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Sample records for wind farms economical

  1. Economics of wind farm layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, A.C. [Wind Energy Resource Specialist, Oakland, CA (United States); Bain, D.A. [Oregon Office of Energy, Portland, OR (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The life cycle cost of energy (COE) is the primary determinant of the economic viability of a wind energy generation facility. The cost of wind turbines and associated hardware is counterbalanced by the energy which can be generated. This paper focuses on the turbine layout design process, considering the cost and energy capture implications of potential spacing options from the viewpoint of a practicing project designer. It is argued that lateral spacings in the range of 1.5 to 5 diameters are all potentially optimal, but only when matched to wind resource characteristics and machine design limits. The effect of wakes on energy capture is quantified while the effect on turbine life and maintenance cost is discussed qualitatively. Careful optimization can lower COE and project designers are encouraged to integrate the concepts in project designs.

  2. Wind Energy in Poland - economic analysis of wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnatowska Renata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power generation is the most dynamically developing branch of renewable energy sector in Poland. The high price of coal and its negative environmental impact result in ever growing support for the renewable energy in the energy sector. Wind power industry produces clean energy, but costs of investments are very high. Process of creating a wind farm is very long and complicated. It requires the knowledge of many disciplines such as law, economics, energetic. The aim of this paper was study the state and the development of the wind power sector, especially wind farm in Poland. The economic analysis on investment in wind farm in Poland according to a new act on renewable energy sources was presented. The subject of this analysis was to estimate profitability of wind farm project 40 MW capacity. The analysis includes the comparison of various support systems - the system of green certificates and the new - auction model on the profitability of investment in wind farm. This aims to show how important is appropriate government support for producers of green energy words.

  3. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  4. Static economic dispatch incorporating wind farm using Flower pollination algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Velamuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is one of the clean and cheapest forms of energy which helps in minimizing the carbon foot print. Due to the less environmental impact and economic issues integration of renewable energy sources with the existing network gained attention. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is analysed in a power system network using static economic dispatch (SED. The wind energy is integrated with the existing thermal systems. Here, the generation scheduling is optimized using Flower pollination algorithm (FPA due to its robustness in solving nonlinear problems. Integration of wind power in the existing system increases the complexity due to its stochastic nature. Weibull distribution function is used for solving the stochastic nature of wind. Scenarios without and with wind power penetration are discussed in detail. The analysis is carried out by considering the losses and installing the wind farm at different locations in the system. The proposed methodology is tested and validated on a standard IEEE 30 bus system.

  5. Optimization Model for Economic Evaluation of Wind Farms - How to Optimize a Wind Energy Project Economically and Technically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a review and systematize methods and techniques of economic evaluation applied to renewable energy projects, specific to wind energy projects. Both project and cost methodologies of economic evaluation are reviewed for a model optimization construction for a proposed optimization model with its objective function most appropriated. It is necessary to engage in different approaches, but complementary, microeconomic project evaluation methods and optimization methods applied to engineering solutions in wind energy converter systems. Optimization model for economic evaluation of wind farms can be as an efficient planning and resource management, which is the key to the success of an energy project. Wind energy is one of the most potent alternative energy resources; however the economics of wind energy is not yet universally favorable to place wind at a competitive platform with coal and natural gas (fossil fuels. Economic evaluation models of wind projects developed would allow investors to better plan their projects, as well as provide valuable insight into the areas that require further development to improve the overall economics of wind energy projects.

  6. Static economic dispatch incorporating wind farm using Flower pollination algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Velamuri, Suresh; S, Sreejith; P, Ponnambalam

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy is one of the clean and cheapest forms of energy which helps in minimizing the carbon foot print. Due to the less environmental impact and economic issues integration of renewable energy sources with the existing network gained attention. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is analysed in a power system network using static economic dispatch (SED). The wind energy is integrated with the existing thermal systems. Here, the generation scheduling is optimized using Flower p...

  7. Economic feasibility analysis of a wind farm in Caldas da Rainha, Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, Wagner Sousa; Fernandes, Antonio Jorge [Department of Economics, Management and Industrial Engineering, University of Aveiro & Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the technical and economical feasibility of a wind farm. The method is applied to a potential wind farm site located in Caldas da Rainha, Portugal. The site is considered on technical and economical parameters for the complete plant and its running costs. For technical consideration wind speed, prevailing wind direction, and temperature measurements are performed by using RETScreen Climate Database and Retscreen Product Database. The economic and financial evaluation of the wind farm is made by the software RETScreen(reg. sign) International Clean Energy Project Analysis and the indicators calculated are WACC, NPV, IRR, SPB, DPB, TLCC, BCR, LCOE, RR and UPAC. The sensitivity analysis backs up the findings through the scenarios developed (Current, S1, S2 and S3).

  8. Generation management using batteries in wind farms. Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 cEUR/kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable. (author)

  9. Generation management using batteries in wind farms: Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: rdufo@unizar.es; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: jlbernal@unizar.es; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Zaragoza, Calle Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: jadona@unizar.es

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 c Euro /kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable.

  10. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    (PP) of WTGs using Weibull and Rayleigh distribution functions. Five commercial WFs in Taiwan are used as sample systems for comparative analyses. This paper combines Weibull function, cubic mean wind speed, and four existing economic-analysis methods to study different values of capacity and hub...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented....

  11. Economic Selection of Generators for a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection suitable generator for wind turbines will be done based on technical criteria and priorities of the project. In this paper, a method for determining the type of wind turbine generator with an example is explained. In the paper, for a 10kW wind turbine, two generators have been proposed. The first case is a squirrel-cage asynchronous generator coupled to the turbine through the gearbox and directly connected to three phase output. Other PM generators that are directly coupled to the turbine and it is connected to the grid using the inverter. The results show that according to wind conditions, a 10kW permanent magnet generator is more advantageous in terms of energy production.

  12. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  13. The economics of transmission constraints on wind farms: some evidence from South Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Boerema, Nicholas; MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of transmission congestion and network investment on the development of the Australian wind energy industry have received growing attention from wind farm developers as well as relevant policy stakeholders such as the Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC). There are many potential wind farm sites across the country with excellent wind regimes yet only limited transmission capacity. At least one wind farm in South Australia has spent a period following construction where its o...

  14. Economic/Environmental power dispatch for power systems including wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen BEN JAOUED

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of the Economic/Environmental power Dispatching (EED of hybrid power system including wind energies. The power flow model for a stall regulated fixed speed wind generator (SR-FSWG system is discussed to assess the steady-state condition of power systems with wind farms. Modified Newton-Raphson algorithm including SR-FSWG is used to solve the load flow equations in which the state variables of the wind generators are combined with the nodal voltage magnitudes and angles of the entire network. The EED problem is a nonlinear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, two competing fuel cost and pollutant emission objectives should be minimized simultaneously while satisfying certain system constraints. In this paper, the resolution is done by the algorithm multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus test system and using MATLAB software package.

  15. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  16. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

    2017-01-01

    Decommissioning is usually the last stage of the offshore wind farm life cycle. Due to the challenges of the decommissioning process, such as the impact on the marine environment, severe weather conditions, vessel limitations and lack of operational experience, the decommissioning strategy should...... be planned to avoid complications, which ultimately can cause radical changes to the levelized cost of energy (LCoE) and the wind farm owner's business case. Instead of dismantling, repowering may be a sustainable alternative solution to extend the lifetime of a wind farm. In this paper, the research...... is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...

  17. The Economic Viability of Renewable Portfolio Standard Support for Offshore Wind Farm Projects in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Min

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm (WF projects have been promoted by support schemes as part of the expansion of renewable energy resources in Korea. This paper examines in detail how the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS, which was adopted post the Feed-in-Tariff scheme in 2012, has had a profound impact on the economic benefits of offshore WFs in Korea. A framework for analyzing the economic viability of RPS is presented and applied to the sixth basic plan for long-term electricity supply and demand in Korea. The electricity market price is forecast using a reformulated probabilistic production cost (PPC model, and the renewable energy certificate (REC price is calculated using its determination rule. The results show that the existing RPS will be ineffective in increasing the penetration of offshore WFs in Korea; however, they also indicate that the economic viability of offshore WFs could be improved by adjusting the existing RPS.

  18. Economic cost evaluation on the viability of offshore wind turbine farms in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Effiom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an economic cost evaluation on the feasibility of offshore wind turbine (OWT farms development in Nigeria, using a 500 MW OWT farm as an incident study. A developed model was used to evaluate the economic cost of the OWTs at different phases of the project. Additionally, the effect of the cost drivers at the changed phases of the OWTs was studied correspondingly. Results obtained showed that over 50% of the OWT project cost emanated from CAPEX while a value less than 50% came from OPEX. However, further analysis indicates at maximum power of 4 MW a 4.95% diminution in LCOE. For comparable power rating (PR between 5⩽PR⩽6MW, a 2.7% reduction in LCOE exists. Cost stability was apparent at a growth of WTs between 300⩽WT⩽500 MW. The study also observed a decrease in LCOE for all development stages of the OWT while a decrease in the CMS detectability was considered marginal. Subsequently, it can be inferred that Nigeria has the potential for OWT farm expansion. However, the demonstrated model was appropriate for handling preliminary variations in OWT studies.

  19. An economic assessment of tropical cyclone risk on offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Lixuan; Möller, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    and cost and setting design parameters for offshore wind turbines are then discussed. The impact of tropical cyclones on offshore wind farms likes a double-edged sword, which might be advantageous for some regions in terms of increasing full-loaded hours of turbines, but also disadvantageous for others due...

  20. Combining economic and fluid dynamic models to determine the optimal spacing in very large wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard J.A.M.; Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Ramos, Andrés; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Wind turbine spacing is an important design parameter for wind farms. Placing turbines too close together reduces their power extraction because of wake effects and increases maintenance costs because of unsteady loading. Conversely, placing them further apart increases land and cabling costs, as

  1. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    To achieve the optimal economic output from a wind farm over its lifetime, an optimal balance between capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, fatigue lifetime consumption of turbine components and power production is to be determined on a rational basis. This has implications both...... for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  2. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital...... and operating expenditures, which, along with the energy produced, determine the cost of energy. A better system-level understanding of wind farms is hence of critical importance to the wind-energy industry....

  3. TOPFARM – A Tool for Wind Farm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    TOPFARM takes the investors perspective and performs an economical optimization of a wind farm layout throughout the lifetime of the wind farm. The economical optimization approach of wind farm layout differs significantly from the traditional power output optimization. The major differences...... optimization, when applied on the Danish Middelgrunden offshore wind farm. The paper concludes by describing planned future developments of TOPFARM....

  4. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...

  5. Overview of offshore wind farm configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.; Wu, B.; Xu, D.; Zargari, N. R.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind energy has been attracting great attention. Compared with onshore wind power systems, offshore wind power applications present significantly greater economic challenges mainly due to the required bulky and costly offshore substation. To lower the cost of offshore wind power systems, various configurations are proposed in both industry and academia. The present work investigates existing offshore wind farm configurations.

  6. Wind farm repowering: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva, L. [Renewable Energy Eng. (Spain); Canas, M.; Gomez, E.; Pujante, A [Renewable Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Control Eng. (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    Wind farm repowering involves the replacement of smaller and middle sized wind turbines, with state-of-the-art multi-megawatt turbines. In this paper, a detailed study of the repowering of a wind farm is presented, by computing the generated active power from existing wind turbines and the new ones. The active power generated with the wind turbines are totalized to obtain the yearly generated energy and analyzed, thus economic studies take the repowering cost into account too. (au)

  7. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  8. Economic valuation of the visual externalities of off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladenburg, J.; Dubgaard, A.; Martensen, L.; Tranberg, J.

    2005-07-01

    The study is based on a mail survey including 700 households in a national sample, and 350 households in two sub samples in the Horns Rev and Nysted areas. In the choice experiment, four alternative off-shore wind farm distances from the coast were used namely: 8, 12, 18 and 50 km. Based on the respondents' choices between alternative locations of off-shore wind farms their willingness to pay (WTP) for increasing the distance was elicited using three different sub samples for each of the three locations. These sub samples were constructed using the full sample (B-model), a sample containing respondents who were certain in their choice (C-model) and finally a sample containing respondents, who according to a defined set of questions were considered consistent and rational in their choice (R-model). (au)

  9. Provision of frequency control by wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Markus; Baier, Andre [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, wind farms do not provide frequency control in Germany. Because of the increasing wind energy generation, wind farms will have to provide this ancillary service in the future. Even though the provision of frequency control by wind farms has become a big field of research, no work has yet been done concerning the proof of the provision. Thus, the scope of this paper is the presentation of a new concept how wind farms can prove the provision of frequency control. Moreover, this paper describes a method for calculating the available amount of frequency control power based on probabilistic forecasts. An economic analysis is conducted for three different wind farms and a virtual power plant consisting of these wind farms participating at the market for negative tertiary control power in Germany. (orig.)

  10. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    the DWMmodel is to model the in- stationary wind farm flow characteristics by considering wind turbine wakes as passive tracers continuously emitted from the wind farm turbines each with a downstream transport pro- cess dictated by large scale turbulent eddies (lateral and ver- tical transportation; i......]. A very satisfactory agreement between experimental data and predictions is observed. This paper finally includes additionally an analysis of the production impact caused by atmospheric stability effects. For this study, atmospheric stability conditions are defined in terms of the Monin-Obukhov length....... Three different stability classes, including stable, neutral and unstable atmospheric stratification, have been investigated....

  11. Research on Environmental Economic Dispatch of Power System Including Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-qing, Zhong

    In power market environment with energy conservation and emission reduction, clean energy power has an increasingly important position because of its low cost and environmental pollution. This paper researches on power system dynamic economy dispatch including wind system. The model of environment economic dispatch including wind power is established with the lowest generating cost of total power system as the objective function. The various constraint conditions are considered with conventional thermal power units and wind power. According to actual load data in a certain area, simulation test is completed using particle swarm optimization algorithm which has advantage of strength searching capability and fast optimizing. Simulation results show that the mathematical model is correct and the optimization algorithm is effective. Meanwhile, the application of the relative entropy balance theory is on evaluation and selection to the decision results.

  12. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    is minimized. The controller is practically feasible. Yet, the results on load reduction in this approach are not very significant. In the second strategy, the wind farm control problem has been divided into below rated and above rated wind speed conditions. In the above rated wind speed pitch angle and power....... Distributed controller design commences with formulating the problem, where a structured matrix approach has been put in to practice. Afterwards, an H2 control problem is implemented to obtain the controller dynamics for a wind farm such that the structural loads on wind turbines are minimized.......The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage...

  13. Wind Farm Control Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This document is a delivery in the project NORCOWE. It is part of work package WP3.2.2. The main goal is to establish the present state-of-the-art for wind farm control for both research and practice. The main approach will be to study the literature. This will of cause be much more efficient...... for the research part than for the practice part. It is however not the intention to do company interviews or similar. This report is structured into a section for each WF control objective. These sections then includes the important control project issues: choice of input and output, control method, and modelling...... turbine farm based on a dynamic programming type of method....

  14. Potential market of wind farm in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pengfei Shi [Hydropower Planning General Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources are abundant in China, in southeast coast area along with the rapid economic growth, electricity demand has been sharply increased, due to complex terrain detailed assessments are in urgent need. Advanced methodology and computer model should be developed. In this paper the existing wind farms, installed capacity, manufacturers share and projects in the near future are presented. For further development of wind farm in large scale, different ways of local manufacturing wind turbine generators (WTG) are going on. Current policy and barriers are analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Peigans plan wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The Peigan Nation of southwest Alberta will have four one-MW Nordex wind turbines installed on its land by October 1998, as the first step in a $200 million 101 MW grid-connected wind farm. The installation is a joint venture between Peigan Utilities Inc., Advanced Thermodynamics, the licencees to market the Nordex turbines, and the Sault Ste. Marie`s Batchawana Band. The joint venture is named `Weather-Dancer`. The test turbine is scheduled to be installed in August, with three more planned in October. Each turbine has a rotor of 54 metres in diameter, atop a 60-metre tower. Initially, the power will be used on the reserve through a Peigan-administered rural electrification association. The remainder of the turbines will be added as purchase contracts are signed with the Alberta Power Pool.

  16. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  17. Macrobenthos in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Robbert; Glorius, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farms potentially have an effect on the benthic ecosystem. Given the plans for large-scale development of offshore wind farms on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS), understanding these effects is relevant for policy and regulations regarding these developments. Because studying the

  18. Wind farms production: Control and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fouly, Tarek Hussein Mostafa

    Wind energy resources, unlike dispatchable central station generation, produce power dependable on external irregular source and that is the incident wind speed which does not always blow when electricity is needed. This results in the variability, unpredictability, and uncertainty of wind resources. Therefore, the integration of wind facilities to utility electrical grid presents a major challenge to power system operator. Such integration has significant impact on the optimum power flow, transmission congestion, power quality issues, system stability, load dispatch, and economic analysis. Due to the irregular nature of wind power production, accurate prediction represents the major challenge to power system operators. Therefore, in this thesis two novel models are proposed for wind speed and wind power prediction. One proposed model is dedicated to short-term prediction (one-hour ahead) and the other involves medium term prediction (one-day ahead). The accuracy of the proposed models is revealed by comparing their results with the corresponding values of a reference prediction model referred to as the persistent model. Utility grid operation is not only impacted by the uncertainty of the future production of wind farms, but also by the variability of their current production and how the active and reactive power exchange with the grid is controlled. To address this particular task, a control technique for wind turbines, driven by doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs), is developed to regulate the terminal voltage by equally sharing the generated/absorbed reactive power between the rotor-side and the gridside converters. To highlight the impact of the new developed technique in reducing the power loss in the generator set, an economic analysis is carried out. Moreover, a new aggregated model for wind farms is proposed that accounts for the irregularity of the incident wind distribution throughout the farm layout. Specifically, this model includes the wake effect

  19. Intelligent control on wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    with the wind farm makes the grid more vulnerable. The communication technologies have been considered as a solution to solve the problems according to the IEC 61400-25 series protocols. This paper presents the significance of communication technologies in wind farm system by the simulations on some practical......Since the renewable energy is popularly applied in power industry, especially the smart grid is fast developing all over the world during these years, the reliable connection between a wind farm and the main grid has been focused on. Due to the difficult control on the wind energy, the connection...... scenarios. By delivering the signals among WTs (wind turbines) and control centers, they both are able to recognize another side’s operation situation and to adjust its own state to realize the optimization. A scenario is designed in this paper, in which a fault occurs in wind farm; then the protection...

  20. Wind farm controllers with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes wind farm controllers and wind turbine controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind farms to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet...... the conventional aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and to minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components....

  1. Wind Farm Power Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Haouas, Nabiha; Bertrand, Pierre R.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting annual wind power production is useful for the energy industry. Until recently, attention has only been paid to the mean annual wind power energy and statistical uncertainties on this forecasting. Recently, Bensoussan et al. (2012) have pointed that the annual wind power produced by one wind turbine is a Gaussian random variable under a reasonable set of assumptions. Moreover, they can derive both mean and quantiles of annual wind power produced by one wind ...

  2. Design tool for offshore wind farm cluster planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Giebel, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 project EERA DTOC: Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Cluster, a new software supporting the planning of offshore wind farms was developed, based on state-of-the-art approaches from large scale wind potential to economic benchmarking. The model portfolio includes WAs......P, FUGA, WRF, Net-Op, LCoE model, CorWind, FarmFlow, EeFarm and grid code compliance calculations. The development is done by members from European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and guided by several industrial partners. A commercial spin-off from the project is the tool ‘Wind & Economy’. The software...

  3. Dynamic Federalism and Wind Farm Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-18

    decisions affecting competing interests. Just as fossil fuels and nuclear reactors come with social and ecological price tags that many observers believe...Ass’n, WIND ENERGY - Technology and Planning, http://2 wwindea.org/technology/ch02/ estructura -en.htm (accessed Mar. 7, 2014). For the purpose of...economic, and social impacts that a permitting authority must consider when reviewing a proposed wind farm site. The next section of this thesis will

  4. Wakes in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelmie, Rebecca J.; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 and 20% of total power output in large wind farms. The focus of this research carried out within the EC funded UPWIND project is wind speed and turbulence modelling for large wind farms/wind turbines in complex terrain and offshore...... is for five turbines in flat terrain. Finally a complex terrain wind farm will be modelled and compared with observations. For offshore wind farms, the focus is on cases at the Horns Rev wind farm which indicate wind farm models require modification to reduce under-prediction of wake losses while CFD models...... in order to optimise wind farm layouts to reduce wake losses and loads. For complex terrain, a set of three evaluations is underway. The first is a model comparison for a Gaussian Hill where CFD models and wind farm models are being compared for the case of one hilltop wind turbine. The next case...

  5. Estimated Pollution Reduction from Wind Farms in Oklahoma and Associated Economic and Human Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Greene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, there has been a recognition of the growing need for different forms of energy outside of fossil fuels. Since the latter half of the twentieth century individuals, corporations, and governments have become increasingly aware of the effects of the emissions of carbon and other harmful pollutants on the environment. With this greater concern has come increasing activity to combat these harmful emissions by using alternative fuel sources to power homes, businesses, and cities. As can be seen from recent trends in their installed capacity, it is clear that renewable energy resources will continue to be more commonly used in the future. As renewable energy increases, a decrease in a range of harmful pollutants from the energy sector will also occur. This paper provides a case study to estimate the potential environmental and health benefits of an increased shift from fossil fuels to renewable fuels for electrical production in Oklahoma. Results illustrate and quantify the specific reduction that wind energy can and will have on air quality, as well as provide a quantification of the associated potential health benefits.

  6. Health impact of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Karakiewicz, Beata; Kassolik, Krzysztof; Andrzejewski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is employed worldwide as an alternative source of energy. At the same time, however, the health effects of wind turbines have become a matter of discussion. The purpose of this study is a critical review of available reports providing arguments both for and against the construction of wind farms. The authors also attempt to propose recommendations in accordance with the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) guidelines. In the case of exposure to wind farms, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is impossible. To obtain the highest-level recommendations, analysis of case-control studies or cohort studies with control groups should be performed. Preferably, it should include geostatistical analysis conducted with the use of variograms and the kriging technique. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge (SM) and the Internet search engine Google. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF STATE OF THE ART: The nuisance caused by wind turbines is stereotypically linked with the noise that they produce. Nevertheless, the visual aspect of wind farms, opinions about them, and sensitivity to sound seem to be of the greater importance. To date, the direct correlations between the vicinity of modern wind farms, the noise that wind turbines make, and possible consequences to health have not been described in peer reviewed articles. Health effects are more probably associated with some environmental factors leading to annoyance or frustration. All types of studies share the same conclusion: wind turbines can provoke annoyance. As with any project involving changes in the local environment, a certain level of irritation among the population can be expected. There are elected officials and government representatives who should decide what level of social annoyance is acceptable, and whether wind power advantages outweigh its potential drawbacks. The influence of wind turbines on human emotional and physical health is a relatively new field of research. Further

  7. Wind speed dynamical model in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model for wind speed in a wind farm. The basic purpose of the paper is to calculate approximately the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine in a farm. In this regard the governing equations of flow will be solved for the whole wind farm. In ideal circumstances......, the dynamic model for wind flow will be established. The state space variables are determined based on a fine mesh defined for the farm. The end goal of this method is to assist the development of a dynamical model of a wind farm that can be engaged for better wind farm control strategies....

  8. Wind farm optimization using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte-Villarreal, Carlos M.

    In recent years, the wind power industry has focused its efforts on solving the Wind Farm Layout Optimization (WFLO) problem. Wind resource assessment is a pivotal step in optimizing the wind-farm design and siting and, in determining whether a project is economically feasible or not. In the present work, three (3) different optimization methods are proposed for the solution of the WFLO: (i) A modified Viral System Algorithm applied to the optimization of the proper location of the components in a wind-farm to maximize the energy output given a stated wind environment of the site. The optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of energy cost per unit produced and applies a penalization for the lack of system reliability. The viral system algorithm utilized in this research solves three (3) well-known problems in the wind-energy literature; (ii) a new multiple objective evolutionary algorithm to obtain optimal placement of wind turbines while considering the power output, cost, and reliability of the system. The algorithm presented is based on evolutionary computation and the objective functions considered are the maximization of power output, the minimization of wind farm cost and the maximization of system reliability. The final solution to this multiple objective problem is presented as a set of Pareto solutions and, (iii) A hybrid viral-based optimization algorithm adapted to find the proper component configuration for a wind farm with the introduction of the universal generating function (UGF) analytical approach to discretize the different operating or mechanical levels of the wind turbines in addition to the various wind speed states. The proposed methodology considers the specific probability functions of the wind resource to describe their proper behaviors to account for the stochastic comportment of the renewable energy components, aiming to increase their power output and the reliability of these systems. The developed heuristic considers a

  9. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  10. TOPFARM wind farm optimization tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.; Fuglsang, P.; Larsen, Torben J.; Buhl, T.; Larsen, Gunner C.

    2011-02-15

    A wind farm optimization framework is presented in detail and demonstrated on two test cases: 1) Middelgrunden and 2) Stags Holt/Coldham. A detailed flow model describing the instationary flow within a wind farm is used together with an aeroelastic model to determine production and fatigue loading of wind farm wind turbines. Based on generic load cases, the wind farm production and fatigue evaluations are subsequently condensed in a large pre-calculated database for rapid calculation of lifetime equivalent loads and energy production in the optimization loop. The objective function defining the optimization problem includes elements as energy production, turbine degradation, operation and maintenance costs, electrical grid costs and foundation costs. The objective function is optimized using a dedicated multi fidelity approach with the locations of individual turbines in the wind farm spanning the design space. The results are over all satisfying and are giving some interesting insights on the pros and cons of the design choices. They show in particular that the inclusion of the fatigue loads costs give rise to some additional details in comparison with pure power based optimization. The Middelgrunden test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 2.1 M Euro originating from a very large increase in the energy production value of 9.3 M Euro mainly counterbalanced by increased electrical grid costs. The Stags Holt/Coldham test case resulted in an improvement of the financial balance of 3.1 M Euro. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of wind farm efficiency and wind turbine wakes at the Nysted offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Jensen, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we quantify relationships between wind farm efficiency and wind speed, direction, turbulence and atmospheric stability using power output from the large offshore wind farm at Nysted in Denmark. Wake losses are, as expected, most strongly related to wind speed variations through the turbine...... thrust coefficient; with direction, atmospheric stability and turbulence as important second order effects. While the wind farm efficiency is highly dependent on the distribution of wind speeds and wind direction, it is shown that the impact of turbine spacing on wake losses and turbine efficiency can...... be quantified, albeit with relatively large uncertainty due to stochastic effects in the data. There is evidence of the ‘deep array effect’ in that wake losses in the centre of the wind farm are under-estimated by the wind farm model WAsP, although overall efficiency of the wind farm is well predicted due...

  12. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models...

  13. Wind farm controllers with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes wind farm controller and wind turbine controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind frams to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet...... the conventional aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components....

  14. Simulation and Optimization of Wind Farm Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of wind farm controllers for different types of wind farms. The overall aim of the wind farm controllers is to enable the wind farms to contribute to the control of voltage and frequency in the power system. Still, the controllers should meet the conventional...... aims of wind turbine controllers, which are first of all to maximise the production and to minimize the structural loads and lifetime consumption on the wind turbine components. To meet these aims, the idea is that the wind farm controllers use wind speed predictions....

  15. Design tool for offshore wind farm cluster planning

    OpenAIRE

    HASAGER, Charlotte Bay; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Badger, Jake; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick; Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna; Nicolaos Antonio CUTULULIS; Maule, Petr; Schepers, Gerard; Wiggelinkhuizen, J; Cantero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 project EERA DTOC: Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Cluster, a new software supporting the planning of offshore wind farms was developed, based on state-of-the-art approaches from large scale wind potential to economic benchmarking. The model portfolio includes WAsP, FUGA, WRF, Net-Op, LCoE model, CorWind, FarmFlow, EeFarm and grid code compliance calculations. The development is done by members from European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and guided by several ...

  16. Modelling and Measuring Flow and Wind Turbine Wakes in Large Wind Farms Offshore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2009-01-01

    Average power losses due to wind turbine wakes are of the order of 10 to 20% of total power output in large offshore wind farms. Accurately quantifying power losses due to wakes is, therefore, an important part of overall wind farm economics. The focus of this research is to compare different types...... power losses due to wakes and loads. The research presented is part of the EC-funded UpWind project, which aims to radically improve wind turbine and wind farm models in order to continue to improve the costs of wind energy. Reducing wake losses, or even reduce uncertainties in predicting power losses...

  17. Attitude and acceptance of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Möller, B.

    2011-01-01

    farms attributes on attitude towards offshore wind farms. The results point towards that the travel time and the attributes of the nearest offshore wind farm influence the attitude significantly. Travel time has mixed effects on the attitude, whilst offshore wind farms with many turbines generate more...... a novel contribution to this field. First of all, we give a thorough review of the studies that have analysed the relation between experience with wind turbines and attitude. In addition, we supplement the review by analysing the effect of travel distance to the nearest offshore wind farm and the wind...

  18. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure......: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...

  19. Roundfish monitoring Princess amalia Wind Farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). It is to realize the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Program, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind farm

  20. Reliability evaluation for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Blåbjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new reliability index - Loss Of Generation Ratio Probability (LOGRP) is proposed for evaluating the reliability of an electrical system for offshore wind farms, which emphasizes the design of wind farms rather than the adequacy for specific load demand. A practical method...... to calculate LOGRP of offshore wind farms is proposed and evaluated....

  1. An Overview of Offshore Wind Farm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2016-01-01

    For offshore wind energy to be viable, the design of wind turbines is not the only important factor—rather, the design of wind farms is also crucial. The current chapter discusses the challenges of designing an optimum wind farm and identifies the various factors that need to be considered. Lastly......, the chapter presents the novel EERA-DTOC tool for designing offshore wind farm clusters....

  2. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    -trend for large electric energy production using offshore wind generators and marine current generators, respectively. Thus DFIG based offshore wind farm can be an economic solution to stabilize squirrel cage induction generator based marine current farm without installing any addition FACTS devices. This thesis first focuses on the stabilization of fixed speed IG based marine current farm using SDBR. Also stabilization of DFIG based variable speed wind farm utilizing SDBR is studied in this work. Finally a co-operative control strategy is proposed where DFIG is controlled in such a way that it can even provide necessary reactive power demand of induction generator, so that additional cost of FACTS devices can be avoided. In that way, the DFIGs of the offshore wind farm (OWF) will actively compensate the reactive power demand of adjacent IGs of the marine current farm (MCF) during grid fault. Detailed modeling and control scheme for the proposed system are demonstrated considering some realistic scenarios. The power system small signal stability analysis is also carried out by eigenvalue analysis for marine current generator topology, wind turbine generator topology and integrated topology. The relation between the modes and state variables are discussed in light of modal and sensitivity analyses. The results of theoretical analyses are verified by MATLAB/SIMULINK and laboratory standard power system simulator PSCAD/EMTDC.

  3. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  4. Technical and economic analysis on grid-connected wind farm based on hybrid energy storage system and distributed generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zhou, Zhongkang; Chen, Xiaochun; Song, Jishuang; Shi, Maolin

    2017-05-01

    system is proposed based on NaS battery and lithium ion battery, that the former is the main large scale energy storage technology world-widely used and developed and the latter is a flexible way to have both power and energy capacities. The hybrid energy storage system, which takes advantage of the two complementary technologies to provide large power and energy capacities, is chosen to do an evaluation of econom ical-environmental based on critical excess electricity production (CEEP), CO2 emission, annual total costs calculated on the specific given condition using Energy PLAN software. The result shows that hybrid storage system has strengths in environmental benefits and also can absorb more discarded wind power than single storage system and is a potential way to push forward the application of wind power and even other types of renewable energy resources.

  5. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated...... an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%....

  6. Demersal Fish Monitoring Princess Amalia Wind Farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the results of field work in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm (in Dutch: Prinses Amaliawindpark, or PAWP). The field work meets the requirements of the Monitoring and Evaluation Programme, which is part of the Wbr-permit of the wind farm. The objective is to determine if the wind

  7. Residence time and behaviour of sole and cod in the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Aarts, G.M.; Keeken, van O.A.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Noordzeewind’ (a Nuon and Shell Wind Energy consortium) exploits a wind farm with 36 wind turbines off the coast of Egmond aan Zee: the Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ). This project serves to evaluate the economical, technical, ecological and social effects of offshore wind farms in

  8. Modelling of Wind Turbine Loads nearby a Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscher, B.; Werkmeister, A.; Jacobs, G.; Schelenz, R.

    2017-05-01

    Each wind turbine experiences a variety of loads during its lifetime, especially inside a wind farm due to the wake effect between the turbines. This paper describes a possibility to observe a load spectrum while considering wake effects in a wind farm by through the turbulence intensity. The turbulence intensity is distributed along the wind rose of Alpha Ventus. For each turbulence intensity, a Weibull characteristic is calculated. The resulting wind fields are used to determine the loads through a multibody simulation of an imaginary wind turbine located at FINO-1, representing a closely placed wind turbine at the outer edge of a wind farm. These loads are analyzed and summed up. As expected, the change of the turbulence intensity due to the wake effect has an impact on the internal loading of a wind turbine inside a wind farm. Based on the assumed loading conditions, the maximum loads increased by a factor of almost 2.5.

  9. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned and built. From a fluid mechanics perspective, wind farms encompass turbulent flow phenomena occurring at many spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest to understanding mean power extraction and fluctuations in wind farms are the scales ranging from 1 to 10 m that comprise the wakes behind individual wind turbines, to motions reaching 100 m to kilometers in scale, inherently associated with the atmospheric boundary layer. In this review, we summarize current understanding of these flow phenomena (particularly mean and second-order statistics) through field studies, wind tunnel experiments, large-eddy simulations, and analytical modeling, emphasizing the most relevant features for wind farm design and operation.

  10. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a...

  11. Optimal Turbine Allocation for Offshore and Onshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Fischetti, Matteo; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    . In particular, lots of money and energy are spent on the optimal design of wind farms, as an efficient use of the available resources is instrumental for their economical success. In the present paper we address the optimization of turbine positions, which is one of the most relevant problems in the design...... of a wind farm, and propose a heuristic approach based on Mixed-Integer Linear Programming techniques. Computational results on very large scale instances prove the practical viability of the approach....

  12. INL Wind Farm Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Siefert

    2009-07-01

    The INL Wind Farm project proposes to install a 20 MW to 40 MW wind farm on government property, consisting of approximately ten to twenty full-sized (80-meter hub height) towers with 2 MW turbines, and access roads. This includes identifying the optimal turbine locations, building access roads, and pouring the tower foundations in preparation for turbine installation. The project successfully identified a location on INL lands with commercially viable wind resources (i.e., greater than 11 mph sustained winds) for a 20 to 40 MW wind farm. Additionally, the proposed Wind Farm was evaluated against other General Plant Projects, General Purpose Capital Equipment projects, and Line Item Construction Projects at the INL to show the relative importance of the proposed Wind Farm project.

  13. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

    The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

  14. Harmonic Aspects of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the aim, the work and the findings of a PhD project entitled "Harmonics in Large Offshore Wind Farms". It focuses on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain a better performance of future wind farms. The topic is investigated by the PhD project at Aalborg...... University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of the project is to improve and understand the nature of harmonic emission and propagation in wind farms (WFs), based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of the project is to obtain validated models and analysis methods...... of offshore wind farm (OWF) systems....

  15. Offshore wind farms energy injection in the electrical grid - Lithium battery to mitigate power fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    IKNI, DJAMEL; Camara, Mamadou Baïlo; Dakyo, Brayima

    2016-01-01

    The wind farm energy injection in the electrical grid generates the economic and technical challenges which must to be solved for successful large scale wind energy integration in electrical grids. Due to wind speed variations, the wind farm output power presents the fluctuating components which are not compatible to the electrical grid requirements. Today, this problem is a major challenge with the wind farm projects increasing in the world. Large power variations cause the deviations of rms...

  16. Empirical investigation of wind farm blockage effects in Horn Rev 1 offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitraszewski, Karol; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Nygaard, Nicolai

    We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds...... and stability conditions. This forms a basis for understanding of the blockage effects and their influence on wind farm production....

  17. Optimal siting and sizing of wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinay-Iyicil, H.; Kuipers, F.A.; Guven, A. Nezih

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel technique to determine the optimal placement of wind farms, thereby taking into account wind characteristics and electrical grid constraints. We model the long-term variability of wind speed using a Weibull distribution according to wind direction intervals, and

  18. Flow Structure and Turbulence in Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Meneveau, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Similar to other renewable energy sources, wind energy is characterized by a low power density. Hence, for wind energy to make considerable contributions to the world's overall energy supply, large wind farms (on- and offshore) consisting of arrays of ever larger wind turbines are being envisioned

  19. Flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms approaching the infinite wind farm regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Due to the increasing number and the growing size of wind farms, the distance among them continues to decrease. Thus, it is necessary to understand how these large finite-size wind farms and their wakes could interfere the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and adjacent wind farms. Fully-developed flow inside wind farms has been extensively studied through numerical simulations of infinite wind farms. The transportation of momentum and energy is only vertical and the advection of them is neglected in these infinite wind farms. However, less attention has been paid to examine the length of wind farms required to reach such asymptotic regime and the ABL dynamics in the leading and trailing edges of the large finite-size wind farms. Large eddy simulations are performed in this study to investigate the flow adjustment inside large finite-size wind farms in conventionally-neutral boundary layer with the effect of Coriolis force and free-atmosphere stratification from 1 to 5 K/km. For the large finite-size wind farms considered in the present work, when the potential temperature lapse rate is 5 K/km, the wind farms exceed the height of the ABL by two orders of magnitude for the incoming flow inside the farms to approach the fully-developed regime. An entrance fetch of approximately 40 times of the ABL height is also required for such flow adjustment. At the fully-developed flow regime of the large finite-size wind farms, the flow characteristics match those of infinite wind farms even though they have different adjustment length scales. The role of advection at the entrance and exit regions of the large finite-size wind farms is also examined. The interaction between the internal boundary layer developed above the large finite-size wind farms and the ABL under different potential temperature lapse rates are compared. It is shown that the potential temperature lapse rate plays a role in whether the flow inside the large finite-size wind farms adjusts to the fully

  20. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...

  1. Small Signal Modeling of Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    In large power electronic systems like a wind farm, the mutual interactions between the control systems of the power converters can lead to various stability and power quality problems. In order to predict the system dynamic behavior, this paper presents an approach to model a wind farm as a Multi...

  2. Harmonics in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    to this fact, the research project owes its uniqueness and contributes new insight to the academia. It is proven that an analysis of such systems as large offshore wind farms considers many aspects related to extended and accurate models, complex measurement campaigns and of course appropriate and more...... resonances within the low frequency range. This can significantly affect overall system stability. Therefore, the analysis and design optimization of large offshore wind farms are more complex than smaller onshore wind farms. Nowadays, wind turbines are complex devices equipped with the newest technologies......The number of wind turbines with full converters in the MW range used in large offshore wind farms is rapidly increasing. They are connected through a widespread MV cable network with practicably no consumption and connected to the transmission system by long HV cables. This represents new...

  3. Repowering of wind farms - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivedh, B.S. [Quality Engineering and Software Technologies, Bangalore (India); Devi, R.P.K. [College of Engineering. Power Systems Engineering, Guindy (India); Sreevalsan, E. [Gamesa Wind Turbines India Private Limited, Chennai (India)

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of the study is to devise a method for assessing the repowering potential and to improve the energy output from the wind farms and also to understand the impact on the power quality due to repowering. With repowering, the first-generation wind turbines can be replaced with modern multi-megawatt wind turbines. To carry-out the study an old wind farm located at Kayathar, Tamilnadu is selected. The wind farm was commissioned in 1990's with a capacity of 7.35MW, which consists of 36 Wind Turbines each with the capacity of 200kW and 225kW. The present annual energy generation of the wind farm is 7350MWhr with the plant load factor of 11.41%. The intent of this study is to predict the annual energy output of the wind farm after the repowering using WAsP (Wind Atlas Analysis Application Program). Further this study analyses the power quality issues of the various Wind Turbines. In addition, the main feeder, in which the wind farm which is taken for the study also modeled and the impact on power quality due to repowering also studied. Simulations were carried out using MATLAB. The results are analyzed to understand the significance of repowering to overcome the energy crisis of the nation since the best locations for wind in India are occupied by old wind turbines. The following are the observations and conclusions from the above study. Plant load factor (PLF) increased to 24 %, Energy yield increased to more than 4 times and the capacity of the wind farm became double. And in the view of power quality, comparing to the existing Feeder, Repowered Feeder having less reactive power consumption, voltage variations and flickers except the harmonic distortion. (Author)

  4. Offshore wind farm Bockstigen - installation and operation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Aagaard, E.; Andersen, P.E.; Moeller, A. [Wind World af 1997 A/S, Noerresundby (Denmark); Niklasson, S.; Wickman, A. [Vindkompaniet, Degerhamn (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The first Swedish offshore wind farm Bockstigen is operating since March 1998 near the coast of Gotland. It was built as a demonstration project by the Swedish wind farm developer Vindkompaniet, the Danish wind turbine manufacturer Wind World and the British offshore construction company Seacore and partly funded under the EU-THERMIE program. Bockstigen is the fourth offshore wind farm world-wide. While at previous wind farms the main emphasis laid on the demonstration of the technical feasibility of offshore wind energy utilisation, Bockstigen was aimed at demonstrating its economic viability. A number of innovative concepts have been employed: Drilled monopile foundations were used to save costs. A new construction method has been applied making use of a jack-up barge. A new control system for the turbines and the whole wind farm was developed, which controls the maximum power output, the flicker and the reactive power consumption depending on online measurements of the actual grid state. These new developments have been implemented successfully. A substantial cost reduction compared to previous offshore projects could be achieved. (au)

  5. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination R-2. Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind......Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint...... distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data...

  6. Wind farm models and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulationmodels are described, including wind turbine...... models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described.The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC...

  7. The Lake Turkana wind farm project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlando, M.; Durante, F. [DEWI GmbH, Genoa (Italy); Claveri, L. [DEWI GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The Lake Turkana wind farm is one of the largest wind farm projects to be realised in the African Continent, and the first of its kind in Kenya. After its full commissioning in 2012, the wind farm will be generating 300 MW of clean power almost steadily thanks to the very peculiar characteristics of the wind climate of north-western Kenya. Until now, only northern African countries such as Morocco and Egypt had used wind power for commercial purposes on the continent. Projects are now beginning to bloom south of the Sahara as governments realise that harnessing the vast wind potential can efficiently meet the growing demand of electric power. With the Lake Turkana wind farm project and other minor projects, Kenya is trying to lead the way. The project consists of building 365 wind turbines Vestas V52 of hub height 45 m and nominal power 850 kW, corresponding to about 30% of Kenya's current installed power. The project includes also reinforcing 200 km of roads and bridges to transport the wind turbines from the Indian Ocean port of Mombasa to the northwestern Kenya, and adding more than 400 km of transmission lines and several substations to connect the wind farm and supply power to the national electric grid. (orig.)

  8. Design tool for offshore wind farm clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Giebel, Gregor; Waldl, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Clusters (DTOC) is a software tool to facilitate the optimised design of both, individual and clusters of offshore wind farms. DTOC is developed with the support of an EC funded FP7 project with contributions from science partners from the European Energy...... Research Alliance (EERA) and a number of industrial partners. The approach has been to develop a robust, efficient, easy to use and flexible tool, which integrates software relevant for planning offshore wind farms and wind farm clusters and supports the user with a clear optimization work flow...... is developed within the project using open interface standards and is now available as the commercial software product Wind&Economy....

  9. Exploring the offshore wind farm far field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platis, Andreas; Emeis, Stefan; Siedersleben, Simon; Neumann, Tom; Canadillas, Beatriz; Lampert, Astrid; Djath, Nathacha; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Bärfuss, Konrad; Bange, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Offshore wind farms contribute a considerable part of today's production of renewable electric energy. In the last years a massive built-up in offshore wind energy farms has occurred with a concentration of the wind farms in group and cluster. This arrangement affects one another through increased wake losses. The German Government is presently funding a research project called WIPAFF (WInd PArk Far Field) which is dedicated to the the analysis of properties and impacts of offshore wind park far fields and wake losses. The focus is on the analysis of wind farm wakes, their interaction among each other and their regional climate impact. This is done by in-situ, extensive aircraft and satellite measurements and by operating meso-scale wind field models and an analytical wind farm model. We will present this project and show preliminary results of the the first in situ evidence by airborne measurements of these wakes behind off shore windfarms with a wind deficit zones and enhanced turbulence.

  10. Evaluation of the wind direction uncertainty and its impact on wake modeling at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaumond, M.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Ott, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying wind turbine wakes is a key aspect of wind farm economics in large wind farms. This paper introduces a new simulation post-processing method to address the wind direction uncertainty present in the measurements of the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. This new technique replaces...... the traditional simulations performed with the 10 min average wind direction by a weighted average of several simulations covering a wide span of directions. The weights are based on a normal distribution to account for the uncertainty from the yaw misalignment of the reference turbine, the spatial variability...... of the wind direction inside the wind farm and the variability of the wind direction within the averaging period. The results show that the technique corrects the predictions of the models when the simulations and data are averaged over narrow wind direction sectors. In addition, the agreement of the shape...

  11. Dynamic Resonance Sensitivity Analysis in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    Unlike conventional power systems, where resonance frequencies are mainly determined by passive impedances, wind farms present a more complex situation, where the control systems of the power electronic converters introduce also active impedances. This paper presents an approach to find...... the resonance frequencies of wind farms by considering both active and passive impedances and to identify which bus of the wind farm has more contribution to resonance frequencies. In the approach, a wind farm is introduced as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system and the bus Participation Factors...... (PFs) are calculated by critical eigenvalue sensitivity analysis versus the entries of the MIMO matrix. The PF analysis locates the most exciting bus of the resonances, where can be the best location to install the passive or active filters to reduce the harmonic resonance problems. Time...

  12. Video-OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains digital video files from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site...

  13. Small Signal Modeling of Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    In large power electronic systems like a wind farm, the mutual interactions between the control systems of the power converters can lead to various stability and power quality problems. In order to predict the system dynamic behavior, this paper presents an approach to model a wind farm as a Multi......-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system, where the current control loops with Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs) are linearized around an operating point. Each sub-module of the wind farm is modeled as a 2×2 admittance matrix in dq-domain and all are combined together by using a dq nodal admittance matrix....... The frequency and damping of the oscillatory modes are calculated by finding the poles of the introduced MIMO matrix. Time-domain simulation results obtained from a 400-MW wind farm are used to verify the effectiveness of the presented model....

  14. Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzenmüller, V; Diekmann, R; Bastardie, F; Schulze, T; Berkenhagen, J; Kloppmann, M; Krause, G; Pogoda, B; Buck, B H; Kraus, G

    2016-12-01

    Worldwide the renewable energy sector is expanding at sea to address increasing demands. Recently the race for space in heavily used areas such as the North Sea triggered the proposal of co-locating other activities such as aquaculture or fisheries with passive gears in offshore wind farms (OWFs). Our interdisciplinary approach combined a quantification of spatial overlap of activities by using Vessel Monitoring System and logbook data with a stakeholder consultation to conclude and verify on the actual feasibility of co-location. In the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea up to 90% of Danish and 40% of German annual gillnet fleet landings of plaice overlapped with areas where OWFs are developed. Our results indicated further that the international gillnet fishery could lose up to 50% in landings within the North Sea German EEZ when OWF areas are closed entirely for fisheries. No spatial overlap was found for UK potters targeting brown crab in the German EEZ. We further identified a number of key issues and obstacles that to date hinder an actual implementation of co-location as a measure in the marine spatial planning process: defining the legal base; implementation of safety regulations; delineation of minimum requirements for fishing vessels such as capacities, quotas, technical equipment; implementation of a licensing process; and scoping for financial subsidies to set up business. The stakeholder consultation verified the scientific findings and highlighted that all those points need to be addressed in a planning process. In the German EEZ we have shown that the socio-economic importance of spatial overlap varies within planning boundaries. Therefore we recommend an interdisciplinary bottom-up approach when scoping for suitable areas of co-location. Hence, an informed marine spatial planning process requires comprehensive and spatial explicit socio-economic viability studies factoring in also ecological effects of OWFs on target species

  15. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...... wind farm which is able to enhance a capability of delivering a power instead of controlling an uncontrollable output of wind power. Therefore, this paper introduces a method to evaluate the reliability depending upon structures of wind farm and to reflect the result to the planning stage of wind farm....

  16. Offshore wind farms in the local community - a survey at Nysted offshore wind farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraedet - en undersoegelse ved Nysted havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.

    2005-07-15

    This report is part of a socio-economic project about offshore wind farms' influence on the local community. The project is part of the monitoring programme in connection with the establishment of the offshore wind farms at Horns Rev and Nysted. The socio-economic project consists of a sociological and an environment-economic project. This report is part of the sociological project which has the purpose of identifying attitudes towards the wind farm before and after the erection with a view to identify possible changes in opinions and reasons for these changes. (BA)

  17. Offshore wind farms in the local community - a survey at Horns Rev wind farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraedet - en undersoegelse ved Horns Rev havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.

    2005-07-15

    This report is part of a socio-economic project about offshore wind farms' influence on the local community. The project is part of the monitoring programme in connection with the establishment of the offshore wind farms at Horns Rev and Nysted. The socio-economic project consists of a sociological and an environment-economic project. This report is part of the sociological project which has the purpose of identifying attitudes towards the wind farm before and after the erection with a view to identify possible changes in opinions and reasons for these changes. (BA)

  18. Wind Farms Community Engagement Good Practice Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aitken, Mhairi; Haggett, Claire; Rudolph, David Philipp

    2014-01-01

    This report sets out the findings of a review of community engagement for wind farm developments. We focus in particular on the engagement carried out by developers with communities. The aims of the study were to evaluate current good practice for engaging people in decision making about on......- and offshore wind farms in different European countries; to evaluate the effect that different practices have on public opinion and acceptance; and to make relevant recommendations for Scottish policy and planning....

  19. Power Quality Improvements of Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbrink, Kent H.; Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1998-01-01

    The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark......The book was written at the conclusion of an EU-project to install and monitor the performance of an 8 MVar Advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) at the Rejsby Hede wind farm in Jutland, Denmark...

  20. Blyth Harbour wind farm - operational aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report is the last in a series of seven on various aspects of the monitoring and evaluation of the Blyth Northumberland off-shore wind farm project. The wind farm was the first to be built in the UK: it consists of two 2MW wind turbines about 1 km from the coast in water of depth 5-6 m. The subject of this report is the actual performance of the wind turbine relative to predicted performance. The study showed up the problems of operating a wind farm at sea and the need for comprehensive testing before installation. The problems encountered were numerous but in no case major. A lightning strike destroyed a turbine blade (for which no replacement was readily available) and there was a cable fault caused by installation deficiencies. Better planning could have avoided lengthy shutdowns. The report covers the availability of the turbines and performance of ancillary equipment.

  1. Understanding the performance of operational wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, M. [Garrad Hassan Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    A wind farm power curve technique was presented. Wind farm power curves can be obtained by applying the wind speed distribution over the operational period to establish expected energy during specific wind conditions as well as over a period of several years to establish long-term expected energy performance. There is no need for topographic or wake modelling or assumptions regarding turbine power performance. Wake-free reference wind speed and direction and data from a 1 year period are required to create a wind farm power curve. Periods of poor power performance and low availability need to be filtered. In addition, it is necessary to check wind speed at a reference mast. Sufficient meteorological data is needed to create a curve for each 30 degree sector. Benefits of the technique included high accuracy and extensive wind speed monitoring. Limitations to the creation of a curve included insufficient SCADA data coverage and lack of wake free reference wind speeds. Issues concerning performance improvements, diagnosis, valuation and re-evaluation were discussed. It was noted that removing the influence of lower power performance and identifying amounts of energy lost was necessary with the technique. Examples of changes in poor power performance included pitch control malfunction, blade damage, control program difficulties, blade angle resetting, and constrained operation. An application of the wind farm power curve technique was used to estimate wind energy over various operational periods. It was concluded that data management is needed to understand the performance of operational wind farms in order to evaluate the energy benefits of making improvements. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Energy Dynamics of an Infinitely Large Offshore Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, R.J.; Pryor, S.C.

    the reference scenario expects 35 GW of offshore wind capacity in 2020 and 120 GW in 2030. This is not unrealistic given targets for individual member countries e.g. the UK expects to install 33 GW by 2020 and Germany plans 25 GW by 2030. Given the economics of offshore wind energy the majority of development......, particularly in the near-term, can be expected in the higher resource, moderate water depths of the North Sea rather than the Mediterranean. There should therefore be significant interest in understanding the energy dynamics of the infinitely large wind farm – how wakes behave and whether the extraction...... of energy by wind turbines over a large area has a significant and lasting impact on the atmospheric boundary layer. Here we focus on developing understanding of the infinite wind farm through a combination of theoretical considerations, data analysis and modeling. Initial evaluation of power losses due...

  3. OWFgraph : A graph database for the offshore wind farm domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaeghebeur, E.R.G.; Sanchez Perez Moreno, S.; Zaayer, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    The construction and management of an offshore wind farm involves many disciplines, e.g. meteorology and economics. It is hard for a single researcher to keep an overview of all the relevant concepts, models, and tools from these disciplines. Nevertheless, this is needed when performing integrated

  4. Sociological investigation of the reception of Nysted Offshore wind farm. Annual report 2004[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    This annual report presents the work related to the sociological part of a socio-economic project that examines the effects on the local communities of the two demonstration off-shore wind farms: Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm, west of Blaavands Huk in Jutland, and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, south of Lolland. The socio-economic project is part of the monitoring programme in connection with the construction of the offshore wind farms. Unlike projects, which examine the impact of the wind farms on nature, the socio-economic project did not start until 2003. The other part of the socio-economic project is an environmental-economic study that among other things examines the preferences of the population in relation to location of the wind farm and the willingness to pay for increasing the distance between the wind farms and the coast. This sociological study is qualitative. The study is divided into three phases, as the aim is to investigate the public community's attitude towards the erection of an offshore wind farm before and after the construction of the wind farm. This aim is based on the assumption that attitudes may change once the wind farm is erected and the population has experienced the visibility of the wind farm, etc. The division into phases is as follows: 1) Phase 1 treats the conditions as they were before the erection of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. 2) Phase 2 is a study of the development in attitudes towards Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm a year after erection. 3) Phase 3 comprises a follow-up study of the local area at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The Horns Rev study was conclusive and was carried out September-November 2003. The study at Nysted on the other hand implies two parts. The first was carried out April-August 2003 and identified attitudes before the wind farm was completed. A follow-up study in August-December 2004 served the purpose of revealing the extent of attitude changes regarding the wind farm and the development of these changes of

  5. Power Transmission from Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1999-01-01

    The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution for transm......The major part of the coming wind farms in Denmark will be placed offshore. If the location is near a grid with a high short circuit level the power can be transmitted as AC.If the wind farm is far away from the grid and the grid perhaps has a low short circuit level, the best solution...... for transmitting the power can be by DC. At the moment it is possible to build self-commutating DC/AC-inverters up to about 150 kV. This paper will show a concept to a solution for a wind farm and a transmission system based on synchronous generators or a powerformer® with a rated voltage of 50 kV. The AC power...... will be rectified and boosted to a fixed DC voltage (e.g. 100 kV). The speed of the generator will be variable, depending of the wind but also controlled with the duty-cycle of the booster. In that way all wind turbines can be connected to the same DC bus and the cable to the inverter station connected to the AC...

  6. Site selection for offshore wind farms along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Vidya, P.J.; Modi, P.; JayaKumar, S.

    This study deals with locating the potential sites for offshore wind farms and also deals with feasibility of installing offshore wind farms through scientific examination of the requirements along the coast of India Offshore wind energy is almost...

  7. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power...

  8. The wind speed profile at offshore wind farm sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B.; Larsen, S. E.; Højstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.

    2003-04-01

    The first large offshore wind farms are in the planning phase in several countries in Europe. Their economic viability depends on the favourable wind conditions compared to sites on land. The higher energy yield has to compensate the additional installation and maintenance cost. For project planning and siting a reliable prediction of the wind resource is therefore crucial. For turbine design the wind shear of the marine surface layer is an important design parameter, especially since the growing rotor diameter makes turbines more vulnerable for spatial wind speed variations. Compared to land surfaces the roughness of water is very low. It is commonly described either as a constant (as in the wind resource estimation program WAsP) or by means of the Charnock approach, relating sea surface roughness and friction velocity. While this relation works well for the open oceans it has been found inappropriate for coastal areas where waves are not fully developed. Information about the wave field is needed to model the sea surface roughness more accurately (see e.g. Johnson et al. (1998)). The atmospheric stability differs greatly between land and water areas. It is more important offshore compared to land sites due to the low surface roughness of water. The main influence of the atmospheric stability is on the vertical momentum transport, which is reflected in the vertical wind speed profile. It is usually described with Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. However, other effects not described by this approach might also play an important role: For offshore flow the flow regime at coastal sites is affected by the land-sea discontinuity (Højstrup, 1999). An internal boundary layer develops at the coastline and an inhomogeneous flow field might develop in the coastal zone, especially in stable stratification (see e.g. (Smedman et al. (1997)) Recent data from the measurement at Rødsand, 10 km off the Danish coast in the Baltic Sea, include simultaneous wind and wave data from

  9. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...... local models. The results of this report are especially useful, but not limited, to design a decentralized wind farm controller, since in centralized controller design one can also use the model and update it in a central computing node....... a set of spatially distributed measurements from wind turbines. The information has to be communicated only within neighboring wind turbines. This will both reduce the calculation load by distributing them on all turbines and make the infrastructure more robust against faults and uncertainties. Moreover...

  10. Energy costs form European wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milborrow, D. [Windpower Monthly, Knebel (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Energy generation costs from European wind farms span a very wide range. Reasons for these variations, include differences in capital and operating costs, wind speeds and differing legislative and regulatory frameworks. This article compares costs, wind speeds and discount rates for British and German windfarms and sets these alongside data from elsewhere in the European Union. In this way it is possible to determine the reasons for differences in energy generation costs. (author)

  11. Review of whole-farm economic modelling for irrigation farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this paper is to review the progress that has been made in South Africa with respect to whole-farm economic modelling over the past 2 decades. Farming systems are complex and careful consideration to the stochastic dynamic nature of irrigation farming processes and their linkages with the larger ...

  12. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  13. Dependence of optimal wind turbine spacing on wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria

    2016-01-01

    Recent large eddy simulations have led to improved parameterizations of the effective roughness height of wind farms. This effective roughness height can be used to predict the wind velocity at hub-height as function of the geometric mean of the spanwise and streamwise turbine spacings and the

  14. Numerical investigation of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Suganthi

    A numerical method based on the solution of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations and actuator disk representation of turbine rotor is developed and implemented in the OpenFOAM software suite for aerodynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). The method and the implementation are validated against the 1-D momentum theory, the blade element momentum theory and against experimental data. The model is used for analyzing aerodynamics of a novel dual rotor wind turbine concept and wind farms. Horizontal axis wind turbines suffer from aerodynamic inefficiencies in the blade root region (near the hub) due to several non-aerodynamic constraints (e.g., manufacturing, transportation, cost, etc.). A new dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) concept is proposed that aims at mitigating these losses. A DRWT is designed using an existing turbine rotor for the main rotor (Risoe turbine and NREL 5 MW turbine), while the secondary rotor is designed using a high lift to drag ratio airfoil (the DU 96 airfoil from TU Delft). The numerical aerodynamic analysis method developed as a part of this thesis is used to optimize the design. The new DRWT design gives an improvement of about 7% in aerodynamic efficiency over the single rotor turbine. Wind turbines are typically deployed in clusters called wind farms. HAWTs also suffer from aerodynamic losses in a wind farm due to interactions with wind turbine wakes. An interesting mesoscale meteorological phenomenon called "surface flow convergence" believed to be caused by wind turbine arrays is investigated using the numerical method developed here. This phenomenon is believed to be caused by the pressure gradient set up by wind turbines operating in close proximity in a farm. A conceptual/hypothetical wind farm simulation validates the hypothesis that a pressure gradient is setup in wind farms due to turbines and that it can cause flow veering of the order of 10 degrees. Simulations of a real wind farm (Story County) are also

  15. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Feng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data at Horns Rev and three different joint distributions are obtained, which all fit the measurement data quite well in terms of the coefficient of determination . Then, the best of these joint distributions is used in the layout optimization of the Horns Rev 1 wind farm and the choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is also investigated. It is found that the choice of bin size for wind direction is especially critical for layout optimization and the recommended choice of bin sizes for wind speed and wind direction is finally presented.

  16. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  17. Uncertainty quantification in wind farm flow models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murcia Leon, Juan Pablo

    uncertainties through a model chain are presented and applied to several wind energy related problems such as: annual energy production estimation, wind turbine power curve estimation, wake model calibration and validation, and estimation of lifetime equivalent fatigue loads on a wind turbine. Statistical...... the uncertainty in the lifetime performance of a wind turbine under realistic inflow conditions. Operational measurements of several large offshore wind farms are used to perform model calibration and validation of several stationary wake models. These results provide a guideline to identify the regions in which......This thesis formulates a framework to perform uncertainty quantification within wind energy. This framework has been applied to some of the most common models used to estimate the annual energy production in the planning stages of a wind energy project. Efficient methods to propagate input...

  18. Fish benefits from offshore wind farm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Simon B.; Stenberg, Claus; Støttrup, Josianne

    2013-01-01

    moderately attractive to fish. Also investigations into the effects on fish and fish behaviour from electromagnetic fields were made at Nysted. Data documented some effects from the cable route on fish behaviour, with some species avoiding the cable, while other species were attracted. However, only flounder......The studies up until 2006 showed few effects on the fish fauna that could be attributed to the establishment and operation of the wind farms. Fish abundance and diversity were not higher inside the wind farms than in the areas outside the wind farms. One obvious reason for this could...... be that the studies and investigations were made during the early stages of colonisation of the turbine foundations at Horns Rev that constitute artificial reefs. At Nysted, the effect was weak, presumably because the benthic community consisted of a monoculture of large common mussels (Mytilus edulis) that are only...

  19. Visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex; Tranberg, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the off-shore wind power plays a significant role in the energy policies of many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms create visual disamenities. These disamenities can be reduced by locating wind farms at larger distances from the coast – and accepting higher costs per k......Wh produced. Base on the choices among alternative wind farm outlays, the preferences for reducing visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms were elicited using the Choice Experiment Method. The results show a clear picture; the respondents in three independent samples are willing to pay for mowing future...... off-shore wind farms away from the shore to reduce the wind farms visibility. However, the results also denote that the preferences vary with regards to the experiences with visual disamenities of off-shore wind farms. The respondents Horns Revs sample, where the off-shore wind farm is located...

  20. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  1. Wind Farm Turbine Type and Placement Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Peter; Dykes, Katherine; Scott, George; Fields, Jason; Lunacek, Monte; Quick, Julian; Rethore, Pierre-Elouan

    2016-09-01

    The layout of turbines in a wind farm is already a challenging nonlinear, nonconvex, nonlinearly constrained continuous global optimization problem. Here we begin to address the next generation of wind farm optimization problems by adding the complexity that there is more than one turbine type to choose from. The optimization becomes a nonlinear constrained mixed integer problem, which is a very difficult class of problems to solve. This document briefly summarizes the algorithm and code we have developed, the code validation steps we have performed, and the initial results for multi-turbine type and placement optimization (TTP_OPT) we have run.

  2. Wind farm performance - Power Analysis of a wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Esquinas Herrera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Wind conditions from a wind farm situated in Ørland were analyzed based on a ten minute measurements in order to obtain the power and efficiency curves. The results from the analysis were compared with different curves provided from the company Vestas and with theoretical terms. Moreover, it was shown how is affected the power curve of the wind turbine by the wake effect of the other turbines. The different ways of plotting these curves based on wind speed either from the anemometer of the wi...

  3. Wake dynamics in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mare, Martin Tobias

    Wind turbines within offshore wind farms spend considerable time operating in the wake of neighboring wind turbines. An important contribution to the loads on a wake-affected wind turbine is the slow movement of the wake from the upstream wind turbine across the rotor of the wake-affected wind...... to be uniquely determined by the friction velocity, the shear and the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy, all of them physical properties of the flow. If local equilibrium between the turbulent kinetic energy produced by shear and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipated as heat is assumed, then, for neutral...... components of the cross-spectra at known shear, is proposed. Future work could also include investigating if a Rapid Distortion formulation that also includes a term for buoyancy effects is needed in order to make accurate predictions for non-neutral atmospheric stratification....

  4. Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul; Iov, Florin

    This paper describes the design of a centralised wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of active stall wind turbines with AC grid connection. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to provide the best grid support. The designed wind farm control involves...... both the control on wind turbine level as well as the central control on the wind farm level. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to regulate the power production to the reference power ordered by the operators is assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  5. Wind Farm Structures’ Impact on Harmonic Emission and Grid Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    The impact of a wind farm’s internal structures on harmonic emission at the point of common coupling and on the whole system frequency characteristic is investigated in this paper. The largest wind farms in the world, Horns Rev 2 Offshore Wind Farm and Polish Karnice Onshore Wind Farm......, are thoroughly analyzed. Different wind farm configurations are taken into consideration in order to entirely describe phenomena associated with harmonics. Some aspects of wind farm modelling for harmonic studies are also presented in this paper. The simulation results are compared with measurement data in order...

  6. Power fluctuations from large wind farms - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Pinson, P.; Cutululis, N.A.; Madsen, Henrik; Jensen, Leo Enrico; Hjerrild, J.; Heyman Donovan, M.; Vigueras-ROdriguez, A.

    2009-08-15

    Experience from power system operation with the first large offshore wind farm in Denmark: Horns Rev shows that the power from the wind farm is fluctuating significantly at certain times, and that this fluctuation is seen directly on the power exchange between Denmark and Germany. This report describes different models for simulation and prediction of wind power fluctuations from large wind farms, and data acquired at the two large offshore wind farms in Denmark are applied to validate the models. Finally, the simulation model is further developed to enable simulations of power fluctuations from several wind farms simultaneously in a larger geographical area, corresponding to a power system control area. (au)

  7. Wind energy assessment and wind farm simulation in Triunfo - Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Laerte; Filho, Celso

    2010-09-15

    The Triunfo wind's characterization, in Pernambuco state, situated in Brazilian northeast, and wind power potential assessment study shows a average wind speed of 11.27 m / s, predominant Southeast wind direction, average wind power density of 1672 W/m2 and Weibull parameters shape and scale equal to 2,0 and 12,7 m/s. The wind farm was simulated by using 850kW wind turbines (total of 20MW). The simulated shows AEP of 111,4 GWh, Cf of 62% and 5462 hours of operation by year. The economical simulated results, shows Pay-back of 3 years, TIR = 47% and VAN = 85.506kEuro booths @ 20 years time period.

  8. Visual impact assessment of offshore wind farms and prior experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladenburg, Jacob [Danish Institute of Governmental Research, Nyropsgade 37, 1602 Copenhagen V (Denmark)

    2009-03-15

    Energy planners have shifted their attention towards offshore wind power generation and the decision is supported by the public in general, which in the literature has a positive attitude towards offshore wind generation. However, globally only a few offshore wind farms are operating. As more wind farms start operating and more people become experienced with especially the visual impacts from offshore wind farms, the public positive attitude could change if the experienced impacts are different from the initially perceived visual interference. Using a binary logit model, the present paper investigates the relation between different levels of prior experience with visual disamenities from offshore wind farms and perception of visual impacts from offshore wind farms. The differences in prior experience are systematically controlled for sampling respondents living in the areas close to the large scale offshore wind farms Nysted and Horns Rev and by sampling the a group of respondents representing the Danish population, which has little experience with offshore wind farms. Compared to previous results in the literature, the present paper finds that perception of wind power generation is influenced by prior experience. More specifically, the results show that people with experience from offshore wind farms located far from the coast have a significant more positive perception of the visual impacts from offshore wind farms than people with experience from wind farms located closer to the coast. These results are noteworthy on two levels. First of all, the results show that perceptions of offshore wind generation are systematically significantly influenced by prior experience with offshore wind farms. Secondly, and in a policy context, the results indicate that the future acceptance of future offshore wind farms is not independent of the location of existing and new offshore wind farms. This poses for caution in relation to locating offshore wind farms too close to the

  9. Wind farm progress in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%.......The paper presents a status of wind power in Denmark and on the technical and industrial achievements. The present total installed capacity is be the end of 1995 approx. 630 MW, and the contribution to the electric energy generation in Denmark is approx. 4%....

  10. Anholt offshore wind farm winds investigated from satellite images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Volker, Patrick

    at this particular moment and the backscatter from the wind turbines is much higher than that from the sea. Therefore the wind turbines are contrasted clearly as yellow/orange dots at the Anholt wind farm. Along the Swedish coast several ships (red dots) are visible. The SAR-based wind speeds can be trusted...... at around 1 km distance from any coastline except in grid cells with wind turbines, ships and other hard targets. The grid resolution is 1 km by 1 km. The wind direction is from the south west. The satellite SAR analysis is based on ~1.000 SAR images from Envisat ASAR recorded from August 2002 to April 2012......, i.e. before the wind farm was constructed. Based on these data the wind resource is estimated. Concurrent Sentinel-1 SAR data and available SCADA and lidar data, kindly provided by DONG Energy and partners, for the period January 2013 to June 2015 account for ~70 images, while ~300 images...

  11. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic char...

  12. Modelling and transient stability of large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav; Knudsen, Hans; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2003-01-01

    The paper is dealing-with modelling and short-term Voltage stability considerations of large wind farms. A physical model of a large offshore wind farm consisting of a large number of windmills is implemented in the dynamic simulation tool PSS/E. Each windmill in the wind farm is represented by a...

  13. Offshore Wind Farm Clusters - Towards new integrated Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Peña, Alfredo

    In EERA DTOC testing of existing wind farm wake models against four validation data test sets from large offshore wind farms is carried out. This includes Horns Rev-1 in the North Sea, Lillgrund in the Baltic Sea, Roedsand-2 in the Baltic Sea and from 10 large offshore wind farms in Northern...

  14. Cable route optimization for offshore wind farms in morphodynamic areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roetert, T.J.; Raaijmakers, T.; Borsje, Bastiaan Wijnand

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to optimize power cable routing in a wind farm based on the expected morphological behaviour in the design lifetime of an offshore wind farm. Up to now methods to optimize cable route layout in offshore wind farms are only based on a flat seabed and do not take the seabed

  15. Willingness to pay for reduced visual disamenities from off-shore wind farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Dubgaard, Alex

    and 50 km from the coast opposed to 8 km. The results also reveal that the WTP deviate strongly with regards to the age of the respondent and the experiences with off-shore wind farms. These properties of the WTP are believed to have significant policy related consequences. Keywords: Visual Disamenities......Expansion of the off-shore wind power capacity plays a significant role in the wind power strategy in many EU countries. However, off-shore wind farms are associated with visual disamenities. The disamenities can be reduced by locating the wind farms at larger distances from the coast. But......, the costs per kWh produced increase as the distance is augmented. In this paper, peoples’ willingness to pay for a reduction in the visual disamenity of off-shore wind farms is elicited using the economic valuation method Choice Experiments. The economic valuation scenario comprises the locations of 3600 MW...

  16. Proposed Interventions For Wind Farms In Lemnos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Bozou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is a renewable energy source that is emerging in a global scale given the reduction in stocks of conventional energy sources and the growing interest in environmental protection. In addition the European Union policies are moving to the same direction. Despite all the above Greece has not efficiently developed policies and infrastructure about this valuable energy source. This paper focuses on the case of Lemnos island in the northern Aegean Sea. Although this island has gained wind farm investors interest the total number of wind farms that are located on the island is not in accordance with its full potential regarding its average annual wind speed value. amp932he projects main purpose is the development of a wind farm study in Lemnos given the constraints on social and environmental criteria set by the Greek legislation for the proper functioning of the installation and the reduction of impacts on people and environment. The projects results can be directly used to promote investments in the island. Methods such as literature review examination of case-studies mapping and geographic information systems analysis were used.

  17. Analysing wind farm efficiency on complex terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellani, Francesco; Astolfi, Davide; Terzi, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    The stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is classified in terms of the M-O length and subsequently used to determine the relationship between ABL stability and the fatigue loads of a wind turbine located inside an offshore wind farm. Recorded equivalent fatigue loads, representing...... blade-bending and tower bottom bending, are combined with the operational statistics from the instrumented wind turbine as well as with meteorological statistics defining the inflow conditions. Only a part of all possible inflow conditions are covered through the approximately 8200 hours of combined...... measurements. The fatigue polar has been determined for an (almost) complete 360° inflow sector for both load sensors, representing mean wind speeds below and above rated wind speed, respectively, with the inflow conditions classified into three different stratification regimes: unstable, neutral and stable...

  18. Lightning hazard reduction at wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kithil, R. [National Lightning Safety Institute, Louisville, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The USA wind farm industry (WFI) largely is centered in low-lightning areas of the State of California. While some evidence of lightning incidents is reported here, the problem is not regarded as serious by most participants. The USA WFI now is moving eastward, into higher areas of lightning activity. The European WFI has had many years experience with lightning problems. One 1995 German study estimated that 80% of wind turbine insurance claims paid for damage compensation were caused by lightning strikes. The European and USA WFI have not adopted site criteria, design fundamentals, or certification techniques aimed at lightning safety. Sufficient evidence about lightning at wind farms is available to confirm that serious potential problems exist.

  19. Reactive capability limits of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villacorta, A.R. [European Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Gomez, S.A.; Rodriguez Amenedo, J.L. [Carlos III Univ., Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) technology can be classified into two main types: fixed speed and variable speed. Fixed speed WECS use an induction generator connected directly to the grid while variable speed WECS use a power converter to connect the generator to the grid. Fixed speed WECS require shunt capacitors for reactive power compensation, while variable speed WECS have reactive power capability. Under the Spanish grid code, wind farms have to operate in a range of power factor values. This paper determines the reactive power capability of wind farms equipped with both fixed and variable speed WECS. The reactive power capability can be represented as a reactive capability curve. In this paper, the reactive capability curve is used to calculate the additional reactive power compensation needed to meet the requirements of the Spanish grid code. (Author)

  20. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation: Mesoscale to Microscale Wind Farm Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier [National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Sarriguren Spain; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio [National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Sarriguren Spain; Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Churchfield, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden CO USA; Kosović, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder CO USA; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Roskilde Denmark; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby Denmark; Hahmann, Andrea [Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Roskilde Denmark; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Rife, Daran [DNV GL, San Diego CA USA

    2016-08-31

    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150 m diameter and hub heights above 100 m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm design tools and meteorological models. The challenge is how to build the bridge between atmospheric and wind engineering model communities and how to establish a comprehensive evaluation process that identifies relevant physical phenomena for wind energy applications with modeling and experimental requirements. A framework for model verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification is established to guide this process by a systematic evaluation of the modeling system at increasing levels of complexity. In terms of atmospheric physics, 'building the bridge' means developing models for the so-called 'terra incognita,' a term used to designate the turbulent scales that transition from mesoscale to microscale. This range of scales within atmospheric research deals with the transition from parameterized to resolved turbulence and the improvement of surface boundary-layer parameterizations. The coupling of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research in this area.

  1. Turbine Control Strategies for Wind Farm Power Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been increasing interest in green energies, of which wind energy is the most important one. In order to improve the competitiveness of the wind power plants, there are ongoing researches to decrease cost per energy unit and increase the efficiency of wind turbines...... and wind farms. One way of achieving these goals is to optimize the power generated by a wind farm. One optimization method is to choose appropriate operating points for the individual wind turbines in the farm. We have made three models of a wind farm based on three difference control strategies....... Basically, the control strategies determine the steady state operating points of the wind turbines. Except the control strategies of the individual wind turbines, the wind farm models are similar. Each model consists of a row of 5MW reference wind turbines. In the models we are able to optimize...

  2. Calculation of depleted wind resources near wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wind resource maps include wind distribution, energy density and potential power production without wake effects. Adding wake effect to such maps is feasible by means of a new method based on Fourier transformation,and the extra computational work is comparable to that of the basic wind...... resource map. The method is mainly intended for mapping inter-farm wake effects. It will work for all linear wake models and may even be extended to complex terrain by certain simplifying assumptions. The method is implemented for the Park model and Fuga models. A test example shows that these models...

  3. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool.

  4. Optimization of Wind Farm Layout in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic site selection for wind farms in complex terrain is a technological difficulty in the development of onshore wind farms. This paper presented a method for optimizing wind farm layout in complex terrain. This method employed Lissaman and Jensen wake models, took wind velocity....... To calculate the output of each section, we used the wind speed distribution and its probability density as well as the wake loss between wind turbines for every section. The objective function is maximization of the whole wind farm's power output and the free variables are the wind turbines' coordinates which...... distribution law and wake loss between different turbines into consideration and calculated the sheltering area effect of wake loss from upstream wind turbines on downstream wind turbines. Wind direction was divided into sixteen sections, and the wind speed was processed by the Weibull distribution...

  5. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm......The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150m diameter and hub heights above 100m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer...... of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research...

  6. International wind farm markets: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackstraw, K. [American Wind Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  7. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  8. Offshore wind farm electrical cable layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, A. C.; Chick, J.; Johanning, L.; Khorasanchi, M.; de Laleu, V.

    2015-12-01

    This article explores an automated approach for the efficient placement of substations and the design of an inter-array electrical collection network for an offshore wind farm through the minimization of the cost. To accomplish this, the problem is represented as a number of sub-problems that are solved in series using a combination of heuristic algorithms. The overall problem is first solved by clustering the turbines to generate valid substation positions. From this, a navigational mesh pathfinding algorithm based on Delaunay triangulation is applied to identify valid cable paths, which are then used in a mixed-integer linear programming problem to solve for a constrained capacitated minimum spanning tree considering all realistic constraints. The final tree that is produced represents the solution to the inter-array cable problem. This method is applied to a planned wind farm to illustrate the suitability of the approach and the resulting layout that is generated.

  9. Wind farm topology-finding algorithm considering performance, costs, and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Nacef; Chatelet, Eric; Bouzidi, Youcef; Meziane, Rachid

    2017-06-05

    Optimal power in wind farms turns to be a modern problem for investors and decision makers; onshore wind farms are subject to performance and economic and environmental constraints. The aim of this work is to define the best installed capacity (best topology) with maximum performance and profits and consider environmental impacts as well. In this article, we continue the work recently done on wind farm topology-finding algorithm. The proposed resolution technique is based on finding the best topology of the system that maximizes the wind farm performance (availability) under the constraints of costs and capital investments. Global warming potential of wind farm is calculated and taken into account in the results. A case study is done using data and constraints similar to those collected from wind farm constructors, managers, and maintainers. Multi-state systems (MSS), universal generating function (UGF), wind, and load charge functions are applied. An economic study was conducted to assess the wind farm investment. Net present value (NPV) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated for best topologies found.

  10. 76 FR 35882 - Paulding Wind Farm II, LLC, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ....] Paulding Wind Farm II, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status Docket Nos. Paulding Wind Farm II LLC EG11-61-000 Macho Springs Power I, LLC EG11-63-000 Alta Wind III Owner Lessor A... III Owner Lessor D EG11-67-000 FRV AE Solar, LLC EG11-68-000 Rockland Wind Farm LLC EG11-69-000 Lively...

  11. Study on wind turbine arrangement for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the separation distance between two neighboring offshore wind turbines has been carried out by using the Actuator Line/Navier-Stokes technique developed at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Under offshore atmospheric conditions, Large Eddy Simulation has been performed...... for two Tjæreborg 2 MW wind turbines in tandem with separation distances of 4D, 5D, 6D, 7D, 8D and 10D at the design wind speed of 10 m/s. The power performance of the wake turbine showed to be about 23% of the first turbine at a separation distance of 4D while its performance reached about 50% at 7D due...... to the turbulence mixing. This study hints that the optimal separation distance between neighboring turbines for offshore wind farms should be 7 rotor diameters....

  12. Spectral coherence model for power fluctuations in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigueras-Rodriguez, A.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Viedma, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a model for the coherence between wind speeds located in a horizontal plane corresponding to hub height of wind turbines in a large wind farm. The model has been developed using wind speed and power measurements from the 72 Wind Turbines and two of the meteorological masts from...... Nysted offshore wind farm during 9 months. The coherence model developed in this paper is intended for use of power fluctuations in large offshore wind farms. In this way, analysing the current coherence models it is shown the needing of a new one, adapted to the characteristic distances and the related...

  13. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability. The same wind turbine converter control strategy...

  14. Estimation of the Possible Power of a Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    the possible power calculated based on the estimated effective wind speed of a down regulated wind farm (the industry standard) is compared against the calculated possible power based on the algorithm presented in the paper. The latter takes into account the eect of the wakes of down regulated turbines...... and the available power in the farm. The total amount of energy that a wind farm can potentially generate is called possible power. It is very important for a wind farm owner to have a relatively accurate estimate of the possible power of the wind farm in order to be able to trade the reserve power. In this paper...... and therefore gives a more accurate measure of the possible power. It is shown that for an interval of wind speeds the difference between these two can increase the uncertainty in the estimate of the possible power of the down regulated wind farm....

  15. A model to predict the power output from wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    This paper will describe a model that can predict the power output from wind farms. To give examples of input the model is applied to a wind farm in Texas. The predictions are generated from forecasts from the NGM model of NCEP. These predictions are made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying a matrix calculated by the sub-models of WASP (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program). The actual wind farm production is calculated using the Riso PARK model. Because of the preliminary nature of the results, they will not be given. However, similar results from Europe will be given.

  16. The Economics of Clove Farming in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    This report aims to inform the current debate over the taxation of kreteks in Indonesia by examining clove-farming livelihoods. It presents results from a comprehensive, household-level, economically-focused survey of 600 clove farmers across the two largest clove-growing regions, Sulawesi and Central Java. The survey examines the role that clove farming plays in these households’ economic lives, among other related topics.

  17. Using Wind Tunnels to Predict Bird Mortality in Wind Farms: The Case of Griffon Vultures

    OpenAIRE

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. Methodology/Principal Findings: As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topo...

  18. Models for simulation of transient events in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Hansen, A. D.; Bindner, H.

    2002-01-01

    with different tools with each other and with measurements. This present paper limits to describe the models including our reflections on which effects we expect to be essential for obtaining useful simulation results. The models comprise the substation, where the wind farm is connected, the power collection...... system in the wind farm, and electric, mechanical and aerodynamic models for the wind turbines....

  19. Results of Sexbierum Wind Farm: single wake measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleijne, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the JOULE-0064 'Full-scale Measurements in Wind Turbine Arrays' in the period between June-November 1992 measurements have been performed in the Sexbierum Wind Farm. The aim of the measurements is to provide data for the validation of wake and wind farm models, which are being

  20. Simulation analysis of a wind farm with different aggregated models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Wang, H.; Zhao, B.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a wind farm including wind turbines with squirrel cage induction generators (SCIGs), different aggregated models of a wind farm, such as a single weighted average model, a reduced-order re-scaled model, a parameter transformed model and a single weighted arithmetic model were presented, ...

  1. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.

    2015-01-01

    . These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting...

  2. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  3. Wind farm power production in the changing wind: Robustness quantification and layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    condition variations. Based on these metrics, wind farm layout optimization is performed to maximize the robustness of a real offshore wind farm in Denmark. The results demonstrate that the robustness metrics are more flexible and complete than the conventional metrics for characterizing wind farm power...

  4. Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eja; van den Berg, Frits; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    2009-08-01

    The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

  5. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Nygaard, Nicolai Gayle; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development...... rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm....

  6. Influence of wind gusts in power quality on wind farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guerrón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/04/30 - Accepted: 2014/09/22World energy matrix is changing due to the increase of energy consumption in the last years. Installation of unconventional renewable energy plants in many countries has become a solution to this event. Integration of this type of energy to the electric network causes interest in the study of phenomena that affects energy production. This document is a review of concepts and events occurring on energy quality and how they interact in a wind farm. The efficiency of wind turbines is affected by many factors, the most outstanding are: substations activities and weather issues such as wind gusts, which causes variations in the power curve. Constant monitoring on electric systems and data processing offers a high potential in improving the process of production and distribution of energy.

  7. Modelling of power fluctuations from large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Vigueras-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling of power fluctuations from large wind farms. The modelling is supported and validated using wind speed and power measurements from the two large offshore wind farms in Denmark. The time scale in focus is from 1 min to a couple of hours, where significant power...... fluctuations have been observed from these wind farms. Power and wind speed are measured with 1 s sampling time in all individual wind turbines in almost 1 year, which provides a substantial database for the analyses. The paper deals with diversified models representing each wind turbine individually...... and with aggregation of a wind farm to be represented by a single large wind turbine model. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Design tool for offshore wind farm cluster planning: Paper presented at EWEA 2015, Europe's Premier Wind Energy Event, 17 - 20 November 2015, Paris, France

    OpenAIRE

    HASAGER, Charlotte Bay; Madsen, Peter Hauge; Giebel, Gregor; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt S.; Badger, Jake; Pena, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick; Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna; Cutulusis, Nicolaos; Maule, Petr; Schepers, Gerard; Wiggelinkhuizen, Edwin J.; Cantero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 project EERA DTOC: Design Tool for Offshore wind farm Cluster, a new software supporting the planning of offshore wind farms was developed, based on state-of-the-art approaches from large scale wind potential to economic benchmarking. The model portfolio includes WAsP, FUGA, WRF, Net-Op, LCoE model, CorWind, FarmFlow, EeFarm and grid code compliance calculations. The development is done by members from European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and guided by several ...

  9. Smoothing of wind farm output power using prediction based flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farzana

    Being socially beneficial, economically competitive and environment friendly, wind energy is now considered to be the world's fastest growing renewable energy source. However, the stochastic nature of wind imposes a considerable challenge in the optimal management and operation of wind power system. Wind speed prediction is critical for wind energy conversion system since it greatly influences the issues related to effective energy management, dynamic control of wind turbine, and improvement of the overall efficiency of the power generation system. This thesis focuses on integration of energy storage system with wind farm, considering wind speed prediction in the control scheme to overcome the problems associated with wind power fluctuations. In this thesis, flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with adjustable speed rotary machine has been considered for smoothing of output power in a wind farm composed of a fixed speed wind turbine generator (FSWTG). Since FESS has both active and reactive power compensation ability, it enhances the stability of the system effectively. An efficient energy management system combined with supervisory control unit (SCU) for FESS and wind speed prediction has been developed to improve the smoothing of the wind farm output effectively. Wind speed prediction model is developed by artificial neural network (ANN) which has advantages over the conventional prediction scheme including data error tolerance and ease in adaptability. The model for prediction with ANN is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and interfaced with PSCAD/EMTDC. Effectiveness of the proposed control system is illustrated using real wind speed data in various operating conditions.

  10. Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya Roy, Somnath; Traiteur, Justin J

    2010-10-19

    Utility-scale large wind farms are rapidly growing in size and numbers all over the world. Data from a meteorological field campaign show that such wind farms can significantly affect near-surface air temperatures. These effects result from enhanced vertical mixing due to turbulence generated by wind turbine rotors. The impacts of wind farms on local weather can be minimized by changing rotor design or by siting wind farms in regions with high natural turbulence. Using a 25-y-long climate dataset, we identified such regions in the world. Many of these regions, such as the Midwest and Great Plains in the United States, are also rich in wind resources, making them ideal candidates for low-impact wind farms.

  11. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  12. Research on large-scale wind farm modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longfei; Zhang, Baoqun; Gong, Cheng; Jiao, Ran; Shi, Rui; Chi, Zhongjun; Ding, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Due to intermittent and adulatory properties of wind energy, when large-scale wind farm connected to the grid, it will have much impact on the power system, which is different from traditional power plants. Therefore it is necessary to establish an effective wind farm model to simulate and analyze the influence wind farms have on the grid as well as the transient characteristics of the wind turbines when the grid is at fault. However we must first establish an effective WTGs model. As the doubly-fed VSCF wind turbine has become the mainstream wind turbine model currently, this article first investigates the research progress of doubly-fed VSCF wind turbine, and then describes the detailed building process of the model. After that investigating the common wind farm modeling methods and pointing out the problems encountered. As WAMS is widely used in the power system, which makes online parameter identification of the wind farm model based on off-output characteristics of wind farm be possible, with a focus on interpretation of the new idea of identification-based modeling of large wind farms, which can be realized by two concrete methods.

  13. A Wind Farm Controller for Load and Power Optimization in a Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Brand, Arno; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design procedure of an optimal wind farm controller. The controller optimizes the structural load and power production simultaneously, on the basis of an analytical wind farm model. The farm model delivers maps of wind, loads and energy in the wind farm. Moreover, the model...... computes the wind speed at the turbines, turbine bending moments and aerodynamic power and torque. The optimal control problem is formulated based on the model for two different wind directions. The controller determines the reference signals for each individual wind turbine controller in two scenarios...... based on low and high wind speed. In low wind speed, the reference signals for rotor speed are adjusted, taking the trade-off between power maximization and load minimization into account. In high wind speed, the power and pitch angle reference signals are determined while structural loads are minimized....

  14. Design optimization of offshore wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    capacity are also included. We solve the problem with a newly developed extended random search algorithm and tested it in a realistic design optimization problem based on the Horns Rev 1 offshore wind farm in Denmark. The optimized non-uniform designs are compared with their uniform counterparts. We find......Most studies on offshore wind farm design assume a uniform wind farm, which consists of an identical type of wind turbines. In order to further reduce the cost of energy, we investigate the design of non-uniform offshore wind farms, i.e., wind farms with multiple types of wind turbines and hub......-heights. Given a set of different types of wind turbines with a different default hub height for each type, we can specify the design of a wind farm by the types of turbines, number of turbines for each type, and turbine locations. We consider the optimization of such design to minimize the levelized cost...

  15. Hub height optimization to increase energy production of wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselbehagh, A.; Archer, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the effect of hub height optimization on the annual energy production (AEP) of a wind farm. The only optimization variable was the hub height of each wind turbine and all other characteristics of the wind farm, including the base location of the wind turbines and the rotor diameter, remained unchanged. A greedy search algorithm was coupled with geometry-based models to perform the hub height optimization at a test wind farm (Lillgrund in Sweden). The optimization was carried out with 360 wind directions and wind speeds ranging from the cut-in to the cut-out wind speeds under neutral atmospheric conditions. Large eddy simulations were also conducted to provide further details on the flow characteristics and to validate the performance of the optimal layout. Although the optimization algorithm was designed so that the hub height of each wind turbine could have any magnitude between the minimum Hmin and the maximum Hmax recommended by the manufacturer, the optimization process ended up with a layout that included only two different hub heights, either "short" turbines with Hmin or "tall" turbines with Hmax, and no hub height in between was assigned to any of the wind turbines. The location of the short and tall turbines within the wind farm depends on the relative frequency of wind directions at the site; an irregular distribution was achieved for the Lillgrund wind farm studied here, with half of the turbines short and half tall. The AEP of the optimized wind farm with multiple hub heights was approximately 2% ( 5 GWh) higher than that of the wind farm with a single hub height Hmax. The hub height optimization not only improves the AEP of a wind farm, it also decreases the capital costs, as half of the wind turbines are cheaper to build because their towers are 20% shorter.

  16. NREL Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL researchers have used high-tech instruments and high-performance computing to understand atmospheric turbulence and turbine wake behavior in order to improve wind turbine design and siting within wind farms.

  17. Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Fishermen' s Atlantic City Windfarm, LLC, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Fishermen's Energy Atlantic City Wind Farm final report under US DOE Advanced Technology Demonstration project documents achievements developing a demonstration scale offshore wind project off the coast of New Jersey.

  18. Optimization of wind farm power production using innovative control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Thomas

    Wind energy has experienced a very significant growth and cost reduction over the past decade, and is now able to compete with conventional power generation sources. New concepts are currently investigated to decrease costs of production of electricity even further. Wind farm coordinated control...... is one of them; it is aimed at increasing the efficiency of a wind farm and decreasing the fatigue loads faced by wind turbines by reducing aerodynamic interactions between them. These objectives are achieved considering two different strategies: curtailing an upwind turbine to reduce the wind speed...... conditions. It is therefore not known to what extent these gains can be reproduced in a real wind farm where wind conditions are very fluctuating. The French national project SMARTEOLE constitutes one of the first attempts of implementing these strategies on a full scale wind farm. A ten month measurement...

  19. The structure and strength of public attitudes towards wind farm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, David Charles

    A growing social science literature seeks to understand why, despite broad public support for wind energy, proposals for specific projects are often met with strong local opposition. This gap between general and specific attitudes is viewed as a significant obstacle to the deployment of wind energy technologies. This dissertation applies theoretical perspectives and methodological tools from social psychology to provide insights on the structure and strength of attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind farm in three coastal areas of Michigan. A survey of attitudes was completed by 375 residents in these communities and structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship among variables. The analysis found that attitudes towards wind farm development are shaped by anticipated economic benefits to the community, but expectations of economic benefit are driven by personal values. Social psychology has long recognized that all attitudes are not created equal. Weak attitudes are fleeting and prone to change, while strong attitudes are stable over time and resistant to change. There are two fundamental paths to strong attitudes: repeated experience with an attitude object or the application of deeply held principles or values to that object. Structural equation models were also used to understand the strength of attitudes among the survey respondents. Both the anticipated effects of wind farm development and personal values were found to influence the strength of attitudes towards wind farms. However, while expectations that wind farm development will have positive effects on the economy bolster two measures of attitude strength (collective identity and importance), these expectations are associated with a decline in a third measure (confidence). A follow-up survey asking identical questions was completed by completed by 187 respondents to the initial survey. Linear regressions models were used to determine the effects of attitude

  20. Wind Farm Layout Optimization using Population Distributed Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tangen, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine technology is a promising source of renewable energy. However, the potential of wind turbine technology can not be utilized unless the wind farm layout is efficient. The challenge with wind farm layout optimization is that finding the optimal layout in the huge search space of different layouts is hard, if not impossible, to do analytically. Genetic algorithm techniques have been applied in many fields to solve non-linear optimization problems, and has shown promising results whe...

  1. Wake characteristics of wind turbines in utility-scale wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Foti, Daniel; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of turbine wakes is affected by turbine operating conditions, ambient atmospheric turbulent flows, and wakes from upwind turbines. Investigations of the wake from a single turbine have been extensively carried out in the literature. Studies on the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms are relatively limited. In this work, we employ large-eddy simulation with an actuator surface or actuator line model for turbine blades to investigate the wake dynamics in utility-scale wind farms. Simulations of three wind farms, i.e., the Horns Rev wind farm in Denmark, Pleasant Valley wind farm in Minnesota, and the Vantage wind farm in Washington are carried out. The computed power shows a good agreement with measurements. Analysis of the wake dynamics in the three wind farms is underway and will be presented in the conference. This work was support by Xcel Energy (RD4-13). The computational resources were provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  2. Fatigue Reliability and Effective Turbulence Models in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, S.; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with 100 or more wind turbines are expected to be installed many places during the next years. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases slightly and the turbulence intensity increases significantly. This increase in turbulence intensity in wakes...

  3. Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop and optimize tools for designing large wind farm arrays for deployment offshore. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make more accurate power output predictions for large offshore wind farms....... Detailed data ensembles of power losses due to wakes at the large wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev are presented and analyzed. Differences in turbine spacing (10.5 versus 7 rotor diameters) are not differentiable in wake-related power losses from the two wind farms. This is partly due to the high...... of power output moving through the wind farm. Root-mean-square errors indicate a generally better model performance for higher wind speeds (10 rather than 6 m s−1) and for direct down the row flow than for oblique angles. Despite this progress, wake modeling of large wind farms is still subject...

  4. Accurate wind farm development and operation. Advanced wake modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, A.; Bot, E.; Ozdemir, H. [ECN Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Steinfeld, G.; Drueke, S.; Schmidt, M. [ForWind, Center for Wind Energy Research, Carl von Ossietzky Universitaet Oldenburg, D-26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Mittelmeier, N. REpower Systems SE, D-22297 Hamburg (Germany))

    2013-11-15

    The ability is demonstrated to calculate wind farm wakes on the basis of ambient conditions that were calculated with an atmospheric model. Specifically, comparisons are described between predicted and observed ambient conditions, and between power predictions from three wind farm wake models and power measurements, for a single and a double wake situation. The comparisons are based on performance indicators and test criteria, with the objective to determine the percentage of predictions that fall within a given range about the observed value. The Alpha Ventus site is considered, which consists of a wind farm with the same name and the met mast FINO1. Data from the 6 REpower wind turbines and the FINO1 met mast were employed. The atmospheric model WRF predicted the ambient conditions at the location and the measurement heights of the FINO1 mast. May the predictability of the wind speed and the wind direction be reasonable if sufficiently sized tolerances are employed, it is fairly impossible to predict the ambient turbulence intensity and vertical shear. Three wind farm wake models predicted the individual turbine powers: FLaP-Jensen and FLaP-Ainslie from ForWind Oldenburg, and FarmFlow from ECN. The reliabilities of the FLaP-Ainslie and the FarmFlow wind farm wake models are of equal order, and higher than FLaP-Jensen. Any difference between the predictions from these models is most clear in the double wake situation. Here FarmFlow slightly outperforms FLaP-Ainslie.

  5. Sociological investigation of the reception of Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms in the local communities[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.

    2005-03-15

    This annual report presents the work related to the sociological part of the socio-economic project on the local communities' reception of the Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm, west of Blaavands Huk in Jutland, and the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, south of Lolland. The project is part of the monitoring programme in connection with the construction of the offshore wind farms. Unlike projects, which examine the impact of the wind farms on nature, the socio-economic project did not start until 2003. The socio-economic project examines the effects on the local communities. Among other things the environmental-economic part of the project examines the preferences of the population in relation to location of the wind farm and the willingness to pay for increasing the distance between the wind farms and the coast. The sociological survey is qualitative. The survey is divided into three phases, as the aim is to investigate the public community's attitude towards the erection of an offshore wind farm before and after the construction of the wind farm. This aim is based on the assumption that attitudes may change once the wind farm is erected and the population has experienced the visibility of the wind farm, etc. The division into phases is as follows: 1) Phase 1 treats the conditions as they were before the erection of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. 2) Phase 2 is an investigation of the development in attitudes towards Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm a year after erection. 3) Phase 3 comprises a follow-up investigation of the local area at Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. This annual report treats phases 1 and 2. Phase 1 was carried out in April-August 2003, and the interviews at Nysted were thus made during the erection of the first offshore wind turbines. Phase 2 was carried out in September-November 2003. The follow-up investigation of the conditions in the local area around Nysted offshore wind farm is to be carried out in August-December 2004. The results of the investigations

  6. Legal issues with wind farm stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcheson, A. [Stikeman Elliott LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Legal issues concerning wind power development and landowners were reviewed. Agreements with landowners present opportunities and risks for developers and land agents. Generally, a landowner agreement provides for a period of testing and an option to lease land for the purposes of installing and operating wind turbines. Provisions are used to set out the terms of the option and the lease; restrictions on use of the land by both parties; and the amount and method of payment. In order to establish a valid option to lease, it is necessary to have good and valuable consideration, certainty of terms and conditions, and compliance with statutes. If the term is too long or alienation of land appears too permanent, a transfer tax may be payable to the landowner. In Ontario, no land transfer tax is payable on a land lease if the term cannot exceed 50 years. Developers should expect basic terms to become public knowledge, and recognize that residents living near planned wind installations can use the local planning process to slow down or break a project, especially if they are concerned about negative environmental impacts such as noise. The arguments against wind farms on the basis of low frequency noise (LFN) are particularly damaging because they apply to all sites near human settlements, and the effects of LFN at inaudible levels have not been sufficiently studied to rule out the possibility of negative health effects. More comprehensive studies on the health effects of LFN are needed. Legal complications may also arise from wind theft, where one party with rights in a parcel of land erects a structure limiting the wind resource on an adjacent parcel of land without compensation. Further complications may arise from wind envy, where landowners may become envious of neighbours hosting turbine sites, while they must live with the sight and sound of the turbines without receiving compensation. Potential wind theft solutions include setback regulations; land pooling

  7. Effective Short-term Forecasting of Wind Farms Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogalecka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting a specific wind farm’s (WF generation capacity within a 24 hour perspective requires both a reliable forecast of wind, as well as supporting tools. This tool is a dedicated model of wind farm power. This model should include not only general rules of wind to mechanical energy conversion, but also the farm’s specific features. There are many factors that influence a farm’s generation capacity, and any forecast of it, even with an accurate weather forecast, carries error. This paper presents analytical, statistical, and neuron models of wind farm power. The study is based on data from a real wind farm. Most attention is paid to the neuron models, due to a neuron network’s capability to restore farm-specific details. The research aims to answer the headline question: whether and to what extent a wind farm’s power can be forecast short-term?

  8. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms. Final report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise theoperation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep...... good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The projectdeveloped models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept......This report is the final report of a Danish research project “Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms”. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different typesof wind turbines and different wind farm...

  9. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  10. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  11. Life cycle assessment of offshore and onshore sited wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    This report makes up the final reporting for the project 'Life cycle assessment (LCA) of turbines Analysis of possibilities of product directed environmental optimisation'. The purpose of the project is to carry through a life cycle assessment of an offshore wind farm and an onshore wind farm, respectively, as a basis for assessment of environmental improvement possibilities for wind farms through their life cycles. Likewise, the results are used to elaborate an environmental declaration of contents for power delivered to the grid from both types of wind farms. The project states the environmental impact for electricity produced at Horns Reef offshore wind farm and Tjaereborg onshore wind farm, respectively, as representatives for contemporary Danish offshore wind farms and onshore wind farms, respectively. Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed at an utmost favourably location with regard to wind, which means that the production at this wind farm is high compared with other onshore wind farms in Denmark. The high production rate is a factor that is taken into account when assessing the impact on the environment emanating from this wind farm. The results of the environmental life cycle assessments that have been carried out for the two wind farms do not show significant variance. If it is taken into account that Tjaereborg onshore wind farm is placed utmost favourably, the comparison shows that power from an average located onshore wind farm would have a more adverse or corresponding environmental impact as an unfavourably located offshore wind farm. The results show that it is the turbines that causes the largest environmental impact and not to a very high extent the transmission grid. For the turbines, the all-important environmental contribution comes from manufacturing and removal of the turbines, as it is the materials that cause the large environmental strain. The operation of the wind farms gives practically no contribution to the total

  12. Analysis of Anholt offshore wind farm SCADA measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Volker, Patrick; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    SCADA measurements from the Danish Anholt offshore wind farm (ANH) for a period of 2½ years have been qualified. ANH covers 12 km × 22 km and is located between Djursland and the island Anholt in Kattegat, Denmark. This qualification encompasses identification of curtailment and idling periods......, start/stop events and a power curve control for each wind turbine in the wind farm. Data also include wind speed measurements from a nearby WindCube lidar and simulations from the WRF model for the same period as the SCADA. An equivalent wind speed (wsi) is derived from the combined power and pitch...

  13. The Problems with "Noise Numbers" for Wind Farm Noise Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Human perception responds primarily to sound character rather than sound level. Wind farms are unique sound sources and exhibit special audible and inaudible characteristics that can be described as modulating sound or as a tonal complex. Wind farm compliance measures based on a specified noise number alone will fail to address problems with noise…

  14. A control-oriented dynamic wind farm flow model : "WFSim"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, S.; Gebraad, P.M.O.; Vali, M.; Doekemeijer, B.M.; van Wingerden, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present and extend the dynamic medium fidelity control-oriented Wind Farm Simulator (WFSim) model. WFSim resolves flow fields in wind farms in a horizontal, two dimensional plane. It is based on the spatially and temporally discretised two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and

  15. Coupled wake boundary layer model of wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We present and test a coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model that describes the distribution of the power output in a wind-farm. This model couples the traditional, industry-standard wake model approach with a “top-down” model for the overall wind-farm boundary layer structure. The wake model

  16. Bats in Dutch offshore wind farms in autumn 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Haselager, R.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    In the autumn of 2012, we conducted a pilot study with ultrasonic recorders to assess the occurrence of bats over the North Sea. At Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) a recorder was installed at the meteorological mast and at Princess Amalia Wind Farm (PAWP) a recorder was attached to the

  17. Fuga - a fast flow model for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The Fuga is a fast, yet surprisingly accurate tool that estimates wake losses in offshore wind farms. The Fuga model will be made commercially available in 2014.......The Fuga is a fast, yet surprisingly accurate tool that estimates wake losses in offshore wind farms. The Fuga model will be made commercially available in 2014....

  18. Geographically distributed wind farms - their future development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudway, R. [Nabarro Nathanson (United Kingdom)

    1997-06-01

    The project began as a result of a conversation between Professor Roger Wooton and I about the prospects of windfarm development in the future. We talked about the fact that there are necessarily going to be a finite number of large sites for which planning permission will be obtainable for large windfarms; on the other hand the UK has one of the best wind resources in Europe and there are many smaller sites which taken together have huge potential. The problem as we saw it was that development of a number of individual small sites tends to be significantly more expensive than the development of large sites because of loss of economies of scale and difficulties in financing them as free standing projects. In this conversation the concept of the geographically distributed wind farm was born, in that it occurred to both of use that there was potential in researching how far it was possible to develop a single windfarm but physically to disperse the wind turbines over a wide area although still being owned, operated and financed as a single project. The idea developed into an application for funding under the ALTENER programme and funding was duly obtained with additional backing from the DTI. (author)

  19. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles; Larson, Doug; Carr, Tom; Rath, Larry; Balash, Peter; Yih-Huei, Wan

    2008-11-28

    Growing concern over climate change is prompting new thinking about the technologies used to generate electricity. In the future, it is possible that new government policies on greenhouse gas emissions may favor electric generation technology options that release zero or low levels of carbon emissions. The Western U.S. has abundant wind and coal resources. In a world with carbon constraints, the future of coal for new electrical generation is likely to depend on the development and successful application of new clean coal technologies with near zero carbon emissions. This scoping study explores the economic and technical feasibility of combining wind farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operating them as a single generation complex in the Western US. The key questions examined are whether an advanced coal-wind hybrid (ACWH) facility provides sufficient advantages through improvements to the utilization of transmission lines and the capability to firm up variable wind generation for delivery to load centers to compete effectively with other supply-side alternatives in terms of project economics and emissions footprint. The study was conducted by an Analysis Team that consists of staff from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB). We conducted a screening level analysis of the economic competitiveness and technical feasibility of ACWH generation options located in Wyoming that would supply electricity to load centers in California, Arizona or Nevada. Figure ES-1 is a simple stylized representation of the configuration of the ACWH options. The ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycle power plant equipped with carbon capture and sequestration (G+CC+CCS plant), a fuel production or syngas storage facility, and a 1,500 MW wind plant. The ACWH project is connected to load centers by a 3,000 MW

  20. The Impact of Future Offshore Wind Farms on Wind Power Generation in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Drew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the coming years the geographical distribution of wind farms in Great Britain is expected to change significantly. Following the development of the “round 3” wind zones (circa 2025, most of the installed capacity will be located in large offshore wind farms. However, the impact of this change in wind-farm distribution on the characteristics of national wind generation is largely unknown. This study uses a 34-year reanalysis dataset (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA from National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA-GMAO to produce a synthetic hourly time series of GB-aggregated wind generation based on: (1 the “current” wind farm distribution; and (2 a “future” wind farm distribution scenario. The derived data are used to estimate a climatology of extreme wind power events in Great Britain for each wind farm distribution. The impact of the changing wind farm distribution on the wind-power statistics is significant. The annual mean capacity factor increased from 32.7% for the current wind farm distribution to 39.7% for the future distribution. In addition, there are fewer periods of prolonged low generation and more periods of prolonged high generation. Finally, the frequency and magnitude of ramping in the nationally aggregated capacity factor remains largely unchanged. However, due to the increased capacity of the future distribution, in terms of power output, the magnitude of the ramping increases by a factor of 5.

  1. Environmental issues of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Placing wind farms offshore eliminates some of the obstacles encountered when siting wind farms on shore like visual influence on the landscape, annoyance to inhabitants from noise and flickering light, conflicts with other planning interests etc. Other challenges remain - like influence on birds - and new are added like influence on marine life, hydrography and marine traffic. While there are now 20 years of experience in assessing and meeting environmental challenges associated with land based wind installations little is known of the effects of offshore wind installations. The planning and approval procedure for each offshore wind farm installed so far has been on a case-by-case basis as have the demands for environmental surveys prior to installation and monitoring programs during construction and operation. The meeting gathered 24 people from five different countries. Participants came from government agencies, energy agencies (or suppliers) universities and research institutes (both ecological and technical). The aim of the meeting was to make an inventory of the already existing and available information on environmental aspects of offshore wind energy. Another aim was to give recommendations to the COD-project (Concerted action for Offshore wind energy Deployment) on how to proceed within the work package regarding: Collection of information on activities (projects) of participating countries, including at least birds, benthic flora and fauna, sub-sea noise, visual intrusion, and coastal impacts. The meeting mainly focused on: National programs to enforce offshore wind energy; Studies and experiences of influence on birds and sea mammals; Experience and application of Environmental Impact Assessment. One outcome of the COD-project will be a database of environmental issues. At the end of the meeting it was discussed, what kind of information this database should contain: 1. Base line data; 2. Methods for investigating biological data; 3. Methods for the

  2. Using the PROSA Method in Offshore Wind Farm Location Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Ziemba; Jarosław Wątróbski; Magdalena Zioło; Artur Karczmarczyk

    2017-01-01

    Wind is the most used renewable energy source (RES) in the European Union and Poland. Due to the legal changes in the scope of RES in Poland, there are plans to develop offshore wind farms at the expense of onshore ones. On the other hand, the success of an offshore wind farm is primarily determined by its location. Therefore, the aim of this study is to select offshore wind farm locations in Poland, based on sustainability assessment, which is an inherent aspect of RES decision-making issues...

  3. Optimization of offshore wind farm layout in restricted zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an optimization method for offshore wind farm layout design is proposed. With the purpose of maximizing the energy production of the wind farm, the wind turbine (WT) positions are optimized. Due to the limitations of seabed conditions, marine traffic limitations or shipwrecks, etc...... with multiple adaptive methods (PSO-MAM) is adopted. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can find a layout which outperforms a baseline layout of a reference wind farm (RWF) by increasing the energy yield by 3.84%....

  4. Using Satellite SAR to Characterize the Wind Flow around Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm cluster effects between neighboring wind farms increase rapidly with the large-scale deployment of offshore wind turbines. The wind farm wakes observed from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR are sometimes visible and atmospheric and wake models are here shown to convincingly reproduce the observed very long wind farm wakes. The present study mainly focuses on wind farm wake climatology based on Envisat ASAR. The available SAR data archive covering the large offshore wind farms at Horns Rev has been used for geo-located wind farm wake studies. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to mainly three issues: the limited number of samples per wind directional sector, the coastal wind speed gradient, and oceanic bathymetry effects in the SAR retrievals. A new methodology is developed and presented. This method overcomes effectively the first issue and in most cases, but not always, the second. In the new method all wind field maps are rotated such that the wind is always coming from the same relative direction. By applying the new method to the SAR wind maps, mesoscale and microscale model wake aggregated wind-fields results are compared. The SAR-based findings strongly support the model results at Horns Rev 1.

  5. High Penetrated Wind Farm Impacts on the Electricity Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Yousefi, G. R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    Energy trading policies, intermittency of wind farm output power, low marginal cost of the production, are the key factors that cause the wind farms to be effective on the electricity price. In this paper, the Danish electricity market is studied as a part of Nord Pool. Considering the completely...... fossil fuel free overview in Danish energy policies, and the currently great share of wind power (more than 100% for some hours) in supplying the load, it is an interesting benchmark for the future electricity markets. Negative prices, price spikes, and price volatility are considered as the main effects...... of the high penetrated wind farm integration into electricity markets. Then, stochastic programming approach is employed to compare the volume of trades for a typical wind farm in a high and low wind penetrated market. Although increasing price spikes and volatility was reported in the literature...

  6. Survey of wind farm control - power and fatigue optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Svenstrup, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to establish the present state of the art for wind farm control. The control area that will be focused on is the mechanical/aerodynamic part, which includes the wind turbines, their power production, fatigue and wakes affecting neighbouring wind turbines. The sub......-objectives in this area of research are as follows: (i) maximizing the total wind farm power production; (ii) following a reference for the total wind farm active power; and (iii) doing this in a manner that minimizes fatigue loading for the wind turbines in the farm. Each of these sub-objectives is discussed, including...... the following important control issues: choice of input and output, control method and modelling used for controller design and simulation. The available literature from industry is also considered. Finally, a conclusion is presented discussing the established results, open challenges and necessary research....

  7. Effective turbulence models and fatigue reliability in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Modeling of turbulence within wind farms with 100 or more wind turbines is important both for extreme and fatigue limit states. Behind a wind turbine a wake is formed where the mean wind speed decreases slightly and the turbulence intensity increases significantly. This increase ill turbulence...... intensity in wakes behind wind turbines can imply a significant reduction in the fatigue lifetime of wind turbines placed in wakes. Ill this paper the design code model ill the wind turbine code [IEC 61400-1, Wind turbine generator systems - Part 1: Safety requirements. 2005] is evaluated from...

  8. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." ...

  9. Carbon farming economics: What have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Kragt, Marit E; Hailu, Atakelty; Ma, Chunbo

    2016-05-01

    This study reviewed 62 economic analyses published between 1995 and 2014 on the economic impacts of policies that incentivise agricultural greenhouse (GHG) mitigation. Typically, biophysical models are used to evaluate the changes in GHG mitigation that result from landholders changing their farm and land management practices. The estimated results of biophysical models are then integrated with economic models to simulate the costs of different policy scenarios to production systems. The cost estimates vary between $3 and $130/t CO2 equivalent in 2012 US dollars, depending on the mitigation strategies, spatial locations, and policy scenarios considered. Most studies assessed the consequences of a single, rather than multiple, mitigation strategies, and few considered the co-benefits of carbon farming. These omissions could challenge the reality and robustness of the studies' results. One of the biggest challenges facing agricultural economists is to assess the full extent of the trade-offs involved in carbon farming. We need to improve our biophysical knowledge about carbon farming co-benefits, predict the economic impacts of employing multiple strategies and policy incentives, and develop the associated integrated models, to estimate the full costs and benefits of agricultural GHG mitigation to farmers and the rest of society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards the evaluation of current wind farm assessment methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, J.; Masson, C. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Gagnon, Y. [Moncton Univ., NB (Canada). Dept. of Wind Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Canada's wind energy industry is experiencing significant growth. Government initiatives such as the wind power production incentive program (WPPI) may result in a cumulative installed wind energy capacity of up to 10,000 MW by 2015. However, the methods used to assess wind farm performance have never been thoroughly investigated in a specifically Canadian context. This project was conducted to provide a more accurate understanding of the limitations of various wind farm performance measuring methods and recommend effective methodologies based on the effect of terrain, the position of the wind turbines, and wind characteristics. The study was conducted at 5 wind farms in various Canadian locations, including Prince Edward Island (PEI). A full year of data for each wind farm was used to determine wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, power, and Nacelle orientation. Various wind resource assessment software programs were analyzed in order to evaluate topography and roughness effects, wake analyses, and to compare results from the models with actual wind speed data. tabs., figs.

  11. Reactive Power and Voltage Control of Offshore Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Jerkø, Anders

    2014-01-01

    There are several challenges related to reactive power and voltage control of HVAC transmission from offshore wind farms to the main grid, which need to be addressed when designing wind farms. One challenge is the variation of wind speeds and thereby also power production, which can make it difficult to operate the system within the grid code requirements. This Master s thesis focuses on finding beneficial operating strategies to solve these challenges. Various locations of a static var compe...

  12. Economic metrics for wind energy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Sousa de Oliveira, Antonio Jorge Fernandes, Joaquim Jose Borges Gouveia

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of economic metrics for wind energy projects. The attractiveness of the proposed wind energy can vary considerably between evaluation of the private and public sector. The financing structure is very important influencing factor for the attractiveness of wind energy project. In many cases, the economic activities practiced by economic agents of financing the project in order to earn sufficient income to meet the investors‘ needs and other economic agents involv...

  13. Wind Farm Wake Models From Full Scale Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is part of the EU FP7 project “Distributed Control of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms”. The overall goal in this project is to develop wind farm controllers giving power set points to individual turbines in the farm in order to minimise mechanical loads and optimise power. One...... on real full scale data. The modelling is based on so called effective wind speed. It is shown that there is a wake for a wind direction range of up to 20 degrees. Further, when accounting for the wind direction it is shown that the two model structures considered can both fit the experimental data...

  14. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...... of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher windspeeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation...

  15. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F E

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed). We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  16. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela de Lucas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wind farms have shown a spectacular growth during the last 15 years. Avian mortality through collision with moving rotor blades is well-known as one of the main adverse impacts of wind farms. In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development. We analyse topography and wind flows in relation to flight paths of griffon vultures, using a scaled model of the wind farm area in an aerodynamic wind tunnel, and test the difference between the observed flight paths of griffon vultures and the predominant wind flows. Different wind currents for each wind direction in the aerodynamic model were observed. Simulations of wind flows in a wind tunnel were compared with observed flight paths of griffon vultures. No statistical differences were detected between the observed flight trajectories of griffon vultures and the wind passages observed in our wind tunnel model. A significant correlation was found between dead vultures predicted proportion of vultures crossing those cells according to the aerodynamic model. CONCLUSIONS: Griffon vulture flight routes matched the predominant wind flows in the area (i.e. they followed the routes where less flight effort was needed. We suggest using these kinds of simulations to predict flight paths over complex terrains can inform the location of wind turbines and thereby reduce soaring bird mortality.

  17. Wind farm planning at the Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, N.E.; Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Clausager, I. [Hedeselskabet A/S, Viborg (Denmark); Pagh Jensen, F. [National Environmental Res., Copenhagen (Denmark); Georgy, L.; Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Egypt, (Egypt)

    2004-11-01

    The Wind Atlas for Egypt project is an element in a national effort to provide the best possible basis for planning of future environmentally sustainable development and utilization of wind energy resources and technology in Egypt. The present report compiles the data, information and recommendations available for planning of wind farm projects in the Gulf of Suez. (au)

  18. Wind farms threaten southern Africa's cliff-nesting vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for wind farm development (active selection for ridge tops and upper slopes), and that both species generally fly at heights within the rotor-sweep of a typical, modern wind turbine. We constructed a population viability model using actual population data from the area presently being targeted by the wind energy industry, ...

  19. Grid support of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

    2006-01-01

    grid connection. The designed control system has the task of enabling such a wind farm to provide the best grid support. It is based on two control levels: a supervisory control level, which controls the power production of the whole farm by sending out reference signals to each individual wind turbine......One of the main concerns in the grid integration of large wind farms is their ability to behave as active controllable components in the power system. This article presents the design of a new integrated power control system for a wind farm made up exclusively of active stall wind turbines with AC......, and a local control level, which ensures that the reference power signals at the wind turbine level are reached. The ability of active stall wind farms with AC grid connection to control the power production to the reference power ordered by the operators is assessed and discussed by means of simulations....

  20. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  1. Wind farm design in complex terrain: the FarmOpt methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    Designing wind farms in complex terrain is becoming more and more important, especially for countries like China, where a large portion of the territory is featured as complex terrain. Although potential richer wind resources could be expected at complex terrain sites (thanks to the terrain effects......), they also expose many challenges for wind farm designers/developers. In this study, we present the FarmOpt methodology for designing wind farms in complex terrain, which combines the state-of-the-art wind resource assessment methods with engineering wake models adapted for complex terrain and advanced...... layout optimization algorithms. Various constraints are also modelled and considered in the design optimization problem for maximizing the annual energy production (AEP). A case study is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. Further developments of the FarmOpt tool are also...

  2. Building a stakeholder's vision of an offshore wind-farm project: A group modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Château, Pierre-Alexandre; Chang, Yang-Chi; Chen, Hsin; Ko, Tsung-Ting

    2012-03-15

    This paper describes a Group Model Building (GMB) initiative that was designed to discuss the various potential effects that an offshore wind-farm may have on its local ecology and socioeconomic development. The representatives of various organizations in the study area, Lu-Kang, Taiwan, have held several meetings, and structured debates have been organized to promote the emergence of a consensual view on the main issues and their implications. A System Dynamics (SD) model has been built and corrected iteratively with the participants through the GMB process. The diverse interests within the group led the process toward the design of multifunctional wind-farms with different modalities. The scenario analyses, using the SD model under various policies, including no wind-farm policy, objectively articulates the vision of the local stakeholders. The results of the SD simulations show that the multifunctional wind-farms may have superior economic effects and the larger wind-farms with bird corridors could reduce ecological impact. However, the participants of the modeling process did not appreciate any type of offshore wind-farm development when considering all of the identified key factors of social acceptance. The insight gained from the study can provide valuable information to actualize feasible strategies for the green energy technique to meet local expectations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Peigan Nation to start 101 MW wind farm this month

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-06-01

    A joint venture, named Weather-Dancer Wind Power Inc., between Advanced Thermodynamics Corporation (ATC) and the Peigan First Nation Community in Alberta will begin construction in June of a wind farm on its 39,000 hectare reserve. The construction will be progressive, up to a maximum of 101 MW. If and when the farm reaches its full size, it will have cost around $175 million. The wind farm will utilize Nordex Balcke-Duerr (Nordex BD) wind turbines from Denmark. ATC is the sole distributor of these turbines in Canada, and will seek opportunities to market Nordex BD turbines and components throughout Alberta and Western Canada. ATC is also aggressively pursuing opportunities in Quebec and in Atlantic Canada. Financing for the construction of the wind farm and a long-term power purchase and distribution agreement with TransAlta Utilities are as yet incomplete, but negotiations are reported to be progressing well. The Nordex BD N54/1000, rated at one MW, will be the largest turbine, and the Peigan Nation Farm the largest wind farm in North America. This is the second attempt by the Peigan Nation to develop a wind farm on the reserve. On the first attempt, the development failed to secure access to the land needed for the project. This time around, a referendum will be held well in advance of the starting date for construction to obtain majority band approval of the site.

  4. Modelling potential changes in marine biogeochemistry due to large-scale offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Rees, Jon; Limpenny, Sian

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale renewable energy generation by offshore wind farms may lead to changes in marine ecosystem processes through the following mechanism: 1) wind-energy extraction leads to a reduction in local surface wind speeds; 2) these lead to a reduction in the local wind wave height; 3) as a consequence there's a reduction in SPM resuspension and concentrations; 4) this results in an improvement in under-water light regime, which 5) may lead to increased primary production, which subsequently 6) cascades through the ecosystem. A three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamics-biogeochemistry model (GETM_ERSEM) was used to investigate this process for a hypothetical wind farm in the central North Sea, by running a reference scenario and a scenario with a 10% reduction (as was found in a case study of a small farm in Danish waters) in surface wind velocities in the area of the wind farm. The ERSEM model included both pelagic and benthic processes. The results showed that, within the farm area, the physical mechanisms were as expected, but with variations in the magnitude of the response depending on the ecosystem variable or exchange rate between two ecosystem variables (3-28%, depending on variable/rate). Benthic variables tended to be more sensitive to the changes than pelagic variables. Reduced, but noticeable changes also occurred for some variables in a region of up to two farm diameters surrounding the wind farm. An additional model run in which the 10% reduction in surface wind speed was applied only for wind speeds below the generally used threshold of 25 m/s for operational shut-down showed only minor differences from the run in which all wind speeds were reduced. These first results indicate that there is potential for measurable effects of large-scale offshore wind farms on the marine ecosystem, mainly within the farm but for some variables up to two farm diameters away. However, the wave and SPM parameterisations currently used in the model are crude and need to be

  5. Improvement of Wind Farm Performance by Means of Spinner Anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Demurtas, Giorgio; Gottschall, Julia

    This report is a project report on the EUDP research project SpinnerFarm. The objectives of the project were to improve software and hardware on the spinner anemometer concept and to demonstrate improvement of wind farm performance by opitmized yaw control. The hardware was improved by a more...... factors, determination of induction in center of rotor, measurements of yaw error, inflow angles and turbulence intensity, and measurements of power performance, comparing the spinner anemometer with the mast cup anemometer and the nacelle anemometer. A statistic of yaw error measurements were made...... in the Vedersø Kær wind farm on nine wind turbines. Finally, estimates of potential power performance gain on the wind farm and the test wind turbine by optimized yaw error measurements was made....

  6. Harmonic Instability Source Identification in Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    A large-scale power electronics based power system like a wind farm introduces the passive and active impedances. The interactions between the active and passive impedances can lead to harmonic-frequency oscillations above the fundamental frequency, which can be called harmonic instability....... This paper presents an approach to identify which wind turbine and which bus has more contribution to the harmonic instability problems. In the approach, a wind farm is modeled as a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic system. The poles of the MIMO transfer matrix are used to predict the system...... instability and the eigenvalues sensitivity analysis in respect to the elements of the MIMO matrix locates the most influencing buses of the wind farm. Time-domain simulations in PSCAD software environment for a 400-MW wind farm validate that the presented approach is an effective tool to determine the main...

  7. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents steady-state performance analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan through field measurement results and computer simulations. The companion paper in Part II discusses the employment of current-limit reactors and load tap changers on power-quality improvement of the studied...... wind farm. With twenty-three 2-MW DFIG-type wind turbine generators, this wind farm is connected to the 161-kV extra high-voltage substation of Taiwan Power System through a 23/161-kV, 60-MVA step-up main transformer from six feeders. Through comparing field measured results, this paper establishes...... a simulation model to simulate and analyze the steady-state characteristics of the studied wind farm under disturbance conditions....

  8. Modeling and Identification of Harmonic Instability Problems In Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    to identify harmonic instability problems in wind farms, where many wind turbines, cables, transformers, capacitor banks, shunt reactors, etc, typically are located. This methodology introduces the wind farm as a Multi-Input Multi-Outpur (MIMO) control system, where the linearized models of fast inner control...... loops of the grid-side converters are considered. Therefore, instability problems of the whole wind farm are predicted based on the poles of the introduced MIMO system. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed analytical approach, time-domain simulations are performed in the PSCAD......In power electronics based power systems like wind farms, the interactions between the inner control systems of the power converters and the passive components may lead to high frequency oscillations, which can be called harmonic instability. In this paper, a simple methodology is presented...

  9. Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    which are related to electrical system topology. This paper proposed an optimized power dispatch strategy (OPD) for minimizing the levelized production cost (LPC) of a wind farm. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to obtain final solution for the optimization problem. Both regular shape......Maximizing the power production of offshore wind farms using proper control strategy has become an important issue for wind farm operators. However, the power transmitted to the onshore substation (OS) is not only related to the power production of each wind turbine (WT) but also the power losses...... and irregular shape wind farm are chosen for the case study. The proposed dispatch strategy is compared with two other control strategies. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....

  10. An assessment of the environmental effects of offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on the development of an approach to the formal environmental assessment of large-scale offshore wind farms around the UK coast which will be required by EU Directives. The legislative background and policy framework are outlined, and key issues to be addressed in the environmental assessment are highlighted. Available information on the manufacture and transportation of wind farm equipment, turbine and cable installation, operation of an offshore wind farm, and wind farm decommissioning is reviewed and recommendations are given. The role of offshore wind power in meeting the UK's commitment to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and its targets for generating 10% of the UK's electricity from renewable energy sources is discussed.

  11. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...

  12. Flight Leader Concept for Wind Farm Load Counting. Offshore evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Braam, H. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    ECN has developed a demo version of the Flight Leader model, which is based on a concept with which the accumulated mechanical loading of all turbines in an offshore wind farm can be estimated at acceptable costs. This information can be used to optimise and lower the cost of Operation and Maintenance (O and M), for example by prioritising inspections and replacements. In this paper the background and general concept of the Flight Leader model are presented. A full Flight Leader analysis has been performed using data from the Dutch offshore wind farm OWEZ (Offshore Wind farm Egmond aan Zee). In this paper the approach and results of the analyses are discussed.

  13. Statistics of LES simulations of large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Numerous large eddy simulations are performed of large wind farms using the actuator line method, which has been fully coupled to the aero-elastic code, Flex5. The higher order moments of the flow field inside large wind farms is examined in order to determine a representative reference velocity...... to give very good agreement and furthermore enables the very good estimation of the thrust force using only the steady CT-curve, even for very short time samples. Finally, the effective turbulence inside large wind farms and the equivalent loads are examined....

  14. Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonic Emission of Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some diffi-culties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farm is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed......In this article, a new probabilistic method of as-sessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single...

  15. Mesoscale Influences of Wind Farms Throughout a Diurnal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, A. C.; Lundquist, J. K.; Olson, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Few observations are available to give insight into the interaction between large wind farms and the boundary layer. As wind farm deployment increases, questions are arising on the potential impact on meteorology within and downwind of large wind farms. While large-eddy simulation can provide insight into the detailed interaction between individual turbines and the boundary layer, to date it has been too computationally expensive to simulate wind farms with large numbers of turbines and the resulting wake far downstream. Mesoscale numerical weather prediction models provide the opportunity to investigate the flow in and around large wind farms as a whole, and the resulting impact on meteorology. To this end, we have implemented a wind farm parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which represents wind turbines by imposing a momentum sink on the mean flow; converting kinetic energy into electricity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The parameterization improves upon previous models, basing the atmospheric drag of turbines on the thrust coefficient of a modern commercial turbine. In addition, the source of TKE varies with wind speed, reflecting the amount of energy extracted from the atmosphere by the turbines that does not produce electrical energy. We simulate a wind farm covering 10x10 km over land, consisting of 100 turbines each of nominal power output of 5 MW. Results will be presented showing how the wake structure varies dramatically over a diurnal cycle characteristic of a region in the Great Plains of the US, where wind farm deployment is planned. At night, a low-level jet forms within the rotor area, which is completely eliminated by energy extraction within the wind farm. The deep stable layer and lack of higher momentum air aloft at this time maximises the wind deficit and the length of the wake. The presentation will discuss the maximum reduction of wind speed within and downwind from the farm, and the wake e

  16. Flow and wakes in large wind farms. Final report for UpWind WP8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R.J.; Frandsen, S.T.; Rathmann, O. (Risoe DTU (Denmark)); Hansen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark (DTU), Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Politis, E.; Prospathopoulos, J. (CRES (Greece)); Schepers, J.G. (ECN, Petten (Netherlands)); Rados, K. (NTUA, Athens (Greece)); Cabezon, D. (CENER, Sarriguren (Spain)); Schlez, W.; Neubert, A.; Heath, M. (Garrad Hassan and Partners (Germany) (United Kingdom))

    2011-02-15

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offshore. A crosscutting activity was to improve and compare the performance of computational fluid dynamics models with wind farm models. The report contains 6 deliverable reports and guideline to wind farm wake analysis as appendices. (Author)

  17. Analysis of loads on wind turbines in complex terrain wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, K.; Markkilde Petersen, S. (The Test Station for Wind Turbines, Risoe National laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)); Lading, P.; Sangill, O. (Windgineering ApS, Centre for Advanced Technology, Roskilde (Denmark))

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes structural load analysis of wind turbines erected in wind farms in complex terrain. The analysis is based on measurements on two Danwin turbines in Alta Mesa, San Gorgonia Pass California. The wind climate in wind farms in mountainous terrain differs significantly from wind conditions in homogeneous terrain, and this influences the turbine loading. Special attention is paid to characterize this difference by the wind turbulence characteristics. The power spectrum of the longitudinal turbulence component is investigated, and the measured wind conditions are analyzed in relation to what is expected for the free flow in homogenous terrain. The structural response is characterized by the main loads, i.e. blade and rotor loads. The response is related to the actual wind inflow. The relative importance of the deterministic and stochastic load-generating mechanisms is investigated. The azimuthal variations of the loads are calculated, and the load signals are spectral analyzed. The fatigue loads are estimated by Rainflow counting at different operational conditions and the resulting lifetime accumulated load spectra are calculated on the basis of wind distribution and turbulence level. The differences between lifetime fatigue loads seen in wind farms in complex terrain and wind farms in homogenous terrain are discussed. The accumulated load spectra are compared to the Danish Standard for Loads and Safety of Wind Turbines, and extensions to this standard are suggested for wind turbines erected in wind farm clusters. (au) (17 refs.).

  18. Using Sentinel-1 SAR satellites to map wind speed variation across offshore wind farm clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. F.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind speed maps at 500m resolution are derived from freely available satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The method for processing many SAR images to derive wind speed maps is described in full. The results are tested against coincident offshore mast data. Example wind speed maps for the UK Thames Estuary offshore wind farm cluster are presented.

  19. Verification and Calibration of a Reduced Order Wind Farm Model by Wind Tunnel Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J.; Nanos, E. M.; Campagnolo, F.; Bottasso, C. L.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper an adaptation of the FLORIS approach is considered that models the wind flow and power production within a wind farm. In preparation to the use of this model for wind farm control, this paper considers the problem of its calibration and validation with the use of experimental observations. The model parameters are first identified based on measurements performed on an isolated scaled wind turbine operated in a boundary layer wind tunnel in various wind-misalignment conditions. Next, the wind farm model is verified with results of experimental tests conducted on three interacting scaled wind turbines. Although some differences in the estimated absolute power are observed, the model appears to be capable of identifying with good accuracy the wind turbine misalignment angles that, by deflecting the wake, lead to maximum power for the investigated layouts.

  20. A New Approach for Offshore Wind Farm Energy Yields Calculation with Mixed Hub Height Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with differe...... hub heights, the wind shear effect is also taken into consideration. The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speed deficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in offshore wind farms.......In this paper, a mathematical model for calculating the energy yields of offshore wind farm with mixed types of wind turbines is proposed. The Jensen model is selected as the base and developed to a three dimension wake model to estimate the energy yields. Since the wind turbines are with different...

  1. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its...... downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can...... be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control...

  2. A noise generation and propagation model for large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck

    2016-01-01

    A wind turbine noise calculation model is combined with a ray tracing method in order to estimate wind farm noise in its surrounding assuming an arbitrary topography. The wind turbine noise model is used to generate noise spectra for which each turbine is approximated as a point source. However......, the detailed three-dimensional directivity features are taken into account for the further calculation of noise propagation over the surrounding terrain. An arbitrary number of turbines constituting a wind farm can be spatially distributed. The noise from each individual turbine is propagated into the far...

  3. Influence of offshore wind farms layout on electrical resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Koldby, Erik

    2014-01-01

    , harmonics and interaction between components and the power system and especially on the interaction and resonance between the transformer,-cables and the circuit breaker. These phenomena are also important in offshore wind farms, where the specific and often complex structure of the collection grid can......, winding resistances and winding capacitances. Considering the frequency range of the present investigations, up to about 1 MHz, a lumped representation of the transformer characteristics was deemed sufficient. Breakers and capacitors are modelled as ideal components. The chosen wind farm layout includes...

  4. A preliminary benefit-cost study of a Sandia wind farm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Griffin, Taylor; Loose, Verne W.

    2011-03-01

    In response to federal mandates and incentives for renewable energy, Sandia National Laboratories conducted a feasibility study of installing an on-site wind farm on Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base property. This report describes this preliminary analysis of the costs and benefits of installing and operating a 15-turbine, 30-MW-capacity wind farm that delivers an estimated 16 percent of 2010 onsite demand. The report first describes market and non-market economic costs and benefits associated with operating a wind farm, and then uses a standard life-cycle costing and benefit-cost framework to estimate the costs and benefits of a wind farm. Based on these 'best-estimates' of costs and benefits and on factor, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, the analysis results suggest that the benefits of a Sandia wind farm are greater than its costs. The analysis techniques used herein are applicable to the economic assessment of most if not all forms of renewable energy.

  5. Wind farm induced changes in wind speed and surface fluxes over the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Offshore wind farm deployment in the North Sea is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology on the North Sea. We assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation over future wind farms built near the German coast. In order to achieve this, the wind farm parameterisation of Fitch et al. 2012, where wind farms are parameterised as elevated sources of turbulent kinetic energy and sinks of momentum ( Blahak et al 2010 and Fitch et al 2012) is implemented in COSMO-CLM at a 1.5 km resolution. As a first step, COSMO-CLM's ability to reproduce wind profiles over the North Sea is evaluated using wind speed data from the FINO1 meteorological mast, toghether with QuikScat scatterometer data, for a time period of 2000-2008. Subsequently, the impact of windfarms on the regional climate over a period of ten years (1999-2008) is assessed. A large scale wind farm can create wakes which depending on the wind direction could affect the power production of a neighbouring farm. Furthermore, wind farms decelerate the flow and create a vertical circulation in the inflow region. As a result, changes in vertical fluxes of moisture are observed. This leads to enhanced low level cloud cover which may trigger changes in precipitation.

  6. Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren J; Sørensen, Jens N; Mikkelsen, Robert F

    2017-04-13

    A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Turbulence and entrainment length scales in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren J.; Sørensen, Jens N.; Mikkelsen, Robert F.

    2017-03-01

    A number of large wind farms are modelled using large eddy simulations to elucidate the entrainment process. A reference simulation without turbines and three farm simulations with different degrees of imposed atmospheric turbulence are presented. The entrainment process is assessed using proper orthogonal decomposition, which is employed to detect the largest and most energetic coherent turbulent structures. The dominant length scales responsible for the entrainment process are shown to grow further into the wind farm, but to be limited in extent by the streamwise turbine spacing, which could be taken into account when developing farm layouts. The self-organized motion or large coherent structures also yield high correlations between the power productions of consecutive turbines, which can be exploited through dynamic farm control. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  8. Design Performance Standards for Large Scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Mark

    2009-01-01

    of connection into the Eastern Australian power system under the Rules and guidelines set out by AEMC and NEMMCO (AEMO). Where applicable some international practices are also mentioned. Standards are designed to serve as a technical envelope under which wind farm proponents design the plant and maintain...... development and operation. However, it is the responsibility of the wind farm design engineer and the wind farm operator to apply correct and effective analysis and assessment tools, standards, design specifications etc. according to the needs of grid utility interface specifications as per NER (National...... to Frequency Disturbances 4. Generating Unit Response to Voltage Disturbances 5. Generating system response to disturbances following contingency events 6. Partial Load Rejection 7. Protection of Generating Systems from Power System Disturbances & Protection and Design of Wind Farm Networks 8. Protection...

  9. Life cycle assessment of a wind farm and related externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, Liselotte

    2000-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the assessment of energy and emissions related to the production and manufacture of materials for an offshore wind farm as well as a wind farm on land based on a life cycle analysis (LCA) model. In Denmark a model has been developed for life cycle assessments of different...... materials. The model is able to assess the energy use related to the production, transportation and manufacture of 1 kg of material. The energy use is divided into fuels used in order to estimate the emissions through the life cycle. In the paper the model and the attached assumptions are described......, and the model is demonstrated for two wind farms. The externalities for the wind farms are reported, showing the importance of life cycle assessment for renewable energy technologies. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Active Power Control of Waked Wind Farms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Wingerden, Jan-Willem [Delft University of Technology; Pao, Lucy [University of Colorado; Aho, Jacob [University of Colorado

    2017-08-15

    Active power control can be used to balance the total power generated by wind farms with the power consumed on the electricity grid. With the increasing penetration levels of wind energy, there is an increasing need for this ancillary service. In this paper, we show that the tracking of a certain power reference signal provided by the transmission system operator can be significantly improved by using feedback control at the wind farm level. We propose a simple feedback control law that significantly improves the tracking behavior of the total power output of the farm, resulting in higher performance scores. The effectiveness of the proposed feedback controller is demonstrated using high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of a small wind farm.

  11. Backscatter-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) survey of the Oregon outer Continental shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  12. Bathymetry Hillshade-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This Data Release contains data from the USGS survey of the Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The shaded-relief raster was generated from bathymetry data...

  13. Offshore Wind Farm Research at the NWO Institutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.S. Witteveen (Jeroen)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFundamental scientific research is essential to take the necessary next step in offshore wind farm innovation. The NWO scientific research institutes play a central role in the Dutch knowledge infrastructure for disseminating scientific discoveries into industrial innovations. Multiple

  14. Contours-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data release contains data from the USGS field activity 2014-607-FA, a survey of the Oregon Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Floating Wind Farm Site in 2014. The...

  15. Application of SMES in wind farm to improve voltage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J.; Tang, Y. J.; Ren, L.; Li, J. D.; Chen, S. J.

    2008-09-01

    For the wind farms introducing doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs), voltage stability is an essential issue which influences their widely integration into the power grid. This paper proposes the application of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in the power system integrated with wind farms. SMES can control the active and reactive power flow, realizing the operation in four quadrants independently. The introducing of SMES can smooth the output power flow of the wind farms, and supply dynamic voltage support. Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the models of the DFIG, the power grid connected and the SMES are created. Simulation results show that the voltage stability of the power system integrated with wind farms can be improved considerably.

  16. Hydrogen Gas Production in a Stand-Alone Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naziry Kordkandy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is analyzing the operation of a stand-alone wind farm with variable speed turbines, permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG and a system for converting wind energy during wind speed variations. On this paper, the design and modeling of a wind system which uses PMSG’s to provide the required power of a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system, is discussed. This wind farm consists of three wind turbines, boost DC-DC converters, diode full bridge rectifiers, permanent magnet synchronous generators, MPPT control and a hydrogen gas electrolyzer system. The MPPT controller based on fuzzy logic is designed to adjust the duty ratio of the boost DC-DC converters to absorb maximum power. The proposed fuzzy logic controller assimilates, with (PSF MPPT algorithm which generally used to absorb maximum power from paralleled wind turbines and stores it in form of hydrogen gas. The system is modeled and its behavior is studied using the MATLAB software.

  17. Using wind tunnels to predict bird mortality in wind farms: the case of griffon vultures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Lucas, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel; Janss, Guyonne F E

    2012-01-01

    .... In Spain, the griffon vulture incurs the highest mortality rates in wind farms. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to predict flight trajectories of birds in order to foresee potentially dangerous areas for wind farm development...

  18. Prediction models for wind speed at turbine locations in a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Soltani, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In wind farms, individual turbines disturb the wind field by generating wakes that influence other turbines in the farm. From a control point of view, there is an interest in dynamic optimization of the balance between fatigue and production, and an understanding of the relationship between turbine....... Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  19. Theoretically optimal turbine resistance in very large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Alejandro; Nishino, Takafumi; Delafin, Pierre-Luc

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we further investigate and validate the novel theoretical model of very large wind farms proposed recently by Nishino (J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 753, 032054, 2016). One of the key features of the Nishino model is that a theoretically optimal turbine resistance (as well as optimal ‘turbine-scale’ and ‘farm-scale’ wind speed reduction rates) can be predicted analytically as a function of the farm density and the natural bottom friction observed before constructing the farm. To validate this theoretical model, a new set of 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed of a fully developed wind farm boundary layer over an aligned and staggered array of actuator discs with various disc resistance, inter-disc spacing and bottom roughness values. The results show that the theoretical model, which employs only one empirical model parameter, can be easily calibrated to predict very well the performance of various staggered arrays of actuator discs. This suggests the usefulness of the theoretical model not only for providing an upper limit to the performance of ideal large arrays but also for predicting the performance of realistic large arrays. The results also highlight the important fact that the optimal turbine resistance can be significantly smaller in a dense wind farm than in a sparse wind farm.

  20. Load flow analysis for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    A serial AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms is proposed. It divides the electrical system of a wind farm into several local networks, and different load flow methods are used for these local networks sequentially. This method is fast, more accurate, and many...... factors such as the different wind farm configurations, the control of wind turbines and the power losses of pulse width modulation converters are considered. The DC/DC converter model is proposed and integrated into load flow algorithm by modifying the Jacobian matrix. Two iterative methods are proposed...... and integrated into the load flow algorithm: one takes into account the control strategy of converters and the other considers the power losses of converters. In addition, different types of variable speed wind turbine systems with different control methods are investigated. Finally, the method is demonstrated...

  1. Transmission of wave energy through an offshore wind turbine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Johnson, Martin; Sørensen, Ole Rene

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of wave energy passing an offshore wind farm is studied. Three effects that can change the wave field are analysed, which is the A) energy dissipation due to drag resistance, B) wave reflection/diffraction from structures, and C) the effect of a modified wind field inside...... and on the lee side of the wind farm. The drag dissipation, A), is quantified by a quadratic resistance law. The effect of B) is parameterised based on 1st order potential theory. A method to find the amount of reflected and transmitted wave energy is developed based on the panel method WAMIT™ and a radiation...... condition at infinity. From airborne and Satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) a model has been derived for the change of the water surface friction C) inside and on the lee side of the offshore wind farm. The effects have been implemented in a spectral wind wave model,MIKE21 SW, and a parametric study...

  2. A CFD framework for offshore and onshore wind farm simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Matias; Gargallo-Peiró, Abel; Folch, Arnau

    2017-05-01

    We present a wind simulation framework for offshore and onshore wind farms. The simulation framework involves an automatic hybrid high-quality mesh generation process, a pre-processing to impose initial and boundary conditions, and a solver for the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with two different turbulence models, a modified standard k-ɛ model and a realizable k-ɛ model in which we included the Coriolis effects. Wind turbines are modeled as actuator discs. The wind farm simulation framework has been implemented in Alya, an in-house High Performance Computing (HPC) multi-physics finite element parallel solver. An application example is shown for an onshore wind farm composed of 165 turbines.

  3. Integrating GIS with fuzzy multi-criteria decision making for suitable wind farm locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyappan, L.; Pandian, P.K. [Tagore Engineering College. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-07-01

    Wind Energy is spatial in nature and the degree of potential wind farm locations are fuzzy i.e., the boundaries among highly, moderate and least suitable is not clear cut. The study area of this research covers entire taluk of Tirumangalam, Madurai District (India). In this study, to help wind energy companies, policy-makers and investors in evaluating potential wind farm locations in the Tirumangalam Taluk (Tamil Nadu, India), an adaptation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making(FMDM) approach is attended. The entire processes were completed by using open source GIS software (Quantum GIS and GRASS GIS) with help of freely available data. The software tool takes inputs such as wind power density, Slope, Transmission lines, environmental factors, and economic factors to provide an in-depth analysis for suitable location options. (Author)

  4. Coordinated control strategy for hybrid wind farms with DFIG-based and PMSG-based wind farms during network unbalance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Liu, Ruikuo; Zhou, Te

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the coordinated control strategy for a hybrid wind farm with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based and direct-driven permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind farms during network unbalance. The negative-sequence current output capabilities of DFIG...... and PMSG systems under unbalanced grid voltage condition are described. Furthermore, by considering both the negative-sequence current capabilities and requirements of different control targets for each control unit, the controllable operating regions of DFIG and PMSG systems are investigated. According...... grid voltage unbalance conditions. Finally, the proposed coordinated control strategy is validated by the simulation results of a 30-MW-DFIG-based wind farm and a 30-MW-PMSG-based wind farm under different operation conditions and experimental results on a laboratory-scale experimental rig under severe...

  5. Monitoring of offshore wind farm using reliable communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K.G.; Gajranib, K.; Bhargavac, A. [Rajasthan Technical Univ.. Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kota (India)

    2012-07-01

    Due to rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels, new renewable technologies for electricity generation are insisted upon to meet the continuous growing demand of energy all across the globe. Wind energy as a green energy is a favorable option, among other available renewable sources. The offshore wind farm capacity is growing rapidly, but it's uncertain and intermittent nature offers great challenges to power system engineers. The cost of repair and down time, results into extensive damage and reduced profitability. This necessitates the requirement of fast and reliable communication network for the monitoring and controlling of the wind farm. In this paper, we have proposed the communication network for medium offshore wind farm (160MW). The wind farm consists of four clusters; each cluster comprises of 10 Wind Turbines (WTs), each of capacity 4MW. A WT can be represented by nine logical nodes according to IEC-61400-25 standard. The functions of logical nodes are modeled in terms of analogue /status/control information. The wind farm has been modeled in OPNET modeler and the performance of the communication network is evaluated in terms of End to End delay and packet drop, using Synchronous Optical NETwork (SONET) standard. (Author)

  6. Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the

  7. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Juhl, A.; Gram Hansen, K.; Biebhardt, J. (and others)

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  8. Turbulent Flow Properties Around a Staggered Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2011-12-01

    The fundamental properties of turbulent flow around a perfectly staggered wind farm are investigated in a wind tunnel. The wind farm consisted of a series of 10 rows by 2-3 columns of miniature wind turbines spaced 5 and 4 rotor diameters in the streamwise and spanwise directions respectively. It was placed in a boundary-layer flow developed over a smooth surface under thermally neutral conditions. Cross-wire anemometry was used to obtain high resolution measurements of streamwise and vertical velocity components at various locations within and above the wind farm. The results show that the staggered configuration is more efficient in terms of momentum transfer from the background flow to the turbines compared to the case of an aligned wind turbine array under similar turbine separations in the streamwise and spanwise directions. This leads to improved power output of the overall wind farm. A simplified analysis suggests that the difference in power output between the two configurations is on the order of 10%. The maximum levels of turbulence intensity in the staggered wind farm were found to be very similar to that observed in the wake of a single wind turbine, differing substantially with that observed in an aligned configuration with similar spacing. The dramatic changes in momentum and turbulence characteristics in the two configurations show the importance of turbine layout in engineering design. Lateral homogenization of the turbulence statistics above the wind farm allows for the development of simple parametrizations for the adjustment of flow properties, similar to the case of a surface roughness transition. The development of an internal boundary layer was observed at the upper edge of the wind farm within which the flow statistics are affected by the superposition of the ambient flow and the flow disturbance induced by the wind turbines. The adjustment of the flow in this layer is much slower in the staggered situation (with respect to its aligned

  9. Water-hydraulic power transmission for offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.; Kempenaar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art of offshore wind turbine power transmission technology is expensive, heavy and maintenance intensive. The Delft Offshore Turbine project considers a radically new concept for power transmission in an offshore wind farm: using seawater as power transmission medium. For

  10. Centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms using hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which the electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A centralized

  11. Simulating coastal effects on an offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick

    are build in the vicinity of a coastline. In this study, we simulate the effect of the Danish Peninsula Djursland on the Anholt offshore wind farm, using a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) setup.2 The coastline is modeled as a roughness change, the wind turbines are represented by actuator disks...

  12. Simulation of wake effects between two wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Palma, Jose

    2015-01-01

    SCADA data, recorded on the downstream wind farm, has been used to identify flow cases with visible clustering effects. The inflow condition is derived from a partly undisturbed wind turbine, due to lack of mast measurements. The SCADA data analysis concludes that centre of the deficit for the do...

  13. Summary of Wind Farm Performance Decline in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Staffell, IL; Green, RJ

    2014-01-01

    05.03.14 KB. Ok to add working paper to spiral, copyright with authors This note provides a summary of the paper ?How does wind farm performance decline with age?? Renewable Energy, vol. 65, pp 775-786, which is available to download from tinyurl.com/wind-decline.

  14. Wind Farm Protection Systems: State of the Art and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kawady, Tamer A.; Mansour, Naema M.; Taalab, Abdel-Maksoud I.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter emphasized the basic outline of the common configuration of protective relays that are usually utilized with modern wind energy conversion systems. Electrical faults occurring into the different zones of wind farms were described. Accordingly, different problems arise with the simple and non-integrated protection schemes that are usually

  15. Challenges in simulating coastal effects on an offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, M. P.; Peña, A.; Volker, P.; Hansen, K. S.; Sørensen, N. N.; Ott, S.; Hasager, C. B.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of a coastline on an offshore wind farm is investigated with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The trends of the RANS model compare relatively well with results from a mesoscale model and measurements of wind turbine power. In addition, challenges of modeling a large domain in RANS are discussed.

  16. Challenges in simulating coastal effects on an offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Peña, Alfredo; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The effect of a coastline on an offshore wind farm is investigated with a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. The trends of the RANS model compare relatively well with results from a mesoscale model and measurements of wind turbine power. In addition, challenges of modeling a large domain...

  17. Simulation of Wind Farms in Flat & Complex terrain using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prospathopoulos, John; Cabezon, D.; Politis, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods to predict the power production from wind entire wind farms in flat and complex terrain is presented in this paper. Two full 3D Navier–Stokes solvers for incompressible flow are employed that incorporate the k–ε and k–ω turbulence models respectively...

  18. Modelling and measurements of wakes in large wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Rathmann, Ole; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents research conducted in the Flow workpackage of the EU funded UPWIND project which focuses on improving models of flow within and downwind of large wind farms in complex terrain and offshore. The main activity is modelling the behaviour of wind turbine wakes in order to improve p...

  19. Improved Formulation for the Optimization of Wind Turbine Placement in a Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Geem, Zong Woo; Hong, Junhee

    2013-01-01

    As an alternative to fossil fuels, wind can be considered because it is a renewable and greenhouse gas-free natural resource. When wind power is generated by wind turbines in a wind farm, the optimal placement of turbines is critical because different layouts produce different efficiencies. The objective of the wind turbine placement problem is to maximize the generated power while minimizing the cost in installing the turbines. This study proposes an efficient optimization formulation for th...

  20. Calculating carbon budgets of wind farms on Scottish peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Nayak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of calculation methods for the carbon emission savings to be achieved in Scotland by replacing power generated from fossil fuels (and other more conventional sources with that produced by large-scale wind farm developments is a cause for concern, largely in relation to wind farms sited on peatlands. Scottish Government policy is to deliver renewable energy without environmental harm, and to meet biodiversity objectives including the conservation of designated wildlife sites and important habitats such as peatlands. The implications for carbon emissions of developing a wind farm are, therefore, just one aspect of the suite of considerations that the planning system takes into account. This paper presents a simple methodology for prospectively calculating the potential carbon emission savings to be realised by developing wind farms on peatland, forestland or afforested peatland. The total carbon emission savings of an individual wind farm are estimated by accounting emissions from the power source that will be replaced by wind power against: loss of carbon due to production, transportation, erection, operation and dismantling of the wind farm components (the infrastructure overhead; loss of carbon due to backup power generation; loss of carbon stored in peat and forest; loss of carbon-fixing potential of peatland and forest; and carbon savings due to habitat improvement. Most of the carbon losses are determined by national infrastructure, but those from peat soil and plants are influenced by site selection and management practices. The extent of drainage around each constructed element of the wind farm is a major factor for greenhouse gas emissions. Consideration of an example site with a low extent of drainage, where management practices that minimise net carbon losses (e.g. undrained floating roads, habitat improvement and site restoration on decommissioning were used indicates that emissions from the soil and plants may cancel

  1. New Models for Maintenance of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian R.

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) processes are important for keeping offshore wind turbines in operation. Costs related to such activities constitute approximately 30% of the lifetime cost of an offshore wind farm project. Currently, the offshore wind energy industry has shown a rapid increase....... First, how lean can be instituted in an offshore wind farm was investigated. The research included investigations of how lean has contributed to the reduction of scheduled maintenance time as well as the increase of wind turbine availability. Based on field studies, seven types of O&M wastes related...... to offshore wind turbines were defined, from which findings from the case study on lean were analysed. In this analysis it is identified that Modularisation involving maintenance resources and tasks can be used to streamline operations and maintenance processes further. For the medium-term tactical...

  2. Different Transportation and Maintenance Strategies for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Inspections as well as transportation of personnel and repair parts are a significant contributor to the levelized cost of energy for offshore wind turbines. There are different operation and maintenance (O&M) strategies for offshore wind turbines. Maintenance can be performed preventively...... by replacing the component before it breaks down or correctively by replacing it after it failed. A boat or helicopter can be used for transporting personnel and equipment from shore to the wind turbine. This article compares, among others, a risk-based inspection and maintenance approach for an offshore wind...... turbine farm with other O&M approaches where only boats are used to access the offshore wind turbines or where the downtime of the devices are minimized. This article presents a dynamic approach for total operation and maintenance cost estimations of offshore wind turbine farms including real weather data...

  3. Probabilistic Capacity of a Grid connected Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Distribution Factor (PTDF) and voltage sensitivities, a predictor-corrector method is suggested to calculate the acceptable active power injection. Then this method is combined with the probabilistic model of wind power to compute the allowable capacity of the wind farm. Finally, an example is illustrated......This paper proposes a method to find the maximum acceptable wind power injection regarding the thermal limits, steady state stability limits and voltage limits of the grid system. The probabilistic wind power is introduced based on the probability distribution of wind speed. Based on Power Transfer...

  4. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Rasmussen, Leif; Peña, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea...... conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily...

  5. DOE/SNL-TTU scaled wind farm technology facility :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; White, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    The proposed DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) hosted by Texas Tech University at Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, will provide a facility for experimental study of turbine-turbine interaction and complex wind farm aerodynamics. This document surveys the current status of wind turbine wake and turbine-turbine interaction research, identifying knowledge and data gaps that the proposed test site can potentially fill. A number of turbine layouts is proposed, allowing for up to ten turbines at the site.

  6. Aspects of relevance in offshore wind farm reliability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barberis Negra, N.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide increase of installed wind power capacity demands the inclusion of wind farm (WF) models into power system reliability assessment. This paper looks at this issue from available literature, and presenys a list of factors that highly influence offshore WF generation. An example...... of sequential Monte Carlo simulation applied to an offshore WF is described using a new synthetic wind-speed generator. The simulation includes some of the reliability factors highlighted in the paper and their influence on reliability assessment....

  7. Research of STATCOM Impact on Wind Farm LVRT and Protection

    OpenAIRE

    YI Hai-dong; YUAN Tie-jiang; CHAO Qin; YANG Bai-jie

    2012-01-01

    Because of the wind turbine which possesses low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability can keep on working during the system fault, greatly reduce the adverse effects of power grid and ensure the relay protection reliability. However, the asynchronous wind turbine which widely used in home and abroad doesn’t have enough LVRT capability. So this paper proposes a method to enhance the LVRT capability of fixed speed induction generator (FSIG) based on wind farm using static synchronous compensat...

  8. Wind Farm Dispatch Control for Demand Tracking and Minimized Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for dispatching production references to the individual turbines in a wind farm, such that an overall production demand for the farm is obeyed, while the fatigue experienced by the turbines is minimized. Using a turbine fatigue model for simulating the aging across t...... the farm, we show that a 17 % reduction of the turbine aging can be obtained compared to a commonly employed industrial dispatcher, without degrading the power demand tracking.......This work presents a strategy for dispatching production references to the individual turbines in a wind farm, such that an overall production demand for the farm is obeyed, while the fatigue experienced by the turbines is minimized. Using a turbine fatigue model for simulating the aging across...

  9. Power deficits due to wind turbine wakes at Horns Rev wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Jensen, Leo E.

    2010-01-01

    The wind turbine operational charac-teristics, power measurements and the meteorological measurements as 10 minute statistical data from Horns Rev offshore wind farm have been identified, synchronized, quality screened and stored in a common database. A number of flow cases have been identified t...... to describe the flow inside the wind farm and the flow deficits along rows of wind turbines have been determined for different inflow directions and wind speed intervals. Furthermore the maximum power deficit has been determined as function of ambient turbulence intensity.......The wind turbine operational charac-teristics, power measurements and the meteorological measurements as 10 minute statistical data from Horns Rev offshore wind farm have been identified, synchronized, quality screened and stored in a common database. A number of flow cases have been identified...

  10. Comparative evaluation of different offshore wind turbine installation vessels for Korean west–south wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate various means of wind power turbines installation in the Korean west–south wind farm (Test bed 100 MW, Demonstrate site 400 MW. We presented the marine environment of the southwest offshore wind farm in order to decide the appropriate installation vessel to be used in this site. The various vessels would be WTIV (Wind turbine installation vessel, jack-up barge, or floating crane … etc. We analyzed the installation cost of offshore wind turbine and the transportation duration for each vessel. The analysis results showed the most suitable installation means for offshore wind turbine in the Korean west–south wind farm.

  11. Actuator disk model of wind farms based on the rotor average wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xing Xing; Xu, Chang; Liu, De You

    2016-01-01

    Due to difficulty of estimating the reference wind speed for wake modeling in wind farm, this paper proposes a new method to calculate the momentum source based on the rotor average wind speed. The proposed model applies volume correction factor to reduce the influence of the mesh recognition...... of disk regions. The coefficient C4ε of the turbulent source term is also discussed and modified to improve the simulation accuracy. To validate the model, results are presented for the Nibe-B wind turbine and Horns Rev I offshore wind farm and show a good agreement with the measurements....

  12. TOPFARM: Multi-fidelity optimization of wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Fuglsang, Peter; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2014-01-01

    design of the Middelgrunden wind farm, this work focuses on demonstrating a method that optimizes the profit of wind farms over their lifetime based on a balance of the energy production income, the electrical grid costs, the foundations cost, and the cost of wake turbulence induced fatigue degradation...... a simple stationary wind farm wake model to estimate the Annual Energy Production (AEP), a foundations cost model depending on the water depth and an electrical grid cost function dictated by cable length. The second level calculates the AEP and adds a wake-induced fatigue degradation cost function...... on the basis of the interpolation in a database of simulations performed for various wind speeds and wake setups with the aero-elastic code HAWC2 and the dynamic wake meandering model. The third level, not considered in this present paper, includes directly the HAWC2 and the dynamic wake meandering model...

  13. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double...... fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  14. Prospects for generating electricity by large onshore and offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Patrick J. H.; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake; Jørgensen, Hans E.

    2017-03-01

    The decarbonisation of energy sources requires additional investments in renewable technologies, including the installation of onshore and offshore wind farms. For wind energy to remain competitive, wind farms must continue to provide low-cost power even when covering larger areas. Inside very large wind farms, winds can decrease considerably from their free-stream values to a point where an equilibrium wind speed is reached. The magnitude of this equilibrium wind speed is primarily dependent on the balance between turbine drag force and the downward momentum influx from above the wind farm. We have simulated for neutral atmospheric conditions, the wind speed field inside different wind farms that range from small (25 km2) to very large (105 km2) in three regions with distinct wind speed and roughness conditions. Our results show that the power density of very large wind farms depends on the local free-stream wind speed, the surface characteristics, and the turbine density. In onshore regions with moderate winds the power density of very large wind farms reaches 1 W m-2, whereas in offshore regions with very strong winds it exceeds 3 W m-2. Despite a relatively low power density, onshore regions with moderate winds offer potential locations for very large wind farms. In offshore regions, clusters of smaller wind farms are generally preferable; under very strong winds also very large offshore wind farms become efficient.

  15. Flight Leader Concept for Wind Farm Load Counting. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Braam, H. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Within the We at Sea project 'Flight Leader Concept for Wind Farm Load Counting and Performance Assessment' a cost-effective methodology has been developed for assessing the load accumulation of all turbines in an offshore wind farm. Instead of equipping all turbines with mechanical load measurements only a few reference (Flight Leader) turbines are extensively instrumented. Using data from these turbines relations between standard SCADA parameters and load indicators, which are representative for the ageing or degradation of a certain wind turbine component, are established. Once such relationships are determined these can be combined with SCADA data from the other turbines in the wind farm. This enables the determination of the accumulated loading on all turbines in the farm. A demo version of a software model has been developed in MATLAB. The software includes all aspects of the Flight Leader concept and is intended to be used by operators of offshore wind farms and can be applied to process the SCADA data and mechanical load measurements from an (offshore) wind farm. The main output of the model is a comparison of the accumulated mechanical loading of all turbines in the offshore wind farm. This information can subsequently be used to optimise O and M strategies, for example by prioritising the inspection or replacement of certain components on the heavier loaded turbines. The developed software model has been implemented at the ECN Wind turbine Test location Wieringermeer (EWTW), Netherlands. Several analyses have been performed where the main goal of the research was to assess if the Flight Leader principle can be accurately applied in practice. In addition to this the research had the goal to determine what method is best used for characterising the relation between SCADA parameters and load indicator, which is essentially the core of the Flight Leader principle. Furthermore it has been tried to identify the contributors to insecurities in the

  16. Flow and wakes in large wind farms: Final report for UpWind WP8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Rathmann, Ole

    This report summarises the research undertaken through the European Commission funded project UpWind Wp8:Flow. The objective of the work was to develop understanding of flow in large wind farms and to evaluate models of power losses due to wind turbine wakes focusing on complex terrain and offsho...

  17. Guest Editorial Modeling and Advanced Control of Wind Turbines/Wind Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.; Hou, Y.; Zhu, Z.; Xu, D.; Xu, D.; Muljadi, E.; Liu, F.; Iwanski, G.; Geng, H.; Erlich, I.; Wen, J.; Harnefors, L.; Fan, L.; El Moursi, M. S.; Kjaer, P. C.; Nelson, R. J.; Cardenas, R.; Feng, S.; Islam, S.; Qiao, W.; Yuan, X.

    2017-09-01

    The papers in this special section brings together papers focused on the recent advancements and breakthroughs in the technology of modeling and enhanced active/reactive power control of wind power conversion systems, ranging from components of wind turbines to wind farms.

  18. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, Erich

    2013-01-01

    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  19. Wake Mitigation Strategies for Optimizing Wind Farm Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip, Deepu; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Although wind turbines are designed individually for optimum power production, they are often arranged into groups of closely spaced turbines in a wind farm rather than in isolation. Consequently, most turbines in a wind farm do not operate in unobstructed wind flows, but are affected by the wakes of turbines in front of them. Such wake interference significantly reduces the overall power generation from wind farms and hence, development of effective wake mitigation strategies is critical for improving wind farm efficiency. One approach towards this end is based on the notion that the operation of each turbine in a wind farm at its optimum efficiency might not lead to optimum power generation from the wind farm as a whole. This entails a down regulation of individual turbines from its optimum operating point, which can be achieved through different methods such as pitching the turbine blades, changing the turbine tip speed ratio or yawing of the turbine, to name a few. In this study, large-eddy simulations of a two-turbine arrangement with the second turbine fully in the wake of the first are performed. Different wake mitigation techniques are applied to the upstream turbine, and the effects of these on its wake characteristics are investigated. Results for the combined power from the two turbines for each of these methods are compared to a baseline scenario where no wake mitigation strategies are employed. Analysis of the results shows the potential for improved power production from such wake control methods. It should be noted, however, that the magnitude of the improvement is strongly affected by the level of turbulence in the incoming atmospheric flow.

  20. Offshore wind farms and their impact on North Sea stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. R.; Clark, S.; Merckelbach, L.; Callies, U.; Gaslikova, L.; Baschek, B.

    2016-02-01

    In expanding wind energy generation to offshore regions, wind farms are now being operated and constructed in coastal seas that form a seasonal stratification. This stratification develops as increased solar radiation and heating warm the upper ocean in summer. It has a dominant influence on numerous ocean processes such as the growth and distribution of phytoplankton, as well as on the distribution of suspended sediment concentrations. The formation of stratification is opposed by turbulent mixing processes such as bottom boundary layer friction, and wave breaking in the surface mixed layer. However, as more wind farms are built in coastal areas that exhibit strong tidal currents, the turbulence generated as the currents interact with the wind farm foundation structures is expected to contribute to an enhanced mixing of the water column. This is especially true in the North Sea, where proposed wind farm developments comprise thousands of wind mills occupying a significant fraction of the offshore area. With these proposed developments in mind, we examine whether it is possible for the turbulence and mixing generated by these structures to have an impact on the formation of stratification. This is done by combining a series of idealized mixing models with both in-situ observations and numerical modeling of the North Sea. The results show that it is possible for the wind farms to have an influence on the large-scale stratification of the North Sea, but only when the development is particularly dense and widespread. Most important, we find that the amount of mixing is sensitive to both the type and placement of the wind farm foundation structures, as well as on the evolution of the stratification - both of which are currently not well known.

  1. Evaluation of Quality of Life of Those Living near a Wind Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Bożena; Banaś, Joanna; Machowska-Szewczyk, Małgorzata; Kurpas, Donata

    2015-05-29

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) can serve as a multidimensional means of evaluating the relationship between the presence of wind turbines in residential areas and their consequence for health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the presence of wind farms at different stages of development and the HRQoL of people living in their vicinity in Poland. The instruments employed in this study were the SF-36v2, a questionnaire measuring self-reported health problems, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The study involved 1277 people who lived within 2 km from a wind turbine. The highest overall QoL scores were obtained by respondents living the closest to wind turbines. The mental health, role emotional, and social functioning scores were significantly higher among respondents living near wind farms and wind-farm construction sites than among those living close to locations where wind farms were planned but where construction had not yet begun. Positive correlations were found between physical and mental component scores and reactions to the news of plans to construct a wind farm. Significant differences in physical and mental component scores were observed between residents who reacted calmly and those who responded with apprehension. Residents who expected the improvement of their financial standing as a result of the wind farm assessed their general health higher than those who did not expect to receive any economic benefits. The lowest QoL scores corresponded to frequent headaches, stomach aches, and back pain over the previous three months, as well as recurrent problems with falling asleep, anxiety, and a lack of acceptance of the project. The lowest overall QoL and general health scores were noted among residents of places where wind-farm developments were either at the stage of planning or under construction. In order to find ways of reducing environmental stress and its adverse effects on health, it is

  2. Evaluation of Quality of Life of Those Living near a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL can serve as a multidimensional means of evaluating the relationship between the presence of wind turbines in residential areas and their consequence for health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the presence of wind farms at different stages of development and the HRQoL of people living in their vicinity in Poland. Method: The instruments employed in this study were the SF-36v2, a questionnaire measuring self-reported health problems, and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The study involved 1277 people who lived within 2 km from a wind turbine. Results: The highest overall QoL scores were obtained by respondents living the closest to wind turbines. The mental health, role emotional, and social functioning scores were significantly higher among respondents living near wind farms and wind-farm construction sites than among those living close to locations where wind farms were planned but where construction had not yet begun. Positive correlations were found between physical and mental component scores and reactions to the news of plans to construct a wind farm. Significant differences in physical and mental component scores were observed between residents who reacted calmly and those who responded with apprehension. Residents who expected the improvement of their financial standing as a result of the wind farm assessed their general health higher than those who did not expect to receive any economic benefits. The lowest QoL scores corresponded to frequent headaches, stomach aches, and back pain over the previous three months, as well as recurrent problems with falling asleep, anxiety, and a lack of acceptance of the project. Conclusion: The lowest overall QoL and general health scores were noted among residents of places where wind-farm developments were either at the stage of planning or under construction. In order to find ways of reducing

  3. Multi-time scale energy management of wind farms based on comprehensive evaluation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. P.; Huang, Y. H.; Liu, Z. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Guo, L.

    2017-11-01

    A novel energy management of wind farms is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel comprehensive evaluation system is proposed to quantify economic properties of each wind farm to make the energy management more economical and reasonable. Then, a combination of multi time-scale schedule method is proposed to develop a novel energy management. The day-ahead schedule optimizes unit commitment of thermal power generators. The intraday schedule is established to optimize power generation plan for all thermal power generating units, hydroelectric generating sets and wind power plants. At last, the power generation plan can be timely revised in the process of on-line schedule. The paper concludes with simulations conducted on a real provincial integrated energy system in northeast China. Simulation results have validated the proposed model and corresponding solving algorithms.

  4. Active Power Dispatch Method for a Wind Farm Central Controller Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Su, Chi; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Optimization (PSO) is used to obtain the optimal wind power for each wind turbine. A case study is carried out. The available wind power of the wind farm was compared between the traditional dispatch method and the proposed dispatch method with the consideration of the wake effect.......With the increasing integration of the wind power into the power system, wind farm are required to be controlled as a single unit and have all the same control tasks as conventional power plants. The wind farm central controller receives control orders from Transmission System Operator (TSO...... efficient of upstream wind turbines in the wind farm influences the downstream wind speed which determines the available wind power of the downstream wind turbine. Optimize the wind power production of each wind turbine in the wind farm by the optimization of the pitch angle and tip-speed-ratio of each...

  5. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm.

  6. Operation and Equivalent Loads of Wind Turbines in Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Soren Juhl; Sorensen, Jens Norkaer; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2017-11-01

    Wind farms continue to grow in size and as the technology matures, the design of wind farms move towards including dynamic effects besides merely annual power production estimates. The unsteady operation of wind turbines in large wind farms has been modelled with EllipSys3D(Michelsen, 1992, and Sørensen, 1995) for a number of different scenarios using a fully coupled large eddy simulations(LES) and aero-elastic framework. The turbines are represented in the flow fields using the actuator line method(Sørensen and Shen, 2002), where the aerodynamic forces and deflections are derived from an aero-elastic code, Flex5(Øye, 1996). The simulations constitute a database of full turbine operation in terms of both production and loads for various wind speeds, turbulence intensities, and turbine spacings. The operating conditions are examined in terms of averaged power production and thrust force, as well as 10min equivalent flapwise bending, yaw, and tilt moment loads. The analyses focus on how the performance and loads change throughout a given farm as well as comparing how various input parameters affect the operation and loads of the wind turbines during different scenarios. COMWIND(Grant 2104-09- 067216/DSF), Nordic Consortium on Optimization and Control of Wind Farms, Eurotech Greentech Wind project, Winds2Loads, and CCA LES. Ressources Granted on SNIC and JESS. The Vestas NM80 turbine has been used.

  7. Underwater acoustic characteristics of the OWEZ wind farm operation (T1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de D.; Burggraaf, D.; Wal, van der J.T.; Hal, van R.

    2013-01-01

    In Holland the first two offshore wind farms, the Offshore Wind Farm Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ) and “Prinses Amalia” were built in respectively 2006 and 2007. Beside the main goal of producing electric energy from wind resource the construction of the first wind farm (OWEZ) was also used to demonstrate

  8. Forecasting wind power production from a wind farm using the RAMS model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiriolo, L.; Torcasio, R. C.; Montesanti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of wind power forecast is commonly recognized because it represents a useful tool for grid integration and facilitates the energy trading. This work considers an example of power forecast for a wind farm in the Apennines in Central Italy. The orography around the site is complex...... and the horizontal resolution of the wind forecast has an important role. To explore this point we compared the performance of two 48 h wind power forecasts using the winds predicted by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) for the year 2011. The two forecasts differ only for the horizontal resolution...... of the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS), whose horizontal resolution over Central Italy is about 25 km at the time considered in this paper. Because wind observations were not available for the site, the power curve for the whole wind farm was derived from the ECMWF wind operational analyses available...

  9. Modelling of offshore wind turbine wakes with the wind farm program FLaP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, B.; Waldl, H.P.; Guerrero, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    behind one rotor. Here an approach based on the simplified Reynolds equation with eddy viscosity closure is chosen. The single-wakemodel is combined with a model for the vertical wind speed profile and a wind farm model, which takes care of the interaction of all wakes in a wind farm. The wake model has...... intensities in the wake are compared for single-, double- and quintuple-wake cases with different mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and atmospheric stability. It is found that within the measurement uncertainties the results of the wake model compare well with the measurements for the most important...... ambient conditions. The effect of the low turbulence intensity offshore on the wake development is modelled well for Vindeby wind farm. Deviations are found when atmospheric stability deviates from near-neutral conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions both the free vertical wind speed profile...

  10. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime ofcomponents, especially in the nacelle. During the 3½ years of the project, software and hardware......The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since...... delivered by DMI and Risø’s Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverseinformation sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open...

  11. Numerical study of ocean wave effect on offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lian; Yang, Di; Meneveau, Charles

    2013-11-01

    Wind power at sea has become increasingly important in renewable energy study. For energy harvesting, winds over oceans have many advantages over winds on land, for example, larger and open surface area, faster wind speed, and more wind resource close to high population regions. On the other hand, the presence of ocean waves introduces complexities to wind turbines. There is a critical need to study the dynamical interactions among marine atmospheric boundary layer, ocean wave field, and floating turbines. In this research, we study offshore wind farm by performing large-eddy simulations for winds coupled with potential-flow-theory based simulations for broadband irregular waves, with the wind turbines represented by an actuator disk model. Our results show that windseas at different development stages result in different sea-surface roughness and have an appreciable effect on wind profile and the energy extraction rate of the turbines. If swells are present, swell-to-wind momentum and energy transfer further changes the wind field to introduce oscillations in as well as modify the mean of the wind power. DY and LS acknowledge the support of NSF-CBET-1341062. CM acknowledges the support of NSF-AGS-1045189 and NSF-OISE-1243482.

  12. Introduction Wind farms in complex terrains: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, P H; Segalini, A

    2017-04-13

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of sustainable energy production. As more wind turbines are coming into operation, the best locations are already becoming occupied by turbines, and wind-farm developers have to look for new and still available areas-locations that may not be ideal such as complex terrain landscapes. In these locations, turbulence and wind shear are higher, and in general wind conditions are harder to predict. Also, the modelling of the wakes behind the turbines is more complicated, which makes energy-yield estimates more uncertain than under ideal conditions. This theme issue includes 10 research papers devoted to various fluid-mechanics aspects of using wind energy in complex terrains and illustrates recent progress and future developments in this important field.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Introduction Wind farms in complex terrains: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, P. H.; Segalini, A.

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of sustainable energy production. As more wind turbines are coming into operation, the best locations are already becoming occupied by turbines, and wind-farm developers have to look for new and still available areas—locations that may not be ideal such as complex terrain landscapes. In these locations, turbulence and wind shear are higher, and in general wind conditions are harder to predict. Also, the modelling of the wakes behind the turbines is more complicated, which makes energy-yield estimates more uncertain than under ideal conditions. This theme issue includes 10 research papers devoted to various fluid-mechanics aspects of using wind energy in complex terrains and illustrates recent progress and future developments in this important field. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Wind energy in complex terrains’. PMID:28265020

  14. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose...... to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is sustained, and normal grid operation can resume, after the fault is cleared. Transient faults in the transmission system often cause power......The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...

  15. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Favorius; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Favorius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Favorius) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Favorius in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  16. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Okeanos; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Okeanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Okeanos in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  17. Wind energy for the future. Scoping document for the wind turbine farm Thetys; Windenergie voor de toekomst. Startnotitie Windpark Thetys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Molen-Balk, J.A.M.; Beerlage, B.F.M.; Van de Putte, B.H.M.

    2005-05-15

    ARCADIS pans to build a wind turbine farm (named Thetys) in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Dutch Continental Shelf. In the licensing procedure also an environmental impact report must be drafted. [Dutch] ARCADIS wil, als initiatiefnemer, een vergunning aanvragen op grond van de Wet beheer rijkswaterstaatwerken (Wbr) voor de ontwikkeling van het windturbinepark Thetys in de Exclusieve Economische Zone (EEZ) op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. Ten behoeve van de vergunningverlening wordt de procedure van de milieueffectrapportage (m.e.r.) doorlopen.

  18. Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

  19. Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations ΦP exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f-5 /3 -2 in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, ΦP˜f-2 . Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

  20. Wind resource modelling for micro-siting - Validation at a 60-MW wind farm site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.C.; Gylling Mortensen, N. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Said, U.S. [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigates and validates the applicability of the WAsP-model for layout optimization and micro-siting of wind turbines at a given site for a 60-MW wind farm at Zafarana at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt. Previous investigations show large gradients in the wind climate within the area. For the design and optimization of the wind farm it was found necessary to verify the WAsP extrapolation of wind atlas results from 2 existing meteorological masts located 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. On-site measurements at the 3.5 x 3.5 km{sup 2} wind farm site in combination with 7 years of near-site wind atlas measurements offer significant amounts of data for verification of wind conditions for micro-siting. Wind speeds, wind directions, turbulence intensities and guests in 47.5 m a.g.l. have been measured at 9 locations across the site. Additionally, one of the site masts is equipped as a reference mast, measuring both vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature as well as air pressure and temperature. The exercise is further facilitated by the fact that winds are highly uni-directional; the north direction accounting for 80-90% of the wind resource. The paper presents comparisons of 5 months of on-site measurements and modeled predictions from 2 existing meteorological masts located at distances of 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. Predictions based on terrain descriptions of the Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez 1991-95 showed over-predictions of wind speeds of 4-10%. With calibrated terrain descriptions, made based on measured data and a re-visit to critical parts of the terrain, the average prediction error of wind speeds was reduced to about 1%. These deviations are smaller than generally expected for such wind resource modeling, clearly documenting the validity of using WAsP modeling for micro-siting and layout optimization of the wind farm. (au)

  1. Simulation and optimal control of wind-farm boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay

    2014-05-01

    In large wind farms, the effect of turbine wakes, and their interaction leads to a reduction in farm efficiency, with power generated by turbines in a farm being lower than that of a lone-standing turbine by up to 50%. In very large wind farms or `deep arrays', this efficiency loss is related to interaction of the wind farms with the planetary boundary layer, leading to lower wind speeds at turbine level. Moreover, for these cases it has been demonstrated both in simulations and wind-tunnel experiments that the wind-farm energy extraction is dominated by the vertical turbulent transport of kinetic energy from higher regions in the boundary layer towards the turbine level. In the current study, we investigate the use of optimal control techniques combined with Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of wind-farm boundary layer interaction for the increase of total energy extraction in very large `infinite' wind farms. We consider the individual wind turbines as flow actuators, whose energy extraction can be dynamically regulated in time so as to optimally influence the turbulent flow field, maximizing the wind farm power. For the simulation of wind-farm boundary layers we use large-eddy simulations in combination with actuator-disk and actuator-line representations of wind turbines. Simulations are performed in our in-house pseudo-spectral code SP-Wind that combines Fourier-spectral discretization in horizontal directions with a fourth-order finite-volume approach in the vertical direction. For the optimal control study, we consider the dynamic control of turbine-thrust coefficients in an actuator-disk model. They represent the effect of turbine blades that can actively pitch in time, changing the lift- and drag coefficients of the turbine blades. Optimal model-predictive control (or optimal receding horizon control) is used, where the model simply consists of the full LES equations, and the time horizon is approximately 280 seconds. The optimization is performed using a

  2. Model Based Open-Loop Wind Farm Control Using Active Power for Power Increase and Load Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hyungyu Kim; Kwansu Kim; Insu Paek

    2017-01-01

    A new wind farm control algorithm that adjusts the power output of the most upstream wind turbine in a wind farm for power increase and load reduction was developed in this study. The algorithm finds power commands to individual wind turbines to maximize the total power output from the wind farm when the power command from the transmission system operator is larger than the total available power from the wind farm. To validate this wind farm control algorithm, a relatively high fidelity wind ...

  3. Optimal Operation Planning of Wind Farm Installed BESS Using Wind Power Forecast Data of Wind Turbine Generators Considering Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Kazuki; Kamiyama, Shota; Palmer, Michael; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    2013-06-01

    In order to solve the problems of global warming and depletion of energy resource, renewable energy systems such as wind generation are getting attention. However, wind power fluctuates due to variation of wind speed, and it is difficult to perfectly forecast wind power. This paper describes a method to use power forecast data of wind turbine generators considering wind power forecast error for optimal operation. The purpose in this paper is to smooth the output power fluctuation of a wind farm and to obtain more beneficial electrical power for selling.

  4. Faults in the Collection Grid of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunow, Morten Erlandsson; Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with transient conditions in the collection grid of offshore wind farms under different faults. A model of a standard wind farm was established in two versions, with a floating and a grounded collection grid respectively. Line to ground faults and three-phase to ground faults were...... applied at critical points at worst-case phase angle and the results compared. The simulations show that it is better with a grounded collection grid, since lack of a ground reference will prevent the system from recovering after a line to ground fault....

  5. Comparative study of the behavior of wind-turbines in a wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando; Jimenez, Angel [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos; Moreno, Fermin [Comision Nacional de la Energia, Madrid (Spain); Costa, Alexandre [Energia Eolica, Division de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    The Sotavento wind farm is an experimental wind farm which has different types of wind turbines. It is located in an area whose topography is moderately complex, and where wake effects can be significant. One of the objectives of Sotavento wind farm is to compare the performances of the different machines; particularly regarding power production, maintenance and failures. However, because of wakes and topography, the different machines are not working under identical conditions. Two linearized codes have been used to estimate topography effects: UPMORO and WAsP. For wind directions in which topography is abrupt, the non-linear flow equations have been solved with the commercial code FLUENT, although the results are only qualitatively used. For wake effects, the UPMPARK code has been applied. As a result, the incident velocity over each wind turbine is obtained, and the power production is estimated by means of the power curve of each machine. Experimental measurements give simultaneously the wind characteristics at the measuring stations, the wind velocity, at the nacelle anemometer, and the power production of each wind turbine. These experimental results are employed to validate the numerical predictions. The main objective of this work is to deduce and validate a relationship between the wind characteristics measured in the anemometers and the wind velocity and the power output in each machine. (author)

  6. Wind tunnel measurements of wake structure and wind farm power for actuator disk model wind turbines in yaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Michael; Bossuyt, Juliaan; Kang, Justin; Meyers, Johan; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Reducing wake losses in wind farms by deflecting the wakes through turbine yawing has been shown to be a feasible wind farm control approach. In this work, the deflection and morphology of wakes behind a wind turbine operating in yawed conditions are studied using wind tunnel experiments of a wind turbine modeled as a porous disk in a uniform inflow. First, by measuring velocity distributions at various downstream positions and comparing with prior studies, we confirm that the nonrotating wind turbine model in yaw generates realistic wake deflections. Second, we characterize the wake shape and make observations of what is termed a "curled wake," displaying significant spanwise asymmetry. Through the use of a 100 porous disk micro-wind farm, total wind farm power output is studied for a variety of yaw configurations. Strain gages on the tower of the porous disk models are used to measure the thrust force as a substitute for turbine power. The frequency response of these measurements goes up to the natural frequency of the model and allows studying the spatiotemporal characteristics of the power output under the effects of yawing. This work has been funded by the National Science Foundation (Grants CBET-113380 and IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project). JB and JM are supported by ERC (ActiveWindFarms, Grant No. 306471).

  7. Wind farms impact on radar aviation interests - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poupart, G.J.

    2003-09-01

    The main objectives of the study were: to determine the effects of siting wind turbines adjacent to primary air traffic control radar; to gather the information required for the generation of guidelines by civil, military and wind farm developer stakeholders; to determine the extent to which the design of wind turbines influences their effects on radar systems and to determine the extent to which design of the radar processing influences the effects of wind turbines on radar systems. A computer model was developed to predict the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of wind turbines and understand the interaction of radar energy and turbines. The model was designed to predict and simulate the impact of wind farms on the primary radar display. Validation of the model was carried out in a full-scale trial and modelling process, with data collected from a number of sources. The model was validated against a single turbine scenario and showed an accurate prediction capability. Further validation of the model could be gained through a multiple turbine trial. The knowledge gained from the development and validation of the predictive computer model has been used to conduct a sensitivity analysis (of the sub-elements of the radar and wind farm interaction) and to compile a list of the key factors influencing the radar signature of wind turbines. The result is a more detailed quantification of the complex interactions between wind turbines and radar systems than was previously available. The key findings of how the design, size and construction materials of wind turbines affect RCS are summarised.

  8. Study of Grid Code Compliance : Thanet Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Sjölund, Malin

    2012-01-01

    The trend towards harmonizing grid codes within Europe will increase the demands for grid code compliance. Wind power is for several reasons not comparable to conventional power generation but will, due to large installations, need to show compliance with the grid codes. This thesis is investigating grid code requirements as proposed by National Grid (UK) and ENTSO-E. Modelling work and simulations have also been performed to investigate the grid ode compliance of Thanet offshore wind farm in...

  9. Observed Thermal Impacts of Wind Farms Over Northern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawsky, Lauren M; Zhou, Liming; Baidya Roy, Somnath; Xia, Geng; Vuille, Mathias; Harris, Ronald A

    2015-06-25

    This paper assesses impacts of three wind farms in northern Illinois using land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites for the period 2003-2013. Changes in LST between two periods (before and after construction of the wind turbines) and between wind farm pixels and nearby non-wind-farm pixels are quantified. An areal mean increase in LST by 0.18-0.39 °C is observed at nighttime over the wind farms, with the geographic distribution of this warming effect generally spatially coupled with the layout of the wind turbines (referred to as the spatial coupling), while there is no apparent impact on daytime LST. The nighttime LST warming effect varies with seasons, with the strongest warming in winter months of December-February, and the tightest spatial coupling in summer months of June-August. Analysis of seasonal variations in wind speed and direction from weather balloon sounding data and Automated Surface Observing System hourly observations from nearby stations suggest stronger winds correspond to seasons with greater warming and larger downwind impacts. The early morning soundings in Illinois are representative of the nighttime boundary layer and exhibit strong temperature inversions across all seasons. The strong and relatively shallow inversion in summer leaves warm air readily available to be mixed down and spatially well coupled with the turbine. Although the warming effect is strongest in winter, the spatial coupling is more erratic and spread out than in summer. These results suggest that the observed warming signal at nighttime is likely due to the net downward transport of heat from warmer air aloft to the surface, caused by the turbulent mixing in the wakes of the spinning turbine rotor blades.

  10. Observed Thermal Impacts of Wind Farms Over Northern Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Slawsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses impacts of three wind farms in northern Illinois using land surface temperature (LST data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites for the period 2003–2013. Changes in LST between two periods (before and after construction of the wind turbines and between wind farm pixels and nearby non-wind-farm pixels are quantified. An areal mean increase in LST by 0.18–0.39 °C is observed at nighttime over the wind farms, with the geographic distribution of this warming effect generally spatially coupled with the layout of the wind turbines (referred to as the spatial coupling, while there is no apparent impact on daytime LST. The nighttime LST warming effect varies with seasons, with the strongest warming in winter months of December-February, and the tightest spatial coupling in summer months of June-August. Analysis of seasonal variations in wind speed and direction from weather balloon sounding data and Automated Surface Observing System hourly observations from nearby stations suggest stronger winds correspond to seasons with greater warming and larger downwind impacts. The early morning soundings in Illinois are representative of the nighttime boundary layer and exhibit strong temperature inversions across all seasons. The strong and relatively shallow inversion in summer leaves warm air readily available to be mixed down and spatially well coupled with the turbine. Although the warming effect is strongest in winter, the spatial coupling is more erratic and spread out than in summer. These results suggest that the observed warming signal at nighttime is likely due to the net downward transport of heat from warmer air aloft to the surface, caused by the turbulent mixing in the wakes of the spinning turbine rotor blades.

  11. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...... that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development...

  12. Wind-farm simulation over moderately complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio; Castellani, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    A comparison between three independent software to estimate the power production and the flow field in a wind farm is conducted, validating them against SCADA (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition) data. The three software were ORFEUS, WindSim and WAsP: ORFEUS and WAsP are linearised solvers, while WindSim is fully nonlinear. A wake model (namely a prescribed velocity deficit associated to the turbines) is used by WAsP, while ORFEUS and WindSim use the actuator-disc method to account for the turbines presence. The comparison indicates that ORFEUS and WAsP perform slightly better than WindSim in the assessment of the polar efficiency. The wakes simulated with ORFEUS appear more persistent than the ones of WindSim, which uses a two-equation closure model for the turbulence effects.

  13. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  14. Optimized Placement of Wind Turbines in Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farm using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    . As a consequence, the optimized placement of the wind turbines may be done by considering the wake effect as well as the components cost within the wind farm. In this paper, a mathematical model which includes the variation of both wind direction and wake deficit is proposed. The problem is formulated by using......With the increasing size of wind farm, the impact of the wake effect on wind farm energy yields become more and more evident. The arrangement of the wind turbines’ (WT) locations will influence the capital investment and contribute to the wake losses which incur the reduction of energy production...... to find the optimized layout, which minimizes the LPC. The optimization procedure is applicable for optimized placement of wind turbines within wind farms and extendible for different wind conditions and capacity of wind farms....

  15. Interaction between main components in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Koldby, Erik

    The purpose of the research documented in this thesis was to establish technical and scientific methods and tools for characterizing offshore wind farms’ electrical main components and their interaction in medium- and high-frequency, taking into account different electrical conditions and wind...... response analyser. The method was validated on a 300 kVA power transformer with wye-wye winding connections giving accurate results. Large disproportions between magnitudes of eigenvalues of sub-matrices of admittance matrix are introduced when one of the windings of the transformer is ungrounded....... This results in poor fitting and the entire model being inaccurate. The accuracy of small eigenvalues was improved by performing additional measurements of zero-sequence admittance elements and approximating using vector fitting and constant-transformation matrix. The robustness of the measurement device...

  16. Environmental management framework for wind farm siting: methodology and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegou, Leda-Ioanna; Polatidis, Heracles; Haralambopoulos, Dias A

    2010-11-01

    This paper develops an integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for wind farm siting that combines multi-criteria analysis (MCA) with geographical information systems (GIS); an application of the proposed framework for the island of Lesvos, Greece, is further illustrated. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constraints, based on recent Greek legislation, identifies the potential sites for wind power installation. Furthermore, the area under consideration is evaluated by a variety of criteria, such as wind power potential, land cover type, electricity demand, visual impact, land value, and distance from the electricity grid. The pair-wise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. The overall suitability of the study region for wind farm siting is appraised through the weighted summation rule. Results showed that only a very small percentage of the total area of Lesvos could be suitable for wind farm installation, although favourable wind potential exists in many more areas of the island. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of offshore wind farms on birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag; Fox, Anthony David; Desholm, Mark

    På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle.......På konferencen "Offshore Wind Energy Development Site Assessment and Characterization: Evaluation of the Current Status and European Experience" blev der gjort rede for danske erfaringer med effekten af havvindmølleparker på havfugle....

  18. Subsynchronous Torsional Interaction of Wind Farms with FSIG Wind Turbines Connected to LCC-HVDC Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benfeng Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage direct current (HVDC lines with line-commutated converter (LCC are being increasingly employed to transmit bulk wind power over long distance. However, this may cause the sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI between the wind farms and the LCC-HVDC system. The SSTI characteristics of wind farms with fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG wind turbines connected to LCC-HVDC are investigated in this paper. To simplify the calculations, a modular modeling method is proposed for building the small-signal mathematical model of the investigated system. Small-signal analysis, participation factor analysis, and impact of dominant factors analysis are then applied to investigate the SSTI characteristics under different operating conditions. Three oscillation modes associated with the SSTI are identified in the entire system through small-signal and participation factor analysis, comprising two torsional modes and an electromechanical mode. Impact of dominant factors analysis shows that the system becomes less stable as the wind farm capacity grows and the distance between FSIG wind farm and the rectifier station increases. Moreover, the above analysis suggests that wind farms with FSIG connected to LCC-HVDC lines may not cause unstable SSTI. The electromagnetic transient simulations based on PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC verify these results.

  19. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Farms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew; Fleming, Paul

    2017-06-29

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and threeturbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  20. Offshore wind farms in the local environment - an examination at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraadet - en undersoegelse ved Horns Rev Havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm was built in 2002. A presentation is made of a sociological, qualitative survey on the local community's reception of the offshore wind farm. The survey aims at identifying attitudes towards the farm before and after the construction, with a view to identifying possible changes in attitudes, and explain the reasons for these (ml)

  1. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support.......This report describes initial results with simulation of power system control using wind farms with grid support....

  2. Economic capabilities of Polish orchard farms in 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sobierajewska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is investigation of the economic situation in orchard farms 3 years after accession to the European Union. For measurement of economic situation were used matrix relations between Return of Sales and technological effectiveness. The study backed up the results from the Polish FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network.

  3. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-04-13

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalini, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  5. Variable frequency operation of active stall wind farms using a dc connection to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sorensen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    of the active stall wind farms to the grid can provide these features and also maximize the produced power especially at low wind speeds by using variable voltage/frequency for the wind farm. The focus in this paper is in studying the variable speed operation for the active stall wind farms using a voltage...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...

  6. Dynamical and statistical-dynamical modelling of wind farm flows with WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    A pledge to increase the share of renewable energies has led to a focus on offshore wind energy in many western European countries. With an increasing number of offshore wind farms to be installed it becomes important to understand (I) the degree to which wakes from neighbouring wind farms affect...... the power production of a target wind farm and (II) how large wind farms can get if they are to remain efficient and productive power generators. The modelling of wind farm wake flows is challenging, since it includes processes from the micro- to mesoscale meteorology. We use the Weather Research...

  7. The Making of a Second-generation Wind Farm Efficiency Model Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane

    2009-01-01

    kilometres down to the size of the individual wind turbine. Flow within wind farms is difficult to predict. The analytical and modified WAsP/park models show promise; however, these require further development/evaluation. For the flow downwind of the wind farm, several intermediate-scale models fit......The paper presents research to develop a model complex that takes into account the interaction between the wind farm and the atmosphere, and between closely spaced wind farms. Six models have been reviewed and developed/adapted for use in wind farm modelling, covering scales from several hundred...

  8. Energy Yield Prediction of Offshore Wind Farm Clusters at the EERA-DTOC European Project

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, E.; Hasager, C. B.; Réthoré, P.-E.; A. Peña; Hansen, K; J. Badger; Schepers, J.G.; Faiella, L.M.; Iuga, D.; Giebel, G.; Lozano, S; SANZ, J.; Sieros, G.; Stuart, P; Young, T.

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated design tool for optimization of offshore wind farm clusters is under development in the European Energy Research Alliance – Design Tools for Offshore wind farm Cluster project (EERA DTOC). The project builds on already established design tools from the project partners and possibly third-party models. Wake models have been benchmarked on the Horns Rev and, currently, on the Lilgrund wind farm test cases. Dedicated experiments from ‘BARD Offshore 1’ wind farm will using scanni...

  9. Weak relationship between risk assessment studies and recorded mortality in wind farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Miguel; Lucas, Manuela de; Janss, Guyonne, F.E.; Casado, Eva; Muñoz, Antonio R.; Bechard, Mark J.; Calabuig, Cecilia P.

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms generate little or no pollution. However, one of their main adverse impacts is bird mortality through collisions with turbine rotors. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies have been based on observations of birds before the construction of wind farms. We analysed data from 53 EIAs in relation to the actual recorded bird mortalities at 20 fully installed wind farms to determine whether this method is accurate in predicting the risk of new wind farm installations. Bird data f...

  10. Assessing vulnerability of marine bird populations to offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Robert W; Wade, Helen M; Masden, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-15

    Offshore wind farms may affect bird populations through collision mortality and displacement. Given the pressures to develop offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to assess population-level impacts on protected marine birds. Here we refine an approach to assess aspects of their ecology that influence population vulnerability to wind farm impacts, also taking into account the conservation importance of each species. Flight height appears to be a key factor influencing collision mortality risk but improved data on flight heights of marine birds are needed. Collision index calculations identify populations of gulls, white-tailed eagles, northern gannets and skuas as of particularly high concern in Scottish waters. Displacement index calculations identify populations of divers and common scoters as most vulnerable to population-level impacts of displacement, but these are likely to be less evident than impacts of collision mortality. The collision and displacement indices developed here for Scottish marine bird populations could be applied to populations elsewhere, and this approach will help in identifying likely impacts of future offshore wind farms on marine birds and prioritising monitoring programmes, at least until data on macro-avoidance rates become available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Turbine Spacings in Very Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    wind farms, although certain aspects of the complex wake interaction are not captured, see Churchfield et al.(2014). Recent studies have shown how turbines introduce low frequencies in the wake, which could describe some of the shortcomings. Chamorro et al.(2015) identified three regions of different...

  12. Evaluation of Wind Farm Controller based Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    detection and isolation and fault tolerant control has previously been proposed. Based on this model, and international competition on wind farm FDI was organized. The contributions were presented at the IFAC World Congress 2014. In this paper the top three contributions to this competition are shortly...... introduced and evaluated....

  13. Proximity search heuristics for wind farm optimal layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Monaci, Michele

    2016-01-01

    A heuristic framework for turbine layout optimization in a wind farm is proposed that combines ad-hoc heuristics and mixed-integer linear programming. In our framework, large-scale mixed-integer programming models are used to iteratively refine the current best solution according to the recently...

  14. Residents' Perceptions toward Utility-Scale Wind Farm Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joseph; Romich, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Increased development of wind farms in the U.S. has fostered debates surrounding the siting and support for the projects. Prior research demonstrates the importance of understanding the attitudes and opinions of community members when developing projects. This article reviews a case study of an Ohio community that integrated a local survey to…

  15. Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Karl; Ivanell, Stefan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2015-01-01

    The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions...... are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain...... ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more...

  16. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  17. News about the approval procedure for offshore wind farms in the German EEZ (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke, C. [Bundesministerium fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) carries out the application procedure for wind farms and their grid connection in the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The Marine Facilities Ordinance is the legal basis for licences of wind farms in the EEZ. Its spatial scope is bordered by the 12 nautical mile limit. The approval is given within a 'bound decision'. Therefore no latitude of judgement exists, but rather a legitimate claim for licensing. Furthermore, no effect of exists for licensing. According to Paragraph 3 SeeAnlV, an approval can be denied in cases of: (a) Impairment of the safety and efficiency of navigation; (b) Endangerment of the marine environment and bird migration. According to SeeAnlV, the following aspects cannot influence the refusal or decision: (a) National defence; (b) Fishery; (c) Natural resources; (d) Tourism' (e) Inefficiency; (f) Lack of economic power; (g) Energy requirements and grid integration. (orig.)

  18. Contribution to a dynamic wind turbine model validation from a wind farm islanding experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Measurements from an islanding experiment on the Rejsby Hede wind farm, Denmark, are used for the validation of the dynamic model of grid-connected, stall-controlled wind turbines equipped with induction generators. The simulated results are found to be in good agreement with the measurements...... and possible discrepancies are explained. The work with the wind turbine model validation relates to the dynamic stability investigations on incorporation of large amount of wind power in the Danish power grid, where the dynamic wind turbine model is applied....

  19. Wind power forecasting for a real onshore wind farm on complex terrain using WRF high resolution simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Prósper Fernández, Miguel; Casal, Carlos Otero; Canoura Fernández, Felipe; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2017-04-01

    Regional meteorological models are becoming a generalized tool for forecasting wind resource, due to their capacity to simulate local flow dynamics impacting wind farm production. This study focuses on the production forecast and validation of a real onshore wind farm using high horizontal and vertical resolution WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model simulations. The wind farm is located in Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, in a complex terrain region with high wind resource. Utilizing the Fitch scheme, specific for wind farms, a period of one year is simulated with a daily operational forecasting set-up. Power and wind predictions are obtained and compared with real data provided by the management company. Results show that WRF is able to yield good wind power operational predictions for this kind of wind farms, due to a good representation of the planetary boundary layer behaviour of the region and the good performance of the Fitch scheme under these conditions.

  20. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  1. Steady-state Performance Analysis of Collector System Designs for Large-scale Offshore Wind Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinonez-Varela, G.; Ault, G.W.; McDonald, J.R. [Institute for Energy and Environment, University of Strathclyde, 204 George St., Glasgow G1 1XW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the steady-state performance of various designs for the electrical collector system of offshore wind farms and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each of these designs and their application within large-scale offshore developments. A series of power systems studies were carried out for a proposed 1 GW wind farm off the northeast coast of Scotland, with the plant set to generate at a range of power outputs in order to investigate the impact on the loading and losses of the collector system. The impact on voltage level changes on the busbars within the wind farm under various conditions of reactive power demand, i.e. considering both typical squirrel-cage machines (with typically low lagging power factors) and modern doubly-fed generators (with capability to vary power factor in lagging/leading ranges), was also investigated. In addition, for collector system designs with redundant cables, contingency conditions of losing one of the cables to the hub end were investigated. The overall results have lead to consider the application of 'single-sided ring' designs for large-scale offshore wind farms since it achieves fewer losses and also provides greater adequacy and reliability. Finally, the authors introduce an alternative design based on 'single-sided ring' arrangement which seems a more suitable option taking into account potential economic barriers from the original one-to-one design.

  2. Collection System Cable Routing and Wake Losses Optimization in Offshore Wind Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fragoso Rodrigues, S.M.; Bauer, P.; Bosman, P.A.N.; Pierik, J.

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind farms with high installed capacities and located further from the shore are starting to be built by northern European countries. Furthermore, it is expected that by 2020, several dozens of large offshore wind farms will be built in the Baltic, Irish and North seas. These wind farms

  3. Radiowave Propagation Prediction in a Wind Farm Enviroment and Wind Turbine Scattering Model

    OpenAIRE

    Calo Casanova, Alejandro; Calvo Ramón, Miguel; Haro Ariet, Leandro de; Blanco Gonzalez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    One of the environmental effects of wind farms is the electromagnetic interference due to the scattering produced by the wind turbines on the electromagnetic waves of different radio communication services propagating through them. A previous work [4] is updated here and the scattering models for the nacelle and the wind turbine are shown and validated. Radio wave propagation losses are estimated more precisely through a parabolic equation approach. Finally, a comparison bet...

  4. A Combined Reliability Model of VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farms Considering Wind Speed Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined reliability model of voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current (VSCHVDC) connected offshore wind farms (WFs) using the frequency and duration technique. Firstly, a two-dimensional multi-state WF model is developed considering wind speed variations......-HVDC system and wind speed correlation on the system reliability were analyzed. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the impact of repair time of the offshore VSC-HVDC system on system reliability....

  5. A Combined Reliability Model of VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Farms Considering Wind Speed Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yifei; Gao, Houlei; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a combined reliability model of voltage source converter-based high voltage direct current (VSCHVDC) connected offshore wind farms (WFs) using the frequency and duration technique. Firstly, a two-dimensional multi-state WF model is developed considering wind speed variations and WTGs outage. The wind speed correlation between different WFs is included in the two-dimensional multistate WF model by using an improved k-means clustering method. Then, the entire system with two...

  6. Structural and economic dynamics in diversified Italian farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Salvioni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to investigate the structural change and economic dynamics of farms pursuing diversification and differentiation strategies in Italy. The analysis was performed on a panel of data built on the basis of information collected by the Italian FADN between 2003-2009. For the purpose of the analysis, we divided the population of commercial Italian farms into a five-fold farm typology based on size and the extent of diversification and differentiation strategies adopted by the farms. In detail, farms are defined as differentiated when they make use of a system of quality certification, while they are defined as diversified when they take up non farming activities (agritourism, social farms etc.. The findings show that conventional farms remain by far the largest category within the population of Italian commercial farms, while only 13% of the total commercial farms are classified as differentiated and/or diversified. Farms adopting product differentiation strategies are found to have an income growth path similar to that of conventional farms. Yet the category of diversified farms is the only one showing an upward trend with regard to income per worker in the observed years, while farms relying entirely on agricultural products appear to perform poorly in terms of labour productivity.

  7. Havsnaes Wind Farm. A guide on Health and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettin, Martina [Goovinn, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jiven, Anna [Nordisk Vindkraft, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This guide has been developed by Nordisk Vindkraft in co-operation with Energimyndigheten (the Swedish Energy Agency). The main purpose is to raise the attention to work environment matters when developing, constructing and operating large-scale wind farms in the northern parts of Sweden. The Swedish wind industry is relatively young. Work Environment Management and legal awareness has been identified by the Swedish Government as one crucial factor for ensuring sound and rapid development of the industry. Havsnaes is to date the largest onshore wind farm in Sweden. Whilst developing this project, Nordisk Vindkraft has gained extensive experience and developed a profound understanding of the prerequisites for the Swedish large-scale wind industry. The wind farm's size, complexity and geographical location near Stroemsund in Jaemtland qualify the project as an excellent pilot study. Preventing accidents and ill-health largely depends on your knowledge, competence and the resources you are able and willing to spend. The key for success is a pro-active approach. During the Havsnaes project, Nordisk Vindkraft has spent considerable amount of time and effort on the management of Work Environment. We hope our gained experience will be beneficial for our industry as a whole.

  8. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  9. Modeling velocity space-time correlations in wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukassen, Laura J.; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Meneveau, Charles; Wilczek, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent fluctuations of wind velocities cause power-output fluctuations in wind farms. The statistics of velocity fluctuations can be described by velocity space-time correlations in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this context, it is important to derive simple physics-based models. The so-called Tennekes-Kraichnan random sweeping hypothesis states that small-scale velocity fluctuations are passively advected by large-scale velocity perturbations in a random fashion. In the present work, this hypothesis is used with an additional mean wind velocity to derive a model for the spatial and temporal decorrelation of velocities in wind farms. It turns out that in the framework of this model, space-time correlations are a convolution of the spatial correlation function with a temporal decorrelation kernel. In this presentation, first results on the comparison to large eddy simulations will be presented and the potential of the approach to characterize power output fluctuations of wind farms will be discussed. Acknowledgements: 'Fellowships for Young Energy Scientists' (YES!) of FOM, the US National Science Foundation Grant IIA 1243482, and support by the Max Planck Society.

  10. Neighborhood Effects in Wind Farm Performance: A Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Ritter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of turbine density in wind farms entails a trade-off between the usage of scarce, expensive land and power losses through turbine wake effects. A quantification and prediction of the wake effect, however, is challenging because of the complex aerodynamic nature of the interdependencies of turbines. In this paper, we propose a parsimonious data driven regression wake model that can be used to predict production losses of existing and potential wind farms. Motivated by simple engineering wake models, the predicting variables are wind speed, the turbine alignment angle, and distance. By utilizing data from two wind farms in Germany, we show that our models can compete with the standard Jensen model in predicting wake effect losses. A scenario analysis reveals that a distance between turbines can be reduced by up to three times the rotor size, without entailing substantial production losses. In contrast, an unfavorable configuration of turbines with respect to the main wind direction can result in production losses that are much higher than in an optimal case.

  11. Simulation of wake effects between two wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K. S.; Réthoré, P.-E.; Palma, J.; Hevia, B. G.; Prospathopoulos, J.; Peña, A.; Ott, S.; Schepers, G.; Palomares, A.; van der Laan, M. P.; Volker, P.

    2015-06-01

    SCADA data, recorded on the downstream wind farm, has been used to identify flow cases with visible clustering effects. The inflow condition is derived from a partly undisturbed wind turbine, due to lack of mast measurements. The SCADA data analysis concludes that centre of the deficit for the downstream wind farm with disturbed inflow has a distinct visible maximum deficit zone located only 5-10D downstream from the entrance. This zone, representing 20-30% speed reduction, increases and moves downstream for increasing cluster effect and is not visible outside a flow sector of 20-30°. The eight flow models represented in this benchmark include both RANS models, mesoscale models and engineering models. The flow cases, identified according to the wind speed level and inflow sector, have been simulated and validated with the SCADA results. The model validation concludes that all models more or less are able to predict the location and size of the deficit zone inside the downwind wind farm.

  12. Weather radars – the new eyes for offshore wind farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Vincent, Claire Louise

    2014-01-01

    inputs to prediction systems for anticipating changes in the wind fluctuation dynamics, generating improved wind power forecasts and developing specific control strategies. However, integrating weather radar observations into automated decision support systems is not a plug-and-play task......Offshore wind fluctuations are such that dedicated prediction and control systems are needed for optimizing the management of wind farms in real-time. In this paper, we present a pioneer experiment – Radar@Sea – in which weather radars are used for monitoring the weather at the Horns Rev offshore...... observed at Horns Rev and (iv) we discuss the future perspectives for weather radars in wind energy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  13. Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have......-stall turbine oscillating power injection can only be realised by controlling the pitch angle. Hence the power system stabiliser of an active-stall turbine is a pitch angle controller. Two different approaches are chosen for designing such a power system stabiliser: a conventional PID controller, and a fuzzy...... to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered...

  14. Wind tunnel study of the power output spectrum in a micro wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossuyt, Juliaan; Howland, Michael F.; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Instrumented small-scale porous disk models are used to study the spectrum of a surrogate for the power output in a micro wind farm with 100 models of wind turbines. The power spectra of individual porous disk models in the first row of the wind farm show the expected -5/3 power law at higher frequencies. Downstream models measure an increased variance due to wake effects. Conversely, the power spectrum of the sum of the power over the entire wind farm shows a peak at the turbine-to-turbine travel frequency between the model turbines, and a near -5/3 power law region at a much wider range of lower frequencies, confirming previous LES results. Comparison with the spectrum that would result when assuming that the signals are uncorrelated, highlights the strong effects of correlations and anti-correlations in the fluctuations at various frequencies.

  15. Wind Speed Estimation and Wake model Re-calibration for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Kjølstad Poulsen, Niels; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Mirzaei, Mahmood

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the wind farm sizes have increased tremendously and with increasing installed capacity, the wind farms are requested to downregulate from their maximum possible power more frequently, especially in the offshore environment. Determination of the possible (or available) power is crucial not only because the reserve power has considerable market value but also for wind farm developers to be properly compensated for the loss during downregulation. While the available power calculation is straightforward for a single turbine, it gets rather complicated for the whole wind farm due to the change in the wake characteristics. In fact, the wake losses generated by the upstream turbine(s) decrease during downregulation and the downstream turbines therefore see more wind compared to the normal operation case. Currently, the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the available power of a whole wind farm which is downregulated. Therefore, the PossPOW project aims to develop a verified and internationally accepted way to determine the possible power of a down-regulated offshore wind farm. The first phase of the project is to estimate the rotor effective wind speed. Since the nacelle anemometers are not readily available and are known to have reliability issues, the proposed method is to use power, pitch angle and rotational speed as inputs and combine it with a generic Cp model to estimate the wind speed. The performance of the model has been evaluated for both normal operation and downregulation periods using two different case studies: Horns Rev-I wind farm and NREL 5MW single turbine. During downregulation, the wake losses are not as severe and the velocity deficits at the downstream turbines are smaller as if also the wake is "downregulated". On the other hand, in order to calculate the available power, the wakes that would have been produced normally (if the turbines were not curtailed) are of importance, not the

  16. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Rodrigo, Javier Sanz; Gancarski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www....

  17. Summary Report: The Shadow effect of large wind farms: measurements, data analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Rathmann, Ole

    : • Measurements were carried out at the Nysted and Horns Rev demonstration wind farms for several years. Doing so included design, installation and operation of the measurement system • A data base was built from the incoming data. The data have been organized to facilitate verification of the models developed......It was the goal of the project – by means of data from the demonstration wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted, analyses of these data and modelling – to facilitate prediction of the power losses from a wind farm should a new wind farm be built upwind relative to the prevailing wind direction....... Or conversely, predict with adequate accuracy the production of a new wind farm built downwind of an existing wind farm. The project should be seen in the perspective of the two existing demonstration wind farms that extend 5-10 km in each direction. In order to e.g. use the existing electrical infrastructure...

  18. Hydroacoustic registration of fish abundance of offshore wind farms. Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvidt, C.B.; Bruenner, L.; Reier Knudsen, F.

    2005-05-15

    Elsam Engineering AS has approved the implementation of a project concerning the registration of fish communities in Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm with use of hydroacoustic methods. In a joint effort, Bio/consult as, Carl Bro as and SIMRAD AS have monitored the fish communities at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm using a new hydroacoustic methodology. The new hydroacoustic technique combines the use of scientific sonar acoustics with GPS to determine the density, diversity and location of fish. The objectives of this project were to test the possibility of using hydroacoustic techniques as alternative methods to traditional techniques to assess the fish assemblage inhabiting offshore wind farms and to investigate the possible effect from the wind farm and hard bottom substrates (turbine foundations) on fish abundance. The field study was carried out October 9-10, 2004 and consisted of four horizontal hydroacoustic survey transects each covering impact and reference areas. Transects were surveyed in order to achieve identical impact and reference transect pairs concerning environment, topography and time correspondence. The hydroacoustic equipment consisted of a SIMRAD EK60/EY60 echo sounder with a split-beam transducer (Simrad ES 120-4x10) mounted on a pan and tilt unit, a transceiver, a laptop extended with a GPS-receiver and additional large external hard discs. The raw data files from EK60 were converted to echogram files suitable for the post processing application, Sonar5-Pro. The Sonar5-Pro software makes it possible to filter out echo detections from the surface and the bottom, as well as perform cross filter detection. The validity of the results using the hydroacoustic method is high due to the cross filtering and single target tracking technique. From the hydroacoustic results, no or very little effect from the wind farm or from hard bottom substrates was found on the fish densities at Horns Rev Wind Farm at the time of the survey. The execution of the field

  19. Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Bruce Duncan [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-27

    This report is the third annual assessment of the U.S. offshore wind market. It includes the following major sections: Section 1: key data on developments in the offshore wind technology sector and the global development of offshore wind projects, with a particular focus on progress in the United States; Section 2: analysis of policy developments at the federal and state levels that have been effective in advancing offshore wind deployment in the United States; Section 3: analysis of actual and projected economic impact, including regional development and job creation; Section 4: analysis of developments in relevant sectors of the economy with the potential to affect offshore wind deployment in the United States

  20. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Distributed Wind in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This work seeks to identify current and future spatial distributions of economic potential for behind-the-meter distributed wind, serving primarily rural or suburban homes, farms, and manufacturing facilities in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York. These states were identified by technical experts based on their current favorability for distributed wind deployment. We use NREL's Distributed Wind Market Demand Model (dWind) (Lantz et al. 2017; Sigrin et al. 2016) to identify and rank counties in each of the states by their overall and per capita potential. From this baseline assessment, we also explore how and where improvements in cost, performance, and other market sensitivities affect distributed wind potential.

  1. A computational analysis of wind turbine and wind farm aerodynamics with a focus on dual rotor wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron John

    This dissertation serves to summarize my research into wind farm and wind turbine aerodynamics. Included in this thesis is a summary of the methods I use as well as the four research problems that I investigated. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Power Optimization of Wind Farms in Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Johan; Goit, Jay Prakash

    2013-11-01

    As the understanding of wind-farm aerodynamics broadens, our interest is shifting towards exploring the possibilities of optimising and improving the power-extraction of a wind farm. In the present work we couple flow simulations performed using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with gradient based optimization to control individual turbine in a farm, so as to achive an increase in the total power. The controls in our optimization problem are the thrust coefficients CT, n '(t) of individual turbines as function of time. We use a gradient-based algorithm for the optimization and the gradients are computed using the adjoint method. In the first step we verify the adjoint calculated gradient by comparing it to the forward simulation based gradient obtained from finite difference of the cost function and find that errors remain below 5 %. We further elaborate the optimization techniques, and present results for a number of cases of wind-farm boundary layer cases. We also discuss how the thrust coefficient CT, n ' (t) evolves with time for different turbine locations. We also present and interpret results of the adjoint fields. J.M. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, grant no. 306471).

  3. 77 FR 48138 - Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...-000; EG12-68-000; EG12-69-000] Topaz Solar Farms LLC; High Plains Ranch II, LLC; Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Pacific Wind, LLC; Colorado Highlands Wind, LLC; Shooting Star Wind... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal...

  4. Transient stability enhancement of wind farms using power electronics and facts controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Hossein Ali

    Nowadays, it is well-understood that the burning of fossil fuels in electric power station has a significant influence on the global climate due to greenhouse gases. In many countries, the use of cost-effective and reliable low-carbon electricity energy sources is becoming an important energy policy. Among different kinds of clean energy resources- such as solar power, hydro-power, ocean wave power and so on, wind power is the fastest-growing form of renewable energy at the present time. Moreover, adjustable speed generator wind turbines (ASGWT) has key advantages over the fixed-speed generator wind turbines (FSGWT) in terms of less mechanical stress, improved power quality, high system efficiency, and reduced acoustic noise. One important class of ASGWT is the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), which has gained a significant attention of the electric power industry due to their advantages over the other class of ASGWT, i.e. fully rated converter-based wind turbines. Because of increased integration of DFIG-based wind farms into electric power grids, it is necessary to transmit the generated power from wind farms to the existing grids via transmission networks without congestion. Series capacitive compensation of DFIG-based wind farm is an economical way to increase the power transfer capability of the transmission line connecting wind farm to the grid. For example, a study performed by ABB reveals that increasing the power transfer capability of an existing transmission line from 1300 MW to 2000 MW using series compensation is 90% less than the cost of building a new transmission line. However, a factor hindering the extensive use of series capacitive compensation is the potential risk of sub- synchronous resonance (SSR). The SSR is a condition where the wind farm exchanges energy with the electric network, to which it is connected, at one or more natural frequencies of the electric or mechanical part of the combined system, comprising the wind farm and the

  5. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2010-01-01

    , and simulation results of the studied Jang-Bin wind farm with 23 2-MW doubly fed induction generator-type wind turbine generators connected to the utility system through a 23/161-kV 60-MVA step-up main transformer (MT) from six feeders. Six CLRs, which were originally designed to limit short-circuit currents......This paper presents the effects of installing variable current-limit reactors (CLRs) and adjusting load tap changers (LTCs) on the performance of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan using computer simulations. The companion paper (Part I) demonstrates the field-measured results, simulation model...... under faulted conditions, are connected in series with the six feeders. The LTCs of the MT are used to adjust/regulate the secondary-side voltage at the 23-kV bus. Some simulated steady-state and transient results of the studied wind farm with variable values of the proposed CLRs and LTCs are analyzed...

  6. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.

  7. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the wind power industry have enabled a new generation of wind turbines with longer blades, taller towers, higher efficiency, and lower maintenance costs due to the maturity of related technologies. Nevertheless, wind turbines are still blind machines because the control center is responsible for managing and controlling individual wind turbines that are turned on or off according to demand for electricity. In this paper, we propose a communication network architecture for smart-wind power farms (Smart-WPFs. The proposed architecture is designed for wind turbines to communicate directly and share sensing data in order to maximize power generation, WPF availability, and turbine efficiency. We also designed a sensor data frame structure to carry sensing data from different wind turbine parts such as the rotor, transformer, nacelle, etc. The data frame includes a logical node ID (LNID, sensor node ID (SNID, sensor type (ST, and sensor data based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 61400-25 standard. We present an analytical model that describes upstream traffic between the wind turbines and the control center. Using a queueing theory approach, the upstream traffic is evaluated in view of bandwidth utilization and average queuing delay. The performance of the proposed network architectures are evaluated by using analytical and simulation models.

  8. Discussion on joint operation of wind farm and pumped-storage hydroplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifang; Wu, Yichun; Liang, Hao; Li, Miao

    2017-12-01

    Due to the random fluctuations in wind power, large amounts of grid integration will have a negative impact on grid operation and the consumers. The joint operation with pumped-storage hydroplant with good peak shaving performance can effectively reduce the negative impact on the safety and economic operation of power grid, and improve the utilization of wind power. In addition, joint operation can achieve the optimization of green power and improve the comprehensive economic benefits. Actually, the rational profit distribution of joint operation is the premise of sustainable and stable cooperation. This paper focuses on the profit distribution of joint operation, and applies improved shapely value method, which taking the investments and the contributions of each participant in the cooperation into account, to determine the profit distribution. Moreover, the distribution scheme can provide an effective reference for the actual joint operation of wind farm and pumped-storage hydroplant.

  9. Wake-Effect Minimising Optimal Control of Wind Farms, with Load Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Anders Bech; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Sivabalan, Senthuran

    2014-01-01

    the wake effects in the farm, while maintaining optimal power output. A feature which enables the MPC to spare certain turbines, while maintaining the power output is also implemented. The MPC controller is able to minimize the wake effect in the wind farm, when the power demand is not using the full......A power generating wind turbine causes a speed reduction and an added turbulence to the wind. Wind turbines in wind farms are often caught in these wakes and are found to have a higher structural load than non affected wind turbines. This article investigates the possibility of designing a control...... strategy which optimizes the power production, while minimizing the effect of the wakes in the wind farm. A generic wind farm model which is able to calculate the wind turbines influence on each other is developed. Models for the reduction in wind speed as well as turbulence in the wake effects...

  10. Modeling and investigation of Gulf El-Zayt wind farm for stability studying during extreme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Noureldeen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of extreme gust wind as a case of wind speed variation on a wind farm interconnected electrical grid. The impact of extreme gust wind speed variation on active and reactive power of the wind farms is studied for variable speed wind farm equipped with Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs. A simulation model of the under implementation 120 MW wind farm at Gulf El-Zayt region, Red Sea, Egypt, is simulated as a case study. A detailed model of extreme gust wind speed variation is implemented and simulated, using MATLAB/Simulink toolbox, based on International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61400-1 and climate characteristic of Gulf El-Zayt site. The simulation results show the influence of different extreme gust wind speed variations on the fluctuation of active power and reactive power at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC of the studied wind farm.

  11. A Research on Wind Farm Micro-sitting Optimization in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Yang, Jianchuan; Li, Chenqi

    2013-01-01

    turbines’ park coordinates which subject to the boundary and minimum distance conditions between two wind turbines. A Cross Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO) method is developed and applied to optimize the layout for a certain wind farm case. Compared with the uniform and experience method, results show......Wind farm layout optimization in complex terrain is a pretty difficult issue for onshore wind farm. In this article, a novel optimization method is proposed to optimize the layout for wind farms in complex terrain. This method utilized Lissaman and Jensen wake models for taking the terrain height...... and the wake loss from the upstream turbines into the wind turbine power output calculation. Wind direction is divided into sixteen sections, and the wind speed is processed using the Weibull distribution. The objective is to maximize the total wind farm power output and the free design variables are the wind...

  12. Why the Coriolis force turns a wind farm wake clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Paul; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2017-01-01

    simulations. A momentum balance in the cross flow direction shows that the interaction between the Coriolis force and the 5 × 5 actuator disks is complex due to turbulent mixing of veered momentum from above into the wind farm, which is not observed for the interaction between the Coriolis force...... and a roughness change. When the wind farm simulations are performed with a horizontally constant Coriolis force in order to isolate the effect of the wind veer, the wind farm wake deflection of the 5 × 5 actuator disks simulation remains unchanged. This proves that the present wind veer deflects the wind farm...

  13. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Paul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela

    2005-01-01

    are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection......Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...

  14. Variable frequency operation of active stall wind farms using a dc connection to grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sorensen, Poul

    2005-01-01

    are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection......Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmISSIon system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...

  15. Modelling, Analysis and Control of DC-connected Wind Farms to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... are fulfilled.  However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...

  16. Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashi, Mazaher Haji; Yousefi, G.R.; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity......As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed to consider the uncertainty of bidding admission...... in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission...

  17. Is the distribution and abundance of waterbirds altered in and around Danish Offshore wind farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ib Krag

    In 1999 a Danish demonstration programme concerning offshore wind farms was initiated. The aim was to evaluate environmental and technical aspects in relation to introducing these new structures at sea. Aarhus University was involved in ornithological investigations in that respect. Monitoring...... programmes for Horns Rev 1 and the Nysted offshore wind farms were initiated, and after the erection of the turbines post-construction monitoring programmes were initiated. Data from these investigations will be touched upon. At Nysted offshore wind farm common eiders (Somateria mollissima) avoided flying...... through the wind farm to a large extent and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) utilised the area of the wind farm significantly less after the appearance of the wind farm than before. At Horns Rev 1 it seemed that red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) avoided utilising the area of the wind farm...

  18. Wind Farm Grid Integration Using VSC Based HVDC Transmission - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of HVAC and HVDC connection of wind farm to the grid, with an emphasis on Voltage Source Converter (VSC)-based HVDC for large wind farms requiring long distance cable connection. Flexible control capabilities of a VSC-based HVDC system enables smooth integration of win...... farm into the power grid network while meeting the Grid Code Requirements (GCR). Operation of a wind farm with VSC-based HVDC connection is described....

  19. Wind Profiles and Wave Spectra for Potential Wind Farms in South China Sea. Part I: Wind Speed Profile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the setting of wind energy harvesting moving from coastal waters to deep waters, the South China Sea has been deemed to offer great potential for the construction of floating wind farms thanks to the abundance of wind energy resources. An engineering model describing the wind profiles and wave spectra specific to the South China Sea conditions, which is the precondition for offshore wind farm construction, has, however, not yet been proposed. In the present study, a series of numerical simulations have been conducted using the Weather Forecast and Research model. Through analyzing the wind and wave information extracted from the numerical simulation results, engineering models to calculate vertical profiles of wind speeds and wave spectra have been postulated. While the present paper focuses on the wind profile model, a companion paper articulates the wave spectrum model. For wind profiles under typhoon conditions, the power-law and log-law models have been found applicable under the condition that the Hellmann exponent α or the friction velocity u * are modified to vary with the wind strength. For wind profiles under non-typhoon conditions, the log-law model is revised to take into consideration the influence of the atmospheric stability.

  20. Analysis of a commercial wind farm in Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Yeh, Tai-Her; Lee, Wei-Jen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents both steady-state performance and dynamic simulations of a commercial wind farm (WF) in Taiwan through field measurement results and computer simulations. The companion paper in Part II discusses the dynamic and transient analyzed results of using current-limit reactors (CLRs......) and load tap changers on power-quality improvement of the studied WF. With 23 2-MW DFIG-type wind turbine generators, this WF is connected to the 161-kV extra high-voltage substation of Taiwan Power System through a 23/161-kV 60-MVA step-up main transformer from six feeders with CLRs. Through comparing...

  1. Lifetime Impact Identification for Continuous Improvement of Wind Farm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian R.; Ruitenburg, Richard J.; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2015-01-01

    , it is concluded that the Lifetime Impact Identification Analysis delivers such a shared understanding by bringing employees from different backgrounds together. Based on this understanding, CI priorities can be set and management may become proactive instead of having to do ‘fire-fighting’....... in the offshore wind industry. In order to identify where to focus CI efforts, we turn to the theory of Asset Life Cycle Management which shows that a shared multidisciplinary understanding of the complete lifetime of a windfarm is critical. Based on a case study at a leading offshore wind farm company...

  2. Implementation of a new Foundations Concept for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    The foundation principles for the recent major offshore wind farm projects in Europe have been dominated by two types of foundation solutions, the gravitational foundation and the monopile. A fully operational 3.0 MW offshore wind turbine was installed on a prototype of the bucket foundation...... with a traditional monopile solution and the installation of the bucket foundation is much easier and does not require heavy installation equipment. In this paper the full-scale field installation of the prototype is described. A design procedure has been developed in cooperation with the certifying party in order...

  3. Optimizing wind farm cable routing considering power losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest growing source of renewable energy, but as wind farms are getting larger and more remotely located, installation and infrastructure costs are rising. It is estimated that the expenses for electrical infrastructure account for 15-30% of the overall initial costs, hence...... it is important to optimize o shore inter-array cable routing. The routing should connect all turbines to one (or more) o shore sub-station(s) while respecting cable capacities, no-cross restrictions, connection-limits at the substation, and obstacles at the site. The objective is to minimize both the capital...

  4. DC Collection Network Simulation for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Stephan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; El-Khatib, Walid Ziad

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to connect offshore wind turbines with a collection network based on Direct Current (DC), instead of Alternating Current (AC), gained attention in the scientific and industrial environment. There are many promising properties of DC components that could be beneficial such as......: smaller dimensions, less weight, fewer conductors, no reactive power considerations, and less overall losses due to the absence of proximity and skin effects. This work describes a study about the simulation of a Medium Voltage DC (MVDC) grid in an offshore wind farm. Suitable converter concepts...

  5. 158 economic importance of farmed parkland products to livelihood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    being farmed as well as land lying fallow, and does .... Result on gender of the respondents indicates that (38.75%) of the respondents were male farmers, while (61.25%). ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FARMED PARKLAND PRODUCTS TO LIVELIHOOD SUSTENANCE IN LAU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA TARABA ...

  6. Economic value of management information systems in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on developing and testing methods to determine the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in livestock farming Methods were first applied to evaluating MIS in pig farming. Economic value of MIS arises from the fact that farmers

  7. Economic Analysis of Eucheumoid Algae Farming in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was done to determine their net yield and economic viability and included sensitivity analysis to determine the effects of decreased farm gate prices and increased operating costs on the return of investment (ROI) and payment period in eucheumoid farming. The average net yield varied from 880 to 1209 kg dry wt for E.

  8. The Offshore Wind Farm Array Cable Layout Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Joanna; Lysgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane. For this p......In an offshore wind farm (OWF), the turbines are connected to a transformer by cable routes that cannot cross each other. Finding the minimum cost array cable layout thus amounts to a vehicle routing problem with the additional constraints that the routes must be embedded in the plane....... For this problem, both exact and heuristic methods are of interest. We optimize cable layouts for real-world OWFs by a hop-indexed integer programming formulation, and develop a heuristic for computing layouts based on the Clarke and Wright savings heuristic for vehicle routing. Our heuristic computes layouts...

  9. Wind Farm parametrization in the mesoscale model WRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    significantly lower computational costs compared to high resolution models. Due to the fact that its typical horizontal grid spacing is on the order of 2km, the energy extracted by the turbine, as well as the wake development inside the turbine- containing grid cells, are not described explicitly......, but are parametrized as another sub-grid scale process. In order to appropriately capture the wind farm wake recovery and its direction, two properties are important, among others, the total energy extracted by the wind farm and its velocity deficit distribution. In the considered parametrization the individual...... turbines produce a thrust dependent on the background velocity. For the sub-grid scale velocity deficit, the entrainment from the free atmospheric flow into the wake region, which is responsible for the expansion, is taken into account. Furthermore, since the model horizontal distance is several times...

  10. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berinde, Ioan, E-mail: ioan-berinde@yahoo.com; Bălan, Horia, E-mail: hbalan@mail.utcluj.ro; Oros, Teodora Susana, E-mail: teodoraoros-87@yahoo.com [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering and Management (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  11. Harmonic Analysis of Offshore Wind Farms with Full Converter Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the harmonic analysis of offshore wind farm (OWF) models with full converters represented as harmonic sources and measurement data on the point of common coupling (PCC) during normal operation. The model describes a wind farm (WF) with full rated converters installed connected...... to a shore with a long HV cable. The way of propagation and effects of harmonics are presented for different study cases. Modeling strategies of harmonic sources for harmonic analysis are described and compared. Different results dependent on applied harmonic models are shown and discussed in this paper...

  12. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Kai Wang; Juin-Fu Chai; Yu-Wen Chang; Ti-Ying Huang; Yu-Shu Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is carried out, and the first un...

  13. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  14. Offshore Substation Locating in Wind Farms Based on Prim Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    to the electrical system layout, the optimal layout design work should be done with the consideration of the impact of the location of offshore substation on the submarine cable connection layout to minimize the investment of cables. This paper addresses a new method to optimize the OS location together...... with the cable connection layout. The results show that the proposed method is an effective way for offshore wind farm cable connection layout design....

  15. The modern portfolio theory applied to wind farm investments

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves-Schwinteck, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    In a context of research of alternatives to improve investments in renewable energy sources, this work addresses the Modern Portfolio Theory when applied to investments in wind farms. The Modern Portfolio Theory describes how the combination of assets subject to different characteristics of risk x return leads to optimized portfolios of investments. Grounded on the principles of diversification, the theory has been originally developed to assess investments in financial assets. In view of the...

  16. ECONOMICS OF DAIRY FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Bor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study dairy farming activities in Turkey are employed to prove that small-scale agricultural production is disappearing rapidly due to costly investment and mechanization needs. For that purpose the cost structure and the investment needs in starting a dairy farm are analyzed. The results show that the capital requirements of building a dairy farm with optimal capacity are hard to reach for small farmers unless a system of marketing and production agricultural cooperatives and/or institutions are organized.

  17. Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.

  18. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection. Consequ......So far, all existing offshore wind farms have an ac collection system, and the collected power in the offshore wind farm is sent to an onshore ac grid through high-voltage ac (HVAC) or DC (HVDC) transmission lines. However, future of fshore wind farms may use dc also for power collection....... Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD...

  19. Economic and Environmental Sustainability of Factory Farming in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Asbjørn Lupo; Giersing, Josephine; Magrane, David; Breitenstein, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This paper is written with the purpose of looking into sustainable development. More specifically, it will look at the relationship between the environmental and economical pillars of sustainability. In order for sustainable development to take place, the economy must be growing while maintaining earth’s natural resources. Factory farming might be strong from an economic point of view, but it does not seem to be environmentally friendly. Therefore we used factory farming as an example of an i...

  20. Comparison of wake models with data for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rados, K. [Robert Gordon Univ., School of Engineering, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Larsen, G.; Barthelmie, R. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Schelz, W. [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd., Bristol (United Kingdom); Lange, B. [Oldenburg Univ., Dept. of Energy and Semiconductor Research EHF, Oldenburg (Germany); Schepers, G.; Hegberg, T. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Solar and Wind Energy Dept., Petten (Netherlands); Magnisson, M. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Meteorology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    A major objective of the ENDOW project is to evaluate the performance of wake models in offshore wind farm environments in order to ascertain the improvements required to enhance the prediction of power output within large offshore wind farms. The strategy for achieving this is to compare the performance of the models in a wide range of conditions which are expected to be encountered during turbine operation offshore. Six models of varying complexity have been evaluated initially against the Vindeby single wake data where it was found that almost all of them overestimate the wake effects and also significant inconsistencies between the model predictions appeared in the near wake and turbulence intensity results. Based on the conclusions of that study, the ENDOW wake modeling groups have already implemented a number of modifications to their original models. In the present paper, new single wake results are presented against experimental data at Vindeby and Bockstigen wind farms. Clearly, some of the model discrepancies previously observed in Vindeby cases have been smoothed and overall the performance is improved. (Author)

  1. A Predictive Model for Wind Farms Using Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vaughan; Meneveau, Charles; Gayme, Dennice

    2016-11-01

    In this work we extend traditional dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) to develop a linear predictive model for the time evolution of the velocity field for a multiple-turbine wind farm. Traditional DMD identifies a set of DMD modes which can be used to produce a linear system that approximates the dynamics of the original system. Typically, these DMD modes consist of those that both grow and decay, but in order to develop a predictive model we need a system that evolves along a manifold that neither grows nor decays. Here we modify the DMD calculation to build such a model. We then apply this method to three dimensional large eddy simulations (LES) of a multi-turbine wind farm. Our predictive wind farm model is initialized with a small time series of data independent of the original data used to create the system. When initialized in this manner our DMD based model can reproduce the subsequent time evolution of the velocity field over ten inter-turbine convective timescales with a gradual falloff in performance. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grants ECCS-1230788 and OISE-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  2. Wind Farm LES Simulations Using an Overset Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthan, Shreyas; Yellapantula, Shashank

    2017-11-01

    Accurate simulation of wind farm wakes under realistic atmospheric inflow conditions and complex terrain requires modeling a wide range of length and time scales. The computational domain can span several kilometers while requiring mesh resolutions in O(10-6) to adequately resolve the boundary layer on the blade surface. Overset mesh methodology offers an attractive option to address the disparate range of length scales; it allows embedding body-confirming meshes around turbine geomtries within nested wake capturing meshes of varying resolutions necessary to accurately model the inflow turbulence and the resulting wake structures. Dynamic overset hole-cutting algorithms permit relative mesh motion that allow this nested mesh structure to track unsteady inflow direction changes, turbine control changes (yaw and pitch), and wake propagation. An LES model with overset mesh for localized mesh refinement is used to analyze wind farm wakes and performance and compared with local mesh refinements using non-conformal (hanging node) unstructured meshes. Turbine structures will be modeled using both actuator line approaches and fully-resolved structures to test the efficacy of overset methods for wind farm applications. Exascale Computing Project (ECP), Project Number: 17-SC-20-SC, a collaborative effort of two DOE organizations - the Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  3. An optimal sizing method for energy storage system in wind farms based on the analysis of wind power forecast error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, R. L.; Guo, Z. Z.; Liu, R. Y.; Liu, J. N.

    2016-11-01

    Energy storage system (ESS) in a wind farm can effectively compensate the fluctuations of wind power. How to determine the size of ESS in wind farms is an urgent problem to be solved. A novel method is proposed for designing the optimal size of ESS considering wind power uncertainty. This approach uses non-parametric estimation method to analysis the wind power forecast error (WPFE) and the cumulative wind power deviation (CWPD) within the scheduling period. Then a cost-benefit analysis model is established to obtain the optimal size of ESS based on the analysis of WPFE and CWPD. A series of wind farm data in California are used as numerical cases, which presents that the algorithm presented in this paper has good feasibility and performance in optimal ESS sizing in wind farms.

  4. Improved Formulation for the Optimization of Wind Turbine Placement in a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to fossil fuels, wind can be considered because it is a renewable and greenhouse gas-free natural resource. When wind power is generated by wind turbines in a wind farm, the optimal placement of turbines is critical because different layouts produce different efficiencies. The objective of the wind turbine placement problem is to maximize the generated power while minimizing the cost in installing the turbines. This study proposes an efficient optimization formulation for the optimal layout of wind turbine placements under the resources (e.g., number of turbines or budget limit by introducing corresponding constraints. The proposed formulation gave users more conveniences in considering resources and budget bounds. After performing the optimization, results were compared using two different methods (branch and bound method and genetic algorithm and two different objective functions.

  5. Wind turbine power performance verification in complex terrain and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gjerding, S.; Enevoldsen, P.

    2002-01-01

    is a power performance verification procedure for individual wind turbines. The third is a power performance measurement procedure of whole wind farms, and the fourth is a power performance measurement procedurefor non-grid (small) wind turbines. This report presents work that was made to support the basis...... for this standardisation work. The work addressed experience from several national and international research projects and contractual and field experiencegained within the wind energy community on this matter. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge regarding existing methodologies, which has......The IEC/EN 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing is being revised. The standard will be divided into four documents. The first one of these is more or less a revision of the existing document on power performance measurementson individual wind turbines. The second one...

  6. Archaeological Handbook for Establishing Offshore Wind Farms in Sweden. Lillgrund Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Boel (Bohuslaens Museum, Uddevalla (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide a structured guide for contractors interested in establishing offshore wind farms within Swedish territorial waters and its extended economical zone, in relation to Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH). It is also applicable to UCH in inland waters. Therefore, this handbook seeks to provide information on; - The management structure of underwater/maritime cultural heritage in Sweden, including institutions and units with maritime antiquarian expertise, - The different types of archaeological remains that can be found around the Swedish coast - in offshore, coastal areas and on the foreshore - which can potentially be affected by offshore wind farm projects, - The laws that underwater archaeological remains are subject to - within the National Maritime Boundary as well as within the contiguous and exclusive economical zones - and the necessary archaeological investigations that need to be considered in order to avoid and/or protect the cultural heritage provided by those remains, - Archaeological standards and methods for assessing and evaluating the potential for finding archaeological remains under water, - The steps that need to be to considered during the planning process of establishing offshore wind farms, and how the contractor and archaeologist can work together in order to make the process more cost effective, and - Considerations for the future. Furthermore, this handbook includes a presentation of archaeological finds made during archaeological surveys in connection with the Lillgrund project. The handbook does not make references to any investigations that may be required in relation to land based archaeological sites other than those which are undertaken close to the shoreline (situated on the foreshore), nor does it consider the visual impact sea-based wind farms might have on cultural heritage

  7. Meeting the quest for spatial efficiency: progress and prospects of extensive aquaculture within offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. H.; Krause, G.; Michler-Cieluch, T.; Brenner, M.; Buchholz, C. M.; Busch, J. A.; Fisch, R.; Geisen, M.; Zielinski, O.

    2008-09-01

    Along the German North Sea coast, the observed high spatial competition of stakeholders has encouraged the idea of integrating open ocean aquaculture in conjunction with offshore wind farms beyond the 12 miles zone. The article provides an overview on the current state of transdisciplinary research on a potential implementation of such a multifunctional use concept on a showcase basis, covering biological, technical, economic and social/policy aspects as well as private-public partnerships and the relevant institutional bodies. We show that the cultivation of seaweeds and blue mussels is biologically and technically feasible in a high-energy environment using modified cultivation strategies. The point of departure of our multi-use concept was that the solid groundings of wind turbines could serve as attachment points for the aquaculture installations and become the key to the successful commercial cultivation of any offshore aquatic organism. However, spaces in between the turbines are also attractive for farming projects, since public access is restricted and thus the cultivation site protected from outside influences. An economic analysis of different operation scenarios indicates that the market price and the annual settlement success of juvenile mussels are the main factors that determine the breakeven point. Social and policy science research reveals that the integration of relevant actors into the development of a multi-use concept for a wind farm-mariculture interaction is a complex and controversial issue. Combining knowledge and experience of wind farm planners as well as mussel fishermen and mariculturists within the framework of national and EU policies is probably the most important component for designing and developing an effective offshore co-management regime to limit the consumption of ocean space.

  8. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  9. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10 or periodically (n = 2 leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  10. Aeolus Toolbox for Dynamics Wind Farm Model, Simulation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran; Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the wind farm simulation modeldeveloped in the EU-FP7 project, AEOLUS. Theidea is to provide a publicly available simulationpackage for researchers developing farm level controlsolutions. With the software it is possible toauto generate a wind farm simulation model in Matlab...

  11. Modelling and Control of VSC based DC Connection for Active Stall Wind Farms to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2006-01-01

    the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled.  However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power......Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Therefore the power system becomes more vulnerable and dependent on the wind energy production. At the same time requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power...... quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics...

  12. Modeling and Control of VSC based DC Connection for Active Stall Wind Farms to Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela

    2005-01-01

    the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid does not have such control capabilities. They produce maximum possible power......Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Therefore the power system becomes more vulnerable and dependent on the wind energy production. At the same time requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power...... quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modem wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly-fed induction generators. Using power electronics...

  13. Centralised power control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

    2006-01-01

    to regulate the wind farm power production to the reference power ordered by the system operators. The presented wind farm control has a hierarchical structure with both a central control level and a local control level. The central wind farm control level controls the power production of the whole farm......At the moment, the control ability of wind farms is a prime research concern for the grid integration of large wind farms, due to their required active role in the power system. This paper describes the on-going work of a research project, whose overall objective is to analyse and assess...... by sending out reference power signals to each individual wind turbine, while the local wind turbine control level ensures that the reference power signal send by the central control level is reached. The performance of the control strategy is assessed and discussed by means of simulations illustrated both...

  14. Wind farm efficiency assessed by WRF with a statistical-dynamical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2016-01-01

    the power production of a target wind farm and (II) how large wind farms can get if they are to remain efficient and productive power generators. The modelling of wind farm wake flows is challenging, since it includes processes from the micro- to mesoscale meteorology. We use the Weather Research...... and Forecast (WRF) model that allows us to simulate mesoscale features of wind farm wakes. Its limited horizontal resolution – in microscale terms – however, requires flow characteristics, such as single turbine wakes, to be parametrised.......A pledge to increase the share of renewable energies has led to a focus on offshore wind energy in many western European countries. With an increasing number of offshore wind farms to be installed it becomes important to understand (I) the degree to which wakes from neighbouring wind farms affect...

  15. Effects on harbour porpoises from Roedsand 2 Off-shore Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.

    2012-11-15

    E.ON Vind Sverige has been commissioned the construction of Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm comprising 90 wind turbines, south of Lolland-Falster, Denmark. The location of the wind farm is 3 km west of the existing Nysted Offshore Wind Farm with 72 turbines. In combination the two wind farms represents the largest wind farm area in the world. Porpoises were monitored by automatic acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) according to a statistical BACI design and deployed during baseline (Sep 2008-Feb 2009) and during operation (Sep 2011-Mar 2012). These instruments were deployed at 10 stations covering a coastal stretch of 35 km from Gedser to Roedby, including the wind farm area with reference areas on both sides. In addition, background noise at four of the T-POD stations was recorded by automatic noise loggers. In order to assess the potential cumulative effect of two adjacent wind farms, similar data from the Nysted Offshore Wind Farm were also analysed. We found no overall change in echolocation activity over the entire monitoring area from baseline to operation of Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm. Also, there was no significant change in the echolocation activity in Roedsand 2 Offshore Wind Farm relative to each or a combination of the three reference areas, i.e. changes from baseline to operation were similar in the impact and reference areas. Also no significant change in noise levels audible to porpoises was found. This could be due to a generally high noise level in the area, masking the turbine noise or that the noise loggers in the wind farm were deployed between the wind turbines, i.e. at distances {approx}350-450 m from the turbines. This study also shows that the echolocation activity is still significantly lower in Nysted Offshore Wind Farm since the baseline in 2001-2002, although the difference seem to gradually diminish possibly due to a habituation of the porpoises to the wind farm or better feeding posibilities. We found no cumulative effect of the two wind

  16. Improving offering strategies for wind farms enhanced with storage capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Hu, Zechun; Song, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Due to the flexible charging and discharging capability, energy storage system (ESS) is thought of as a promising complement to wind farms (WF) in participating into electricity markets. This paper proposes a reserve-based real-time operation strategy of ESS to make arbitrage and to alleviate...... the wind power deviation from day-ahead contracts. Taking into account the operation strategy as well as two-price balancing market rules, a day-ahead bidding strategy of WF-ESS system is put forward and formulated. A modified gradient descent algorithm is described to solve the formulations. In the case...... studies, the computational efficiency of the algorithm is validated firstly. Moreover, a number of scenarios with/without considering the temporal dependence of wind power forecast error are designed and employed to compare the proposed strategy with other common ones in terms of profit....

  17. Forecasting Production Losses at a Swedish Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Production loss due to icing has been identified as a problem both when siting turbines in cold climates, and when making forecasts of energy production for wind park management and energy markets. The Makkonen icing model (Makkonen, 2000), driven by output from the WRF mesoscale model, has been...... shown to predict periods of icing at a wind farm in northern Sweden (Davis et al, 2012) with improved skill compared to persistence and threshold models. Based on these results, we have developed a statistical model to estimate the loss of production at the wind park due to these icing periods. We...... compared this statistical model with a simpler method that does not rely on a physical icing model. In that method meteorological icing is identified as periods when WRF forecasts clouds and the temperature is below freezing. During these periods it is assumed that there is no production from the turbines...

  18. On the viability of wind farms with 2- and 3-bladed wind turbines: a numerical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Imran; Chatterjee, Tanmoy; Peet, Julia; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2017-11-01

    With offshore wind farms gaining substantial momentum in recent years, 2-bladed turbines (2BT) are increasingly becoming a viable alternative to 3-bladed counterparts (3BT). Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments with wind farms containing 2BT and 3BT in alternating rows were performed to explore potential benefits associated with the relatively higher momentum available in the wake of 2BT. The flow within and above the wind farm and power measurements were inspected for various wind farm layouts. Large-Eddy simulations complemented with wind-tunnel measurements at various locations revealed distinctive effects of the 2BT on the power output of the wind farms as well as the distribution and structure of the surrounding flow. During the talk, we will discuss the potential of using a combination of 2BT and 3BT for practical applications.

  19. Reliability assessment of bulk electric systems containing large wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangdee, Wijarn [Regional System Planning, British Columbia Transmission Corporation, Vancouver (Canada); Billinton, Roy [Power System Research Group, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Wind power is an intermittent energy source that behaves quite differently than conventional energy sources. Bulk electric system reliability analysis associated with wind energy conversion systems (WECS) provides an opportunity to investigate the reliability benefits when large-scale wind power is injected at specified locations in a bulk electric system. Connecting the WECS to different locations in a bulk system can have different impacts on the overall system reliability depending on the system topology and conditions. Connecting a large-scale WECS to an area which has weak transmission could create system operating constraints and provide less system benefit than connecting it to an area with stronger transmission. This paper investigates bulk electric system transmission constraints associated with large-scale wind farms. The analyses presented in this paper can be used to determine the maximum WECS installed capacity that can be injected at specified locations in a bulk electric system, and assist system planners to create potential transmission reinforcement schemes to facilitate large-scale WECS additions to the bulk system. A sequential Monte Carlo simulation approach is used as this methodology can facilitate a time series modeling of wind speeds, and also provides accurate frequency and duration assessments. An auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) time series model is used to simulate hourly wind speeds. (author)

  20. A numerical study of wind turbine-boundary layer interactions in a large offshore wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanvi; Baidya Roy, Somnath

    2017-04-01

    Large offshore wind farm installations are rapidly increasing all over the world driven by the availability of strong, consistent winds and the unavailability of appropriate land sites. This study quantitatively explores the interaction between wind turbines and the marine atmospheric boundary layer and its impacts on power generation in a hypothetical large offshore wind farm off the western coast of India in the Arabian Sea. The simulations are conducted using the mesoscale model WRF equipped with a wind turbine parameterization, which approximates a wind turbine as a sink of resolved kinetic energy and a source of turbulent kinetic energy. In this study, the WRF parameterization is modified to include the effects of density variations. The simulations are conducted over a 300 km x 300 km domain discretised with an 1 km grid with 10000 turbines placed in the centre. Wind turbines extract atmospheric kinetic energy and convert it into electricity. The extraction of kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow leads to two major phenomena: (1) momentum deficit in the wakes that reduce energy availability for downwind turbines and (2) enhanced vertical convergence to partly replenish the momentum deficit. Results show a 200% increase in vertical momentum convergence, with 95% of that coming from sub-grid turbulent eddies. However, the enhanced momentum convergence offsets only a small part of the momentum deficit. Consequently, there is a net reduction of almost 60% in power production for turbines in the interior of the farm compared to the turbines at the leading edge. These results suggest that a numerical model like WRF that accounts for both the momentum deficit and enhanced momentum convergence effects may provide better estimates of wind power generation than traditional wind speed density or wake model approaches.

  1. Wind farm power maximization based on a cooperative static game approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkyoo; Kwon, Soonduck; Law, Kincho H.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the cost-effectiveness and production efficiency of wind farms using cooperative control. The key factors in determining the power production and the loading for a wind turbine are the nacelle yaw and blade pitch angles. However, the nacelle and blade angles may adjust the wake direction and intensity in a way that may adversely affect the performance of other wind turbines in the wind farm. Conventional wind-turbine control methods maximize the power production of a single turbine, but can lower the overall wind-farm power efficiency due to wake interference. This paper introduces a cooperative game concept to derive the power production of individual wind turbine so that the total wind-farm power efficiency is optimized. Based on a wake interaction model relating the yaw offset angles and the induction factors of wind turbines to the wind speeds experienced by the wind turbines, an optimization problem is formulated with the objective of maximizing the sum of the power production of a wind farm. A steepest descent algorithm is applied to find the optimal combination of yaw offset angles and the induction factors that increases the total wind farm power production. Numerical simulations show that the cooperative control strategy can increase the power productions in a wind farm.

  2. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases

  3. Hierarchical Communication Network Architectures for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large-scale wind power farms (WPFs bring new challenges for both electric systems and communication networks. Communication networks are an essential part of WPFs because they provide real-time control and monitoring of wind turbines from a remote location (local control center. However, different wind turbine applications have different requirements in terms of data volume, latency, bandwidth, QoS, etc. This paper proposes a hierarchical communication network architecture that consist of a turbine area network (TAN, farm area network (FAN, and control area network (CAN for offshore WPFs. The two types of offshore WPFs studied are small-scale WPFs close to the grid and medium-scale WPFs far from the grid. The wind turbines are modelled based on the logical nodes (LN concepts of the IEC 61400-25 standard. To keep pace with current developments in wind turbine technology, the network design takes into account the extension of the LNs for both the wind turbine foundation and meteorological measurements. The proposed hierarchical communication network is based on Switched Ethernet. Servers at the control center are used to store and process the data received from the WPF. The network architecture is modelled and evaluated via OPNET. We investigated the end-to-end (ETE delay for different WPF applications. The results are validated by comparing the amount of generated sensing data with that of received traffic at servers. The network performance is evaluated, analyzed and discussed in view of end-to-end (ETE delay for different link bandwidths.

  4. Fatigue distribution optimization for offshore wind farms using intelligent agent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Rongyong; Shen, Wen Zhong; Knudsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    A novel control approach is proposed to optimize the fatigue distribution of wind turbines in a large‐scale offshore wind farm on the basis of an intelligent agent theory. In this approach, each wind turbine is considered to be an intelligent agent. The turbine at the farm boundary communicates...... coefficient for every wind turbine. The optimization is constrained such that the average fatigue for every turbine is smaller than what would be achieved by conventional dispatch and such that the total power loss of the wind farm is restricted to a few percent of the total power. This intelligent agent...... control approach is verified through the simulation of wind data from the Horns Rev offshore wind farm. The results illustrate that intelligent agent control is a feasible way to optimize fatigue distribution in wind farms, which may reduce the maintenance frequency and extend the service life of large...

  5. AC-DC integrated load flow calculation for variable speed offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a sequential AC-DC integrated load flow algorithm for variable speed offshore wind farms. In this algorithm, the variable frequency and the control strategy of variable speed wind turbine systems are considered. In addition, the losses of wind turbine systems and the losses...... of converters are also integrated into the load flow algorithm. As a general algorithm, it can be applied to different types of wind farm configurations, and the load flow is related to the wind speed....

  6. Can Weather Radars Help Monitoring and Forecasting Wind Power Fluctuations at Large Offshore Wind Farms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The substantial impact of wind power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms calls for the development of dedicated monitoring and prediction approaches. Based on recent findings, a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) was installed at Horns Rev with the aim of improving predictability, controlability...... and potentially maintenance planning. Additional images are available from a Doppler radar covering the same area. The parallel analysis of rain events detection and of regime sequences in wind (and power) fluctuations demonstrates the interest of employing weather radars for a better operation and management...

  7. A Review of Methodological Approaches for the Design and Optimization of Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Acero, José F.; Probst, Oliver; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the state of the art of the Wind Farm Design and Optimization (WFDO) problem. The WFDO problem refers to a set of advanced planning actions needed to extremize the performance of wind farms, which may be composed of a few individual Wind Turbines (WTs) up to thou...

  8. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  9. Large eddy simulation studies of the effects of alignment and wind farm length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Large eddy simulations of wind farms are performed to study the effects of wind turbine row alignment with respect to the incoming flow direction. Various wind farms with fixed stream-wise spacing (7.85 rotor diameters) and varying lateral displacements and span-wise turbine spacings are considered,

  10. Power Performance Verification of a Wind Farm Using the Friedman’s Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Hernandez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of verification of the power performance of a wind farm is presented. This method is based on the Friedman’s test, which is a nonparametric statistical inference technique, and it uses the information that is collected by the SCADA system from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. Here, the guaranteed power curve of the wind turbines is used as one more wind turbine of the wind farm under assessment, and a multiple comparison method is used to investigate differences between pairs of wind turbines with respect to their power performance. The proposed method says whether the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment differs significantly from what would be expected, and it also allows wind farm owners to know whether their wind farm has either a perfect power performance or an acceptable power performance. Finally, the power performance verification of an actual wind farm is carried out. The results of the application of the proposed method showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

  11. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2016-01-01

    A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any

  12. Wake effects of large offshore wind farms on the mesoscale atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Badger, Jake; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    to the flow. The validity of both wind farm parametrizations has been verified against observational data. We use met. mast measurements and power measurements from wind turbines, at HornsRev. The wind farm measurements have been used to compare the total thrust produced by both types of parametrization...

  13. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines Wind... statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service proposed to prepare an environmental impact statement for the White...

  14. Power Performance Verification of a Wind Farm Using the Friedman's Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar; López-Presa, José Luis; Maldonado-Correa, Jorge L

    2016-06-03

    In this paper, a method of verification of the power performance of a wind farm is presented. This method is based on the Friedman's test, which is a nonparametric statistical inference technique, and it uses the information that is collected by the SCADA system from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. Here, the guaranteed power curve of the wind turbines is used as one more wind turbine of the wind farm under assessment, and a multiple comparison method is used to investigate differences between pairs of wind turbines with respect to their power performance. The proposed method says whether the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment differs significantly from what would be expected, and it also allows wind farm owners to know whether their wind farm has either a perfect power performance or an acceptable power performance. Finally, the power performance verification of an actual wind farm is carried out. The results of the application of the proposed method showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable.

  15. Power Performance Verification of a Wind Farm Using the Friedman’s Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Wilmar; López-Presa, José Luis; Maldonado-Correa, Jorge L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a method of verification of the power performance of a wind farm is presented. This method is based on the Friedman’s test, which is a nonparametric statistical inference technique, and it uses the information that is collected by the SCADA system from the sensors embedded in the wind turbines in order to carry out the power performance verification of a wind farm. Here, the guaranteed power curve of the wind turbines is used as one more wind turbine of the wind farm under assessment, and a multiple comparison method is used to investigate differences between pairs of wind turbines with respect to their power performance. The proposed method says whether the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment differs significantly from what would be expected, and it also allows wind farm owners to know whether their wind farm has either a perfect power performance or an acceptable power performance. Finally, the power performance verification of an actual wind farm is carried out. The results of the application of the proposed method showed that the power performance of the specific wind farm under assessment was acceptable. PMID:27271628

  16. Spatial planning of offshore wind farms: A windfall to marine environmental protection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.J.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.; Stel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wind farms are often planned offshore where wind conditions are favourable and the visual impact is less important. Wind farms have both positive and negative effects on the marine environment. Negative effects include bird collisions, underwater sounds and electromagnetic fields, whilst positive

  17. Using the PROSA Method in Offshore Wind Farm Location Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Ziemba

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind is the most used renewable energy source (RES in the European Union and Poland. Due to the legal changes in the scope of RES in Poland, there are plans to develop offshore wind farms at the expense of onshore ones. On the other hand, the success of an offshore wind farm is primarily determined by its location. Therefore, the aim of this study is to select offshore wind farm locations in Poland, based on sustainability assessment, which is an inherent aspect of RES decision-making issues. To accomplish the objectives of this research, PROSA (PROMETHEE for Sustainability Assessment method, a new multi-criteria method is proposed. Like PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation, PROSA is transparent for decision makers and is easy to use; moreover, it provides the analytical tools available in PROMETHEE, i.e., the sensitivity and GAIA (Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Assistance analyses. However, PROSA is characterized by a lower degree of criteria compensation than PROMETHEE. Thus, it adheres in a higher degree to the strong sustainability paradigm. The study also compared the solutions of the decision problem obtained with the use of PROSA and PROMETHEE methods. The compared methods demonstrated a high concurrence of the recommended decision-making variant of location selection, from methodological and practical points of view. At the same time, the conducted research allowed to confirm that the PROSA method recommends more sustainable decision-making variants, and that the ranking it builds is less sensitive to changes in criteria weights. Therefore, it is more stable than the PROMETHEE-based ranking.

  18. Wind energy potential assessment of Cameroon's coastal regions for the installation of an onshore wind farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreyndip, Nkongho Ayuketang; Joseph, Ebobenow; David, Afungchui

    2016-11-01

    For the future installation of a wind farm in Cameroon, the wind energy potentials of three of Cameroon's coastal cities (Kribi, Douala and Limbe) are assessed using NASA average monthly wind data for 31 years (1983-2013) and compared through Weibull statistics. The Weibull parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood, the mean power densities, the maximum energy carrying wind speeds and the most probable wind speeds are also calculated and compared over these three cities. Finally, the cumulative wind speed distributions over the wet and dry seasons are also analyzed. The results show that the shape and scale parameters for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 2.9 and 2.8, 3.9 and 1.8 and 3.08 and 2.58, respectively. The mean power densities through Weibull analysis for Kribi, Douala and Limbe are 33.7 W/m2, 8.0 W/m2 and 25.42 W/m2, respectively. Kribi's most probable wind speed and maximum energy carrying wind speed was found to be 2.42 m/s and 3.35 m/s, 2.27 m/s and 3.03 m/s for Limbe and 1.67 m/s and 2.0 m/s for Douala, respectively. Analysis of the wind speed and hence power distribution over the wet and dry seasons shows that in the wet season, August is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while September is the windiest month for Kribi while in the dry season, March is the windiest month for Douala and Limbe while February is the windiest month for Kribi. In terms of mean power density, most probable wind speed and wind speed carrying maximum energy, Kribi shows to be the best site for the installation of a wind farm. Generally, the wind speeds at all three locations seem quite low, average wind speeds of all the three studied locations fall below 4.0m/s which is far below the cut-in wind speed of many modern wind turbines. However we recommend the use of low cut-in speed wind turbines like the Savonius for stand alone low energy needs.

  19. Wind farm production cost: Optimum turbine size and farm capacity in the actual market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R.; Meyer, J.L.; Bellot, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France); Louche, A. [Espace de Recherche, Ajaccio (France)

    1996-12-31

    Several studies are undertaken in R&D Division of EDF in collaboration with ERASME association in order to have a good knowledge of the wind energy production costs. These studies are performed in the framework of a wind energy monitoring project and concern the influence of a few parameters like wind farm capacity, turbine size and wind speed on production costs, through an analysis of the actual market trend. Some 50 manufacturers and 140 different kind of wind turbines are considered for this study. The minimum production cost is situated at 800/900 kW wind turbine rated power. This point will probably move to more important powers in the future. This study is valid only for average conditions and some special parameters like particular climate conditions or lack of infrastructure for a special site the could modify the results shown on the curves. The variety of wind turbines (rated power as a function of rotor diameter, height and specific rated power) in the actual market is analyzed. A brief analysis of the market trend is also performed. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Dynamic Modelling of a Wind Farm and Analysis of Its Impact on a Weak Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Suvire, Gastón Orlando; Mercado, Pedro Enrique

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the model aspects and the impact of wind power onto a weak power system have been described. A wind system model was presented that takes into account factors such as a rapidly varying turbulence component of the wind and the aerodynamic effects associated to the layout of wind turbines throughout the farm. A test system was used and case studies for different instances of wind farm operation were analyzed, aiming at evaluating the interaction of the wind farm with the power ...

  1. Case Study of Integrating an Offshore Wind Farm with Offshore Oil and Gas Platforms and with an Onshore Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project explored the technical feasibility of utilizing an offshore wind farm as a supplementary power source to several electrical grids of offshore oil and gas platforms and providing surplus power to an onshore grid. Three case studies comprising wind farms rated at 20 MW, 100 MW, and 1000 MW have been studied with the focus on (i the operation benefits of CO2/NOx emission reduction, (ii the electrical grid stability, and (iii the technical implementation feasibility. The proposed 20 MW, 100 MW, and 1000 MW wind farm cases are theoretically feasible in terms of the selected technical criteria, although further detailed design operational studies, and economical analysis are required.

  2. Wind model for low frequency power fluctuations in offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigueras-Rodríguez, A.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the correlation between the frequency components of the wind speed Power Spectral Density. The results extend an already existing power fluctuation model that can simulate power fluctuations of wind power on areas up to several kilometers and for time scales up to a couple...... of hours, taking into account the spectral correlation between different wind turbines. The modelling is supported by measurements from two large wind farms, namely Nysted and Horns Rev. Measurements from individual wind turbines and meteorological masts are used. Finally, the models are integrated...... is an improvement, but the effect is relatively small. The effect of including the low frequency components in the model is much more significant. Therefore, that aggregated model is useful in the power system planning and operation, e.g. regarding load following and regulation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons...

  3. Temporal structure of aggregate power fluctuations in large-eddy simulations of extended wind-farms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, Richard J A M

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations represent a major challenge for the incorporation of electric power from large wind-farms into power grids. Wind farm power output fluctuates strongly in time, over various time scales. Understanding these fluctuations, especially their spatio-temporal characteristics, is particularly important for the design of backup power systems that must be readily available in conjunction with wind-farms. In this work we analyze the power fluctuations associated with the wind-input variability at scales between minutes to several hours, using large eddy simulations (LES) of extended wind-parks, interacting with the atmospheric boundary layer. LES studies enable careful control of parameters and availability of wind-velocities simultaneously across the entire wind-farm. The present study focuses on neutral atmospheric conditions and flat terrain, using actuator-disk representations of the individual wind-turbines. We consider power from various aggregates of wind-turbines such as the total average power sign...

  4. Investigation of sonar transponders for offshore wind farms: modeling approach, experimental setup, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Moritz B; Rolfes, Raimund

    2013-11-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone requires the deployment of sonar transponders to prevent collisions with submarines. The general requirements for these systems have been previously worked out by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Marine Geophysics of the Bundeswehr. In this article, the major results of the research project "Investigation of Sonar Transponders for Offshore Wind Farms" are presented. For theoretical investigations a hybrid approach was implemented using the boundary element method to calculate the source directivity and a three-dimensional ray-tracing algorithm to estimate the transmission loss. The angle-dependence of the sound field as well as the weather-dependence of the transmission loss are compared to experimental results gathered at the offshore wind farm alpha ventus, located 45 km north of the island Borkum. While theoretical and experimental results are in general agreement, the implemented model slightly underestimates scattering at the rough sea surface. It is found that the source level of 200 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m is adequate to satisfy the detectability of the warning sequence at distances up to 2 NM (≈3.7 km) within a horizontal sector of ±60° if realistic assumptions about signal-processing and noise are made. An arrangement to enlarge the angular coverage is discussed.

  5. GIS-BASED WIND FARM SITE SELECTION MODEL OFFSHORE ABU DHABI EMIRATE, UAE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    N. Saleous; S. Issa; J. Al Mazrouei

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS...

  6. Wind farm related mortality among avian migrants - a remote sensing study and model analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desholm, M.

    -2006) of migrating birds at the Nysted offshore wind farm in the Baltic Sea, Denmark. This thesis poses and answers the following questions: a) what hazard factors do offshore wind farming pose to wild birds, b) how should one choose the key focal species to study, c) how can remote sensing techniques be applied......This thesis is the result of a PhD study on bird-wind farm collisions and consists of a synopsis, five published papers, one submitted manuscript and another ready for submission. The papers describe the fi ndings from pre- and post-construction visual, radar and thermal imaging studies (1999...... to the study of bird wind farm interactions, and d) specifi cally, how do waterbirds react when approaching an offshore wind farm? The main aim of the study was the development of a predictive bird-wind farm collision model that incorporates the avoidance rate of birds at multiple scales. Out of 235...

  7. Integration of a wind farm with a wave- and an aquaculture farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Weissenberger, J.; Bergh, Ø.

    with other marine energy producers such as wave energy and other maritime users such as aquaculture farms may result in significant benefits in terms of economics, optimising spatial utilization, and minimising the environmental impact. In this research project, the integration benefits and disadvantages...

  8. A Novel Wind Speed Forecasting Model for Wind Farms of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Zhou; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Wind resources are becoming increasingly significant due to their clean and renewable characteristics, and the integration of wind power into existing electricity systems is imminent. To maintain a stable power supply system that takes into account the stochastic nature of wind speed, accurate wind speed forecasting is pivotal. However, no single model can be applied to all cases. Recent studies show that wind speed forecasting errors are approximately 25% to 40% in Chinese wind farms. Presently, hybrid wind speed forecasting models are widely used and have been verified to perform better than conventional single forecasting models, not only in short-term wind speed forecasting but also in long-term forecasting. In this paper, a hybrid forecasting model is developed, the Similar Coefficient Sum (SCS) and Hermite Interpolation are exploited to process the original wind speed data, and the SVM model whose parameters are tuned by an artificial intelligence model is built to make forecast. The results of case studies show that the MAPE value of the hybrid model varies from 22.96% to 28.87 %, and the MAE value varies from 0.47 m/s to 1.30 m/s. Generally, Sign test, Wilcoxon's Signed-Rank test, and Morgan-Granger-Newbold test tell us that the proposed model is different from the compared models.

  9. Raptor mortality in wind farms of southern Spain: mitigation measures on a major migration bottleneck area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio-Roman Munoz; Lucas, Manuela De; Casado, Eva; Ferrer, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    Full text: To assess and monitor the impact of wind farms on fauna is crucial if we want to achieve ecologically sustainable development of this renewable energy resource. Today there are clear evidences that the probability of raptor collision depends critically on species behaviour and weather conditions, and the topographic factors related to each windmill. In our study area EIA were not able to predict this differential risk and in these circumstances mitigating the causes of bird mortality becomes a task of major importance, especially to those wind farms located in the Strait of Gibraltar, a water crossing of 14 km at its shortest distance acting as a major migration bottleneck for Paleo-African soaring migrants. We collected all available information on raptor collision from 1992, when the first wind farm was installed, and from 2005 until present a total of 262 turbines, grouped into 20 wind farms, were surveyed in a daily basis through a surveillance program with the main goal of register the actual mortality of birds. A total of 1291 raptors of 19 species were found of which 78.5% correspond to two species, the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) and the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). In order to mitigate the impact on raptors, and particularly on the griffon vulture, in 2007 a program based on selective stopping of turbines was imposed, in collaboration with the environmental competent authority, on new approved projects. During 2008 there was a reduction in mortality by 48%, which remained in 2009 with a remarkably lower economic cost. An analysis of the temporal collision patterns will be presented and discussed, with special attention to those species suffering higher mortality rate, and to those who have some degree of threat. (Author)

  10. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...... parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is to be optimized regarding both the production cost and the system reliability....

  11. Multi-objective Optimization of Large Wind Farm Parameters for Harmonic Instability and Resonance Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    wind farms in order to reduce the resonance probability and guarantee harmonic stability. In fact, a general multiobjective optimization procedure based on the genetic algorithm is proposed to set the poles of the wind farm in a desired location in order to minimize the number of the resonance...... frequencies and to improve the harmonic stability. Time-domain simulations of a 400-MW wind farm in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design technique....

  12. Benchmarking of wind farm scale wake models in the EERA - DTOC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Designing offshore wind farms next to existing or planned wind farm clusters has recently become a common practice in the North Sea. These types of projects face unprecedented challenges in term of wind energy siting. The currently ongoing European project FP7 EERA - DTOC (Design Tool for Offshore...... wind farm Clusters) is aiming at providing a new type of model work-flow to address this issue. The wake modeling part of the EERA - DTOC project is to improve the fundamental understanding of wind turbine wakes and modeling. One of these challenges is to create a new kind of wake modeling work......-flow to combine wind farm (micro) and cluster (meso) scale wake models. For this purpose, a benchmark campaign is organized on the existing wind farm wake models available within the project, in order to identify which model would be the most appropriate for this coupling. A number of standardized wake cases...

  13. Wind Farm Power Forecasting for Less Than an Hour Using Multi Dimensional Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2018-01-01

    The paper focus on prediction of wind farm power for horizons of 0-10 minutes and not more than one hour using statistical methods. These short term predictions are relevant for both transmission system operators, wind farm operators and traders. Previous research indicates that for short time...... horizons the persistence method performs as well as more complex methods. However, these results are based on accumulated power for an entire wind farm. The contribution in this paper is to develop multi-dimensional linear methods based on measurements of power or wind speed from individual wind turbine...... in a wind farm. These multi-dimensional methods are compared with the persistence method using real 1 minute average data from the Sheringham Shoal wind farm with 88 turbines. The results show that the use of measurements from individual turbines reduce the prediction errors 5-10% and also improves...

  14. Are wind farms set to become the next dotcom bubble?; Worden windparken de volgende 'dotcom' luchtbel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desbarres, A.

    2008-10-15

    In the current context of soaring turbine prices, supply bottlenecks and record wind farm valuations, carefully crafted entry strategies are key to growing profitable and competitive wind portfolios. The wind energy industry is growing rapidly on the back of technological advancements, political will and government subsidies. Utility companies, independent power providers, institutional investors and oil companies are all seeking to capitalise on lucrative support mechanisms to unlock greater commercial and competitive advantages, meet their renewables targets and boost their green credentials. Strong growth therefore continues on the back of record sustainable energy investments, yet record wind-farm development costs and valuations are now driving 'dotcom' comparisons as the economics of wind farming projects come under increasing pressure. However, a new series of reports by market analyst Datamonitor reveals that wind farm projects can still be profitable and competitive under very specific financial, technical, regulatory and legislative conditions. [Dutch] Hoge energieprijzen gaan hand in hand met uit de pan schietende windturbine prijzen, tekorten aan windturbines en componenten. Ook de (verkoop)waarden van windparken zijn sterk gestegen. Dit alles noodzaakt nieuwe investeerders tot goed uitgedachte strategieen als sleutelvoorwaarde om een concurrerende en winstgevende windparkportfolio op te kunnen bouwen. Dat stelt de auteur in een persbericht van Datamonitor, vertaald door Eize de Vries.

  15. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jarquin Laguna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A numerical model was developed to capture the relevant physics from the dynamic interaction between different turbines coupled to a common hydraulic network and controller. This paper presents a few examples of the time domain simulation results for a hypothetical hydraulic wind farm subject to turbulent wind conditions. The performance and operational parameters of individual turbines are compared with those of a reference wind farm based on conventional wind turbine generator technology using the same wind farm layout and environmental conditions. For the presented case studies, results indicate that the individual wind turbines are able to operate within operational limits. Despite the stochastic turbulent wind conditions and wake effects, the hydraulic wind farm is able to produce electricity with reasonable performance in both below and above rated conditions. With the current pressure control concept, a continuous operation of the hydraulic wind farm is shown including the full stop of one or more turbines.

  16. Wind Power in Mexico: Simulation of a Wind Farm and Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín del Campo–Márquez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important aspects of wind energy in Mexico, including the potential for generating electricity and the major projects planned are presented here. Inparticular, the generation costs are compared to those of other energy sources. The results from the simulation of a 100 MWwind farm in the Tehuantepec Isthmus are also presented. In addition, the environmental impacts related to the wind farm in the mentioned zone are analyzed. Finally, some benefits of using Probabilistic Safety Analysis are discussed with respect to evaluating the risks associated with events that can occur in wind parks, being especially useful for design and maintenance of the parks and the wind turbines themselves. In particular, an event tree was developed to analyze possible accident sequences that could occur when the wind speed is too great. Also, fault trees were developed for each mitigating system considered, in order to determine the relative importance of the wind generator components to the failure sequences, in order to evaluate the yield of suggested improvements and the optimization of maintenance programs.

  17. A Chance-Constrained Economic Dispatch Model in Wind-Thermal-Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhe Hu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a type of renewable energy, wind energy is integrated into the power system with more and more penetration levels. It is challenging for the power system operators (PSOs to cope with the uncertainty and variation of the wind power and its forecasts. A chance-constrained economic dispatch (ED model for the wind-thermal-energy storage system (WTESS is developed in this paper. An optimization model with the wind power and the energy storage system (ESS is first established with the consideration of both the economic benefits of the system and less wind curtailments. The original wind power generation is processed by the ESS to obtain the final wind power output generation (FWPG. A Gaussian mixture model (GMM distribution is adopted to characterize the probabilistic and cumulative distribution functions with an analytical expression. Then, a chance-constrained ED model integrated by the wind-energy storage system (W-ESS is developed by considering both the overestimation costs and the underestimation costs of the system and solved by the sequential linear programming method. Numerical simulation results using the wind power data in four wind farms are performed on the developed ED model with the IEEE 30-bus system. It is verified that the developed ED model is effective to integrate the uncertain and variable wind power. The GMM distribution could accurately fit the actual distribution of the final wind power output, and the ESS could help effectively decrease the operation costs.

  18. Review report 2004. The Danish offshore wind farm demonstration project: Horns Rev and Nysted offshore wind farms. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The present review report presents the two wind farms Horns Rev and Nysted with regard to environmental characteristics and the results of the environmental studies carried out in connection with the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the baseline and monitoring programmes at the two sites. The descriptions of the programmes are based on extracts from the individual annual reports. Detailed information on method, programmes and conclusions can be found in these reports (see Appendix 1). This review report is divided into two parts. The first part contains a description of the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind farms and the potentially affected part of the environment. The second part includes a description of Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm and the environmental studies carried out here until the end of 2003. Appendix I is a list of the literature published on the studies carried out at Horns Rev and Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. Appendix II is a list of some of the literature relevant to the demonstration projects but not directly related to the projects. The offshore wind farm situated in the Roedsand area is officially denoted Nysted Offshore Wind Farm, and in the present report the denotation 'Nysted' will be used as well when referring to Nysted Offshore Wind Farm. The denotation Roedsand will be used when referring to the actual area Roedsand. (au)

  19. A Study of Wind Farm Stabilization Using DFIG or STATCOM Considering Grid Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E Okedu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the grid codes require taking into account the reactive power of the wind farm in order to contribute to the networkstability, thus operating the wind farm as active compensator devices. This paper presents a comparative study of stabilizinga wind farm using (Doubly Fed Induction Generators DFIGs or using a (Static Synchronous Compensator STATCOM duringwind speed change and grid fault. Simulation results show that the wind farm could be effectively stabilized with bothsystems, but at a reduced cost with the DFIGs system because it can provide reactive power through its frequency converterswithout an external reactive power compensation unit like the STATCOM system significant.

  20. Offshore Wind Farm Layout Design Considering Optimized Power Dispatch Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    the direction of wind farm placement and the spacing between WTs, the control strategy’s impact on energy yields is also discussed. Since the problem is non-convex and lots of optimization variables are involved, an evolutionary algorithm, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), is adopted to find...... the solution. In order to increase the probability of finding the global optimal solution, the adaptive parameter control strategy is utilized. Simulation results are given to verify the proposed approach and comparison is made with results obtained using other methods....

  1. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind-Farm Design and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-09

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  2. Development of FAST.Farm: A New Multiphysics Engineering Tool for Wind Farm Design and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, Jason; Annoni, Jennifer; Hayman, Greg; Jonkman, Bonnie; Purkayastha, Avi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of FAST.Farm, a new multiphysics tool applicable to engineering problems in research and industry involving wind farm performance and cost optimization that is needed to address the current underperformance, failures, and expenses plaguing the wind industry. Achieving wind cost-of-energy targets - which requires improvements in wind farm performance and reliability, together with reduced uncertainty and expenditures - has been eluded by the complicated nature of the wind farm design problem, especially the sophisticated interaction between atmospheric phenomena and wake dynamics and array effects. FAST.Farm aims to balance the need for accurate modeling of the relevant physics for predicting power performance and loads while maintaining low computational cost to support a highly iterative and probabilistic design process and system-wide optimization. FAST.Farm makes use of FAST to model the aero-hydro-servo-elastics of distinct turbines in the wind farm, and it is based on some of the principles of the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model, but avoids many of the limitations of existing DWM implementations.

  3. Method for Determining the Maximum Allowable Capacity of Wind Farm Based on Box Set Robust Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind power, the randomness and volatility of wind power output would have a greater impact on safety and steady operation of power system. In allusion to the uncertainty of wind speed and load demand, this paper applied box set robust optimization theory in determining the maximum allowable installed capacity of wind farm, while constraints of node voltage and line capacity are considered. Optimized duality theory is used to simplify the model and convert uncertainty quantities in constraints into certainty quantities. Under the condition of multi wind farms, a bilevel optimization model to calculate penetration capacity is proposed. The result of IEEE 30-bus system shows that the robust optimization model proposed in the paper is correct and effective and indicates that the fluctuation range of wind speed and load and the importance degree of grid connection point of wind farm and load point have impact on the allowable capacity of wind farm.

  4. Optimal Control to Increase Energy Production of Wind Farm Considering Wake Effect and Lifetime Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to the downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. Meanwhile, the energy production is determined by the power generation and the lifetime of the wind turbine. In this paper, an optimal active power control method is proposed......, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized with the aim of Maximum Power Generation (MPG) of the wind farm. Afterwards, considering the lifetime of wind turbines, a comparison is offered between the MPPT method and the MPG method for energy production using a simplified two-turbine wind farm...... as an example. Due to the small range of the effective wake area, it is found that the energy production is almost the same. Finally, the pitch angle curve and active power curve are optimized according to the Maximum Energy Production (MEP) of a wind farm. Upon considering and contrasting the MPPT method...

  5. Public acceptance of wind farm development: Developer practices and review of scientific literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin, Tom; Ram, Bonnie; Gannon, Jim

    This report is the first deliverable of Work Package 3 of the Wind2050 project. The Wind2050 project is about the public perception of wind power in Denmark, its role in the planning and development of wind farms and, ultimately, the meaning it has for reaching the Danish government’s targets...... for wind power in 2050. Work Package 3 looks specifically at how private developers handle the public’s perception of wind power and what it means for their projects. This report firstly outlines the common stages found in wind farm development and then discusses what manner of interaction the developer...

  6. Distributed Model Predictive Control of A Wind Farm for Optimal Active Power Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Guo, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic discrete-time Piece- Wise Affine (PWA) model of a wind turbine for the optimal active power control of a wind farm. The control objectives include both the power reference tracking from the system operator and the wind turbine mechanical load minimization. Instead...... of partial linearization of the wind turbine model at selected operating points, the nonlinearities of the wind turbine model are represented by a piece-wise static function based on the wind turbine system inputs and state variables. The nonlinearity identification is based on the clustering-based algorithm......) or other advanced optimal control applications of a wind farm....

  7. Study on offshore wind farm wakes based on Envisat ASAR, Radarsat-2 and Sentinel-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Badger, Jake

    . The wind farm covers an area of around 4 km by 5 km and three concentric circles centered at the wind farm are used for extraction of results. The selected radii are 6, 10 and 13 km. The mean wind speeds in each of the three circles (geo-collocated) quantify the coastal wind speed gradient. Next step...... is rotation of the data such that all scenes are aligned with inflow and downstream (wake region) based on the wind direction in the wind field maps. The rotation is done at 1 degree intervals. The data from rotated circles (not geo-collocated) are normalized with the winds at the side-lobes. Side...

  8. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  9. Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Jha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, the first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. High-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.

  10. Risk analysis for U.S. offshore wind farms: the need for an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staid, Andrea; Guikema, Seth D

    2015-04-01

    Wind power is becoming an increasingly important part of the global energy portfolio, and there is growing interest in developing offshore wind farms in the United States to better utilize this resource. Wind farms have certain environmental benefits, notably near-zero emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates, and other contaminants of concern. However, there are significant challenges ahead in achieving large-scale integration of wind power in the United States, particularly offshore wind. Environmental impacts from wind farms are a concern, and these are subject to a number of on-going studies focused on risks to the environment. However, once a wind farm is built, the farm itself will face a number of risks from a variety of hazards, and managing these risks is critical to the ultimate achievement of long-term reductions in pollutant emissions from clean energy sources such as wind. No integrated framework currently exists for assessing risks to offshore wind farms in the United States, which poses a challenge for wind farm risk management. In this "Perspective", we provide an overview of the risks faced by an offshore wind farm, argue that an integrated framework is needed, and give a preliminary starting point for such a framework to illustrate what it might look like. This is not a final framework; substantial work remains. Our intention here is to highlight the research need in this area in the hope of spurring additional research about the risks to wind farms to complement the substantial amount of on-going research on the risks from wind farms. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Application of wavelets and Prony method for disturbance detection in fixed speed wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, T.; Rezmer, J.; Janik, P. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Amaris, H.; Alonso, M.; Alvarez, C. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica 28911, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Voltage dips and transients are the most commonly encountered power quality disturbances in wind farms. Signal parameters estimation is an important prerequisite for power quality enhancement and for improving the fault-ride capability of wind farms and consequently, the voltage stability of the whole network. This paper examines the application of advanced signal processing methodologies such as the Prony method and wavelets for disturbance detection in wind farms. Both methodologies have been effectively tested with different disturbances simulated in a dynamic power network with a large amount of wind energy and with data signals measured at wind turbine terminals. (author)

  12. A Novel Energy Yields Calculation Method for Irregular Wind Farm Layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    for the energy yields in irregular wind farm considering wake effect would be difficult.In this paper, a mathematical model which includes the impacts of the variation of both wind direction and velocityon wake effect is established. Based on the wake model, a binary matrix method is proposed for the energy...... yields calculation forirregular wind farms.The results show that the proposed wake model is effective in calculating the wind speeddeficit. The calculation framework is applicable for energy yields calculation in irregular wind farms....

  13. A stochastic bio-economic pig farm model to assess the impact of innovations on farm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, B.M.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Oude Lansink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently developed innovations may improve the economic and environmental sustainability of pig production systems. Generic models are needed to assess the impact of innovations on farm performance. Here we developed a stochastic bio-economic farm model for a typical farrow-to-finish pig farm to

  14. Economic Decisions in Farm Animal Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    Animal health economics deals with quantifying the economic effects of animal disease, decision support tools in animal health management and further analysis of the management's impact at animal, herd or national level. Scientists from The Netherlands, France and Sweden have since 1988 organised...... informal workshops to exchange their knowledge and expertise in this field of science. This report contains the summary of the presentations given by 12 PhD students and 2 senior scientists of the Animal Health Economics workshops which was held on the 9th and 10th of November, 2006 at the Research Centre...... Foulum in Denmark. Different disciplines and approaches within Animal Health Economics are dealt with by the different scientists and the report contains a variety of novel results and projects. The resulting discussion is summarized in the report....

  15. Analysis of High Frequency Resonance in DFIG-based Offshore Wind Farm via Long Transmission Cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yipeng; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    During the past two decades, the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind farm has been under rapid growth, and the increasing wind power penetration has been seen. Practically, these wind farms are connected to the three-phase AC grid through long transmission cable which can be modelled...... as several II units. The impedance of this cable cannot be neglected and requires careful investigation due to its long distance. As a result, the impedance interaction between the DFIG based wind farm and the long cable is inevitable, and may produce High Frequency Resonance (HFR) in the wind farm....... This paper discusses the HFR of the large scale DFIG based wind farm connected to the long cable. Several influencing factors, including 1) the length of the cable, 2) the output active power and 3) the rotor speed, are investigated. Simulation validations using MATLAB / Simulink have been conducted...

  16. The effect of stability on the coastal gradients at the Anholt wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Patrick; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete

    We use Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and SCADA measurements and mesoscale model simulations from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model[3] to analyse the flow conditions at the Danish offshore wind farm at Anholt. The first Danish oshore wind farms have been installed in the North Sea...... of Denmark’s West coast. In this location, the wind conditions have been extensively analysed [2]. Then, around 10 years later the large Anholt wind farm (nominal power of 400 GW) – situated in the Kattegat Strait to the East coast of the Jutland peninsula – has been commissioned. The Anholt wind farm...... stretches around 20 km in the South-North direction and the fetch increases from 15 km in the southern part to 50 km in the northern part of the wind farm. The relatively complex westerly flow conditions at this location are still not completely understood. We use the 10-year SAR satellite measurements...

  17. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms via VSC-HVDC – Dynamic Stability Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi

    farms could seriously impact the operation and stability of their interconnected power system. To assist in maintaining the power system stability when large disturbances occur in the grid, modern offshore wind farms consisting of variable-speed wind turbines are required to provide ancillary services......-HVDC transmission are addressed. The main objectives have been to study the dynamic interactions between offshore wind farms and interconnected power systems, pinpoint the impact on the electrical grid while integrating large-scale offshore wind farms via VSC-HVDC link and propose potential solutions to improve...... the dynamic stability of the network. This research work starts with the modelling of full converter wind turbine and VSC-HVDC transmission system. Then, based on those models, the impact of integration of a large offshore wind farm into the power system through VSC-HVDC transmission is investigated...

  18. The Collection of The Main Issues for Wind Farm Optimisation in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Chen, Dandan; Han, Xingxing; Pan, Hangping; Shen, Wenzhong

    2016-09-01

    The paper aims at establishing the collection of the main issues for wind farm optimisation in complex terrain. To make wind farm cost effective, this paper briefly analyses the main factors influencing wind farm design in complex terrain and sets up a series of mathematical model that includes micro-siting, collector circuits, access roads design for optimization problems. The paper relies on the existing one year wind data in the wind farm area and uses genetic algorithm to optimize the micro-siting problem. After optimization of the turbine layout, single-source shortest path algorithm and minimum spanning tree algorithm are used to optimize collector circuits and access roads. The obtained results can provide important guidance for wind farms construction.

  19. The collection of the main issues for wind farm optimisation in complex terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Chen, Dandan; Han, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    micro-siting, collector circuits, access roads design for optimization problems. The paper relies on the existing one year wind data in the wind farm area and uses genetic algorithm to optimize the micro-siting problem. After optimization of the turbine layout, single-source shortest path algorithm......The paper aims at establishing the collection of the main issues for wind farm optimisation in complex terrain. To make wind farm cost effective, this paper briefly analyses the main factors influencing wind farm design in complex terrain and sets up a series of mathematical model that includes...... and minimum spanning tree algorithm are used to optimize collector circuits and access roads. The obtained results can provide important guidance for wind farms construction....

  20. Multi-criteria decision making on strategic selection of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Amy H.I. [Department of Industrial Engineering and System Management, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu (China); Chen, Hsing Hung [Faculty of Management and Administration, Macau University of Science and Technology, Taipa (Macau); Kang, He-Yau [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taiping, Taichung (China)

    2009-01-15

    With maturity of advanced technologies and urgent requirement for maintaining a healthy environment with reasonable price, China is moving toward a trend of generating electricity from renewable wind resources. How to select a suitable wind farm becomes an important focus for stakeholders. This paper first briefly introduces wind farm and then develops its critical success criteria. A new multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model, based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) associated with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR), is proposed to help select a suitable wind farm project. Multiple factors that affect the success of wind farm operations are analyzed by taking into account experts' opinions, and a performance ranking of the wind farms is generated. (author)