes of wind turbine blades, using a resonant controller with acceleration feedback. The wind turbine blade is represented by three-dimensional, two-node finite elements in a local, rotating frame of reference. The element...... formulation accounts for arbitrary mass density distributions, general elastic crosssection properties and geometric stiffness effects due to internal stresses. A compact, linear formulation for aerodynamic forces with associated stiffness and damping terms is established and added to the structural model...

  20. Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters

    Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... dominated vibrations.The first part of the thesis presents the theoretical framework for implementation of supplemental dampers in wind turbines. It is demonstrated that the feasibility of installing dampers at the bottom of the tower is significantly increased when placing passive or semiactive dampers...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...