WorldWideScience

Sample records for wildlands multitasking multicropping

  1. Multitasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Peter, N.

    2012-01-01

    We examine how multitasking affects performance. We also examine whether individuals optimally choose their degree of multitasking or whether they perform better under an externally imposed schedule. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to one of three treatments: one

  2. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  3. Multi-Crop Specific Area Frame Stratification Based on Geospatial Crop Planting Frequency Data Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryan, C. G.; Yang, Z.; Willis, P.; Di, L.

    2016-12-01

    Area sampling frames (ASFs) are the basis of many statistical programs around the world. When an ASF's stratification is based on generalized percent cultivation, the ASF usually cannot identify the planting location of specific crops targeted for agricultural surveys. To improve the accuracy, objectivity and efficiency of crop survey estimates, an automated stratification method based on geospatial crop planting frequency data is proposed. The Crop Planting Frequency Data Layers are crop specific geospatial data sets derived from multi-year Cropland Data Layers. Therefore, the ASF stratification based on the crop planting frequency data is crop specific. This paper investigates using 2008-2013 geospatial Crop Frequency Data Layers to create a novel multi-crop specific stratification for South Dakota, U.S. The crop specific ASF stratification is developed based on crop frequency statistics calculated at the primary sampling unit (PSU) level based on the corn, soybean and wheat planting frequency data layers, three major crops in South Dakota. Strata are formed using a k means clustering algorithm. It is observed that the crop frequency based ASF stratification predicts corn, soybean and wheat planting patterns well as verified by 2014 Farm Service Agency (FSA) Common Land Unit (CLU) and 578 administrative data. This finding demonstrates that the novel multi-crop specific stratification based on crop planting frequency data is crop type independent and applicable to all major crops. Further, these results indicate that the new multi-crop specific ASF stratification has great potential to improve ASF accuracy, efficiency and crop estimates.

  4. Who Multitasks on Smartphones? Smartphone Multitaskers' Motivations and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sohye; Shim, Hongjin

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to explore the psychological determinants of smartphone multitasking. Smartphone multitasking comprises the following three different subtypes: multitasking with nonmedia activities, cross-media multitasking with nonsmartphone media, and single-device multitasking within the smartphone. The primary motivations for smartphone multitasking were first identified--efficiency, utility, and positive affect--and the ways in which they are associated with the three subtypes were examined; among the primary motivations, efficiency and positive affect predicted the degree of total smartphone-multitasking behavior. The personality traits that are pertinent to all of the primary motivations--need for cognition (NFC) and sensation seeking (SS)--were also investigated. Further analyses revealed that the motivations for and the extent of smartphone multitasking can vary as functions of a user's NFC and SS. In this study, NFC was not only a meaningful predictor of the cognitive needs that drive smartphone multitasking but also increased the likelihood of multitasking through its interaction with SS.

  5. Media multitasking and implicit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kathleen S; Shin, Myoungju

    2017-07-01

    Media multitasking refers to the simultaneous use of different forms of media. Previous research comparing heavy media multitaskers and light media multitaskers suggests that heavy media multitaskers have a broader scope of attention. The present study explored whether these differences in attentional scope would lead to a greater degree of implicit learning for heavy media multitaskers. The study also examined whether media multitasking behaviour is associated with differences in visual working memory, and whether visual working memory differentially affects the ability to process contextual information. In addition to comparing extreme groups (heavy and light media multitaskers) the study included analysis of people who media multitask in moderation (intermediate media multitaskers). Ninety-four participants were divided into groups based on responses to the media use questionnaire, and completed the contextual cueing and n-back tasks. Results indicated that the speed at which implicit learning occurred was slower in heavy media multitaskers relative to both light and intermediate media multitaskers. There was no relationship between working memory performance and media multitasking group, and no relationship between working memory and implicit learning. There was also no evidence for superior performance of intermediate media multitaskers. A deficit in implicit learning observed in heavy media multitaskers is consistent with previous literature, which suggests that heavy media multitaskers perform more poorly than light media multitaskers in attentional tasks due to their wider attentional scope.

  6. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  7. Media multitasking in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D E; Finn, Amy S

    2016-12-01

    Media use has been on the rise in adolescents overall, and in particular, the amount of media multitasking-multiple media consumed simultaneously, such as having a text message conversation while watching TV-has been increasing. In adults, heavy media multitasking has been linked with poorer performance on a number of laboratory measures of cognition, but no relationship has yet been established between media-multitasking behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized achievement tests of math and English in the classroom, poorer performance on behavioral measures of executive function (working memory capacity) in the laboratory, and traits of greater impulsivity and lesser growth mindset. Greater media multitasking had a relatively circumscribed set of associations, and was not related to behavioral measures of cognitive processing speed, implicit learning, or manual dexterity, or to traits of grit and conscientiousness. Thus, individual differences in adolescent media multitasking were related to specific differences in executive function and in performance on real-world academic achievement measures: More media multitasking was associated with poorer executive function ability, worse academic achievement, and a reduced growth mindset.

  8. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  9. Media multitasking in adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cain, Matthew S; Leonard, Julia A; Gabrieli, John D. E; Finn, Amy S

    2016-01-01

    ... behavior and real-world outcomes. Examining individual differences across a group of adolescents, we found that more frequent media multitasking in daily life was associated with poorer performance on statewide standardized...

  10. Cognitive control in media multitaskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophir, Eyal; Nass, Clifford; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic media multitasking is quickly becoming ubiquitous, although processing multiple incoming streams of information is considered a challenge for human cognition. A series of experiments addressed whether there are systematic differences in information processing styles between chronically heavy and light media multitaskers. A trait media multitasking index was developed to identify groups of heavy and light media multitaskers. These two groups were then compared along established cognitive control dimensions. Results showed that heavy media multitaskers are more susceptible to interference from irrelevant environmental stimuli and from irrelevant representations in memory. This led to the surprising result that heavy media multitaskers performed worse on a test of task-switching ability, likely due to reduced ability to filter out interference from the irrelevant task set. These results demonstrate that media multitasking, a rapidly growing societal trend, is associated with a distinct approach to fundamental information processing. PMID:19706386

  11. Mindfulness, Multitasking, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The ability to multitask has been typically worn like a badge of honor for all case managers. Mindfulness, on the contrary, is the new kid on the block and is proving to increase resilience and decrease stress. Research shows that multitasking lowers IQ, shrinks the gray matter, and lowers productivity by 40%. Conversely, mindfulness increases gray matter and improves regions involved with learning and memory processes, modulation of emotional control, and the process of awareness. The research leaves more questions than answers but may be a key to engaged, focused, and less-stressed staff.

  12. Taking on Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Jerome L.

    2011-01-01

    Multitasking impedes learning and performance in the short-term and may affect long-term memory and retention. The implications of these findings make it critical that educators and parents impress upon students the need to focus and reduce extraneous stimuli while studying or reading. Course-based quizzes and tests can be used for more than…

  13. Multitasking, myter og medier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    . Eleverne drages mod distraktion som møl mod en flamme. I denne artikel vil jeg argumentere for, at den moderne brug af informationsteknologi (IT) udfordrer klassiske psykologiske begreber som opmærksomhed og multitasking. For forstå brugen af IT, anbefaler jeg derfor et analytisk perspektivskifte, der...

  14. MultitaskProtDB: a database of multitasking proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio; Ferragut, Gabriela; Amela, Isaac; Perez-Pons, JosepAntoni; Piñol, Jaume; Mozo-Villarias, Angel; Cedano, Juan; Querol, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled MultitaskProtDB, available online at http://wallace.uab.es/multitask, to provide a repository where the many multitasking proteins found in the literature can be stored. Multitasking or moonlighting is the capability of some proteins to execute two or more biological functions. Usually, multitasking proteins are experimentally revealed by serendipity. This ability of proteins to perform multitasking functions helps us to understand one of the ways used by cells to perform many complex functions with a limited number of genes. Even so, the study of this phenomenon is complex because, among other things, there is no database of moonlighting proteins. The existence of such a tool facilitates the collection and dissemination of these important data. This work reports the database, MultitaskProtDB, which is designed as a friendly user web page containing >288 multitasking proteins with their NCBI and UniProt accession numbers, canonical and additional biological functions, monomeric/oligomeric states, PDB codes when available and bibliographic references. This database also serves to gain insight into some characteristics of multitasking proteins such as frequencies of the different pairs of functions, phylogenetic conservation and so forth.

  15. The multitasking of household production

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Foster, Gigi

    2010-01-01

    The standard household production model does not incorporate multitasking, although time-diary data reveal that individuals regularly multi-task. We formulate a model where time spent in child care can be sole-tasked or multitasked with other household production activities. This model implies associations between household productivity factors and both child outcomes and parental time use. We then use data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Australian Time Use Surveys...

  16. Wildland planning glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles F. Schwarz; Edward C. Thor; Gary H. Elsner

    1976-01-01

    More than 1400 terms useful in wildland and related resource planning are defined. The purpose of the work is to facilitate communication between professionals, not to provide them with exhaustive vocabularies of each other's specialties. Definitions are drawn from many sources, including public laws and government manuals, but are not intended to establish...

  17. Multitasking and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Görlich, Dennis; Snower, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on how changes in the organization of work can help to understand increasing wage inequality. We present a theoretical model in which workers with a wider span of competence (higher level of multitasking) earn a wage premium. Since abilities and opportunities to expand the span of competence are distributed unequally among workers across and within education groups, our theory helps to explain (1) rising wage inequality between groups, and (2) rising wage inequality wit...

  18. Multiplicative Multitask Feature Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Bi, Jinbo; Yu, Shipeng; Sun, Jiangwen; Song, Minghu

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a general framework of multiplicative multitask feature learning which decomposes individual task's model parameters into a multiplication of two components. One of the components is used across all tasks and the other component is task-specific. Several previous methods can be proved to be special cases of our framework. We study the theoretical properties of this framework when different regularization conditions are applied to the two decomposed components. We prove that this framework is mathematically equivalent to the widely used multitask feature learning methods that are based on a joint regularization of all model parameters, but with a more general form of regularizers. Further, an analytical formula is derived for the across-task component as related to the task-specific component for all these regularizers, leading to a better understanding of the shrinkage effects of different regularizers. Study of this framework motivates new multitask learning algorithms. We propose two new learning formulations by varying the parameters in the proposed framework. An efficient blockwise coordinate descent algorithm is developed suitable for solving the entire family of formulations with rigorous convergence analysis. Simulation studies have identified the statistical properties of data that would be in favor of the new formulations. Extensive empirical studies on various classification and regression benchmark data sets have revealed the relative advantages of the two new formulations by comparing with the state of the art, which provides instructive insights into the feature learning problem with multiple tasks.

  19. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  20. Multitasking Web Searching and Implications for Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmutlu, Seda; Ozmutlu, H. C.; Spink, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    Findings from a study of users' multitasking searches on Web search engines include: multitasking searches are a noticeable user behavior; multitasking search sessions are longer than regular search sessions in terms of queries per session and duration; both Excite and AlltheWeb.com users search for about three topics per multitasking session and…

  1. Monthly Optimal Reservoirs Operation for Multicrop Deficit Irrigation under Fuzzy Stochastic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncertain monthly reservoirs operation and multicrop deficit irrigation model was proposed under conjunctive use of underground and surface water for water resources optimization management. The objective is to maximize the total crop yield of the entire irrigation districts. Meanwhile, ecological water remained for the downstream demand. Because of the shortage of water resources, the monthly crop water production function was adopted for multiperiod deficit irrigation management. The model reflects the characteristics of water resources repetitive transformation in typical inland rivers irrigation system. The model was used as an example for water resources optimization management in Shiyang River Basin, China. Uncertainties in reservoir management shown as fuzzy probability were treated through chance-constraint parameter for decision makers. Necessity of dominance (ND was used to analyse the advantages of the method. The optimization results including reservoirs real-time operation policy, deficit irrigation management, and the available water resource allocation could be used to provide decision support for local irrigation management. Besides, the strategies obtained could help with the risk analysis of reservoirs operation stochastically.

  2. Multitasking in the University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    Although research evidence indicates that multitasking results in poorer learning and poorer performance, many students engage with text messaging, Facebook, internet searching, emailing, and instant messaging, while sitting in university classrooms. Research also suggests that multitasking may be related to risk behaviors. This study's purpose…

  3. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Nathan Medeiros-Ward; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  4. Choice in multitasking: How delays in the primary task turn a rational into an irrational multitasker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katidioti, Ioanna; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to establish the nature of choice in cognitive multitasking. Background: Laboratory studies of multitasking suggest people are rational in their switch choices regarding multitasking, whereas observational studies suggest they are not. Threaded cognition theory predicts

  5. Does Media Multitasking Always Hurt?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Fai Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heavy media multitaskers have been found impaired cognitive performance on certain cognitive tasks (Ophir, Nass & Wagner, 2009. However, the poor performance may be caused by their breadth-biased style of cognitive control rather than a deficit in cognitive abilities such as the ability to filter out interference from irrelevant stimuli and representations in memory. In this study, a new media multitasking index was invented to differentiate heavy and light media multitaskers by adding three open ended questions to the Media Use Questionnaire used by Ophir, Nass and Wagner (2009. Also, four different cognitive tasks, which access the ability of attentional capture, attention allocation to infrequent information, task switching and crossmodal integration, were used to investigate whether the poor performance of heavy media multitaskers is general to a wider range of tasks. Preliminary results found that heavy media multitaskers showed better improvement in accuracy between the sound present condition and sound absent condition of Pip and Pop Task (Van der Burg, Olivers, Bronkhorst, & theeuwes, 2008. Heavy media multitaskers appeared to have better ability of crossmodal integration than light medie multitaskers; hence, their poor performance is limited in only certain cognitive tasks.

  6. Multitasking simulation: Present application and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Traci Nicole; Rho, Jason C

    2017-02-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education lists multi-tasking as a core competency in several medical specialties due to increasing demands on providers to manage the care of multiple patients simultaneously. Trainees often learn multitasking on the job without any formal curriculum, leading to high error rates. Multitasking simulation training has demonstrated success in reducing error rates among trainees. Studies of multitasking simulation demonstrate that this type of simulation is feasible, does not hinder the acquisition of procedural skill, and leads to better performance during subsequent periods of multitasking. Although some healthcare agencies have discouraged multitasking due to higher error rates among multitasking providers, it cannot be eliminated entirely in settings such as the emergency department in which providers care for more than one patient simultaneously. Simulation can help trainees to identify situations in which multitasking is inappropriate, while preparing them for situations in which multitasking is inevitable.

  7. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  8. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sanbonmatsu

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  9. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  10. Media multitasking, attention, and distraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Students often multitask with technologies such as computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones during class. Unfortunately, numerous empirical studies firmly establish a significant drop in academic performance caused by this media multitasking. In this paper it is argued that cognitive studies may...... have clarified the negative consequences of this activity, yet they struggle to address the processes involved in it. A cognitive characterization of attention as a mental phenomenon neglects the interaction between bodies and technologies, and it is suggested that a postphenomenological understanding...

  11. Multitasking associative networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2012-12-28

    We introduce a bipartite, diluted and frustrated, network as a sparse restricted Boltzmann machine and we show its thermodynamical equivalence to an associative working memory able to retrieve several patterns in parallel without falling into spurious states typical of classical neural networks. We focus on systems processing in parallel a finite (up to logarithmic growth in the volume) amount of patterns, mirroring the low-level storage of standard Amit-Gutfreund-Sompolinsky theory. Results obtained through statistical mechanics, the signal-to-noise technique, and Monte Carlo simulations are overall in perfect agreement and carry interesting biological insights. Indeed, these associative networks pave new perspectives in the understanding of multitasking features expressed by complex systems, e.g., neural and immune networks.

  12. Multitasking: Productivity Effects and Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Buser, Thomas; Peter, Noemi

    2011-01-01

    We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they can freely organize their work. Subjects who are forced to multitask perform significantly worse than those forced to work sequentially. Surprisingly, subjects who can freely organize their own sche...

  13. Multitasking: productivity effects and gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Peter, N.

    2011-01-01

    We examine how multitasking affects performance and check whether women are indeed better at multitasking. Subjects in our experiment perform two different tasks according to three treatments: one where they perform the tasks sequentially, one where they are forced to multitask, and one where they

  14. Intelligence, Working Memory, and Multitasking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Multitasking performance is relevant in everyday life and job analyses highlight the influence of multitasking over several diverse occupations. Intelligence is the best single predictor of overall job performance and it is also related to individual differences in multitasking. However, it has been shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is…

  15. Interagency Agreement for Wildland Fire Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management Agreement are to provide a basis for cooperation among the agencies on all aspects of wildland...

  16. Multitasking in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Merkt, Julia; Goossens-Merkt, Heinrich; Bodenburg, Sebastian; Wendt, Mike

    2011-09-01

    Adults with ADHD have problems in everyday multitasking situations presumably because of deficits in executive functions. The present study aims to find out (a) whether adults with ADHD show deficient multitasking performance in a standardized task, (b) how they perceive the multitasking situation, and (c) which task structure might be beneficial for them as compared with adults without ADHD. Therefore, we experimentally compared task performance, mood, and motivation in a group of 45 men with ADHD (M-age = 34.47, SD = 9.95) with a comparison group of 42 men without ADHD (M-age = 31.12, SD = 10.59) in three conditions: (a) a multitasking paradigm, (b) an interleaving condition in which tasks had to be performed without planning or monitoring, and (c) a non-interleaving condition. Our results showed no impaired multitasking performance in adults with ADHD. However, they showed better mood and more motivation in the non-interleaving condition.

  17. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  18. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    O nanowires generate a piezoelectric signal that acts as both the power source and the gas sensing information as a result of the different screening effects different gases present on the piezoelectric charges. As they explain 'Our results can provoke a possible new direction for the development of next-generation gas sensors and will further expand the scope of self-powered nanosystems'. Over 50 years ago C P Snow delivered and subsequently published a lecture entitled 'The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution'. In it he lamented a gaping fissure separating the sciences and the humanities to the ultimate detriment of civilization and progress. The increasingly specialized activities in academia may suggest that if anything the gulf separating the two cultures may yet be increasing. It may seem that not only do 'natural scientists' speak a different language from 'literary intellectuals' but that biologists speak a different language from physicists, and so on down the increasingly fine dichotomies of academic endeavour. One of the exciting accompaniments to the rise in nanotechnology research has been a certain amount of liberation from these academic segregations. The breadth of fascinating properties found in a single system beg a strongly multidisciplinary approach and has attracted conversations not only between different sectors within the sciences, but with art as well [12]. The resulting cross-fertilisation between disciplines has already yielded an awesome cornucopia of multitasking devices, and no doubt the best is yet to come. References [1] Xue X, Nie Y, He B, Xing L, Zhang Y and Wang Z L 2013 Surface free-carrier screening effect on the output of ZnO nanowire nanogenerator and its potential as self-powered active gas sensors Nanotechnology 24 225501 [2] Torchilin V P 2006 Multifunctional nanocarriers Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 58 1532-55 [3] Weissleder R, Lee A S, Khaw B A, Shen T and Brady T J 1992 Antimyosin-labeled monocrystalline iron oxide allows detection

  19. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  20. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Development of procedure M for multicrop inventory, with tests of a spring-wheat configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R.; Crist, E.; Kauth, R. J.; Lambeck, P.; Malila, W. A.; Richardson, W.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An outgrowth of research and development activities in support of LACIE was a multicrop area estimation procedure, Procedure M. This procedure was a flexible, modular system that could be operated within the LACIE framework. Its distinctive features were refined preprocessing (including spatially varying correction for atmospheric haze), definition of field like spatial features for labeling, spectral stratification, and unbiased selection of samples to label and crop area estimation without conventional maximum likelihood classification.

  1. Predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-12-01

    We examined predictors of media multitasking in Chinese adolescents from 3 contexts: characteristics of the media user, types of media use and family media contexts. Three hundred and twenty adolescents, 11-18 years of age, completed questionnaires to measure media use, impulsivity, sensation seeking, time management disposition and family media environment. The results showed that media multitasking was positively correlated with age and total media use time. Participants with high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking reported more multitasking behaviour. Multitasking was negatively correlated with time management. Children from media-oriented families often engage in more multitasking. What's more, social networking sites use and music use can mediate the effect of individual and family factors on media multitasking. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Wildland economics: theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Morton

    2000-01-01

    Since passage of the Wilderness Act, economists have derived the total economic valuation framework for estimating wildland benefits. Over the same time period, policies adopted by public land management agencies have been slow to internalize wilderness economics into management decisions. The lack of spatial resolution and modeler bias associated with the FORPLAN...

  3. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The

  4. Multitask Diffusion Adaptation Over Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Richard, Cedric; Sayed, Ali H.

    2014-08-01

    Adaptive networks are suitable for decentralized inference tasks, e.g., to monitor complex natural phenomena. Recent research works have intensively studied distributed optimization problems in the case where the nodes have to estimate a single optimum parameter vector collaboratively. However, there are many important applications that are multitask-oriented in the sense that there are multiple optimum parameter vectors to be inferred simultaneously, in a collaborative manner, over the area covered by the network. In this paper, we employ diffusion strategies to develop distributed algorithms that address multitask problems by minimizing an appropriate mean-square error criterion with $\\ell_2$-regularization. The stability and convergence of the algorithm in the mean and in the mean-square sense is analyzed. Simulations are conducted to verify the theoretical findings, and to illustrate how the distributed strategy can be used in several useful applications related to spectral sensing, target localization, and hyperspectral data unmixing.

  5. Diffusion LMS Over Multitask Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Richard, Cedric; Sayed, Ali H.

    2015-06-01

    The diffusion LMS algorithm has been extensively studied in recent years. This efficient strategy allows to address distributed optimization problems over networks in the case where nodes have to collaboratively estimate a single parameter vector. Problems of this type are referred to as single-task problems. Nevertheless, there are several problems in practice that are multitask-oriented in the sense that the optimum parameter vector may not be the same for every node. This brings up the issue of studying the performance of the diffusion LMS algorithm when it is run, either intentionally or unintentionally, in a multitask environment. In this paper, we conduct a theoretical analysis on the stochastic behavior of diffusion LMS in the case where the so-called single-task hypothesis is violated. We explain under what conditions diffusion LMS continues to deliver performance superior to non-cooperative strategies in the multitask environment. When the conditions are violated, we explain how to endow the nodes with the ability to cluster with other similar nodes to remove bias. We propose an unsupervised clustering strategy that allows each node to select, via adaptive adjustments of combination weights, the neighboring nodes with which it can collaborate to estimate a common parameter vector. Simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical results, and to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed clustering strategy. The framework is applied to a useful problem involving a multi-target tracking task.

  6. Multitasking Teachers: Mistake or Missing Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenwine, Marilyn J.; Hadley, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents case studies involving graduate students who exhibited multitasking behaviors during their university courses, and explores how those behaviors functioned in their own classrooms. Though these university students appeared to be inattentive, their multitasking proved to be indicative of creativity and flexibility in their…

  7. Is Multitask Deep Learning Practical for Pharma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsundar, Bharath; Liu, Bowen; Wu, Zhenqin; Verras, Andreas; Tudor, Matthew; Sheridan, Robert P; Pande, Vijay

    2017-08-28

    Multitask deep learning has emerged as a powerful tool for computational drug discovery. However, despite a number of preliminary studies, multitask deep networks have yet to be widely deployed in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. This lack of acceptance stems from both software difficulties and lack of understanding of the robustness of multitask deep networks. Our work aims to resolve both of these barriers to adoption. We introduce a high-quality open-source implementation of multitask deep networks as part of the DeepChem open-source platform. Our implementation enables simple python scripts to construct, fit, and evaluate sophisticated deep models. We use our implementation to analyze the performance of multitask deep networks and related deep models on four collections of pharmaceutical data (three of which have not previously been analyzed in the literature). We split these data sets into train/valid/test using time and neighbor splits to test multitask deep learning performance under challenging conditions. Our results demonstrate that multitask deep networks are surprisingly robust and can offer strong improvement over random forests. Our analysis and open-source implementation in DeepChem provide an argument that multitask deep networks are ready for widespread use in commercial drug discovery.

  8. Multitasking with Smartphones in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Rajesh, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of multitasking itself is under debate, smartphones do enable users to divert attention from the task at hand to nongermane matters. As smartphone use becomes pervasive, extending into our classrooms, educators are concerned that they are becoming a major distraction. Does multitasking with smartphones impede learning? Can…

  9. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  10. The Impact of Media Multitasking on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer; Lin, Lin; Robertson, Tip

    2012-01-01

    While multitasking is not a new concept, it has received increasing attention in recent years with the development of new media and technologies. Recent trends appear to suggest that multitasking is on the rise among the younger generation. The purpose of the study is to determine if students obtain more or less information in multitasking…

  11. Multitasking behaviors of osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit V; Mullens, Dustin J; Van Duyn, Lindsey J; Januchowski, Ronald P

    2014-08-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few studies have investigated the relationship between electronic media multitasking by undergraduate and graduate students during lecture and their academic performance, and reports that have looked into this behavior have neglected to investigate factors that may influence students' multitasking during lecture. To determine the extent to which medical students multitask during lecture; the types of multitasking; the frequency of multitasking and factors that influence frequency; and the correlation between multitasking and knowledge acquisition as assessed by a postlecture quiz. A 1-page survey assessing students' multitasking behavior was administered to 125 second-year students at Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine and collected at the onset of a standard 50-minute lecture. On completion of the 50-minute lecture, an unannounced 10-question multiple-choice quiz was given to assess knowledge acquisition during those lectures. On a separate date, after a standard 50-minute lecture, a second quiz was administered. The 1-page survey revealed that 98% of students check e-mail, 81% use social media, and 74% study for another class. Students spent the most time studying for another class (23 minutes) followed by using social media (13 minutes) and checking e-mail (7 minutes). The most influential factors behind multitasking were examination schedule (91%), lecturer (90%), and the number of lectures in the day (65%). The mean score for quiz 1 (the day after an examination) was 75%, and the mean score for quiz 2 (the day before an examination) was 60%. Multitasking during lecture is prominent among medical students, and examination schedule is the most influential factor. Although a robust drop in mean score on a lecture-based, unannounced quiz was identified 1 day before a scheduled examination, the effect from multitasking on this process remains unclear. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  12. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  13. Modelling public support for wildland fire policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Theoretically grounded explanations of wildland fire policy can be improved by empirically documenting the causal influences of support for (or opposition to) management alternatives. This chapter proposes a model based on the specificity principle (i.e. correspondence between measured variables to empirically examine four common wildland fire policies in relation to...

  14. A national cohesive wildland fire management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture; Office of Wildland Fire Coordination. Department of the Interior

    2011-01-01

    Addressing wildfire is not simply a fire management, fire operations, or wildland-urban interface problem - it is a larger, more complex land management and societal issue. The vision for the next century is to: Safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire. Three...

  15. Wildland fire and the wilderness visitor experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra L. Schroeder; Ingrid E. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand wilderness visitors' perceptions of wildland fire and describe visitors' wilderness recreational experience following wildland fire in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW). Qualitative interviews revealed visitors' perceptions of burned areas as well as if and how activities and behaviors were...

  16. Multitasking as a choice: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeker, Laura; Liepelt, Roman; Poljac, Edita; Künzell, Stefan; Ewolds, Harald; de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus

    2017-10-30

    Performance decrements in multitasking have been explained by limitations in cognitive capacity, either modelled as static structural bottlenecks or as the scarcity of overall cognitive resources that prevent humans, or at least restrict them, from processing two tasks at the same time. However, recent research has shown that individual differences, flexible resource allocation, and prioritization of tasks cannot be fully explained by these accounts. We argue that understanding human multitasking as a choice and examining multitasking performance from the perspective of judgment and decision-making (JDM), may complement current dual-task theories. We outline two prominent theories from the area of JDM, namely Simple Heuristics and the Decision Field Theory, and adapt these theories to multitasking research. Here, we explain how computational modelling techniques and decision-making parameters used in JDM may provide a benefit to understanding multitasking costs and argue that these techniques and parameters have the potential to predict multitasking behavior in general, and also individual differences in behavior. Finally, we present the one-reason choice metaphor to explain a flexible use of limited capacity as well as changes in serial and parallel task processing. Based on this newly combined approach, we outline a concrete interdisciplinary future research program that we think will help to further develop multitasking research.

  17. Multitask learning for protein subcellular location prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Pan, Sinno Jialin; Xue, Hannah Hong; Yang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Protein subcellular localization is concerned with predicting the location of a protein within a cell using computational methods. The location information can indicate key functionalities of proteins. Thus, accurate prediction of subcellular localizations of proteins can help the prediction of protein functions and genome annotations, as well as the identification of drug targets. Machine learning methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have been used in the past for the problem of protein subcellular localization, but have been shown to suffer from a lack of annotated training data in each species under study. To overcome this data sparsity problem, we observe that because some of the organisms may be related to each other, there may be some commonalities across different organisms that can be discovered and used to help boost the data in each localization task. In this paper, we formulate protein subcellular localization problem as one of multitask learning across different organisms. We adapt and compare two specializations of the multitask learning algorithms on 20 different organisms. Our experimental results show that multitask learning performs much better than the traditional single-task methods. Among the different multitask learning methods, we found that the multitask kernels and supertype kernels under multitask learning that share parameters perform slightly better than multitask learning by sharing latent features. The most significant improvement in terms of localization accuracy is about 25 percent. We find that if the organisms are very different or are remotely related from a biological point of view, then jointly training the multiple models cannot lead to significant improvement. However, if they are closely related biologically, the multitask learning can do much better than individual learning.

  18. Noise exposure among federal wildland fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, George; Butler, Corey R; Kardous, Chucri A

    2017-02-01

    Wildland fire fighters use many tools and equipment that produce noise levels that may be considered hazardous to hearing. This study evaluated 174 personal dosimetry measurements on 156 wildland fire fighters conducting various training and fire suppression tasks. Noise exposures often exceeded occupational exposure limits and suggest that wildland fire fighters may be at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss, particularly those operating chainsaws, chippers, and masticators. The authors recommend a comprehensive approach to protecting these fire fighters that includes purchasing quieter equipment, noise and administrative controls, and enrolling these fire fighters into a hearing conservation program.

  19. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  20. Allocating fuel breaks to optimally protect structures in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire is a major concern in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), where human structures intermingle with wildland vegetation. Reducing wildfire risk in the WUI is more complicated than in wildland areas, owing to interactions between spatial patterns of housing and wildland fuels. Fuel treatments are commonly applied in wildlands surrounding WUI communities....

  1. Kernel Multitask Regression for Toxicogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Elsa; Jiao, Yunlong; Scornet, Erwan; Stoven, Veronique; Walter, Thomas; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2017-10-01

    The development of high-throughput in vitro assays to study quantitatively the toxicity of chemical compounds on genetically characterized human-derived cell lines paves the way to predictive toxicogenetics, where one would be able to predict the toxicity of any particular compound on any particular individual. In this paper we present a machine learning-based approach for that purpose, kernel multitask regression (KMR), which combines chemical characterizations of molecular compounds with genetic and transcriptomic characterizations of cell lines to predict the toxicity of a given compound on a given cell line. We demonstrate the relevance of the method on the recent DREAM8 Toxicogenetics challenge, where it ranked among the best state-of-the-art models, and discuss the importance of choosing good descriptors for cell lines and chemicals. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. On the impact of new technologies on multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Leite, Pedro Michel; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphné

    2015-01-01

    Interest in multitasking has risen substantially over the past decade, both in the scientific community and the population at large. Large-scale surveys show that multitasking has not only become ubiquitous among adults, but is also increasingly invading the lives of young children. New technological devices promote multitasking allowing for the consumption of multiple types of media at the same time. And while some have argued that such multitasking represents a potential boon to productivit...

  3. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  4. Media Multitasking among American Youth: Prevalence, Predictors and Pairings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foehr, Ulla G.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, multitasking was a juggling act performed by busy adults, as they tried to manage jobs, chores, carpools, and PTA meetings. But recently, teens and tweens have turned into the real experts at multitasking, as their lives become chock-full of organized activities. For them, multitasking has simply become a way of life: "If I couldn't…

  5. Multitasking Information Behaviour in Public Libraries: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Alvarado-Albertorio, Frances; Narayan, Bhuva; Brumfield, Jean; Park, Minsoo

    2007-01-01

    Multitasking information behaviour is the human ability to handle the demands of multiple information tasks concurrently. When we multitask, we work on two or more tasks and switch between those tasks. Multitasking is the way most of us deal with the complex environment we all live in, and recent studies show that people often engage in…

  6. Multitasking, working memory and remembering intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Logie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking refers to the performance of a range of tasks that have to be completed within a limited time period. it differs from dual task paradigms in that tasks are performed not in parallel, but by interleaving, switching from one to the other. it differs also from task switching paradigms in that the time scale is very much longer, multiple different tasks are involved, and most tasks have a clear end point. Multitasking has been studied extensively with particular sets of experts such as in aviation and in the military, and impairments of multitasking performance have been studied in patients with frontal lobe lesions. Much less is known as to how multitasking is achieved in healthy adults who have not had specific training in the necessary skills. This paper will provide a brief review of research on everyday multitasking, and summarise the results of some recent experiments on simulated everyday tasks chosen to require advance and on-line planning, retrospective memory, prospective memory, and visual, spatial and verbal short-term memory.

  7. Climate Change, Wildland Fires and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, W. E.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is contributing to an increase in the severity of wildland fires. The annual acreage burned in the U.S. has risen steadily since 1985, and the fire season has lengthened. Wildland fires impair air quality by producing massive quantities of particulate air pollutants and ozone precursors. Together particles and ozone exposures increase the risk of premature death and acute and chronic cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity among vulnerable individuals. Future wildfires are predicted to be larger, more severe and more frequent in some regions of the U.S and will contribute to an even greater proportion of the ambient air pollution, the disease burden and healthcare costs.While the projected magnitude of the public health impact of climate change-related wildfire events is uncertain, it is clear that the proportion of the U.S. population vulnerable to the adverse health effects of wildland fire and its smoke is increasing. An aging population with chronic respiratory diseases and increasing obesity and diabetes that heralds more cardiovascular disease will increase the vulnerability of the population to the adverse effects of wildfire smoke and associated stressors. Additionally, physiological changes attendant to aging decrease the capacity of aged-adults to tolerate wildfire smoke, heat, humidity, evacuation and recovery. Expansion of our cities into the wildland-urban interface is also placing a greater proportion of the population in closer proximity to wildland fire emissions with its associated health risks. The public health community has an opportunity to contribute to the broader national effort to mitigate climate change and wildland fire risk by working closely with the healthcare community to facilitate adaptive responses to climate change. Adaptation will increase the resilience of individuals and their communities and is anticipated to help mitigate the adverse health effects of wildland fire. This abstract does not reflect USEPA policy.

  8. Chapter 7. Assessing soil factors in wildland improvement programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Tiedemann; Carlos F. Lopez

    2004-01-01

    Soil factors are an important consideration for successful wildland range development or improvement programs. Even though many soil improvement and amelioration practices are not realistic for wildlands, their evaluation is an important step in selection of adapted plant materials for revegetation. This chapter presents information for wildland managers on: the...

  9. 78 FR 13372 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Shari... and introduction of Council members; (2) Wildland Fire Governance; (3) Barriers and Critical Success...

  10. Wildland fire decision support system air quality tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim Larkin; Tim Brown; Pete Lahm; Tom Zimmerman

    2010-01-01

    Smoke and air quality information have an important role in wildland fire decisionmaking that is reinforced in the 2009 "Guidance for Implementation of Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy." A key intent of the guidance is to allow consideration and use of the full range of strategic and tactical options that are available in the response to every wildland...

  11. Bayesian online multitask learning of Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillonetto, Gianluigi; Dinuzzo, Francesco; De Nicolao, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    Standard single-task kernel methods have recently been extended to the case of multitask learning in the context of regularization theory. There are experimental results, especially in biomedicine, showing the benefit of the multitask approach compared to the single-task one. However, a possible drawback is computational complexity. For instance, when regularization networks are used, complexity scales as the cube of the overall number of training data, which may be large when several tasks are involved. The aim of this paper is to derive an efficient computational scheme for an important class of multitask kernels. More precisely, a quadratic loss is assumed and each task consists of the sum of a common term and a task-specific one. Within a Bayesian setting, a recursive online algorithm is obtained, which updates both estimates and confidence intervals as new data become available. The algorithm is tested on two simulated problems and a real data set relative to xenobiotics administration in human patients.

  12. Multitask Protein Function Prediction Through Task Dissimilarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, Marco; Cesa-Bianchi, Nicolo

    2017-03-17

    Automated protein function prediction is a challenging problem with distinctive features, such as the hierarchical organization of protein functions and the scarcity of annotated proteins for most biological functions. We propose a multitask learning algorithm addressing both issues. Unlike standard multitask algorithms, which use task (protein functions) similarity information as a bias to speed up learning, we show that dissimilarity information enforces separation of rare class labels from frequent class labels, and for this reason is better suited for solving unbalanced protein function prediction problems. We support our claim by showing that a multitask extension of the label propagation algorithm empirically works best when the task relatedness information is represented using a dissimilarity matrix as opposed to a similarity matrix. Moreover, the experimental comparison carried out on three model organism shows that our method has a more stable performance in both "protein-centric" and "function-centric" evaluation settings.

  13. MULTITASK FEATURE SELECTION WITH TASK DESCRIPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellón, Víctor; Stoven, Véronique; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning applications in precision medicine are severely limited by the scarcity of data to learn from. Indeed, training data often contains many more features than samples. To alleviate the resulting statistical issues, the multitask learning framework proposes to learn different but related tasks jointly, rather than independently, by sharing information between these tasks. Within this framework, the joint regularization of model parameters results in models with few non-zero coefficients and that share similar sparsity patterns. We propose a new regularized multitask approach that incorporates task descriptors, hence modulating the amount of information shared between tasks according to their similarity. We show on simulated data that this method outperforms other multitask feature selection approaches, particularly in the case of scarce data. In addition, we demonstrate on peptide MHC-I binding data the ability of the proposed approach to make predictions for new tasks for which no training data is available.

  14. Distributed Jointly Sparse Multitask Learning Over Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunguang; Huang, Songyan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2018-01-01

    Distributed data processing over networks has received a lot of attention due to its wide applicability. In this paper, we consider the multitask problem of in-network distributed estimation. For the multitask problem, the unknown parameter vectors (tasks) for different nodes can be different. Moreover, considering some real application scenarios, it is also assumed that there are some similarities among the tasks. Thus, the intertask cooperation is helpful to enhance the estimation performance. In this paper, we exploit an additional special characteristic of the vectors of interest, namely, joint sparsity, aiming to further enhance the estimation performance. A distributed jointly sparse multitask algorithm for the collaborative sparse estimation problem is derived. In addition, an adaptive intertask cooperation strategy is adopted to improve the robustness against the degree of difference among the tasks. The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed theoretically, and its effectiveness is verified by some simulations.

  15. Multitasking disorder from right temporoparietal stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ronald M; Festa, Joanne R; Geller, Allison E; Romano, Gina Marie; Marshall, Randolph S

    2007-09-01

    Acute behavioral syndromes after right hemisphere stroke (eg, hemi-inattention) resolve in most patients by 6 months. Less is known about the nature of chronic disorders after these lesions when the initial deficits are no longer apparent. We report the case of a woman who suffered a cerebral infarct in the right temporoparietal region and who, after the resolution of neglect, demonstrated a significant disorder of multitasking in her everyday life. Neuropsychologic tests failed to reveal the extent of disruption in her daily functioning. A journal of daily activities elucidates the nature of her deficits and demonstrates, from the patient's perspective, the impact of the lesion on her ability to multitask. Our findings are consistent with the concept of a right frontoparietal attentional axis that governs the ability to hold several tasks in working memory at the same time. We conclude that right hemisphere lesions can disrupt the cognitive system of multitasking through disruption of the attentional matrix.

  16. Interruptions and multitasking in nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Beatrice J; Aebersold, Michelle

    2010-03-01

    The environment surrounding registered nurses (RNs) has been described as fast-paced and unpredictable, and nurses' cognitive load as exceptionally heavy. Studies of interruptions and multitasking in health care are limited, and most have focused on physicians. The extent and type of interruptions and multitasking of nurses, as well as patient errors, were studied using a natural-setting observational field design. The study was conducted in seven patient care units in two Midwestern hospitals--an academic medical center and a community-based teaching hospital. A total of 35 nurses were observed for four-hour periods of time by experienced clinical nurses, who underwent training until they reached an interrater reliability of 0.90. In the 36 RN observations (total, 136 hours) 3,441 events were captured. There were a total of 1,354 interruptions, 46 hours of multitasking, and 200 errors. Nurses were interrupted 10 times per hour, or 1 interruption per 6 minutes. However, RNs in one of the hospitals had significantly more interruptions--1 interruption every 4 1/2 minutes in Hospital 1 (versus 1 every 13.3 minutes in Hospital 2). Nurses were observed to be multitasking 34% of the time (range, 23%- 41%). Overall, the error rate was 1.5 per hour (1.02 per hour in Hospital 1 and 1.89 per hour in Hospital 2). Although there was no significant relationship between interruptions, multitasking, and patient errors, the results of this study show that nurses' work environment is complex and error prone. RNs observed in both hospitals and on all patient care units experienced a high level of discontinuity in the execution of their work. Although nurses manage interruptions and multitasking well, the potential for errors is present, and strategies to decrease interruptions are needed.

  17. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  18. The Assessment of Military Multitasking Performance: Validation of a Dual-Task and Multitask Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    10. Shallice T, Burgess P. Deficits in strategy application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain. 1991;114:727-741. 11. Frisch S, Forstl S...of the frontal lobes in human multitasking. Psychological research. 2000;63(3-4):279-288. 17. Welsch M, Huizinga M. The development and preliminary...memory” requirement). Performance-based multitask assess- ments have been developed that focus on frontal lobe dysfunction that occurs with stroke and

  19. Does media multitasking always hurt? A positive correlation between multitasking and multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kelvin F H; Wong, Alan C-N

    2012-08-01

    Heavy media multitaskers have been found to perform poorly in certain cognitive tasks involving task switching, selective attention, and working memory. An account for this is that with a breadth-biased style of cognitive control, multitaskers tend to pay attention to various information available in the environment, without sufficient focus on the information most relevant to the task at hand. This cognitive style, however, may not cause a general deficit in all kinds of tasks. We tested the hypothesis that heavy media multitaskers would perform better in a multisensory integration task than would others, due to their extensive experience in integrating information from different modalities. Sixty-three participants filled out a questionnaire about their media usage and completed a visual search task with and without synchronous tones (pip-and-pop paradigm). It was found that a higher degree of media multitasking was correlated with better multisensory integration. The fact that heavy media multitaskers are not deficient in all kinds of cognitive tasks suggests that media multitasking does not always hurt.

  20. Making Sense of Multitasking: Key Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally viewed as a positive characteristic, there is mounting evidence that multitasking using digital devices can have a range of negative impacts on task performance and learning. While the cognitive processes that cause these impacts are starting to be understood and the evidence that they occur in real learning contexts is mounting, the…

  1. Mobile Learning: Can Students Really Multitask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coens, Joke; Reynvoet, Bert; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    The advent of mobile learning offers opportunities for students to do two things at once in an educational context: learning while performing another activity. The main aim of the reported studies is to address the effect of multitasking on learning with a mobile device. Two experiments were set up to examine the effect of performing a secondary…

  2. Connected yet Distracted: Multitasking among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Delello, Julie; Reichard, Carla

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 935 undergraduate college students from a regional four-year university responded to an online time-diary survey asking them to report their multitasking habits and practices while engaged in four main activities: reading voluntarily for fun, reading for academic purposes, watching television (TV), and using the Internet. Results…

  3. Climate-Induced Wildland Fires in the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) and their Aftereffects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Wildland fires affect millions of acres annually in the U.S., and changes in climate could result in even more wildland fires in the future (McKenzie, et al. (2004)). Jones, et al. (1999) and Swetnam and Betancourt (1990) have demonstrated that large-scale climate patterns and the presence of climate signals, such as El Nino, affect the frequency and severity of wildland fires. Moreover, Swetnam and Betancourt (1998) have documented relationships between changes in climate, the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and wildland fire season severity. Clearly climate, changes in climate, and climate-related drought are significant contributors to the occurrence of wildland fires. Over the years, many Americans have shown a preference for living and vacationing in remote areas of the country which include woods and rangelands. This choice offers many benefits, but it also presents significant risks. For example, most areas of North America are fire prone and everyday both housing and other human development extends further into natural wildlands, creating even more extensive wildland-urban interfaces (WUI). This type of human population expansion increases the potential for catastrophic wildland fires affecting even larger areas (Fried, et al. (2004)). For instance, between 1995 and 2004, wildland fires in the U.S. consumed an average of 5.4 million acres a year or approximately 142 percent of the yearly average consumed between 1984 and 1994. Thus, wildland fires linked to climate and drought have increased in association with population shifts to drier climates, especially in the WUI. Although wildland fires associated with climate and drought can be catastrophic, the aftereffects within the WUI can be just as devastating. For example, the interconnection between climate, potential changes in climate, drought, and wildland fires increases the likelihood of personal and commercial property losses within the WUI. There are concomitant losses associated with airport, school

  4. Neural sources of performance decline during continuous multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashimi, Omar; Zanto, Theodore P; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-10-01

    Multitasking performance costs have largely been characterized by experiments that involve two overlapping and punctuated perceptual stimuli, as well as punctuated responses to each task. Here, participants engaged in a continuous performance paradigm during fMRI recording to identify neural signatures associated with multitasking costs under more natural conditions. Our results demonstrated that only a single brain region, the superior parietal lobule (SPL), exhibited a significant relationship with multitasking performance, such that increased activation in the multitasking condition versus the singletasking condition was associated with higher task performance (i.e., least multitasking cost). Together, these results support previous research indicating that parietal regions underlie multitasking abilities and that performance costs are related to a bottleneck in control processes involving the SPL that serves to divide attention between two tasks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Adolescents' Interaction with Wildlands in Lekki Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Yet, despite this realization, human beings have over-exploited or managed in unsustainable ways, the natural resources in many ecosystems. ... Nature centres offer outdoor programming to generate respects for wildlands and experience phenomena in a natural context.

  6. Public webinar: Wildland Fire Sensors Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This multi-agency challenge seeks a field-ready prototype system capable of measuring constituents of smoke, including particulates, carbon monoxide, ozone, and carbon dioxide, over the wide range of levels expected during wildland fires. The prototype system should be accurate, ...

  7. Systems thinking and wildland fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Christopher J. Dunn; David E. Calkin

    2017-01-01

    A changing climate, changing development and land use patterns, and increasing pressures on ecosystem services raise global concerns over growing losses associated with wildland fires. New management paradigms acknowledge that fire is inevitable and often uncontrollable, and focus on living with fire rather than attempting to eliminate it from the landscape. A notable...

  8. Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Dave E. Calkin; Krista M. Gebert; Tyron J. Venn; Robin P. Silverstein

    2008-01-01

    There is an urgent and immediate need to address the excessive cost of large fires. Here, we studied large wildland fire suppression expenditures by the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service. Among 16 potential nonmanagerial factors, which represented fire size and shape, private properties, public land attributes, forest and fuel conditions, and geographic...

  9. Digital forestry in the wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Yangjian Zhang; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    Growing human populations have led to the expansion of the Wildland-Urban interface (WUI) across the southeastern United States. The juxtaposition of buildings, infrastructure, and forests in the WUI creates challenges for natural resource managers. The presence of flammable vegetation, high rates of human-caused ignitions and high building densities combine to...

  10. A method for ensemble wildland fire simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Isaac C. Grenfell; Charles W. McHugh; Robert C. Seli; Diane Trethewey; Richard D. Stratton; Stuart Brittain

    2011-01-01

    An ensemble simulation system that accounts for uncertainty in long-range weather conditions and two-dimensional wildland fire spread is described. Fuel moisture is expressed based on the energy release component, a US fire danger rating index, and its variation throughout the fire season is modeled using time series analysis of historical weather data. This analysis...

  11. Risk complexity and the wildland firefighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Pupulidy

    2012-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2010 the US Forest Service and the Department of the Interior experienced 82 wildland fire fatalities. Our most recent organizational focus has been to eliminate fatalities. The chief of the USFS, in a letter to all employees, asked us to "suspend disbelief" with regard to the concept of a "zero fatality organization". This plea...

  12. Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Thomson, David R; Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S A; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In a series of four studies, self-reported media multitasking (using the media multitasking index; MMI) and general sustained-attention ability, through performance on three sustained-attention tasks: the metronome response task (MRT), the sustained-attention-to-response task (SART), and a vigilance task (here, a modified version of the SART). In Study 1, we found that higher reports of media multitasking were associated with increased response variability (i.e., poor performance) on the MRT. However, in Study 2, no association between reported media multitasking and performance on the SART was observed. These findings were replicated in Studies 3a and 3b, in which we again assessed the relation between media multitasking and performance on both the MRT and SART in two large online samples. Finally, in Study 4, using a large online sample, we tested whether media multitasking was associated with performance on a vigilance task. Although standard vigilance decrements were observed in both sensitivity (A') and response times, media multitasking was not associated with the size of these decrements, nor was media multitasking associated with overall performance, in terms of either sensitivity or response times. Taken together, the results of the studies reported here failed to demonstrate a relation between habitual engagement in media multitasking in everyday life and a general deficit in sustained-attention processes.

  13. On the effects of multimodal information integration in multitasking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann-Kathrin Stock; Krutika Gohil; René J Huster; Christian Beste

    2017-01-01

    There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear...

  14. Programmable DNA-Mediated Multitasking Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan; Shao, Fangwei; Lee, Kee Jin

    2015-04-30

    Because of DNA appealing features as perfect material, including minuscule size, defined structural repeat and rigidity, programmable DNA-mediated processing is a promising computing paradigm, which employs DNAs as information storing and processing substrates to tackle the computational problems. The massive parallelism of DNA hybridization exhibits transcendent potential to improve multitasking capabilities and yield a tremendous speed-up over the conventional electronic processors with stepwise signal cascade. As an example of multitasking capability, we present an in vitro programmable DNA-mediated optimal route planning processor as a functional unit embedded in contemporary navigation systems. The novel programmable DNA-mediated processor has several advantages over the existing silicon-mediated methods, such as conducting massive data storage and simultaneous processing via much fewer materials than conventional silicon devices.

  15. Semisupervised multitask learning with Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolidis, Grigorios; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2013-12-01

    We present a probabilistic framework for transferring learning across tasks and between labeled and unlabeled data. The approach is based on Gaussian process (GP) prediction and incorporates both the geometry of the data and the similarity between tasks within a GP covariance, allowing Bayesian prediction in a natural way. We discuss the transfer of learning in a multitask scenario in the two cases where the underlying geometry is assumed to be the same across tasks and where different tasks are assumed to have independent geometric structures. We demonstrate the method on a number of real datasets, indicating that the semisupervised multitask approach can result in very significant improvements in performance when very few labeled training examples are available.

  16. Bayesian multitask classification with Gaussian process priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolidis, Grigorios; Sanguinetti, Guido

    2011-12-01

    We present a novel approach to multitask learning in classification problems based on Gaussian process (GP) classification. The method extends previous work on multitask GP regression, constraining the overall covariance (across tasks and data points) to factorize as a Kronecker product. Fully Bayesian inference is possible but time consuming using sampling techniques. We propose approximations based on the popular variational Bayes and expectation propagation frameworks, showing that they both achieve excellent accuracy when compared to Gibbs sampling, in a fraction of time. We present results on a toy dataset and two real datasets, showing improved performance against the baseline results obtained by learning each task independently. We also compare with a recently proposed state-of-the-art approach based on support vector machines, obtaining comparable or better results.

  17. Psychobiological responses to critically evaluated multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, Mark; Craw, Olivia; Smith, Kenny; Smith, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicit...

  18. The developing brain in a multitasking world

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbart, Mary K.; Posner, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the problem of multitasking, it is necessary to examine the brain’s attention networks that underlie the ability to switch attention between stimuli and tasks and to maintain a single focus among distractors. In this paper we discuss the development of brain networks related to the functions of achieving the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and developing self-control. These brain networks are common to everyone, but their efficiency varies among individuals and reflect...

  19. Ease: a real-time multitasking executive

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, David

    1996-01-01

    Ease the real time multitasking executive described m this thesis is designed for embedded systems with particular emphasis on DSP motor control applications. Ease provides an application software interface to the underlying hardware and encourages an object oriented programming approach which inherently enhances software integrity, maintainability and dependability in the potentially chaotic real time environment. Its focus is to tackle the undesirable aspects of real time programming an...

  20. Multitasking-Impact of ICT on learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ajao, Peter

    2012-01-01

    University students of the present generation consume information technologies much more at a faster rate compared to the previous generations. The availability of the multitasking Laptops, Smartphones, and so on has impacted learning in the present world. It is assumed that these technologies enhance productivity in students learning. There is probability that it is true that these technologies improve productivity, it is also assumed that in certain cases, these technologies could be diabol...

  1. Multitask Coupled Logistic Regression and its Fast Implementation for Large Multitask Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xin; Chung, Fu-Lai; Ishibuchi, Hisao; Wang, Shitong

    2015-09-01

    When facing multitask-learning problems, it is desirable that the learning method could find the correct input-output features and share the commonality among multiple domains and also scale-up for large multitask datasets. We introduce the multitask coupled logistic regression (LR) framework called LR-based multitask classification learning algorithm (MTC-LR), which is a new method for generating each classifier for each task, capable of sharing the commonality among multitask domains. The basic idea of MTC-LR is to use all individual LR based classifiers, each one appropriate for each task domain, but in contrast to other support vector machine (SVM)-based proposals, learning all the parameter vectors of all individual classifiers by using the conjugate gradient method, in a global way and without the use of kernel trick, and being easily extended into its scaled version. We theoretically show that the addition of a new term in the cost function of the set of LRs (that penalizes the diversity among multiple tasks) produces a coupling of multiple tasks that allows MTC-LR to improve the learning performance in a LR way. This finding can make us easily integrate it with a state-of-the-art fast LR algorithm called dual coordinate descent method (CDdual) to develop its fast version MTC-LR-CDdual for large multitask datasets. The proposed algorithm MTC-LR-CDdual is also theoretically analyzed. Our experimental results on artificial and real-datasets indicate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm MTC-LR-CDdual in classification accuracy, speed, and robustness.

  2. The developing brain in a multitasking world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K.; Posner, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the problem of multitasking, it is necessary to examine the brain’s attention networks that underlie the ability to switch attention between stimuli and tasks and to maintain a single focus among distractors. In this paper we discuss the development of brain networks related to the functions of achieving the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and developing self-control. These brain networks are common to everyone, but their efficiency varies among individuals and reflects both genes and experience. Training can alter brain networks. We consider two forms of training: (1) practice in tasks that involve particular networks, and (2) changes in brain state through such practices as meditation that may influence many networks. Playing action video games and multitasking are themselves methods of training the brain that can lead to improved performance but also to overdependence on media activity. We consider both of these outcomes and ideas about how to resist overdependence on media. Overall, our paper seeks to inform the reader about what has been learned about attention that can influence multitasking over the course of development. PMID:25821335

  3. Multiobjective Multifactorial Optimization in Evolutionary Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek; Ong, Yew-Soon; Feng, Liang; Tan, Kay Chen

    2016-05-03

    In recent decades, the field of multiobjective optimization has attracted considerable interest among evolutionary computation researchers. One of the main features that makes evolutionary methods particularly appealing for multiobjective problems is the implicit parallelism offered by a population, which enables simultaneous convergence toward the entire Pareto front. While a plethora of related algorithms have been proposed till date, a common attribute among them is that they focus on efficiently solving only a single optimization problem at a time. Despite the known power of implicit parallelism, seldom has an attempt been made to multitask, i.e., to solve multiple optimization problems simultaneously. It is contended that the notion of evolutionary multitasking leads to the possibility of automated transfer of information across different optimization exercises that may share underlying similarities, thereby facilitating improved convergence characteristics. In particular, the potential for automated transfer is deemed invaluable from the standpoint of engineering design exercises where manual knowledge adaptation and reuse are routine. Accordingly, in this paper, we present a realization of the evolutionary multitasking paradigm within the domain of multiobjective optimization. The efficacy of the associated evolutionary algorithm is demonstrated on some benchmark test functions as well as on a real-world manufacturing process design problem from the composites industry.

  4. The developing brain in a multitasking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, Mary K; Posner, Michael I

    2015-03-01

    To understand the problem of multitasking, it is necessary to examine the brain's attention networks that underlie the ability to switch attention between stimuli and tasks and to maintain a single focus among distractors. In this paper we discuss the development of brain networks related to the functions of achieving the alert state, orienting to sensory events, and developing self-control. These brain networks are common to everyone, but their efficiency varies among individuals and reflects both genes and experience. Training can alter brain networks. We consider two forms of training: (1) practice in tasks that involve particular networks, and (2) changes in brain state through such practices as meditation that may influence many networks. Playing action video games and multitasking are themselves methods of training the brain that can lead to improved performance but also to overdependence on media activity. We consider both of these outcomes and ideas about how to resist overdependence on media. Overall, our paper seeks to inform the reader about what has been learned about attention that can influence multitasking over the course of development.

  5. Tension and robustness in multitasking cellular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Wong

    Full Text Available Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of "tension" between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between "one-size-fits-all" solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks.

  6. Visual tracking via robust multitask sparse prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanlong; Hu, Shiqiang; Yu, Junyang

    2015-03-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to an online subspace learning-based tracking problem. To handle partial occlusion effectively, some researchers introduce l1 regularization to principal component analysis (PCA) reconstruction. However, in these traditional tracking methods, the representation of each object observation is often viewed as an individual task so the inter-relationship between PCA basis vectors is ignored. We propose a new online visual tracking algorithm with multitask sparse prototypes, which combines multitask sparse learning with PCA-based subspace representation. We first extend a visual tracking algorithm with sparse prototypes in multitask learning framework to mine inter-relations between subtasks. Then, to avoid the problem that enforcing all subtasks to share the same structure may result in degraded tracking results, we impose group sparse constraints on the coefficients of PCA basis vectors and element-wise sparse constraints on the error coefficients, respectively. Finally, we show that the proposed optimization problem can be effectively solved using the accelerated proximal gradient method with the fast convergence. Experimental results compared with the state-of-the-art tracking methods demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves favorable performance when the object undergoes partial occlusion, motion blur, and illumination changes.

  7. Decentralized Sparse Multitask RLS Over Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuanyu; Liu, K. J. Ray

    2017-12-01

    Distributed adaptive signal processing has attracted much attention in the recent decade owing to its effectiveness in many decentralized real-time applications in networked systems. Because many natural signals are highly sparse with most entries equal to zero, several decentralized sparse adaptive algorithms have been proposed recently. Most of them is focused on the single task estimation problems, in which all nodes receive data associated with the same unknown vector and collaborate to estimate it. However, many applications are inherently multitask oriented and each node has its own unknown vector different from others'. The related multitask estimation problem benefits from collaborations among the nodes as neighbor nodes usually share analogous properties and thus similar unknown vectors. In this work, we study the distributed sparse multitask recursive least squares (RLS) problem over networks. We first propose a decentralized online alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm for the formulated RLS problem. The algorithm is simplified for easy implementation with closed-form computations in each iteration and low storage requirements. Moreover, to further reduce the complexity, we present a decentralized online subgradient method with low computational overhead. We theoretically analyze the convergence behavior of the proposed subgradient method and derive an error bound related to the network topology and algorithm parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is corroborated by numerical simulations and an accuracy-complexity tradeoff between the proposed two algorithms is highlighted.

  8. Improved multitasking following prefrontal tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    We have a limited capacity for mapping sensory information onto motor responses. This processing bottleneck is thought to be a key factor in determining our ability to make two decisions simultaneously - i.e., to multitask (Pashler, 1984, 1994; Welford, 1952). Previous functional imaging research (Dux, Ivanoff, Asplund, & Marois, 2006; Dux et al., 2009) has localised this bottleneck to the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (pLPFC) of the left hemisphere. Currently, however, it is unknown whether this region is causally involved in multitasking performance. We investigated the role of the left pLPFC in multitasking using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The behavioural paradigm included single- and dual-task trials, each requiring a speeded discrimination of visual stimuli alone, auditory stimuli alone, or both visual and auditory stimuli. Reaction times for single- and dual-task trials were compared before, immediately after, and 20 min after anodal stimulation (excitatory), cathodal stimulation (inhibitory), or sham stimulation. The cost of responding to the two tasks (i.e., the reduction in performance for dual- vs single-task trials) was significantly reduced by cathodal stimulation, but not by anodal or sham stimulation. Overall, the results provide direct evidence that the left pLPFC is a key neural locus of the central bottleneck that limits an individual's ability to make two simple decisions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tension and Robustness in Multitasking Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey V.; Li, Bochong; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    Cellular networks multitask by exhibiting distinct, context-dependent dynamics. However, network states (parameters) that generate a particular dynamic are often sub-optimal for others, defining a source of “tension” between them. Though multitasking is pervasive, it is not clear where tension arises, what consequences it has, and how it is resolved. We developed a generic computational framework to examine the source and consequences of tension between pairs of dynamics exhibited by the well-studied RB-E2F switch regulating cell cycle entry. We found that tension arose from task-dependent shifts in parameters associated with network modules. Although parameter sets common to distinct dynamics did exist, tension reduced both their accessibility and resilience to perturbation, indicating a trade-off between “one-size-fits-all” solutions and robustness. With high tension, robustness can be preserved by dynamic shifting of modules, enabling the network to toggle between tasks, and by increasing network complexity, in this case by gene duplication. We propose that tension is a general constraint on the architecture and operation of multitasking biological networks. To this end, our work provides a framework to quantify the extent of tension between any network dynamics and how it affects network robustness. Such analysis would suggest new ways to interfere with network elements to elucidate the design principles of cellular networks. PMID:22577355

  10. Bilingualism as a Model for Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poarch, Gregory J; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    Because both languages of bilinguals are constantly active, bilinguals need to manage attention to the target language and avoid interference from the non-target language. This process is likely carried out by recruiting the executive function (EF) system, a system that is also the basis for multitasking. In previous research, bilinguals have been shown to outperform monolinguals on tasks requiring EF, suggesting that the practice using EF for language management benefits performance in other tasks as well. The present study examined 203 children, 8-11 years old, who were monolingual, partially bilingual, bilingual, or trilingual performing a flanker task. Two results support the interpretation that bilingualism is related to multitasking. First, bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on the conflict trials in the flanker task, confirming previous results for a bilingual advantage in EF. Second, the inclusion of partial bilinguals and trilinguals set limits on the role of experience: partial bilingual performed similarly to monolinguals and trilinguals performed similarly to bilinguals, suggesting that degrees of experience are not well-calibrated to improvements in EF. Our conclusion is that the involvement of EF in bilingual language processing makes bilingualism a form of linguistic multitasking.

  11. Communication Tools for the Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe

    2003-01-01

    Effective communication tools can help resource managers address wildland-urban interface issues by reducing conflict, raising awareness, and motivating behavior change among the visitors and residents.

  12. The Impact of Multitasking Learning Environments in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwine, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This research study considers the status of middle school students in the 21st century in terms of their tendency to multitask in their daily lives and the overall influence this multitasking has on teaching and learning environments. Student engagement in the learning environment and students' various learning styles are discussed as primary…

  13. Multi-task evolutionary shaping without pre-specified representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Whiteson, S.; Branke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Shaping functions can be used in multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) to incorporate knowledge from previously experienced tasks to speed up learning on a new task. So far, researchers have pre-specified a separate representation for shaping and value functions in multi-task settings. However, no

  14. The Effect of Multitasking to Faculty Members' Academic Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education institutions which technology produced in and used actively try to overcome simultaneous one more works because of their intensive works and responsibilities. This study associated simultaneously doing one more academic works to multitasking. Multitasking may have a detrimental effect on academic works since it…

  15. Age differences in media multitasking: a diary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; van der Goot, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight in age differences in the amount of media multitasking and in the media that people combine. Results of a diary study (N = 3,048) among 13- to 65-year-olds reject the popular notion that media multitasking is particularly prevalent among young people. The youngest (13-16

  16. Concurrent multitasking : From neural activity to human cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Multitasking has become an important part of our daily lives. This delicate juggling act between several activities occurs when people drive, when they are working, and even when they should be paying attention in the classroom. While multitasking is typically considered as something to avoid, there

  17. Media multitasking and failures of attention in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Thomson, David R; Cheyne, James Allan; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Using a series of online self-report measures, we examine media multitasking, a particularly pervasive form of multitasking, and its relations to three aspects of everyday attention: (1) failures of attention and cognitive errors (2) mind wandering, and (3) attentional control with an emphasis on attentional switching and distractibility. We observed a positive correlation between levels of media multitasking and self-reports of attentional failures, as well as with reports of both spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering. No correlation was observed between media multitasking and self-reported memory failures, lending credence to the hypothesis that media multitasking may be specifically related to problems of inattention, rather than cognitive errors in general. Furthermore, media multitasking was not related with self-reports of difficulties in attention switching or distractibility. We offer a plausible causal structural model assessing both direct and indirect effects among media multitasking, attentional failures, mind wandering, and cognitive errors, with the heuristic goal of constraining and motivating theories of the effects of media multitasking on inattention.

  18. A Multitasking General Executive for Compound Continuous Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2005-01-01

    As cognitive architectures move to account for increasingly complex real-world tasks, one of the most pressing challenges involves understanding and modeling human multitasking. Although a number of existing models now perform multitasking in real-world scenarios, these models typically employ customized executives that schedule tasks for the…

  19. You Say Multitasking Like It's a Good Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaté, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    "Multitasking" has developed a certain mantra in our culture, and according to this widely held axiom, people in general and students in particular, can and do function productively and learn efficiently doing several things at once. There also seems to be an unshakable conviction that young students excel in a multitasking environment.…

  20. The consequences of media multitasking for youth: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, W.A.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among youth has raised concerns regarding its negative effects on youths’ functioning. Although the number of empirical studies on the consequences of media multitasking for youth has grown rapidly, there has been no attempt to integrate theory with

  1. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  2. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  3. Flammability studies for wildland and wildland-urban interface fires applied to pine needles and solid polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Simeoni, A; Thomas, J C; Bartoli, P.; Borowieck, P.; Reszka, P.; F.; Colella; Santoni, P. A.; Torero, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents flammability studies related to wildland fires that have been conducted at the University of Edinburgh and at WPI over the last 5 years. This is the first time that all of the contributions have been put together to present a consistent set of studies geared towards a better understanding of how wildland and solid fuels ignite and burn in the context of wildland and wildland-urban interface fires. The whole approach is based on experiments conducted with the Fire Propagati...

  4. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace.

  5. Can You Multitask? Evidence and Limitations of Task Switching and Multitasking in Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugset, L Melissa; Farrell, Susan; Carney, Michele; Wolff, Margaret; Santen, Sally A; Perry, Marcia; Cico, Stephen John

    2016-08-01

    Emergency physicians work in a fast-paced environment that is characterized by frequent interruptions and the expectation that they will perform multiple tasks efficiently and without error while maintaining oversight of the entire emergency department. However, there is a lack of definition and understanding of the behaviors that constitute effective task switching and multitasking, as well as how to improve these skills. This article reviews the literature on task switching and multitasking in a variety of disciplines-including cognitive science, human factors engineering, business, and medicine-to define and describe the successful performance of task switching and multitasking in emergency medicine. Multitasking, defined as the performance of two tasks simultaneously, is not possible except when behaviors become completely automatic; instead, physicians rapidly switch between small tasks. This task switching causes disruption in the primary task and may contribute to error. A framework is described to enhance the understanding and practice of these behaviors. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Teaching and evaluating multitasking ability in emergency medicine residents - what is the best practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kenneth WJ

    2014-01-01

    Multitasking is an essential skill to develop during Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. Residents who struggle to cope in a multitasking environment risk fatigue, stress, and burnout. Improper management of interruption has been causally linked with medical errors. Formal teaching and evaluation of multitasking is often lacking in EM residency programs. This article reviewed the literature on multitasking in EM to identify best practices for teaching and evaluating multitasking amongst EM res...

  7. Examining the sources of public support for wildland fire policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Recent severe wildfires have reinforced the need for successful mitigation strategies to be coordinated across all levels of government that address the needs and concerns of homeowners who live in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Despite the growing body of social science literature on agency-initiated wildland fire policies and homeowner mitigation strategies,...

  8. Measuring wildland fire leadership: the crewmember perceived leadership scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis L. Waldron; David P. Schary; Bradley J. Cardinal

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and test a scale used to measure leadership in wildland firefighting using two samples of USA wildland firefighters. The first collection of data occurred in the spring and early summer and consisted of an online survey. The second set of data was collected towards late summer and early fall (autumn). The second set of...

  9. Burning rates of wood cribs with implications for wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara McAllister; Mark Finney

    2016-01-01

    Wood cribs are often used as ignition sources for room fire tests and the well characterized burning rates may also have applications to wildland fires. The burning rate of wildland fuel structures, whether the needle layer on the ground or trees and shrubs themselves, is not addressed in any operational fire model and no simple model exists. Several relations...

  10. 78 FR 45948 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Shari Eckhoff (Designated..., Idaho, 83706-6648. Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of...

  11. 78 FR 15032 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Shari Eckhoff (Designated..., Idaho, 83706-6648. Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of...

  12. 76 FR 28445 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... is to provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to... meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview of prior...

  13. 76 FR 15332 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... is to provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to... meeting agenda will be: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview of prior meeting and...

  14. 76 FR 79205 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the... agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview of prior meeting and...

  15. 77 FR 35420 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the... agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview of prior meeting and...

  16. 78 FR 33432 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Shari Eckhoff (Designated..., Idaho, 83706-6648. Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of...

  17. 77 FR 63326 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... is to provide advice on coordinated national-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to... meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview of prior...

  18. 77 FR 18851 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ...-level wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Roy Johnson..., Boise, Idaho 83706- 6648. Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction...

  19. 78 FR 65698 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... wildland fire policy and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to the WFEC should be directed to Shari Eckhoff (Designated..., Idaho, 83706-6648. Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of...

  20. Preventing disaster: Home ignitability in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen

    2000-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (W-UI) fires are a significant concern for federal, state, and local land management and fire agencies. Research using modeling, experiments, and W-UI case studies indicates that home ignitability during wildland fires depends on the characteristics of the home and its immediate surroundings. These findings have implications for hazard...

  1. Visual impacts in the urban-wildland interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill; Rowan A. Rowntree; Robert O. Brush

    1979-01-01

    The urban-wildland interface is treated as a place where extremes meet--where it is difficult to maintain a visually appealing transition from country to city. Problems are identified in relation to stable cities, urbanizing areas, and developing resorts in the wildlands. The visual problems of urbanization are also discussed in relation to physical impacts such as...

  2. Exploring information needs for wildland fire and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller; Peter Landres

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a questionnaire and workshop that sought to gain a better and deeper understanding of the contemporary information needs of wildland fire and fuels managers. Results from the questionnaire indicated that the decision to suppress a wildland fire was most often influenced by factors related to safety and that the decision to allow a fire to burn...

  3. Guidance on spatial wildland fire analysis: models, tools, and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Stratton

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing need for spatial wildland fire analysis in support of incident management, fuel treatment planning, wildland-urban assessment, and land management plan development. However, little guidance has been provided to the field in the form of training, support, or research examples. This paper provides guidance to fire managers, planners, specialists,...

  4. Manitoba Health's emerging work on wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Joaquin; Darlene Oshanski

    2015-01-01

    Smoke caused by wildland fire events is an important public health issue, involving major risks to the health of people and the environment. Smoke from wildland fires can travel hundreds of kilometers, affecting air quality far from the flames. Through a partnership with Health Canada, Manitoba Health's Office of Disaster Management (ODM) has undertaken a number...

  5. SWAT-MODSIM-PSO optimization of multi-crop planning in the Karkheh River Basin, Iran, under the impacts of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidoon, Majid; Koch, Manfred

    2018-02-24

    Agriculture is one of the environmental/economic sectors that may adversely be affected by climate change, especially, in already nowadays water-scarce regions, like the Middle East. One way to cope with future changes in absolute as well as seasonal (irrigation) water amounts can be the adaptation of the agricultural crop pattern in a region, i.e. by planting crops which still provide high yields and so economic benefits to farmers under such varying climate conditions. To do this properly, the whole cascade starting from climate change, effects on hydrology and surface water availability, subsequent effects on crop yield, agricultural areas available, and, finally, economic value of a multi-crop cultivation pattern must be known. To that avail, a complex coupled simulation-optimization tool SWAT-LINGO-MODSIM-PSO (SLMP) has been developed here and used to find the future optimum cultivation area of crops for the maximization of the economic benefits in five irrigation-fed agricultural plains in the south of the Karkheh River Basin (KRB) southwest Iran. Starting with the SWAT distributed hydrological model, the KR-streamflow as well as the inflow into the Karkheh-reservoir, as the major storage of irrigation water, is calibrated and validated, based on 1985-2004 observed discharge data. In the subsequent step, the SWAT-predicted streamflow is fed into the MODSIM river basin Decision Support System to simulate and optimize the water allocation between different water users (agricultural, environmental, municipal and industrial) under standard operating policy (SOP) rules. The final step is the maximization of the economic benefit in the five agricultural plains through constrained PSO (particle swarm optimization) by adjusting the cultivation areas (decision variables) of different crops (wheat, barley, maize and "others"), taking into account their specific prizes and optimal crop yields under water deficiency, with the latter computed in the LINGO

  6. Fullerenes: multitask components in molecular machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Guldi, Dirk M; Paolucci, Francesco; Prato, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    Molecular machines are molecular-scale devices that carry out predetermined tasks derived from molecular motion. This Minireview illustrates how fullerenes can be used as multitask building blocks in molecular machinery, providing new perspectives for fullerenes. Indeed, C(60) can be applied as a photo- and electroactive stopper owing to its size, as a probe for molecular motion as a result of its well-defined physicochemical properties, and to induce motion through pi-pi interactions. Such molecular motion can be employed to modulate light-driven electron-transfer events, extending the potential applications of molecular machines to the typical fields of application of fullerenes.

  7. Wildland fire management. Volume 2: Wildland fire control 1985-1995. [satellite information system for California fire problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveker, D. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary design of a satellite plus computer earth resources information system is proposed for potential uses in fire prevention and control in the wildland fire community. Suggested are satellite characteristics, sensor characteristics, discrimination algorithms, data communication techniques, data processing requirements, display characteristics, and costs in achieving the integrated wildland fire information system.

  8. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  9. Intimacy and Smartphone Multitasking-A New Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Etgar, Shir

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smartphone multitasking and romantic intimacy. Participants currently in a romantic relationship (N = 128; 98 women; M age = 26.7 years, SD = 4.3) filled out two sets of questionnaires: The Emotional Intimacy Scale, measuring romantic intimacy, and the mobile phone interference in life scale, measuring multitasking on a smartphone. Participants filled out each questionnaire twice, once in relation to themselves and once in relation to their partner (for the partner questionnaire, statements were altered from the first person to the third person singular, he/she instead of I). Results suggested that only the partners' smartphone multitasking scores were negatively related to ratings of romantic intimacy, whereas participants' own smartphone multitasking scores were not related to ratings of romantic intimacy. These results can be explained by the actor-observer asymmetry, suggesting that participants attributed their multitasking behaviors to situations, but attributed their partners multitasking behaviors to behavior patterns or intentionality. This research suggests that smartphone multitasking has a negative association with face-to-face interactions. People should attend to the costs of smartphone use during face-to-face interactions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Multitasking the code ARC3D. [for computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John T.; Hsiung, Christopher C.

    1986-01-01

    The CRAY multitasking system was developed in order to utilize all four processors and sharply reduce the wall clock run time. This paper describes the techniques used to modify the computational fluid dynamics code ARC3D for this run and analyzes the achieved speedup. The ARC3D code solves either the Euler or thin-layer N-S equations using an implicit approximate factorization scheme. Results indicate that multitask processing can be used to achieve wall clock speedup factors of over three times, depending on the nature of the program code being used. Multitasking appears to be particularly advantageous for large-memory problems running on multiple CPU computers.

  11. Teaching and evaluating multitasking ability in emergency medicine residents - what is the best practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth Wj

    2014-01-01

    Multitasking is an essential skill to develop during Emergency Medicine (EM) residency. Residents who struggle to cope in a multitasking environment risk fatigue, stress, and burnout. Improper management of interruption has been causally linked with medical errors. Formal teaching and evaluation of multitasking is often lacking in EM residency programs. This article reviewed the literature on multitasking in EM to identify best practices for teaching and evaluating multitasking amongst EM residents. With the advancement in understanding of what multitasking is, deliberate attempts should be made to teach residents pitfalls and coping strategies. This can be taught through a formal curriculum, role modeling by faculty, and simulation training. The best way to evaluate multitasking ability in residents is by direct observation. The EM Milestone Project provides a framework by which multitasking can be evaluated. EM residents should be deployed in work environments commiserate with their multitasking ability and their progress should be graduated after identified deficiencies are remediated.

  12. Pareto-path multitask multiple kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C

    2015-01-01

    A traditional and intuitively appealing Multitask Multiple Kernel Learning (MT-MKL) method is to optimize the sum (thus, the average) of objective functions with (partially) shared kernel function, which allows information sharing among the tasks. We point out that the obtained solution corresponds to a single point on the Pareto Front (PF) of a multiobjective optimization problem, which considers the concurrent optimization of all task objectives involved in the Multitask Learning (MTL) problem. Motivated by this last observation and arguing that the former approach is heuristic, we propose a novel support vector machine MT-MKL framework that considers an implicitly defined set of conic combinations of task objectives. We show that solving our framework produces solutions along a path on the aforementioned PF and that it subsumes the optimization of the average of objective functions as a special case. Using the algorithms we derived, we demonstrate through a series of experimental results that the framework is capable of achieving a better classification performance, when compared with other similar MTL approaches.

  13. Robust Multitask Multiview Tracking in Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xue; Hong, Zhibin; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-11-01

    Various sparse-representation-based methods have been proposed to solve tracking problems, and most of them employ least squares (LSs) criteria to learn the sparse representation. In many tracking scenarios, traditional LS-based methods may not perform well owing to the presence of heavy-tailed noise. In this paper, we present a tracking approach using an approximate least absolute deviation (LAD)-based multitask multiview sparse learning method to enjoy robustness of LAD and take advantage of multiple types of visual features, such as intensity, color, and texture. The proposed method is integrated in a particle filter framework, where learning the sparse representation for each view of the single particle is regarded as an individual task. The underlying relationship between tasks across different views and different particles is jointly exploited in a unified robust multitask formulation based on LAD. In addition, to capture the frequently emerging outlier tasks, we decompose the representation matrix to two collaborative components that enable a more robust and accurate approximation. We show that the proposed formulation can be effectively approximated by Nesterov's smoothing method and efficiently solved using the accelerated proximal gradient method. The presented tracker is implemented using four types of features and is tested on numerous synthetic sequences and real-world video sequences, including the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark and ALOV++ data set. Both the qualitative and quantitative results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed approach compared with several state-of-the-art trackers.

  14. Psychobiological responses to critically evaluated multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Craw, Olivia; Smith, Kenny; Smith, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicited significant increases in psychological and cardiovascular stress reactivity; however, no cortisol reactivity was observed. Other socially evaluative laboratory stressors that lead to cortisol reactivity typically require a participant to perform tasks that involve verbal responses, whilst standing in front of evaluative others. The current protocol contained critical evaluation of cognitive performance; however, this was delivered from behind a seated participant. The salience of social evaluation may therefore be related to the response format of the task and the method of evaluation. That is, the current protocol did not involve the additional vulnerability associated with in person, face-to-face contact, and verbal delivery. Critical evaluation of multitasking provides an ecologically valid technique for inducing laboratory stress and provides an alternative tool for assessing psychological and cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies could additionally use this paradigm to investigate those components of social evaluation necessary for eliciting a cortisol response.

  15. Multi-Tasking Assessment for Personnel Selection and Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Susan C; Mautone, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    Multi-tasking (MT) is prevalent in many work environments. While there are often negative consequences of MT, such as increased error, stress, and turnover, some individuals thrive in MT environments...

  16. An Efficient Multitask Scheduling Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensor nodes of multitask wireless network are constrained in performance-driven computation. Theoretical studies on the data processing model of wireless sensor nodes suggest satisfying the requirements of high qualities of service (QoS of multiple application networks, thus improving the efficiency of network. In this paper, we present the priority based data processing model for multitask sensor nodes in the architecture of multitask wireless sensor network. The proposed model is deduced with the M/M/1 queuing model based on the queuing theory where the average delay of data packets passing by sensor nodes is estimated. The model is validated with the real data from the Huoerxinhe Coal Mine. By applying the proposed priority based data processing model in the multitask wireless sensor network, the average delay of data packets in a sensor nodes is reduced nearly to 50%. The simulation results show that the proposed model can improve the throughput of network efficiently.

  17. Choice in multitasking: how delays in the primary task turn a rational into an irrational multitasker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katidioti, Ioanna; Taatgen, Niels A

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to establish the nature of choice in cognitive multitasking. Laboratory studies of multitasking suggest people are rational in their switch choices regarding multitasking, whereas observational studies suggest they are not. Threaded cognition theory predicts that switching is opportunistic and depends on availability of cognitive resources. A total of 21 participants answered e-mails by looking up information (similar to customer service employees) while being interrupted by chat messages. They were free to choose when to switch to the chat message. We analyzed the switching behavior and the time they needed to complete the primary mail task. When participants are faced with a delay in the e-mail task, they switch more often to the chat task at high-workload points. Choosing to switch to the secondary task instead of waiting makes them slower. It also makes them forget the information in the e-mail task half of the time, which slows them down even more. When many cognitive resources are available, the probability of switching from one task to another is high. This does not necessarily lead to optimal switching behavior. Potential applications of this research include the minimization of delays in task design and the inability or discouragement of switching in high-workload moments.

  18. Media multitasking, attention, and distraction:A critical discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Aagaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Students often multitask with technologies such as computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones during class. Unfortunately, numerous empirical studies firmly establish a significant drop in academic performance caused by this media multitasking. In this paper it is argued that cognitive studies may have clarified the negative consequences of this activity, yet they struggle to address the processes involved in it. A cognitive characterization of attention as a mental phenomenon neglects the i...

  19. A Bayesian Assessment of Real-World Behavior During Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, J.; Fei, J.; Green, D.; Hussain, A; Howard, N

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Multitasking is common in everyday life, but its effect on activities of daily living is not well understood. Critical appraisal of performance for both healthy individuals and patients is required. Motor activities during meal preparation were monitored in healthy individuals with a wearable sensor network during single and multitask conditions. Methods: Motor performance was quantified by the median frequencies (fm) of hand trajectories and wrist acceleratio...

  20. Individual Differences in Multitasking : Support for Spatiotemporal Offloading

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In both the private and work spheres, multitasking among three or more activities has become and is continuing to evolve as a pervasive element of everyday life, and recent technological advances only seem to be exacerbating the process. Despite attempts to understand the mental processes that let humans successfully multitask, little is known about the functional cognitive level at which these mental processes take place. This thesis makes a case for the involvement of spatial ability (among...

  1. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults’ Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Michail Doumas; Ralf Th. Krampe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive.Method:We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of...

  2. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling. PMID:26441742

  3. The influence of positive vs. negative affect on multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2016-10-01

    Considerable research has investigated how affect influences performance on a single task; however, little is known about the role of affect in complex multitasking environments. In this paper, 178 participants multitasked in a synthetic work environment (SYNWORK) consisting of memory, visual monitoring, auditory monitoring, and math tasks. Participants multitasked for a 3-min baseline phase (MT1), following which they were randomly assigned to watch one of three affect-induction videos: positive, neutral, or negative. Participants then resumed multitasking for two additional critical phases (MT2, MT3; 3min each). In MT2, performance of the positive and neutral conditions was statistically equivalent and higher than the negative condition. In MT3, the positive condition performed better than the negative condition, with the neutral condition not significantly different from the other two. The differences in overall multitasking scores were largely driven by errors in the Math task (the most cognitively demanding task) in MT2 and the Memory task in MT3. These findings have implications for how positive and negative affective states influence processing in a cognitively demanding multitasking environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient multitasking: parallel versus serial processing of multiple tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    In the context of performance optimizations in multitasking, a central debate has unfolded in multitasking research around whether cognitive processes related to different tasks proceed only sequentially (one at a time), or can operate in parallel (simultaneously). This review features a discussion of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence regarding parallel versus serial task processing in multitasking. In addition, we highlight how methodological differences and theoretical conceptions determine the extent to which parallel processing in multitasking can be detected, to guide their employment in future research. Parallel and serial processing of multiple tasks are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, questions focusing exclusively on either task-processing mode are too simplified. We review empirical evidence and demonstrate that shifting between more parallel and more serial task processing critically depends on the conditions under which multiple tasks are performed. We conclude that efficient multitasking is reflected by the ability of individuals to adjust multitasking performance to environmental demands by flexibly shifting between different processing strategies of multiple task-component scheduling.

  5. Multitasking in multiple sclerosis: can it inform vocational functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Chelsea L; Schultheis, Maria T; McKeever, Joshua D; Leist, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    To examine associations between multitasking ability defined by performance on a complex task integrating multiple cognitive domains and vocational functioning in multiple sclerosis (MS). Survey data collection. Laboratory with referrals from an outpatient clinic. Community-dwelling individuals with MS (N=30) referred between October 2011 and June 2012. Not applicable. The modified Six Elements Test (SET) to measure multitasking ability, Fatigue Severity Scale to measure fatigue, several neuropsychological measures of executive functioning, and vocational status. Among the sample, 60% of individuals have reduced their work hours because of MS symptoms (cutback employment group) and 40% had maintained their work hours. Among both groups, SET performance was significantly associated with performance on several measures of neuropsychological functioning. Individuals in the cutback employment group demonstrated significantly worse overall performance on the SET (P=.041). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between SET performance and vocational status, while accounting for neuropsychological performance and fatigue. The overall model was significant (χ(2)3=8.65, P=.032), with fatigue [Exp(B)=.83, P=.01] and multitasking ability [Exp(B)=.60, P=.043] retained as significant predictors. Multitasking ability may play an important role in performance at work for individuals with MS. Given that multitasking was associated with vocational functioning, future efforts should assess the usefulness of incorporating multitasking ability into rehabilitation planning. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Media multitasking behavior: concurrent television and computer usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2011-09-01

    Changes in the media landscape have made simultaneous usage of the computer and television increasingly commonplace, but little research has explored how individuals navigate this media multitasking environment. Prior work suggests that self-insight may be limited in media consumption and multitasking environments, reinforcing a rising need for direct observational research. A laboratory experiment recorded both younger and older individuals as they used a computer and television concurrently, multitasking across television and Internet content. Results show that individuals are attending primarily to the computer during media multitasking. Although gazes last longer on the computer when compared to the television, the overall distribution of gazes is strongly skewed toward very short gazes only a few seconds in duration. People switched between media at an extreme rate, averaging more than 4 switches per min and 120 switches over the 27.5-minute study exposure. Participants had little insight into their switching activity and recalled their switching behavior at an average of only 12 percent of their actual switching rate revealed in the objective data. Younger individuals switched more often than older individuals, but other individual differences such as stated multitasking preference and polychronicity had little effect on switching patterns or gaze duration. This overall pattern of results highlights the importance of exploring new media environments, such as the current drive toward media multitasking, and reinforces that self-monitoring, post hoc surveying, and lay theory may offer only limited insight into how individuals interact with media.

  7. Probabilistic Low-Rank Multitask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yu; Shao, Ming; Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2017-01-04

    In this paper, we consider the problem of learning multiple related tasks simultaneously with the goal of improving the generalization performance of individual tasks. The key challenge is to effectively exploit the shared information across multiple tasks as well as preserve the discriminative information for each individual task. To address this, we propose a novel probabilistic model for multitask learning (MTL) that can automatically balance between low-rank and sparsity constraints. The former assumes a low-rank structure of the underlying predictive hypothesis space to explicitly capture the relationship of different tasks and the latter learns the incoherent sparse patterns private to each task. We derive and perform inference via variational Bayesian methods. Experimental results on both regression and classification tasks on real-world applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with the MTL problems.

  8. Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management and Stafford Act Response Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management Agreement is an interagency agreement for fire control in Washington and Oregon. The plan outlines resources,...

  9. Wildland fire management plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is written to provide guidelines for appropriate wildland fire suppression and prescribed fire programs. Prescribed fires may be used to reduce hazard...

  10. 76 FR 22130 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership.... Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will be: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2) Overview...

  11. 78 FR 15033 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership.... Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2...

  12. 78 FR 45949 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership.... Meeting Agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of Council members; (2...

  13. Total Wildland Fires and Acres burned from 1960 through 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Number of wildland fires and acres burned from 1960 through 2008 (updated annually). Includes federal (Bureau of Land Management, US Forest Service, National Park...

  14. Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills...

  15. Lung function changes in wildland firefighters working at prescribed burns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Hall, Daniel, B.; Naeher, L,P.

    2011-10-01

    Although decline in lung function across workshift has been observed in wildland firefighters, measurements have been restricted to days when they worked at fires. Consequently, such results could have been confounded by normal circadian variation associated with lung function. We investigated the across-shift changes in lung function of wildland firefighters, and the effect of cumulative exposure on lung function during the burn season.

  16. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Urbanski

    2014-01-01

    While the vast majority of carbon emitted by wildland fires is released as CO2, CO, and CH4, wildland fire smoke is nonetheless a rich and complex mixture of gases and aerosols. Primary emissions include significant amounts of CH4 and aerosol (organic aerosol and black carbon), which are short-lived climate forcers. In addition to CO2 and short-lived climate forcers,...

  17. The relationship between media multitasking and executive function in early adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Weeda, W.; van der Heijden, L.; Huizinga, M.

    2013-01-01

    Media multitasking is an ever more popular form of media consumption, in particular among youth. The increasing prevalence of media multitasking is concerning because frequent media multitasking may be negatively related to children’s cognitive control abilities (i.e. executive function). This study

  18. Take a Break: Examining College Students' Media Multitasking Activities and Motivations during Study- or Work-Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, Anastasia G.; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-01-01

    A survey (N = 524) examined how frequently college students engage in multitasking with social media, texting/instant messaging (IM), and music while studying/working and what motivates them to multitask with each medium. Four out of five participants multitasked with Facebook and texting/IM, and two out of three multitasked with music. Habit was…

  19. Marketing Nature-Oriented Tourism or Rural Development and Wildlands Management in Developing Countries: A Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Denise Ingram; Patrick B. Durst

    1987-01-01

    Annotated bibliography that specifically links tourism marketing and wildlands management. The bibliography is divided into five sections: Information Sources, Wildlands Management, Planning and Development, Tourism Impacts, Marketing and Promotion.Indexed by author and geographical location.

  20. Clustered Multi-Task Learning for Automatic Radar Target Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Model training is a key technique for radar target recognition. Traditional model training algorithms in the framework of single task leaning ignore the relationships among multiple tasks, which degrades the recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a clustered multi-task learning, which can reveal and share the multi-task relationships for radar target recognition. To further make full use of these relationships, the latent multi-task relationships in the projection space are taken into consideration. Specifically, a constraint term in the projection space is proposed, the main idea of which is that multiple tasks within a close cluster should be close to each other in the projection space. In the proposed method, the cluster structures and multi-task relationships can be autonomously learned and utilized in both of the original and projected space. In view of the nonlinear characteristics of radar targets, the proposed method is extended to a non-linear kernel version and the corresponding non-linear multi-task solving method is proposed. Comprehensive experimental studies on simulated high-resolution range profile dataset and MSTAR SAR public database verify the superiority of the proposed method to some related algorithms.

  1. Differences in Multitask Resource Reallocation After Change in Task Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre; Cegarra, Julien; Raufaste, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize multitask resource reallocation strategies when managing subtasks with various assigned values. When solving a resource conflict in multitasking, Salvucci and Taatgen predict a globally rational strategy will be followed that favors the most urgent subtask and optimizes global performance. However, Katidioti and Taatgen identified a locally rational strategy that optimizes only a subcomponent of the whole task, leading to detrimental consequences on global performance. Moreover, the question remains open whether expertise would have an impact on the choice of the strategy. We adopted a multitask environment used for pilot selection with a change in emphasis on two out of four subtasks while all subtasks had to be maintained over a minimum performance. A laboratory eye-tracking study contrasted 20 recently selected pilot students considered as experienced with this task and 15 university students considered as novices. When two subtasks were emphasized, novices focused their resources particularly on one high-value subtask and failed to prevent both low-value subtasks falling below minimum performance. On the contrary, experienced people delayed the processing of one low-value subtask but managed to optimize global performance. In a multitasking environment where some subtasks are emphasized, novices follow a locally rational strategy whereas experienced participants follow a globally rational strategy. During complex training, trainees are only able to adjust their resource allocation strategy to subtask emphasis changes once they are familiar with the multitasking environment. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. On supertaskers and the neural basis of efficient multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2015-06-01

    The present study used brain imaging to determine the neural basis of individual differences in multitasking, the ability to successfully perform at least two attention-demanding tasks at once. Multitasking is mentally taxing and, therefore, should recruit the prefrontal cortex to maintain task goals when coordinating attentional control and managing the cognitive load. To investigate this possibility, we used functional neuroimaging to assess neural activity in both extraordinary multitaskers (Supertaskers) and control subjects who were matched on working memory capacity. Participants performed a challenging dual N-back task in which auditory and visual stimuli were presented simultaneously, requiring independent and continuous maintenance, updating, and verification of the contents of verbal and spatial working memory. With the task requirements and considerable cognitive load that accompanied increasing N-back, relative to the controls, the multitasking of Supertaskers was characterized by more efficient recruitment of anterior cingulate and posterior frontopolar prefrontal cortices. Results are interpreted using neuropsychological and evolutionary perspectives on individual differences in multitasking ability and the neural correlates of attentional control.

  3. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991

  4. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn L; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-11-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11-17 and 22-30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking.

  5. Media Multitasking and Cognitive, Psychological, Neural, and Learning Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; Lin, Lin; Rosen, Larry D; Kirkorian, Heather L; Baron, Naomi S; Bailey, Kira; Cantor, Joanne; Strayer, David L; Parsons, Thomas D; Wagner, Anthony D

    2017-11-01

    American youth spend more time with media than any other waking activity: an average of 7.5 hours per day, every day. On average, 29% of that time is spent juggling multiple media streams simultaneously (ie, media multitasking). This phenomenon is not limited to American youth but is paralleled across the globe. Given that a large number of media multitaskers (MMTs) are children and young adults whose brains are still developing, there is great urgency to understand the neurocognitive profiles of MMTs. It is critical to understand the relation between the relevant cognitive domains and underlying neural structure and function. Of equal importance is understanding the types of information processing that are necessary in 21st century learning environments. The present review surveys the growing body of evidence demonstrating that heavy MMTs show differences in cognition (eg, poorer memory), psychosocial behavior (eg, increased impulsivity), and neural structure (eg, reduced volume in anterior cingulate cortex). Furthermore, research indicates that multitasking with media during learning (in class or at home) can negatively affect academic outcomes. Until the direction of causality is understood (whether media multitasking causes such behavioral and neural differences or whether individuals with such differences tend to multitask with media more often), the data suggest that engagement with concurrent media streams should be thoughtfully considered. Findings from such research promise to inform policy and practice on an increasingly urgent societal issue while significantly advancing our understanding of the intersections between cognitive, psychosocial, neural, and academic factors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. An Implementing Strategy for Improving Wildland Fire Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, M. R.; Andrus, D.; Barnett, K.

    2007-12-01

    Wildland fire is any planned or unplanned fire which occurs in wildland ecosystems. Wildland fires affect millions of acres annually in the U.S. An average of 5.4 million acres a year were burned in the U.S. between 1995 and 2004, approximately 142 percent of the average burned area between 1984 and 1994. In 2005 alone, Federal agencies spent nearly $1 billion on fire suppression and state and local agencies contributed millions more. Many Americans prefer to live and vacation in relatively remote surroundings, (i.e., woods and rangelands). These choices offer many benefits, but they also present significant risks. Most of North America is fire-prone and every day developed areas and home sites are extending further into natural wildlands, which increases the chances of catastrophic fire. In addition, an abundance of accumulated biomass in forests and rangelands and persistent drought conditions are contributing to larger, costlier wildland fires. To effectively prevent, manage, suppress, respond to, and recover from wildland fires, fire managers, and other communities which are impacted by wildland fires (e.g., the business community; healthcare providers; federal, state, and local policymakers; the media; the public, etc.) need timely, accurate, and detailed wildland fire weather and climate information to support their decision-making activities. But what are the wildland fire weather and climate data, products, and information, as well as information dissemination technologies, needed to reach out and promote wildland fire environmental literacy in these communities? The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) conducted a comprehensive review and assessment of weather and climate needs of providers and users in their wildland fire and fuels management activities. The assessment has nine focus areas, one of which is environmental literacy (e.g., education, training, outreach, partnering, and collaboration

  7. Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: A vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...

  8. A consideration of collective memory in African American attachment to wildland recreation places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the effect of race on place attachment to wildland areas. It is generally assumed that African Americans have a more negative impression of wildlands, compared to white ethnic groups. Studies from past decades report that blacks show less aesthetic preference for wildland, unstructured environments and are also less environmentally aware than whites...

  9. Reducing fuels in the wildland urban interface: Community perceptions of agency fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce Shindler; Sarah. McCaffrey

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fires and resulting effects have increased in recent years. Efforts are under way nationwide to proactively manage vegetative conditions to reduce the threat of wildland fires. Public support is critical to the successful implementation of fuels reduction programs, particularly at the wildland-urban interface. This study examines public acceptance of fuels...

  10. Symbolic meanings of wildland fire: A study of residents in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis B. Paveglio; Matthew S. Carroll; James D. Absher; William Robinson

    2010-01-01

    This study uses symbolic interactionism as a basis for understanding the salience and fundamental meanings of wildland fire to wildland–urban interface (WUI) residents. It contributes to an understanding of how WUI residents actually view wildland fire, its role in forest ecosystems, and its attendant risks for human settlements. Three focus groups were conducted with...

  11. Land-use planning may reduce fire damage in the urban-wildland intermix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol L. Rice; James B. Davis

    1991-01-01

    The risk of wildfire associated with development in the urban-wildland intermix is nationwide. To wildland fire agencies, providing fire protection for wildland residential development can be an exercise in frustration. Much of the problem is that few convincing ties have been made between community planning and wildfire. For three counties in California, the following...

  12. Multitask Diffusion Adaptation Over Networks With Common Latent Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Richard, Cedric; Sayed, Ali H.

    2017-04-01

    Online learning with streaming data in a distributed and collaborative manner can be useful in a wide range of applications. This topic has been receiving considerable attention in recent years with emphasis on both single-task and multitask scenarios. In single-task adaptation, agents cooperate to track an objective of common interest, while in multitask adaptation agents track multiple objectives simultaneously. Regularization is one useful technique to promote and exploit similarity among tasks in the latter scenario. This work examines an alternative way to model relations among tasks by assuming that they all share a common latent feature representation. As a result, a new multitask learning formulation is presented and algorithms are developed for its solution in a distributed online manner. We present a unified framework to analyze the mean-square-error performance of the adaptive strategies, and conduct simulations to illustrate the theoretical findings and potential applications.

  13. Cognitive predictors of a common multitasking ability: Contributions from working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Meier, Matthew E; Montroy, Janelle J; Hicks, Kenny L; Unsworth, Nash; Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, D Zachary; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings. First, although the complex tasks used to assess multitasking differed greatly in their task characteristics and demands, a coherent construct specific to multitasking ability was identified. Second, the cognitive ability predictors accounted for substantial variance in the general multitasking construct, with WM and fluid intelligence accounting for the most multitasking variance compared to attention control. Third, the magnitude of the relationships among the cognitive abilities and multitasking varied as a function of the complexity and structure of the various multitasks assessed. Finally, structural equation models based on a multifaceted model of WM indicated that attention control and capacity fully mediated the WM and multitasking relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Bioinspired Architecture Selection for Multitask Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bueno-Crespo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a new concept to learn, our brain does not work in isolation. It uses all previously learned knowledge. In addition, the brain is able to isolate the knowledge that does not benefit us, and to use what is actually useful. In machine learning, we do not usually benefit from the knowledge of other learned tasks. However, there is a methodology called Multitask Learning (MTL, which is based on the idea that learning a task along with other related tasks produces a transfer of information between them, what can be advantageous for learning the first one. This paper presents a new method to completely design MTL architectures, by including the selection of the most helpful subtasks for the learning of the main task, and the optimal network connections. In this sense, the proposed method realizes a complete design of the MTL schemes. The method is simple and uses the advantages of the Extreme Learning Machine to automatically design a MTL machine, eliminating those factors that hinder, or do not benefit, the learning process of the main task. This architecture is unique and it is obtained without testing/error methodologies that increase the computational complexity. The results obtained over several real problems show the good performances of the designed networks with this method.

  15. Multitask Quantile Regression under the Transnormal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We consider estimating multi-task quantile regression under the transnormal model, with focus on high-dimensional setting. We derive a surprisingly simple closed-form solution through rank-based covariance regularization. In particular, we propose the rank-based ℓ1 penalization with positive definite constraints for estimating sparse covariance matrices, and the rank-based banded Cholesky decomposition regularization for estimating banded precision matrices. By taking advantage of alternating direction method of multipliers, nearest correlation matrix projection is introduced that inherits sampling properties of the unprojected one. Our work combines strengths of quantile regression and rank-based covariance regularization to simultaneously deal with nonlinearity and nonnormality for high-dimensional regression. Furthermore, the proposed method strikes a good balance between robustness and efficiency, achieves the "oracle"-like convergence rate, and provides the provable prediction interval under the high-dimensional setting. The finite-sample performance of the proposed method is also examined. The performance of our proposed rank-based method is demonstrated in a real application to analyze the protein mass spectroscopy data.

  16. Go4 multitasking class library with ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczewski, J; Bertini, D; Essel, H G; Hemberger, M; Kurz, N; Richter, M

    2002-01-01

    In the situation of monitoring an experiment, it is often necessary to control several independently running tasks from one graphical user interface (GUI). Such a GUI must be able to execute commands in the tasks even if they are busy, i.e., getting data, analyzing data, or waiting for data. Moreover, the tasks, being controlled by data streams (i.e., event data samples or slow control data), must be able to send data asynchronously to the GUI for visualization. A multitasking package (C++ class library) that meets these demands has been developed at the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany, in the framework of a new analysis system, Go4, which is based on the ROOT system [CERN, R. Brun et al]. The package provides a thread manager, a task handler, and asynchronous intertask communication between threads through sockets. Hence, objects can be sent at any time from a task to the GUI or vice versa. At the GUI side, an incoming object is accepted by a thread and processed. In a task, a...

  17. Bioinspired Architecture Selection for Multitask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Crespo, Andrés; Menchón-Lara, Rosa-María; Martínez-España, Raquel; Sancho-Gómez, José-Luis

    2017-01-01

    Faced with a new concept to learn, our brain does not work in isolation. It uses all previously learned knowledge. In addition, the brain is able to isolate the knowledge that does not benefit us, and to use what is actually useful. In machine learning, we do not usually benefit from the knowledge of other learned tasks. However, there is a methodology called Multitask Learning (MTL), which is based on the idea that learning a task along with other related tasks produces a transfer of information between them, what can be advantageous for learning the first one. This paper presents a new method to completely design MTL architectures, by including the selection of the most helpful subtasks for the learning of the main task, and the optimal network connections. In this sense, the proposed method realizes a complete design of the MTL schemes. The method is simple and uses the advantages of the Extreme Learning Machine to automatically design a MTL machine, eliminating those factors that hinder, or do not benefit, the learning process of the main task. This architecture is unique and it is obtained without testing/error methodologies that increase the computational complexity. The results obtained over several real problems show the good performances of the designed networks with this method.

  18. Bioinspired Architecture Selection for Multitask Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Crespo, Andrés; Menchón-Lara, Rosa-María; Martínez-España, Raquel; Sancho-Gómez, José-Luis

    2017-01-01

    Faced with a new concept to learn, our brain does not work in isolation. It uses all previously learned knowledge. In addition, the brain is able to isolate the knowledge that does not benefit us, and to use what is actually useful. In machine learning, we do not usually benefit from the knowledge of other learned tasks. However, there is a methodology called Multitask Learning (MTL), which is based on the idea that learning a task along with other related tasks produces a transfer of information between them, what can be advantageous for learning the first one. This paper presents a new method to completely design MTL architectures, by including the selection of the most helpful subtasks for the learning of the main task, and the optimal network connections. In this sense, the proposed method realizes a complete design of the MTL schemes. The method is simple and uses the advantages of the Extreme Learning Machine to automatically design a MTL machine, eliminating those factors that hinder, or do not benefit, the learning process of the main task. This architecture is unique and it is obtained without testing/error methodologies that increase the computational complexity. The results obtained over several real problems show the good performances of the designed networks with this method. PMID:28690512

  19. Quinone reductases multitasking in the metabolic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David

    2004-10-01

    The multiple functions of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1, DT-diaphorase) in the cell are reviewed. NQO1 has long been viewed as a chemoprotective enzyme involved in cellular defense against the electrophilic and oxidizing metabolites of xenobiotic quinones. It also participates in reduction of endogenous quinones, such as vitamin E quinone and ubiquinone, generating antioxidant forms of these molecules. NQO1 has recently been shown to interact with superoxide and may be involved in scavenging superoxide within the cell. In addition, the possible role of NQO1 in p53 stabilization and consequently in contributing to p53-dependent stress responses is summarized. Such protein multitasking is a good strategy in terms of cellular economy. NQO1 can also be exploited in the design of NQO1-directed antitumor agents such as the new aziridinylbenzoquinone RH1 and Hsp90 inhibitors such as 17AAG. Polymorphisms in NQO1 which have profound influence on phenotype such as the NQO1*2 polymorphism may influence the chemoprotective actions of NQO1, and should be considered when NQO1-directed antitumor quinones are used for therapy in patients.

  20. Using multitask classification methods to investigate the kinase-specific phosphorylation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Xu, Shuo; Fang, Yaping; Fang, Jianwen

    2012-06-21

    Identification of phosphorylation sites by computational methods is becoming increasingly important because it reduces labor-intensive and costly experiments and can improve our understanding of the common properties and underlying mechanisms of protein phosphorylation. A multitask learning framework for learning four kinase families simultaneously, instead of studying each kinase family of phosphorylation sites separately, is presented in the study. The framework includes two multitask classification methods: the Multi-Task Least Squares Support Vector Machines (MTLS-SVMs) and the Multi-Task Feature Selection (MT-Feat3). Using the multitask learning framework, we successfully identify 18 common features shared by four kinase families of phosphorylation sites. The reliability of selected features is demonstrated by the consistent performance in two multi-task learning methods. The selected features can be used to build efficient multitask classifiers with good performance, suggesting they are important to protein phosphorylation across 4 kinase families.

  1. Training improves multitasking performance by increasing the speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dux, Paul E; Tombu, Michael N; Harrison, Stephenie; Rogers, Baxter P; Tong, Frank; Marois, René

    2009-07-16

    Our ability to multitask is severely limited: task performance deteriorates when we attempt to undertake two or more tasks simultaneously. Remarkably, extensive training can greatly reduce such multitasking costs. While it is not known how training alters the brain to solve the multitasking problem, it likely involves the prefrontal cortex given this brain region's purported role in limiting multitasking performance. Here, we show that the reduction of multitasking interference with training is not achieved by diverting the flow of information processing away from the prefrontal cortex or by segregating prefrontal cells into independent task-specific neuronal ensembles, but rather by increasing the speed of information processing in this brain region, thereby allowing multiple tasks to be processed in rapid succession. These results not only reveal how training leads to efficient multitasking, they also provide a mechanistic account of multitasking limitations, namely the poor speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex.

  2. Multi-task feature learning by using trace norm regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangmei Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-task learning can extract the correlation of multiple related machine learning problems to improve performance. This paper considers applying the multi-task learning method to learn a single task. We propose a new learning approach, which employs the mixture of expert model to divide a learning task into several related sub-tasks, and then uses the trace norm regularization to extract common feature representation of these sub-tasks. A nonlinear extension of this approach by using kernel is also provided. Experiments conducted on both simulated and real data sets demonstrate the advantage of the proposed approach.

  3. Ranking Performance Measures in Multi-Task Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Sabac, Florin; Tian, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance-covariance mat......We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models (using both optimal and linear contracts) in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance...

  4. Reconstructing cancer drug response networks using multitask learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffalo, Matthew; Stojanov, Petar; Pillutla, Venkata Krishna; Varma, Rohan; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-10-10

    Translating in vitro results to clinical tests is a major challenge in systems biology. Here we present a new Multi-Task learning framework which integrates thousands of cell line expression experiments to reconstruct drug specific response networks in cancer. The reconstructed networks correctly identify several shared key proteins and pathways while simultaneously highlighting many cell type specific proteins. We used top proteins from each drug network to predict survival for patients prescribed the drug. Predictions based on proteins from the in-vitro derived networks significantly outperformed predictions based on known cancer genes indicating that Multi-Task learning can indeed identify accurate drug response networks.

  5. A personal computer-based, multitasking data acquisition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A multitasking, data acquisition system was written to simultaneously collect meteorological radar and telemetry data from two sources. This system is based on the personal computer architecture. Data is collected via two asynchronous serial ports and is deposited to disk. The system is written in both the C programming language and assembler. It consists of three parts: a multitasking kernel for data collection, a shell with pull down windows as user interface, and a graphics processor for editing data and creating coded messages. An explanation of both system principles and program structure is presented.

  6. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  7. Multitask spectral clustering by exploring intertask correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ma, Zhigang; Yang, Yi; Nie, Feiping; Shen, Heng Tao

    2015-05-01

    Clustering, as one of the most classical research problems in pattern recognition and data mining, has been widely explored and applied to various applications. Due to the rapid evolution of data on the Web, more emerging challenges have been posed on traditional clustering techniques: 1) correlations among related clustering tasks and/or within individual task are not well captured; 2) the problem of clustering out-of-sample data is seldom considered; and 3) the discriminative property of cluster label matrix is not well explored. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering model, namely multitask spectral clustering (MTSC), to cope with the above challenges. Specifically, two types of correlations are well considered: 1) intertask clustering correlation, which refers the relations among different clustering tasks and 2) intratask learning correlation, which enables the processes of learning cluster labels and learning mapping function to reinforce each other. We incorporate a novel l2,p -norm regularizer to control the coherence of all the tasks based on an assumption that related tasks should share a common low-dimensional representation. Moreover, for each individual task, an explicit mapping function is simultaneously learnt for predicting cluster labels by mapping features to the cluster label matrix. Meanwhile, we show that the learning process can naturally incorporate discriminative information to further improve clustering performance. We explore and discuss the relationships between our proposed model and several representative clustering techniques, including spectral clustering, k -means and discriminative k -means. Extensive experiments on various real-world datasets illustrate the advantage of the proposed MTSC model compared to state-of-the-art clustering approaches.

  8. Heterogeneous Multitask Metric Learning Across Multiple Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Wen, Yonggang; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-10-04

    Distance metric learning plays a crucial role in diverse machine learning algorithms and applications. When the labeled information in a target domain is limited, transfer metric learning (TML) helps to learn the metric by leveraging the sufficient information from other related domains. Multitask metric learning (MTML), which can be regarded as a special case of TML, performs transfer across all related domains. Current TML tools usually assume that the same feature representation is exploited for different domains. However, in real-world applications, data may be drawn from heterogeneous domains. Heterogeneous transfer learning approaches can be adopted to remedy this drawback by deriving a metric from the learned transformation across different domains. However, they are often limited in that only two domains can be handled. To appropriately handle multiple domains, we develop a novel heterogeneous MTML (HMTML) framework. In HMTML, the metrics of all different domains are learned together. The transformations derived from the metrics are utilized to induce a common subspace, and the high-order covariance among the predictive structures of these domains is maximized in this subspace. There do exist a few heterogeneous transfer learning approaches that deal with multiple domains, but the high-order statistics (correlation information), which can only be exploited by simultaneously examining all domains, is ignored in these approaches. Compared with them, the proposed HMTML can effectively explore such high-order information, thus obtaining more reliable feature transformations and metrics. Effectiveness of our method is validated by the extensive and intensive experiments on text categorization, scene classification, and social image annotation.

  9. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncapher, Melina R; K Thieu, Monica; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs' wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past--be it very recent or more remote--to inform present behavior.

  10. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Monica K.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relationship between chronic media multitasking and working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance. Four key findings are reported (1) heavy media multitaskers (HMMs) exhibited lower WM performance, regardless of whether external distraction was present or absent; (2) lower performance on multiple WM tasks predicted lower LTM performance; (3) media multitasking-related differences in memory reflected differences in discriminability rather than decision bias; and (4) attentional impulsivity correlated with media multitasking behavior and reduced WM performance. These findings suggest that chronic media multitasking is associated with a wider attentional scope/higher attentional impulsivity, which may allow goal-irrelevant information to compete with goal-relevant information. As a consequence, heavy media multitaskers are able to hold fewer or less precise goal-relevant representations in WM. HMMs’ wider attentional scope, combined with their diminished WM performance, propagates forward to yield lower LTM performance. As such, chronic media multitasking is associated with a reduced ability to draw on the past—be it very recent or more remote—to inform present behavior. PMID:26223469

  11. Driving and Multitasking : The Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer P; van Rijn, Dirk; Taatgen, Niels A

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We

  12. User assistance for multitasking with interruptions on a mobile device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  13. User Assistance for Multitasking with Interruptions on a Mobile Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagata, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Issues users have with use of the web on a mobile device can be attributed to difficulties with the mobile interface. A major challenge that we address is improving the user experience for handling of interruptions and multitasking when using the web in a mobile context. The usability issues with a

  14. The Problem State : A Cognitive Bottleneck in Multitasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Taatgen, Niels A.; van Rijn, Hedderik

    The main challenge for theories of multitasking is to predict when and how tasks interfere. He re, we focus on interference related to the problem state. a directly accessible intermediate representation of the current state of a task. On the basis of Salvucci and Taatgen's (2008) threaded cognition

  15. What Happens When We Switch Tasks : Pupil Dilation in Multitasking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katidioti, Ioanna; Borst, Jelmer P.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruption studies typically focus on external interruptions, even though self-interruptions occur at least as often in real work environments. In this article, we therefore contrast external interruptions with self-interruptions. Three multitasking experiments were conducted, in which we examined

  16. A Bayesian Assessment of Real-World Behavior During Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Jeroen H M; Fei, Joan; Green, David A; Hussain, Amir; Howard, Newton

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking is common in everyday life, but its effect on activities of daily living is not well understood. Critical appraisal of performance for both healthy individuals and patients is required. Motor activities during meal preparation were monitored in healthy individuals with a wearable sensor network during single and multitask conditions. Motor performance was quantified by the median frequencies (fm) of hand trajectories and wrist accelerations. The probability that multitasking occurred based on the obtained motor information was estimated using a Naïve Bayes Model, with a specific focus on the single and triple loading conditions. The Bayesian probability estimator showed task distinction for the wrist accelerometer data at the high and low value ranges. The likelihood of encountering a certain motor performance during well-established everyday activities, such as preparing a simple meal, changed when additional (cognitive) tasks were performed. Within a healthy population, the probability of lower acceleration frequency patterns increases when people are asked to multitask. Cognitive decline due to aging or disease might yield even greater differences.

  17. Multi-task reinforcement learning: shaping and feature selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Whiteson, S.

    2011-01-01

    Shaping functions can be used in multi-task reinforcement learning (RL) to incorporate knowledge from previously experienced source tasks to speed up learning on a new target task. Earlier work has not clearly motivated choices for the shaping function. This paper discusses and empirically compares

  18. Ranking Performance Measures in Multi-Task Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Sabac, Florin; Tian, Joyce

    We derive sufficient conditions for ranking performance evaluation systems in multi-task agency models using both optimal and linear contracts in terms of a second-order stochastic dominance (SSD) condition on the likelihood ratios. The SSD condition can be replaced by a variance-covariance matrix...

  19. Support for Multitasking and background Awareness Using Interactive Peripheral Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIntyre, Blair; Mynatt, Elizabeth Diane; Voida, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    n this paper, we describe Kimura, an augmented office environment to support common multitasking practices. Previous systems, such as Rooms, limit users by constraining the interaction to the desktop monitor. In Kimura, we leverage interactive projected peripheral displays to support the perusal...

  20. Investigating the prevalence and predictors of media multitasking across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Segijn, C.M.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Smit, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight into the prevalence and predictors of different forms of media multitasking across different countries. Results of a survey of 5,973 participants from six countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France) demonstrated that

  1. Threaded Cognition: An Integrated Theory of Concurrent Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Dario D.; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the idea of threaded cognition, an integrated theory of concurrent multitasking--that is, performing 2 or more tasks at once. Threaded cognition posits that streams of thought can be represented as threads of processing coordinated by a serial procedural resource and executed across other available resources (e.g., perceptual…

  2. Domestic outsourcing and multitasking: How much do they really contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Oriel; Gershuny, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    The bulk of responsibility for domestic work and childcare in heterosexual couples falls on women. But the means they find to cope with this load, and how these means relate to the factors underpinning the division of labor are not often studied. Two much-cited ways of reducing overall work time are purchasing domestic assistance (outsourcing) and the multitasking of domestic/caring tasks. Using UK 2000/2001 time-use data (N=4196 couples), we find domestic outsourcing is related to having dependent children and to partners' resources, but has little impact on the total domestic/caring workload of either partner. Nor can outsourcing account for the reduction in women's unpaid labor with increasing economic resources. Wives spend more time multitasking than husbands, but their proportion of multitasked domestic time is similar, and is not affected by resources or dependent children. Domestic multitasking seems to be more related to opportunity (time at home) than to time pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychronicity and multitasking: a diary study at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchberg, D.M.; Roe, R.A.; van Eerde, W.

    2015-01-01

    Polychronicity and multitasking have been described as being indispensible in work today because they enable people to use their time flexibly and effectively. We conducted a diary study among 93 employees during the mornings and evenings of 5 consecutive workdays (n = 418 observations). The study

  4. Investigating the Prevalence and Predictors of Media Multitasking across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Segijn, C.M.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Smit, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight into the prevalence and predictors of different forms of media multitasking across different countries. Results of a survey of 5,973 participants from six countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and France) demonstrated that

  5. A technical review of flexible endoscopic multitasking platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of

  6. Climate Change and Wildland Fire Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannigan, M.; Wotton, M.; Marshall, G.

    2016-12-01

    Wildland fires are a frequent occurrence in many regions of the world. These fires are the result of interactions between climate/weather, fuels, and people. Our climate and associated day-to-day weather may be changing rapidly due to human activities that may have dramatic and unexpected impacts on regional and global fire activity. A warmer world means longer fire seasons, more lightning activity, and most importantly drier fuels. Existing studies suggest a general overall increase in fire occurrence and area burned although there is significant temporal and spatial variability. Future trends in fire severity and intensity are more difficult to project due to the complex and non-linear interactions between weather, vegetation and people. However, there are indications that fire severity and intensity are increasing. In this study we examine future fire intensity in Canada. We use 3 GCMs and 3 RCP scenarios to estimate potential fire intensity, fuel consumption and number of significant spread days throughout the boreal forest. We examine not only absolute change in fireline intensity and consumption, but also changing frequency of exceeding intensity thresholds used today to inform fire management decisions about resource effectiveness. We find that potential fuel consumption increases more than 25% in the most extreme scenarios for the majority of the boreal by the end of the century. Similarly, we observe an absolute increase in the number of days that could support significant fire spread by up to 50 days per year and a greater than threefold increase in the potential number of days where head fire intensity exceeds 10000kW/m in the most extreme cases. While fire severity increases in general, it is these changes in the exceedance of certain critical threshold for fire suppression effectiveness that have the potential to significantly impact fire operations. Fire management will be even more challenging in a warmer world.

  7. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  8. Electronic data processing codes for California wildland plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merton J. Reed; W. Robert Powell; Bur S. Bal

    1963-01-01

    Systematized codes for plant names are helpful to a wide variety of workers who must record the identity of plants in the field. We have developed such codes for a majority of the vascular plants encountered on California wildlands and have published the codes in pocket size, using photo-reductions of the output from data processing machines. A limited number of the...

  9. WRIS: a resource information system for wildland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Russell; David A. Sharpnack; Elliot Amidon

    1975-01-01

    WRIS (Wildland Resource Information System) is a computer system for processing, storing, retrieving, updating, and displaying geographic data. The polygon, representing a land area boundary, forms the building block of WRIS. Polygons form a map. Maps are digitized manually or by automatic scanning. Computer programs can extract and produce polygon maps and can overlay...

  10. Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Modeling fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption specifies the amount of vegetative biomass consumed during wildland fire. It is a two-stage process of pyrolysis and combustion that occurs simultaneously and at different rates depending on the characteristics and condition of the fuel, weather, topography, and in the case of prescribed fire, ignition rate and pattern. Fuel consumption is the basic...

  11. Uncertainty and risk in wildland fire management: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Dave E. Calkin

    2011-01-01

    Wildland fire management is subject to manifold sources of uncertainty. Beyond the unpredictability of wildfire behavior, uncertainty stems from inaccurate/missing data, limited resource value measures to guide prioritization across fires and resources at risk, and an incomplete scientific understanding of ecological response to fire, of fire behavior response to...

  12. Mystic mountain: an educational alternative futures wildland planning game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward C. Thor; James L. Creighton

    1978-01-01

    Alternative futures planning is a generic name for a number of planning approaches which recognize that the future is uncertain. There is not one future, preordained and universally known, but rather a variety of possible futures, any one of which may occur. Mystic Mountain is an educational game which teaches wildland planners and managers important concepts in...

  13. Demographic trends, the wildland-urban interface, and wildfire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger B. Hammer; Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of the demographic trends that have impacted and will continue to impact the "wicked" wildfire management problem in the United States, with particular attention to the emergence of the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Although population growth has had an impact on the emergence of the WUI, the deconcentration of...

  14. 76 FR 59418 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ..., direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership Council. Questions related to... Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.), the National Wildlife Refuge System improvement Act of 1997 (16 U.S.C. 668dd-668ee), and the National Forest Management Act of 1976...

  15. The communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Jahn

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation project used a two-study mixed methods approach, examining the communicative accomplishment of safety from two perspectives: high reliability organizing (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld 1999), and safety climate (Zohar 1980). In Study One, 27 firefighters from two functionally similar wildland firefighting crews were interviewed about their crew-...

  16. On the need for a theory of wildland fire spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Jack D. Cohen; Sara S. McAllister; W. Matt Jolly

    2012-01-01

    We explore the basis of understanding wildland fire behaviour with the intention of stimulating curiosity and promoting fundamental investigations of fire spread problems that persist even in the presence of tremendous modelling advances. Internationally, many fire models have been developed based on a variety of assumptions and expressions for the fundamental heat...

  17. 78 FR 59949 - Wildland Fire Executive Council Meeting Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... and to provide leadership, direction, and program oversight in support of the Wildland Fire Leadership.... Meeting agenda: The meeting agenda will include: (1) Welcome and introduction of council members; (2... Fire Leadership Council; and (5) Closing remarks. Participation is open to the public. Public input...

  18. Measurements of convective and radiative heating in wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Frankman; Brent W. Webb; Bret W. Butler; Daniel Jimenez; Jason M. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; Kyle S. Shannon; J. Kevin Hiers; Roger D. Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved irradiance and convective heating and cooling of fast-response thermopile sensors were measured in 13 natural and prescribed wildland fires under a variety of fuel and ambient conditions. It was shown that a sensor exposed to the fire environment was subject to rapid fluctuations of convective transfer whereas irradiance measured by a windowed sensor was...

  19. A portable system for characterizing wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; D. Jimenez; J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; Paul Sopko

    2010-01-01

    A field deployable system for quantifying energy and mass transport in wildland fires is described. The system consists of two enclosures: The first is a sensor/data logger combination package that allows characterization of convective/radiant energy transport in fires. This package contains batteries, a programmable data logger, sensors, and other electronics. The...

  20. A community in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Cecilia Ciampoli Halaman

    2013-01-01

    Communities located in the wildland-urban interface undergo a process of transformation until they can guard against fires occurring in the area. This study analyzed this process for the Estación neighborhood in the city of Esquel, Chubut Province, Argentina. The analysis was performed by comparing the level of danger diagnosed for each neighborhood home in 2004 with...

  1. Digital forestry in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Wimberly; Yangjian Zhang; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    Growing human populations have led to the expansion of the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) across the southeastern United States. The juxtaposition of buildings, infrastructure. and forests in the WUI creates challenges for natural resource managers. The presence of flammable vegetation. high rates of human-caused ignitions and high building densities combine to...

  2. Wildland-urban interface resident's views on risk and attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia J. Cohn; Daniel R. Williams; Matthew S. Carroll

    2008-01-01

    Catastrophic wildfires that impact human communities have become increasingly common in recent years. To reduce the potential for damage to human communities, wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents have been encouraged to perform mitigation or fire-safing measures around their homes and communities. Yet homeowners have not wholeheartedly adopted these measures, even...

  3. Assessing fire risk in the wildland-urban interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; David T. Cleland; Roger B. Hammer; Volker B. Radeloff; T. Scott Rupp

    2004-01-01

    Identifying areas of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) that are prone to severe wildfire is an important step in prioritizing fire prevention and preparedness projects. Our objective is to determine at a regional scale the relative risk of severe wildfire in WUI areas and the numbers of people and houses in high-risk areas. For a study area in northern lower Michigan...

  4. Mountain Bicycling in the Urban-Wildland Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Mountain bicycling is a rapidly growing sport exerting substantial pressure on recreation areas in the urban-wildland interface. In 1983 there were under a million mountain bike users, today there are 15 million. Little is known about the bicyclists, but hikers and equestrians have complained about encounters with cyclists speeding down trails with little regard for...

  5. An Assessment of the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Annie Hermansen; Edward A. Macie

    2005-01-01

    Severe wildfires in Florida in 1998 demonstrated the complexities that the wildland-urban interface presents for a diverse group of people who live and work there. These fires cost millions of dollars in suppression costs, reduced tourism, and damaged timber, businessess, and homes. Entire communities had to be evacuated, and many elderly people and others afflicated...

  6. The Wildland-Urban Interface: Increasing Significance, Complexity and Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, presentations at International Symposia on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM) have covered an increasingly broad scope of topics on natural resource issues. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) was a key topic of discussion at the ninth ISSRM in 2002: a reflection of the response by social scientists to increasing residential development...

  7. Assessing wildland fire risk transmission to communities in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermín J. Alcasena; Michele Salis; Alan A. Ager; Rafael Castell; Cristina Vega-García

    2017-01-01

    We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain). Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306) in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert...

  8. The communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody Jahn; Linda L. Putnam; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary of a mixed methods dissertation that examined the communicative construction of safety in wildland firefighting. For the dissertation, I used a two-study mixed methods approach, examining the communicative accomplishment of safety from two perspectives: high reliability organizing (Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 1999), and safety climate (...

  9. Developing the U.S. Wildland Fire Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman; Mark A. Finney; Tom Zimmerman; Robert C. Seli; Lisa M. Elenz; David E. Calkin; John R. Fiedler

    2011-01-01

    A new decision support tool, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) has been developed to support risk-informed decision-making for individual fires in the United States. WFDSS accesses national weather data and forecasts, fire behavior prediction, economic assessment, smoke management assessment, and landscape databases to efficiently formulate and apply...

  10. I want to media multitask and I want to do it now: Individual differences in media multitasking predict delay of gratification and system-1 thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutten, Dan; Stokes, Kirk A; Arnell, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Media multitasking, the concurrent use of multiple media forms, has been shown to be related to greater self-reported impulsivity and less self-control. These measures are both hallmarks of the need for immediate gratification which has been associated with fast, intuitive 'system-1' decision making, as opposed to more deliberate and effortful 'system-2' decision making. In Study 1, we used the Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) to examine whether individuals who engage heavily in media multitasking differ from those who are light media multitaskers in their degree of system-1 versus system-2 thinking. In Study 2 we examined whether heavy and light media multitaskers differ in delay of gratification, using the delay discounting measure which estimates the preference for smaller immediate rewards, relative to larger delayed rewards in a hypothetical monetary choice task. We found that heavy media multitaskers were more likely than light media multitaskers to endorse intuitive, but wrong, decisions on the CRT indicating a greater reliance on 'system-1' thinking. Heavy media multitaskers were also willing to settle for less money immediately relative to light media multitaskers who were more willing to wait for the larger delayed reward. These results suggest that heavy media multitaskers have a reactive decision-making style that promotes current desires (money, ease of processing) at the expense of accuracy and future rewards. These findings highlight the potential for heavy media multitaskers to be at risk for problematic behaviors associated with delay discounting - behaviors such as substance abuse, overeating, problematic gambling, and poor financial management.

  11. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  12. Structural neural correlates of multitasking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ting; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Yi; Sui, Yuxiu; Yao, Jingjing; Zhang, Chen-Yuan; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-12-01

    Multitasking refers to the ability to organize assorted tasks efficiently in a short period of time, which plays an important role in daily life. However, the structural neural correlates of multitasking performance remain unclear. The present study aimed at exploring the brain regions associated with multitasking performance using global correlation analysis. Twenty-six healthy participants first underwent structural brain scans and then performed the modified Six Element Test, which required participants to attempt six subtasks in 10 min while obeying a specific rule. Voxel-based morphometry of the whole brain was used to detect the structural correlates of multitasking ability. Grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was positively correlated with the overall performance and time monitoring in multitasking. In addition, white matter volume of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) was also positively correlated with time monitoring during multitasking. Other related brain regions associated with multitasking included the superior frontal gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. No significant correlation was found between grey matter volume of the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10) and multitasking performance. Using a global correlation analysis to examine various aspects of multitasking performance, this study provided new insights into the structural neural correlates of multitasking ability. In particular, the ACC was identified as an important brain region that played both a general and a specific time-monitoring role in multitasking, extending the role of the ACC from lesioned populations to healthy populations. The present findings also support the view that the ATR may influence multitasking performance by affecting time-monitoring abilities. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. A multitask deep learning model for real-time deployment in embedded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Miquel; Maki, Atsuto

    2017-01-01

    We propose an approach to Multitask Learning (MTL) to make deep learning models faster and lighter for applications in which multiple tasks need to be solved simultaneously, which is particularly useful in embedded, real-time systems. We develop a multitask model for both Object Detection and Semantic Segmentation and analyze the challenges that appear during its training. Our multitask network is 1.6x faster, lighter and uses less memory than deploying the single-task models in parallel. We ...

  14. Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Uncapher, Melina R.; Thieu, Monica K.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing access to media in the 21st century has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of media multitasking (simultaneous use of multiple media streams). Such behavior is associated with various cognitive differences, such as difficulty filtering distracting information and increased trait impulsivity. Given the rise in media multitasking by children, adolescents, and adults, a full understanding of the cognitive profile of media multitaskers is imperative. Here we investigated the relatio...

  15. Wildfire, wildlands, and people: understanding and preparing for wildfire in the wildland-urban interface - a Forests on the Edge report

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Stein; J. Menakis; M. A. Carr; S. J. Comas; S. I. Stewart; H. Cleveland; L. Bramwell; V. C. Radeloff

    2013-01-01

    Fire has historically played a fundamental ecological role in many of America's wildland areas. However, the rising number of homes in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), associated impacts on lives and property from wildfire, and escalating costs of wildfire management have led to an urgent need for communities to become "fire-adapted." We present maps...

  16. Enhancement of multitasking performance and neural oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wan-Yu Hsu; Theodore P Zanto; Martine R van Schouwenburg; Adam Gazzaley

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we investigate whether applying alternating current stimulation within the theta frequency band would affect multitasking performance, and explore tACS effects on neurophysiological measures...

  17. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  18. A Systematic Approach for Engagement Analysis Under Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangfan; Leddo, John; Xu, Roger; Richey, Carl; Schnell, Tom; McKenzie, Frederick; Li, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    An overload condition can lead to high stress for an operator and further cause substantial drops in performance. On the other extreme, in automated systems, an operator may become underloaded; in which case, it is difficult for the operator to maintain sustained attention. When an unexpected event occurs, either internal or external to the automated system, a disengaged operation may neglect, misunderstand, or respond slowly/inappropriately to the situation. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach monitor for extremes of cognitive workload and engagement in multitasking environments. Inferences of cognitive workload ar engagement are based on subjective evaluations, objective performance measures, physiological signals, and task analysis results. The systematic approach developed In this paper aggregates these types of information collected under the multitasking environment and can provide a real-time assessment or engagement.

  19. Multitask Matrix Completion for Learning Protein Interactions Across Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Meghana; Murugesan, Keerthiram; Carbonell, Jaime G; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2017-06-01

    Disease-causing pathogens such as viruses introduce their proteins into the host cells in which they interact with the host's proteins, enabling the virus to replicate inside the host. These interactions between pathogen and host proteins are key to understanding infectious diseases. Often multiple diseases involve phylogenetically related or biologically similar pathogens. Here we present a multitask learning method to jointly model interactions between human proteins and three different but related viruses: Hepatitis C, Ebola virus, and Influenza A. Our multitask matrix completion-based model uses a shared low-rank structure in addition to a task-specific sparse structure to incorporate the various interactions. We obtain between 7 and 39 percentage points improvement in predictive performance over prior state-of-the-art models. We show how our model's parameters can be interpreted to reveal both general and specific interaction-relevant characteristics of the viruses. Our code is available online.

  20. Multitask Classification Hypothesis Space With Improved Generalization Bounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Georgiopoulos, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a pair of hypothesis spaces (HSs) of vector-valued functions intended to be used in the context of multitask classification. While both are parameterized on the elements of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces and impose a feature mapping that is common to all tasks, one of them assumes this mapping as fixed, while the more general one learns the mapping via multiple kernel learning. For these new HSs, empirical Rademacher complexity-based generalization bounds are derived, and are shown to be tighter than the bound of a particular HS, which has appeared recently in the literature, leading to improved performance. As a matter of fact, the latter HS is shown to be a special case of ours. Based on an equivalence to Group-Lasso type HSs, the proposed HSs are utilized toward corresponding support vector machine-based formulations. Finally, experimental results on multitask learning problems underline the quality of the derived bounds and validate this paper's analysis.

  1. Regularized Multitask Learning for Multidimensional Log-Density Gradient Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Ikko; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Log-density gradient estimation is a fundamental statistical problem and possesses various practical applications such as clustering and measuring nongaussianity. A naive two-step approach of first estimating the density and then taking its log gradient is unreliable because an accurate density estimate does not necessarily lead to an accurate log-density gradient estimate. To cope with this problem, a method to directly estimate the log-density gradient without density estimation has been explored and demonstrated to work much better than the two-step method. The objective of this letter is to improve the performance of this direct method in multidimensional cases. Our idea is to regard the problem of log-density gradient estimation in each dimension as a task and apply regularized multitask learning to the direct log-density gradient estimator. We experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed multitask method in log-density gradient estimation and mode-seeking clustering.

  2. A Multitask Diffusion Strategy With Optimized Inter-cluster Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Tay, Wee Peng; Hu, Wuhua

    2017-04-01

    We consider a multitask estimation problem where nodes in a network are divided into several connected clusters, with each cluster performing a least-mean-squares estimation of a different random parameter vector. Inspired by the adapt-then-combine diffusion strategy, we propose a multitask diffusion strategy whose mean stability can be ensured whenever individual nodes are stable in the mean, regardless of the inter-cluster cooperation weights. In addition, the proposed strategy is able to achieve an asymptotically unbiased estimation, when the parameters have same mean. We also develop an inter-cluster cooperation weights selection scheme that allows each node in the network to locally optimize its inter-cluster cooperation weights. Numerical results demonstrate that our approach leads to a lower average steady-state network mean-square deviation, compared with using weights selected by various other commonly adopted methods in the literature.

  3. Neural Multi-task Learning in Automated Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, Ronan; Rei, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Grammatical error detection and automated essay scoring are two tasks in the area of automated assessment. Traditionally these tasks have been treated independently with different machine learning models and features used for each task. In this paper, we develop a multi-task neural network model that jointly optimises for both tasks, and in particular we show that neural automated essay scoring can be significantly improved. We show that while the essay score provides little evidence to infor...

  4. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Tilo eStrobach; Alesia eWoszidlo

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collec...

  5. Task Sensitive Feature Exploration and Learning for Multitask Graph Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shirui; Wu, Jia; Zhu, Xingquan; Long, Guodong; Zhang, Chengqi

    2016-03-10

    Multitask learning (MTL) is commonly used for jointly optimizing multiple learning tasks. To date, all existing MTL methods have been designed for tasks with feature-vector represented instances, but cannot be applied to structure data, such as graphs. More importantly, when carrying out MTL, existing methods mainly focus on exploring overall commonality or disparity between tasks for learning, but cannot explicitly capture task relationships in the feature space, so they are unable to answer important questions, such as what exactly is shared between tasks and what is the uniqueness of one task differing from others? In this paper, we formulate a new multitask graph learning problem, and propose a task sensitive feature exploration and learning algorithm for multitask graph classification. Because graphs do not have features available, we advocate a task sensitive feature exploration and learning paradigm to jointly discover discriminative subgraph features across different tasks. In addition, a feature learning process is carried out to categorize each subgraph feature into one of three categories: 1) common feature; 2) task auxiliary feature; and 3) task specific feature, indicating whether the feature is shared by all tasks, by a subset of tasks, or by only one specific task, respectively. The feature learning and the multiple task learning are iteratively optimized to form a multitask graph classification model with a global optimization goal. Experiments on real-world functional brain analysis and chemical compound categorization demonstrate the algorithm's performance. Results confirm that our method can be used to explicitly capture task correlations and uniqueness in the feature space, and explicitly answer what are shared between tasks and what is the uniqueness of a specific task.

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Environment Can Enhance Brain Activity and Multitasking Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadas, Dor; Kalichman, Leonid; Hadanny, Amir; Efrati, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Brain uses 20% of the total oxygen supply consumed by the entire body. Even though, multitasking), the oxygen supply is shifted from one brain region to another, via blood perfusion modulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) environment, with increased oxygen supply to the brain, will enhance the performance of complex and/or multiple activities. Methods: A prospective, double-blind randomized control, crossover trial including 22 healthy volunteers. Participants were asked to perform a cognitive task, a motor task and a simultaneous cognitive-motor task (multitasking). Participants were randomized to perform the tasks in two environments: (a) normobaric air (1 ATA 21% oxygen) (b) HBO (2 ATA 100% oxygen). Two weeks later participants were crossed to the alternative environment. Blinding of the normobaric environment was achieved in the same chamber with masks on while hyperbaric sensation was simulated by increasing pressure in the first minute and gradually decreasing to normobaric environment prior to tasks performance. Results: Compared to the performance at normobaric conditions, both cognitive and motor single tasks scores were significantly enhanced by HBO environment (p Multitasking performance was also significantly enhanced in HBO environment (p = 0.006 for the cognitive part and p = 0.02 for the motor part). Conclusions: The improvement in performance of both single and multi-tasking while in an HBO environment supports the hypothesis which according to, oxygen is indeed a rate limiting factor for brain activity. Hyperbaric oxygenation can serve as an environment for brain performance. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal oxygen levels for maximal brain performance.

  7. Flexible Modeling of Latent Task Structures in Multitask Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    similarity across tasks—for example, that all task parameters are drawn from a shared Gaussian prior (Chelba & Acero , 2006), have a cluster structure (Xue...a given multitask learning dataset: • Shared Gaussian Prior(F=1,K=0): (Chelba & Acero , 2006). This corresponds to a single fac- tor analyzer modeling...features (Ar- gyriou et al., 2007). • Shared Gaussian prior over the weight vectors - PRIOR (Chelba & Acero , 2006): assumes the tasks are drawn from a

  8. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Kronemer, Sharif I.; Mandel, Jordan A.; Sacktor, Ned C.; Marvel, Cherie L.

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking p...

  9. How risk management can prevent future wildfire disasters in the wildland-urban interface

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David E. Calkin; Jack D. Cohen; Mark A. Finney; Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    .... Wildfires in the wildland-urban interface on the Colorado Front Range, resulting in thousands of homes burned and civilian fatalities, although devastating, are not without historical reference...

  10. Robust visual multitask tracking via composite sparse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Jing, Zhongliang; Wang, Meng; Pan, Han

    2014-11-01

    Recently, multitask learning was applied to visual tracking by learning sparse particle representations in a joint task, which led to the so-called multitask tracking algorithm (MTT). Although MTT shows impressive tracking performances by mining the interdependencies between particles, the individual feature of each particle is underestimated. The utilized L1,q norm regularization assumes all features are shared between all particles and results in nearly identical representation coefficients in nonsparse rows. We propose a composite sparse multitask tracking algorithm (CSMTT). We develop a composite sparse model to formulate the object appearance as a combination of the shared feature component, the individual feature component, and the outlier component. The composite sparsity is achieved via the L and L1,1 norm minimization, and is optimized by the alternating direction method of multipliers, which provides a favorable reconstruction performance and an impressive computational efficiency. Moreover, a dynamical dictionary updating scheme is proposed to capture appearance changes. CSMTT is tested on real-world video sequences under various challenges, and experimental results show that the composite sparse model achieves noticeable lower reconstruction errors and higher computational speeds than traditional sparse models, and CSMTT has consistently better tracking performances against seven state-of-the-art trackers.

  11. Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2015-05-01

    Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive. We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. Working memory accuracy was reduced in dual-task contexts with either sensorimotor task and deteriorated further under triple-task conditions. Postural and force performance deteriorated with age and task difficulty in dual-task contexts. However, in the triple-task context with its maximum resource demands, older adults prioritized postural control over both force control and memory. Our results identify ecological relevance as the key factor in older adults' multitasking. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. On the effects of multimodal information integration in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Huster, René J; Beste, Christian

    2017-07-07

    There have recently been considerable advances in our understanding of the neuronal mechanisms underlying multitasking, but the role of multimodal integration for this faculty has remained rather unclear. We examined this issue by comparing different modality combinations in a multitasking (stop-change) paradigm. In-depth neurophysiological analyses of event-related potentials (ERPs) were conducted to complement the obtained behavioral data. Specifically, we applied signal decomposition using second order blind identification (SOBI) to the multi-subject ERP data and source localization. We found that both general multimodal information integration and modality-specific aspects (potentially related to task difficulty) modulate behavioral performance and associated neurophysiological correlates. Simultaneous multimodal input generally increased early attentional processing of visual stimuli (i.e. P1 and N1 amplitudes) as well as measures of cognitive effort and conflict (i.e. central P3 amplitudes). Yet, tactile-visual input caused larger impairments in multitasking than audio-visual input. General aspects of multimodal information integration modulated the activity in the premotor cortex (BA 6) as well as different visual association areas concerned with the integration of visual information with input from other modalities (BA 19, BA 21, BA 37). On top of this, differences in the specific combination of modalities also affected performance and measures of conflict/effort originating in prefrontal regions (BA 6).

  13. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  14. An observational study on how situational factors influence media multitasking with TV: the role of genres, dayparts, and social viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.A.M.; Viswanathan, V.

    2015-01-01

    This study responds to the need for research on individuals' media multitasking behavior using observational data. Media multitasking can have a profound impact on media processing and effects. However, we have little knowledge on when people are likely to engage in media multitasking and,

  15. Annual wildland fire emissions (WFEIS v0.5) for Conterminous US and Alaska, 2001-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains annual modeled estimates of wildland fire emissions at 0.01 degree (~1-km) spatial resolution from the Wildland Fire Emissions Information...

  16. A Naturalistic Investigation of Media Multitasking While Studying and the Effects on Exam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of multiple digital media technologies, including social networking platforms, by students while preparing for an examination (media multitasking) and the subsequent effects on exam performance. The level of media multitasking (number of simultaneous media technologies) and duration of study were used as…

  17. Reading while Watching Video: The Effect of Video Content on Reading Comprehension and Media Multitasking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip

    2011-01-01

    Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…

  18. Measurement and Evidence of Computer-Based Task Switching and Multitasking by "Net Generation" Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Logs of on-campus computer and Internet usage were used to conduct a study of computer-based task switching and multitasking by undergraduate medical students. A detailed analysis of over 6000 individual sessions revealed that while a majority of students engaged in both task switching and multitasking behaviours, they did so less frequently than…

  19. Laptop Multitasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Both Users and Nearby Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Faria; Weston, Tina; Cepeda, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Laptops are commonplace in university classrooms. In light of cognitive psychology theory on costs associated with multitasking, we examined the effects of in-class laptop use on student learning in a simulated classroom. We found that participants who multitasked on a laptop during a lecture scored lower on a test compared to those who did not…

  20. The Relationship Between Media Multitasking and Executive Function in Early Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Weeda, W.D.; van der Heijden, L.L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among adolescents is concerning because it may be negatively related to goal-directed behavior. This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 523 early adolescents (aged 11-15; 48% girls). The three

  1. The relationship between media multitasking and executive function in early adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Weeda, W.D.; van der Heijden, L.L.; Huizinga, M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among adolescents is concerning because it may be negatively related to goal-directed behavior. This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 523 early adolescents (aged 11-15; 48% girls). The three

  2. The Relationship between Media Multitasking and Executive Function in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Susanne E.; Weeda, Wouter D.; van der Heijden, Lisa L.; Huizinga, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of media multitasking among adolescents is concerning because it may be negatively related to goal-directed behavior. This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 523 early adolescents (aged 11-15; 48% girls). The three central components of executive functions (i.e.,…

  3. Can Students Really Multitask? An Experimental Study of Instant Messaging while Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Laura L.; Levine, Laura E.; Waite, Bradley M.; Gendron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Students often "multitask" with electronic media while doing schoolwork. We examined the effects of one form of media often used in such multitasking, instant messaging (IM). We predicted that students who engaged in IMing while reading a typical academic psychology passage online would take longer to read the passage and would perform more poorly…

  4. Student Off-Task Electronic Multitasking Predictors: Scale Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuxia; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand factors contributing to students' off-task electronic multitasking behavior in class, the research included two studies that developed a scale of students' off-task electronic multitasking predictors (the SOTEMP scale), and explored relationships between the scale and various classroom communication processes and…

  5. Multitasking and microtasking experience on the NA S Cray-2 and ACF Cray X-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad

    1987-01-01

    The fast Fourier transform (FFT) kernel of the NAS benchmark program has been utilized to experiment with the multitasking library on the Cray-2 and Cray X-MP/48, and microtasking directives on the Cray X-MP. Some performance figures are shown, and the state of multitasking software is described.

  6. Deadlines in space: Selective effects of coordinate spatial processing in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio; Konke, Linn Andersson; Mäntylä, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of multiple deadlines. One way to handle these temporal demands might be to represent future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We examined the hypothesis that spatial ability, in addition to executive functioning, contributes to individual differences in multitasking. In two studies, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four digital clocks running at different rates. In Study 1, we found that individual differences in spatial ability and executive functions were independent predictors of multiple-task performance. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in specific spatial abilities were selectively related to multiple-task performance, as only coordinate spatial processing, but not categorical, predicted multitasking, even beyond executive functioning and numeracy. In both studies, males outperformed females in spatial ability and multitasking and in Study 2 these sex differences generalized to a simulation of everyday multitasking. Menstrual changes moderated the effects on multitasking, in that sex differences in coordinate spatial processing and multitasking were observed between males and females in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, but not between males and females at menses. Overall, these findings suggest that multiple-task performance reflects independent contributions of spatial ability and executive functioning. Furthermore, our results support the distinction of categorical versus coordinate spatial processing, and suggest that these two basic relational processes are selectively affected by female sex hormones and differentially effective in transforming and handling temporal patterns as spatial relations in the context of multitasking.

  7. Single-task fMRI overlap predicts concurrent multitasking interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus regarding the origin of behavioral interference that occurs during concurrent multitasking. Some evidence points toward a multitasking locus in the brain, while other results imply that interference is the consequence of task interactions in several brain regions. To

  8. Using an Activity to Simulate the Dangers of Multitasking with Technology while Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaros, Edward J.; Xu, Renmei; Londt, Susan

    2012-01-01

    People are increasingly trying to multitask while walking. Text messaging while walking is a significant area for concern. The number of text messages sent is expected to be more than 8 trillion in 2012. Texting is becoming so commonplace that people use this technology while engaged in other activities. The dangers of multitasking have hit the…

  9. Can Teens Really Do It All?: Techno-Multitasking, Learning, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Many adults and students today think of themselves as excellent multitaskers--switching from task to task or from task to play in a nanosecond. Yet the pings and tweets their devices emit interrupt them in ways that are more problematic than they think. One of the powerful myths in the culture today is that multitasking is efficient for work or…

  10. Investigating Multitasking in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using the Virtual Errands Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Law, Anna S.; Logie, Robert H.; van der Meulen, Marian; Fraser, Diane; Corley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified version of the Virtual Errands Task (VET; McGeorge et al. in "Presence-Teleop Virtual Environ" 10(4):375-383, 2001), we investigated the executive ability of multitasking in 18 high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 18 typically developing adolescents. The VET requires multitasking (Law et al. in "Acta Psychol" 122(1):27-44,…

  11. Rewarding Multitasking: Negative Effects of an Incentive on Problem Solving under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieth, Mareike B.; Burns, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently shown negative effects of multitasking on tasks such as problem solving. This study was designed to investigate the impact of an incentive when solving problems in a multitasking situation. Incentives have generally been shown to increase problem solving (e.g., Wieth & Burns, 2006), however, it is unclear whether an…

  12. Individual differences in media multitasking and performance on the n-back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Smilek, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    A number of studies have recently examined the link between individual differences in media multitasking (using the MMI) and performance on working memory paradigms. However, these studies have yielded mixed results. Here we examine the relation between media multitasking and one particular working memory paradigm-the n-back (2- and 3-back)-improving upon previous research by (a) treating media multitasking as a continuous variable and adopting a correlational approach as well as (b) using a large sample of participants. First, we found that higher scores on the MMI were associated with a greater proportion of omitted trials on both the 2-back and 3-back, indicating that heavier media multitaskers were more disengaged during the n-back. In line with such a claim, heavier media multitaskers were also more likely to confess to responding randomly during various portions of the experiment, and to report media multitasking during the experiment itself. Importantly, when controlling for the relation between MMI scores and omissions, higher scores on the MMI were associated with an increase in false alarms, but not with a change in hits. These findings refine the extant literature on media multitasking and working memory performance (specifically, performance on the n-back), and suggest that media multitasking may be related to the propensity to disengage from ongoing tasks.

  13. Measuring wildland fire fighter performance with wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Vitalis, Antonios; Walker, Robyn; Riley, David; Pearce, H Grant

    2017-03-01

    Wildland (rural) fire fighting is a physically demanding and hazardous occupation. An observational study was conducted to explore the use of new technologies for the field study of fire fighters at wildfires and to understand the work pressures of wildland fire fighting. The research was carried out with two fire fighters at real fires wearing microphones, miniature video cameras, heart rate monitors and GPS units to record their actions and location at wildfire events. The fire fighters were exposed to high physiological workloads (heart rates of up to 180 beats per minute) and walked considerable distances at the fires. Results from this study have been used in presentations to fire fighters and non-operational fire personnel to understand the pressures fire fighters are under and how others complete the fire fighting tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Landscape dynamics in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2012-01-01

    The wildland–urban interface represents landscape change—changes brought about by urbanization, by shifts in forest management, and altered disturbance regimes, each having ecological, social, and economic ramifications. In this chapter, I will focus on some of the ecological ramifications associated with landscape change, primarily forest fragmentation and...

  15. Controls on carbon consumption during Alaskan wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric S. Kasischke; Elizabeth E. Hoy

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to estimate carbon consumed during wildland fires in interior Alaska based on medium-spatial scale data (60 m cell size) generated on a daily basis. Carbon consumption estimates were developed for 41 fire events in the large fire year of 2004 and 34 fire events from the small fire years of 2006-2008. Total carbon consumed during the large fire...

  16. The wildland-urban interface in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff; Roger B. Hammer

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a map of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in 2000 for the lower 48 States of the United States. The WUI was extensive, covering 9 percent of the land area in the lower 48 States and encompassing 38 percent of all homes. Major WUI areas are located along the west coast, the Colorado Front Range, southeast Texas, the Great Lakes States, and across...

  17. Sustainability and the origins of wildland fire research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane M. Smith

    2015-01-01

    When looking for the origins of wildland fire research in the Forest Service, forester C. E. (Mike) Hardy makes the case for 1922, when Harry Gisborne became the agency’s first full-time fire researcher. Leading fire historian Stephen Pyne argues that fire research originated under the leadership of Coert DuBois, who oversaw the first fire case study in 1911, the first...

  18. Doing many things at a time: Lack of power decreases the ability to multitask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ran Alice; Guinote, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Three studies investigated the effects of power on the ability to pursue multiple, concomitant goals, also known as multitasking. It was predicted that powerless participants will show lower multitasking ability than control and powerful participants. Study 1 focused on self-reported ability to multitask in a sample of executives and subordinate employees. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the ability to dual-task and to switch between tasks, respectively, using dual-task and task-switching paradigms. Across the studies, powerless individuals were less able to effectively multitask compared with control and powerful participants, suggesting that the detrimental effects of lack of power extend beyond single-task environments, shown in past research, into multitasking environments. Underlying mechanisms are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  20. Single-task fMRI overlap predicts concurrent multitasking interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels

    2014-10-15

    There is no consensus regarding the origin of behavioral interference that occurs during concurrent multitasking. Some evidence points toward a multitasking locus in the brain, while other results imply that interference is the consequence of task interactions in several brain regions. To investigate this issue, we conducted a functional MRI (fMRI) study consisting of three component tasks, which were performed both separately and in combination. The results indicated that no specific multitasking area exists. Instead, different patterns of activation across conditions could be explained by assuming that the interference is a result of task interactions. Additionally, similarity in single-task activation patterns correlated with a decrease in accuracy during dual-task conditions. Taken together, these results support the view that multitasking interference is not due to a bottleneck in a single "multitasking" brain region, but is a result of interactions between concurrently running processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Media multitasking is associated with symptoms of depression and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W; Alzahabi, Reem; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    We investigated whether multitasking with media was a unique predictor of depression and social anxiety symptoms. Participants (N=318) completed measures of their media use, personality characteristics, depression, and social anxiety. Regression analyses revealed that increased media multitasking was associated with higher depression and social anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for overall media use and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. The unique association between media multitasking and these measures of psychosocial dysfunction suggests that the growing trend of multitasking with media may represent a unique risk factor for mental health problems related to mood and anxiety. Further, the results strongly suggest that future research investigating the impact of media use on mental health needs to consider the role that multitasking with media plays in the relationship.

  2. Physiological work demands of Spanish wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose A; López-Satue, Jorge; Pernía, Raul; Carballo, Belén; García-López, Juan; Foster, Carl; Villa, José G

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physiological demands and thermal strain of wildland firefighters during real wildfire suppression. The response of core temperature and heart rate (HR) were analyzed in 200 wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression activities of different duration: 5 h (n = 34). The exercise workload (TRIMP), the physiological strain index (PSI), and cumulative heat strain index (CHSI) were calculated using the time spent in different intensity zones, the HR, and core temperature. Mean HR was significantly higher (P wildfires 5 h (116 ± 32 bpm). The time spent in higher intensity zones increased (P wildfire duration increased. TRIMP accumulation increased with wildfire duration (54.9 ± 3.2, 167.4 ± 5.9, 296.0 ± 8.3, 511.7 ± 12.8 in 5 h, respectively). Neither core temperature (37.4 ± 0.1°C) nor PSI (4.5 ± 0.2) were influenced by wildfire duration. The CHSI increased (p 5 h (10,703 ± 710). The results demonstrate the high work strain sustained by Spanish wildland firefighters during wildfire suppression. Both workload and CHSI increased with the wildfires duration although the pace of work was faster in wildfires of a shorter duration.

  3. The global wilderness seminar for government agencies: a meeting at the crossroads of wildlands stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher

    2006-01-01

    Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...

  4. Using social science to understand and improve wildland fire organizations: an annotated reading list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Larson; Vita Wright; Cade Spaulding; Kelly Rossetto; Georgi Rausch; Andrea Richards; Stephanie Durnford

    2007-01-01

    The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and...

  5. The Wildland Fire Decision Support System: Integrating science, technology, and fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Pence; Tom Zimmerman

    2011-01-01

    Federal agency policy requires documentation and analysis of all wildland fire response decisions. In the past, planning and decision documentation for fires were completed using multiple unconnected processes, yielding many limitations. In response, interagency fire management executives chartered the development of the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS)....

  6. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  7. Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; William J. de Groot; Liza K. Jenkins; Brendan M. Rogers; Ernesto Alvarado; Brian Amiro; Bernardus De Jong; Scott Goetz; Elizabeth Hoy; Edward Hyer; Robert Keane; B.E. Law; Donald McKenzie; Steven G. McNulty; Roger Ottmar; Diego R. Perez-Salicrup; James Randerson; Kevin M. Robertson; Merritt. Turetsky

    2011-01-01

    Research activities focused on estimating the direct emissions of carbon from wildland fires across North America are reviewed as part of the North American Carbon Program disturbance synthesis. A comparison of methods to estimate the loss of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere from wildland fires is presented. Published studies on emissions from...

  8. Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: A review of approaches, methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software...

  9. Residents' responses to wildland fire programs: a review of cognitive and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Absher; Jerry J. Vaske; Lori B. Shelby

    2009-01-01

    A compilation and summary of four research studies is presented. They were aimed at developing a theoretical and practical understanding of homeowners’ attitudes and behaviors in the wildland-urban interface (WUI) in relation to the threat from wildland fires. Individual studies focused on models and methods that measured (1) value orientations (patterns of basic...

  10. Wildland-urban interface housing growth during the 1990s in California, Oregon, and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Hammer; V.C. Radeloff; J.S. Fried; S.I. Stewart

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examine housing growth in California, Oregon, and Washington in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the area where homes and other structures abut or intermingle with wildland vegetation. We combine housing density information from the 1990 and 2000 USA censuses with land cover information from the 1992/93 National Land Cover data set to...

  11. The 2010 wildland-urban interface of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebasti& #237; n Martinuzzi; Susan I. Stewart; David P. Helmers; Miranda H. Mockrin; Roger B. Hammer; Volker C. Radeloff

    2015-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland, and it is where wildfires have their greatest impacts on people. Hence the WUI is important for wildfire management. This document and associated maps summarize the extent of the WUI in the conterminous United States in 2010. The...

  12. The Moving Edge: Perspectives on the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha C. Monroe; Alison W. Bowers; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the wildland-urban interface across the 13 Southern States and to identify issues to be covered in the USDA Forest Service report, "Human Influences on Forest Ecosystems: The Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment," 12 focus groups were conducted in 6 of the Southern States in May and June 2000. The groups were guided through a...

  13. Human influences on forest ecosystems: the southern wildland-urban interface assessment: summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Macie; L. Annie Hermansen

    2003-01-01

    This summary report synthesizes the findings contained in the Southern Wildland-Urban Interface Assessment (General Technical Report SRS-55). The Assessment provides a review of critical wildland-urban interface issues, challenges, and needs for the Southern United States. Topics include population and demographic trends, economic and tax issues, land use planning and...

  14. Understanding social complexity within the wildland urban interface: A new species of human habitation? Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis B. Paveglio; Pamela J. Jakes; Matthew S. Carroll; Daniel R. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we...

  15. Impact of Research and Technical Change in Wildland Recreation: Evaluation Issues and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Zhi Xu

    1993-01-01

    The development and diffusion of new technologies have had tremendous impacts on wildland recreation in recent decades. This article examines the potential economic impacts of research and technical change in wildland recreation. Two evaluation models are presented, a cost-price approach and a research intensity model, which are intended to shed some light on the...

  16. A model of gas mixing into single-entrance tree cavities during wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.S. Bova; G. Bohrer; Matthew Dickinson

    2011-01-01

    The level of protection to fauna provided by tree cavities during wildland fires is not well understood. Here we present a model for estimating the transport of combustion gases into cylindrical, single-entrance cavities during exposures caused by different wildland fire scenarios. In these shelters, the entrance occurs near the top of the cavity. This empirical model...

  17. Wildland fire management policy: Learning from the past and present and responding to future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Zimmerman

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire is one of the most important vegetation- shaping factors that land managers deal with. It is our highest risk, most complex, and potentially highest consequence program. Wildland fire management policy is the most important element in defining the direction, scope, and focus of the program. What is policy? If we look it up in Merriam-Webster's...

  18. Proposed wildland fire amendment to the Coronado National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry A. Tune; Erin M. Boyle

    2005-01-01

    The Coronado National Forest proposed amending its 1986 Land and Resource Management Plan to conform to the 2001 Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy. This Policy emphasizes fire’s essential role in maintaining natural ecosystems and allows a broader range of management options for wildland fires. Under the current Forest Plan, fires must be suppressed in areas...

  19. Best practices for interacting with the public about wildland fire: Key findings from interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Berkman

    2012-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with public information and line officers about wildland fire communications with the public. The goal of these interviews was to determine the best practices and most useful content and format for an annotated bibliography about external wildland fire communications, i.e., does the current literature reviewed address the issues of greatest...

  20. Multi-cropping edible truffles and sweet chestnuts: production of high-quality Castanea sativa seedlings inoculated with Tuber aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Lafuente, Amaya; Benito-Matías, Luis F; Peñuelas-Rubira, Juan L; Suz, Laura M

    2018-01-01

    The plantation and management of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) orchards is a common and traditional land use system in many areas of Europe that offers the advantage of simultaneous production of nuts and timber. During the last decades, sweet chestnut has declined dramatically in many regions because of the profound social changes in rural areas coupled with pathogen attacks. Truffles, the hypogeous ascocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genus Tuber, are currently cultivated using host trees inoculated with these fungi for improving production in truffle orchards. The production of good forestry quality chestnut seedlings inoculated with European truffles in nurseries is essential for multi-cropping plantation establishment, but so far, it has not been implemented in agroforestry practices. Moreover, it is necessary to assess the physiological condition of the seedlings due to the high calcium amendment needed for the growth of Tuber spp. mycelium that can become toxic for the host plants. In this study, seedlings of C. sativa were inoculated with Tuber aestivum and its ecotypes T. uncinatum, T. brumale, and T. macrosporum and were grown in a greenhouse using culture conditions favorable for the production of high-quality plants for forestry purposes. At the end of the assay, levels of root colonization and morphological and physiological parameters of the seedlings were measured. The colonization of C. sativa with T. aestivum, its ecotype T. uncinatum, and T. brumale was successful, and the seedlings showed normal growth. Inoculation protocols with T. macrosporum need to be improved. Tuber species formed well-developed ectomycorrhizae on C. sativa in nursery conditions.

  1. Robust visual tracking via structured multi-task sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-11-09

    In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a structured multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Structured Multi-Task Tracking (S-MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). By employing popular sparsity-inducing lp,q mixed norms (specifically p∈2,∞ and q=1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L1 tracker (Mei and Ling, IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intel 33(11):2259-2272, 2011) is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L11 tracker) when p=q=1. Under the MTT framework, some of the tasks (particle representations) are often more closely related and more likely to share common relevant covariates than other tasks. Therefore, we extend the MTT framework to take into account pairwise structural correlations between particles (e.g. spatial smoothness of representation) and denote the novel framework as S-MTT. The problem of learning the regularized sparse representation in MTT and S-MTT can be solved efficiently using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, S-MTT and MTT are computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that S-MTT is much better than MTT, and both methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  2. Full left ventricle quantification via deep multitask relationships learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wufeng; Brahm, Gary; Pandey, Sachin; Leung, Stephanie; Li, Shuo

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac left ventricle (LV) quantification is among the most clinically important tasks for identification and diagnosis of cardiac disease. However, it is still a task of great challenge due to the high variability of cardiac structure across subjects and the complexity of temporal dynamics of cardiac sequences. Full quantification, i.e., to simultaneously quantify all LV indices including two areas (cavity and myocardium), six regional wall thicknesses (RWT), three LV dimensions, and one phase (Diastole or Systole), is even more challenging since the ambiguous correlations existing among these indices may impinge upon the convergence and generalization of the learning procedure. In this paper, we propose a deep multitask relationship learning network (DMTRL) for full LV quantification. The proposed DMTRL first obtains expressive and robust cardiac representations with a deep convolution neural network (CNN); then models the temporal dynamics of cardiac sequences effectively with two parallel recurrent neural network (RNN) modules. After that, it estimates the three types of LV indices under a Bayesian framework that is capable of learning multitask relationships automatically, and estimates the cardiac phase with a softmax classifier. The CNN representation, RNN temporal modeling, Bayesian multitask relationship learning, and softmax classifier establish an effective and integrated network which can be learned in an end-to-end manner. The obtained task covariance matrix captures the correlations existing among these indices, therefore leads to accurate estimation of LV indices and cardiac phase. Experiments on MR sequences of 145 subjects show that DMTRL achieves high accurate prediction, with average mean absolute error of 180 mm2, 1.39 mm, 2.51 mm for areas, RWT, dimensions and error rate of 8.2% for the phase classification. This endows our method a great potential in comprehensive clinical assessment of global, regional and dynamic cardiac function

  3. Performance Pay, Delegation and Multitasking under Uncertainty and Innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Laursen, Keld

    2005-01-01

    It has been recently noted that the trade-off between risk and incentives that agency theory predicts turns out to be rather weak. We examine predictions from agency theory on the basis of data from a data set encompassing close to 1000 Danish firms. We find that the relation between performance...... pay and environmental uncertainty is indeed weak. We examine the relation between delegation and environmental uncertainty, and find that this relation is confirmed. We also examine the multi-tasking agency hypothesis that as risk increases, the flexibility of agents is restricted. We fail to find...

  4. Social software e multitasking: un virus o una risorsa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Paoletti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Il multitasking è una strategia di gestione delle risorse cognitive; consiste nello svolgere più di un compito contemporaneamente. In alcuni casi è inevitabile, altre volte no, ma sempre più spesso ci sentiamo costretti a cercare di fare più cose simultaneamente. Possiamo veramente dividere la nostra attenzione conscia tra due compiti impegnativi, come leggere e scrivere? In questo articolo si riportano risultati sperimentali che hanno dimostrato che il risparmio di tempo può essere illusorio e che la performance ha un decadimento rispetto alle situazioni in cui è possibile svolgere i compiti in sequenza.

  5. "Women Are Better Than Men"-Public Beliefs on Gender Differences and Other Aspects in Multitasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J Szameitat

    Full Text Available Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.

  6. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K. G.; Dux, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations. PMID:26460014

  7. Relationships of multitasking, physicians' strain, and performance: an observational study in ward physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Müller, Andreas; Sevdalis, Nick; Angerer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous task performance ("multitasking") is common in hospital physicians' work and is implicated as a major determinant for enhanced strain and detrimental performance. The aim was to determine the impact of multitasking by hospital physicians on their self reported strain and performance. A prospective observational time-and-motion study in a Community Hospital was conducted. Twenty-seven hospital physicians (surgical and internal specialties) were observed in 40 full-shift observations. Observed physicians reported twice on their self-monitored strain and performance during the observation time. Associations of observed multitasking events and subsequent strain and performance appraisals were calculated. About 21% of the working time physicians were engaged in simultaneous activities. The average time spent in multitasking activities correlated significantly with subsequently reported strain (r = 0.27, P = 0.018). The number of instances of multitasking activities correlated with self-monitored performance to a marginally significant level (r = 0.19, P = 0.098). Physicians who engage in multitasking activities tend to self-report better performance but at the cost of enhanced psychophysical strain. Hence, physicians do not perceive their own multitasking activities as a source for deficient performance, for example, medical errors. Readjustment of workload, improved organization of work for hospital physicians, and training programs to improve physicians' skills in dealing with multiple clinical demands, prioritization, and efficient task allocation may be useful avenues to explore to reduce the potentially negative impact of simultaneous task performance in clinical settings.

  8. Investigating the relationship between media multitasking and processes involved in task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahabi, Reem; Becker, Mark W; Hambrick, David Z

    2017-11-01

    Although multitasking with media has increased dramatically in recent years (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010), the association between media multitasking and cognitive performance is poorly understood. In addition, the literature on the relationship between media multitasking and task-switching, one measure of cognitive control, has produced mixed results (Alzahabi & Becker, 2013; Minear et al., 2013; Ophir, Nass, & Wagner, 2009). Here we use an individual differences approach to investigate the relationship between media multitasking and task-switching performance by first examining the structure of task-switching and identifying the latent factors that contribute to switch costs. Participants performed a series of 3 different task-switching paradigms, each designed to isolate the effects of a specific putative mechanism (e.g., advanced preparation) related to task-switching performance, as well as a series of surveys to measure media multitasking and intelligence. The results suggest that task-switching performance is related to 2 somewhat independent factors, namely an advanced preparation factor and passive decay factor. In addition, multitasking with media was related to a faster ability to prepare for tasks, resulting in faster task-switching performance without a cost to accuracy. Media multitasking and intelligence were both unrelated to passive decay factors. These findings are consistent with a 2-component model of task-switching (Sohn & Anderson, 2001), as well as an automatic/executive framework of cognitive control (Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. An observational study of activities and multitasking performed by clinicians in two Swedish emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Lena M; Ehrenberg, Anna; Florin, Jan; Ostergren, Jan; Göransson, Katarina E

    2012-08-01

    To explore the type and frequency of activities and multitasking performed by emergency department clinicians. Eighteen clinicians (licensed practical nurses, registered nurses and medical doctors), six from each occupational group, at two Swedish emergency departments were followed in their clinical work for 2 h each to observe all their activities and multitasking practices. Data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analysis. Fifteen categories of activities could be identified based on 1882 observed activities during the 36 h of observation. The most common activity was information exchange, which was most often performed face-to-face. This activity represented 42.1% of the total number of observed activities. Information exchange was also the most common activity to be multitasked. Registered nurses performed most activities and their activities were multitasked more than the other clinicians. The nurses' and doctors' offices were the most common locations for multitasking in the emergency department. This study provides new knowledge regarding the activities conducted by clinicians in the emergency department. The most frequent activity was information exchange, which was the activity most often performed by the clinicians when multitasking occurred. Differences between clinicians were found for activities performed and multitasked, with registered nurses showing the highest frequencies for both.

  10. "Women Are Better Than Men"-Public Beliefs on Gender Differences and Other Aspects in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, André J; Hamaida, Yasmin; Tulley, Rebecca S; Saylik, Rahmi; Otermans, Pauldy C J

    2015-01-01

    Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others) filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants' self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work.

  11. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K G; Dux, Paul E

    2015-11-17

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations.

  12. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Rucker

    Full Text Available Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT. Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI.Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group.Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  13. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Jason L; McDowd, Joan M; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M; Sabus, Carla H; Britton-Carpenter, Amanda J; Utech, Nora B; Kluding, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART) and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT). Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI). Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group. Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  14. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C. Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: 1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and 2) playing action video games (a particular sub-type of video game). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, while playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. As these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impact of technology use on attention. Across four experiments (AX-CPT, N-back, Task-switching and Filter task), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we show that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking occasionally performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together this study shows that media consumption can have complex and counter-intuitive effects on attentional control. PMID:26474982

  15. Technology consumption and cognitive control: Contrasting action video game experience with media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Kludt, Rachel; Vignola, Gianluca; Ma, Wei Ji; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Technology has the potential to impact cognition in many ways. Here we contrast two forms of technology usage: (1) media multitasking (i.e., the simultaneous consumption of multiple streams of media, such a texting while watching TV) and (2) playing action video games (a particular subtype of video games). Previous work has outlined an association between high levels of media multitasking and specific deficits in handling distracting information, whereas playing action video games has been associated with enhanced attentional control. Because these two factors are linked with reasonably opposing effects, failing to take them jointly into account may result in inappropriate conclusions as to the impacts of technology use on attention. Across four tasks (AX-continuous performance, N-back, task-switching, and filter tasks), testing different aspects of attention and cognition, we showed that heavy media multitaskers perform worse than light media multitaskers. Contrary to previous reports, though, the performance deficit was not specifically tied to distractors, but was instead more global in nature. Interestingly, participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking sometimes performed better than both light and heavy media multitaskers, suggesting that the effects of increasing media multitasking are not monotonic. Action video game players, as expected, outperformed non-video-game players on all tasks. However, surprisingly, this was true only for participants with intermediate levels of media multitasking, suggesting that playing action video games does not protect against the deleterious effect of heavy media multitasking. Taken together, these findings show that media consumption can have complex and counterintuitive effects on attentional control.

  16. A neural network multi-task learning approach to biomedical named entity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Gamal; Pyysalo, Sampo; Chiu, Billy; Korhonen, Anna

    2017-08-15

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a key task in biomedical text mining. Accurate NER systems require task-specific, manually-annotated datasets, which are expensive to develop and thus limited in size. Since such datasets contain related but different information, an interesting question is whether it might be possible to use them together to improve NER performance. To investigate this, we develop supervised, multi-task, convolutional neural network models and apply them to a large number of varied existing biomedical named entity datasets. Additionally, we investigated the effect of dataset size on performance in both single- and multi-task settings. We present a single-task model for NER, a Multi-output multi-task model and a Dependent multi-task model. We apply the three models to 15 biomedical datasets containing multiple named entities including Anatomy, Chemical, Disease, Gene/Protein and Species. Each dataset represent a task. The results from the single-task model and the multi-task models are then compared for evidence of benefits from Multi-task Learning. With the Multi-output multi-task model we observed an average F-score improvement of 0.8% when compared to the single-task model from an average baseline of 78.4%. Although there was a significant drop in performance on one dataset, performance improves significantly for five datasets by up to 6.3%. For the Dependent multi-task model we observed an average improvement of 0.4% when compared to the single-task model. There were no significant drops in performance on any dataset, and performance improves significantly for six datasets by up to 1.1%. The dataset size experiments found that as dataset size decreased, the multi-output model's performance increased compared to the single-task model's. Using 50, 25 and 10% of the training data resulted in an average drop of approximately 3.4, 8 and 16.7% respectively for the single-task model but approximately 0.2, 3.0 and 9.8% for the multi-task model. Our

  17. Assessing Wildland Fire Risk Transmission to Communities in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain. Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306 in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert judgement. Fire exposure was estimated by simulating 50,000 fire events that replicated extreme (97th percentile historical fire weather conditions. Spatial ignition probabilities were used in the simulations to account for non-random ignitions, and were estimated from a fire occurrence model generated with an artificial neural network. The results showed that ignition probability explained most of spatial variation in risk, with economic value of structures having only a minor effect. Average expected loss to residential houses from a single wildfire event in the study area was 7955€, and ranged from a low of 740 to the high of 28,725€. Major fire flow-paths were analyzed to understand fire transmission from surrounding municipalities and showed that incoming fires from the north exhibited strong pathways into the core of the study area, and fires spreading from the south had the highest likelihood of reaching target residential structures from the longest distances (>5 km. Community firesheds revealed the scale of risk to communities and extended well beyond administrative boundaries. The results provided a quantitative risk assessment that can be used by insurance companies and local landscape managers to prioritize and allocate investments to treat wildland fuels and identify clusters of high expected loss within communities. The methodological framework can be extended to other fire-prone southern European Union countries where communities are threatened by large wildland fires.

  18. An analysis on Wildland Urban Interface in North Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, B.; Pellizzaro, G.; Canu, A.; Pintus, G. V.; Ferrara, R.; Duce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Climate variability and drought, typical of the Mediterranean climate, together with different anthropogenic disturbances (modifications of land use, deforestation, grazing, forest fires, etc.) makes the Mediterranean basin ecosystems extremely sensitive and vulnerable. In the last three decades, an increasing number of fires threatening the wildland urban interface (WUI) was observed. In Sardinia, this phenomenon is particularly evident in tourist and coastal areas where a large number of resorts is built within and surrounded by Mediterranean vegetation that is highly prone to events of wildfire. In these situations, the related risk of damage for villages, tourist resorts, other human activities and people is elevated especially in summer when the presence of human people is highest and meteorological conditions are extreme. In addition, fire can have significant effect on the hydrological response of the WUI causing the intensification of the erosive processes. Therefore, the development of planning policies is required in order to implement strategies to prevent and reduce wildfire and soil erosion risk in wildland urban interface areas. The main aims of this work are i) to assess presence and characteristics of wildland urban interface in a touristic areas of North Sardinia and ii) to evaluate fire danger and soil erosion risk in the studied area. The study was carried out in a coastal area located in North Sardinia, characterized by strong touristic development in the last thirty years. In that area, the characterization and mapping of the WUI were performed. In addition several simulation were carried out by the Farsite fire area simulator with the aim to study the spatial pattern of the fire danger factors in the vegetated areas closer to the WUI. Finally, maps of soil erosion were produced for the identification of the areas at high erosion risk in the WUI. This work is supported by MIIUR - Metodologie e indicatori per la valutazione del rischio di

  19. Examining the impact of age and multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Jonathan L; Boyce, Michael W; Fekety, Drea K; Sawyer, Ben; Smither, Janan A

    2012-01-01

    This poster presents a study to assess one's ability to detect motorcycles under different conditions of conspicuity while performing a secondary visual load task. Previous research in which participants were required to detect motorcycles revealed differences in age (young adults/older adult) as well as differences associated with motorcycle conspicuity conditions. Past research has specifically found motorcycles with headlights ON and modulating headlights (flashing) to be more conspicuous than motorcycles with headlights OFF within traffic conditions. The present study seeks to provide more information on the effects of multitasking on motorcycle conspicuity and safety. The current study seeks to determine the degree to which multitasking limits the conspicuity of a motorcycle within traffic. We expect our results will indicate main effects for distraction task, age, gender, motorcycle lighting conditions, and vehicular DRLs on one's ability to effectively detect a motorcycle. The results have implications for motorcycle safety in general and through this research, a better understanding of motorcycle conspicuity can be established so as to minimize the risk involved with motorcycle operation.

  20. Robust visual tracking via multi-task sparse learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we formulate object tracking in a particle filter framework as a multi-task sparse learning problem, which we denote as Multi-Task Tracking (MTT). Since we model particles as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically, learning the representation of each particle is considered a single task in MTT. By employing popular sparsity-inducing p, q mixed norms (p D; 1), we regularize the representation problem to enforce joint sparsity and learn the particle representations together. As compared to previous methods that handle particles independently, our results demonstrate that mining the interdependencies between particles improves tracking performance and overall computational complexity. Interestingly, we show that the popular L 1 tracker [15] is a special case of our MTT formulation (denoted as the L 11 tracker) when p q 1. The learning problem can be efficiently solved using an Accelerated Proximal Gradient (APG) method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. As such, MTT is computationally attractive. We test our proposed approach on challenging sequences involving heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that MTT methods consistently outperform state-of-the-art trackers. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  2. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups. With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129 and older (n = 112 German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups. When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype’s components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  3. Manifold regularized multitask feature learning for multimodality disease classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Biao; Zhang, Daoqiang; Cheng, Bo; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-02-01

    Multimodality based methods have shown great advantages in classification of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage, that is, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recently, multitask feature selection methods are typically used for joint selection of common features across multiple modalities. However, one disadvantage of existing multimodality based methods is that they ignore the useful data distribution information in each modality, which is essential for subsequent classification. Accordingly, in this paper we propose a manifold regularized multitask feature learning method to preserve both the intrinsic relatedness among multiple modalities of data and the data distribution information in each modality. Specifically, we denote the feature learning on each modality as a single task, and use group-sparsity regularizer to capture the intrinsic relatedness among multiple tasks (i.e., modalities) and jointly select the common features from multiple tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a new manifold-based Laplacian regularizer to preserve the data distribution information from each task. Finally, we use the multikernel support vector machine method to fuse multimodality data for eventual classification. Conversely, we also extend our method to the semisupervised setting, where only partial data are labeled. We evaluate our method using the baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) data of subjects from AD neuroimaging initiative database. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method can not only achieve improved classification performance, but also help to discover the disease-related brain regions useful for disease diagnosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multitask SVM learning for remote sensing data classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Murillo, Jose M.; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2010-10-01

    Many remote sensing data processing problems are inherently constituted by several tasks that can be solved either individually or jointly. For instance, each image in a multitemporal classification setting could be taken as an individual task but relation to previous acquisitions should be properly considered. In such problems, different modalities of the data (temporal, spatial, angular) gives rise to changes between the training and test distributions, which constitutes a difficult learning problem known as covariate shift. Multitask learning methods aim at jointly solving a set of prediction problems in an efficient way by sharing information across tasks. This paper presents a novel kernel method for multitask learning in remote sensing data classification. The proposed method alleviates the dataset shift problem by imposing cross-information in the classifiers through matrix regularization. We consider the support vector machine (SVM) as core learner and two regularization schemes are introduced: 1) the Euclidean distance of the predictors in the Hilbert space; and 2) the inclusion of relational operators between tasks. Experiments are conducted in the challenging remote sensing problems of cloud screening from multispectral MERIS images and for landmine detection.

  5. Semi-Supervised Multitask Learning for Scene Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Li, Xuelong; Mou, Lichao

    2015-09-01

    Scene recognition has been widely studied to understand visual information from the level of objects and their relationships. Toward scene recognition, many methods have been proposed. They, however, encounter difficulty to improve the accuracy, mainly due to two limitations: 1) lack of analysis of intrinsic relationships across different scales, say, the initial input and its down-sampled versions and 2) existence of redundant features. This paper develops a semi-supervised learning mechanism to reduce the above two limitations. To address the first limitation, we propose a multitask model to integrate scene images of different resolutions. For the second limitation, we build a model of sparse feature selection-based manifold regularization (SFSMR) to select the optimal information and preserve the underlying manifold structure of data. SFSMR coordinates the advantages of sparse feature selection and manifold regulation. Finally, we link the multitask model and SFSMR, and propose the semi-supervised learning method to reduce the two limitations. Experimental results report the improvements of the accuracy in scene recognition.

  6. A null relationship between media multitasking and well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-I Shih

    Full Text Available There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently. In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument--the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD--to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM.

  7. A Null Relationship between Media Multitasking and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Shui-I

    2013-01-01

    There is a rapidly increasing trend in media-media multitasking or MMM (using two or more media concurrently). In a recent conference, scholars from diverse disciplines expressed concerns that indulgence in MMM may compromise well-being and/or cognitive abilities. However, research on MMM's impacts is too sparse to inform the general public and policy makers whether MMM should be encouraged, managed, or minimized. The primary purpose of the present study was to develop an innovative computerized instrument – the Survey of the Previous Day (SPD) – to quantify MMM as well as media-nonmedia and nonmedia-nonmedia multitasking and sole-tasking. The secondary purpose was to examine whether these indices could predict a sample of well-being related, psychosocial measures. In the SPD, participants first recalled (typed) what they did during each hour of the previous day. In later parts of the SPD, participants analysed activities and their timing and duration for each hour of the previous day, while relevant recall was on display. Participants also completed the Media Use Questionnaire. The results showed non-significant relationship between tasking measures and well-being related measures. Given how little is known about the associations between MMM and well-being, the null results may offer some general reassurance to those who are apprehensive about negative impacts of MMM. PMID:23691236

  8. Wildland firefighter deaths in the United States: A comparison of existing surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Corey; Marsh, Suzanne; Domitrovich, Joseph W; Helmkamp, Jim

    2017-04-01

    Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system's utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system's potential to inform prevention strategies. To describe similarities and differences in how data were recorded and characterized, wildland fire deaths for three of the population-based systems were matched and individual fatalities across systems were compared. Between 2001 and 2012, 247 unique deaths were captured among the systems; 73% of these were captured in all three systems. Most common causes of death in all systems were associated with aviation, vehicles, medical events, and entrapments/burnovers. The data show that, although the three systems often report similar annual summary statistics, events captured in each system vary each year depending on the types of events that the system is designed to track, such as inclusion/exclusion of fatalities associated with the Hometown Heroes Survivor Benefits Act of 2003. The overarching and central goal of each system is to collect accurate and timely information to improve wildland firefighter safety and health. Each system is unique and has varying inclusion and exclusion criteria for capturing and tracking different subsets of wildland firefighter tasks and duties. Use of a common case definition and better descriptions and interpretations of the data and the results would help to more

  9. Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, Francois R; Gold, Gabriel; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether 6 months of music-based multitask training had beneficial effects on cognitive functioning and mood in older adults...

  10. Media multitasking and the role of task relevance in background advertising processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Segijn, C.M.; van de Giessen, W.; Wottrich, V.M.; Vandeberg, L.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Zabkar, V.; Eisend, M.

    2017-01-01

    People are increasingly combining multiple media simultaneously (e.g., checking Facebook while watching television, listening to the radio while reading). Simultaneously using multiple media with different screens, audio sources, and content is referred to as media multitasking (Chinchanachokchai et

  11. Investigating the roles of touchscreen and physical control interface characteristics on driver distraction and multitasking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential of driver distraction, task performance, orientation of : attention, and perceived workload in a multitasking situation involving interaction with touchscreen : interface, compared to physical interface. Autho...

  12. Time takes space: selective effects of multitasking on concurrent spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo; Coni, Valentina; Kubik, Veit; Todorov, Ivo; Del Missier, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Many everyday activities require coordination and monitoring of complex relations of future goals and deadlines. Cognitive offloading may provide an efficient strategy for reducing control demands by representing future goals and deadlines as a pattern of spatial relations. We tested the hypothesis that multiple-task monitoring involves time-to-space transformational processes, and that these spatial effects are selective with greater demands on coordinate (metric) than categorical (nonmetric) spatial relation processing. Participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored four series of deadlines, running on different time scales, while making concurrent coordinate or categorical spatial judgments. We expected and found that multitasking taxes concurrent coordinate, but not categorical, spatial processing. Furthermore, males showed a better multitasking performance than females. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the hypothesis that efficient multitasking involves metric relational processing.

  13. Multitasking domain decomposition fast Poisson solvers on the Cray Y-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony F.; Fatoohi, Rod A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of multitasking implementation of a domain decomposition fast Poisson solver on eight processors of the Cray Y-MP are presented. The object of this research is to study the performance of domain decomposition methods on a Cray supercomputer and to analyze the performance of different multitasking techniques using highly parallel algorithms. Two implementations of multitasking are considered: macrotasking (parallelism at the subroutine level) and microtasking (parallelism at the do-loop level). A conventional FFT-based fast Poisson solver is also multitasked. The results of different implementations are compared and analyzed. A speedup of over 7.4 on the Cray Y-MP running in a dedicated environment is achieved for all cases.

  14. Multitasking Abilities in Adolescents With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Results From an Experimental Ecological Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maude; Eliez, Stephan; Birr, Julie; Menghetti, Sarah; Debbané, Martin; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-03-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with cognitive and functional impairments and increased risk for schizophrenia. We characterized multitasking abilities of adolescents with 22q11.2DS using an experimental naturalistic setting and examined whether multitasking impairments were associated with real-world functioning and negative symptoms. Thirty-nine adolescents (19 with 22q11.2DS and 20 controls) underwent the Multitasking Evaluation for Adolescents. Real-world functioning and clinical symptoms were assessed in participants with 22q11.2DS. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS performed poorly in the multitasking evaluation. Our data also suggest that multitasking abilities are related to adaptive functioning in the practical domain and negative symptoms. This study shows that adolescents with 22q11.2DS are characterized by multitasking impairments, which may be relevant for several aspects of the clinical phenotype.

  15. [Exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo Leyenda, Belén; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A; López-Satué, Jorge; Avila Ordás, Concepción; Pernía Cubillo, Raúl; Villa Vicente, José Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Health and occupational performance in wildland firefighters are mainly impaired for the carbon monoxide inhalation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the personal exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression. Carbon monoxide exposure was monitorized in 44 subjects during 58 real wildfires. Moreover, we analyzed the time weighted average exposure for an 8h shift (VA-ED). The wildfires were classified according to the work done (direct attack, indirect attack and mixed attack) and the current fuel (grass, bush, understory and mixed). The mean exposure to carbon monoxide was of 18,4 ± 1,7 ppm, what supposed a VA-ED of 7,0 ± 1,0 ppm. The highest exposures to carbon monoxide were found during the mixed attack (20,4 ± 2,3 ppm) and direct attack (17,5 ± 2,7 ppm). We only obtained significant differences (p INSHT) and international (NIOSH, OSHA) occupational safety and health agencies.

  16. LANDFIRE: A nationally consistent vegetation, wildland fire, and fuel assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    LANDFIRE is a 5-year, multipartner project producing consistent and comprehensive maps and data describing vegetation, wildland fuel, fire regimes and ecological departure from historical conditions across the United States. It is a shared project between the wildland fire management and research and development programs of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and US Department of the Interior. LANDFIRE meets agency and partner needs for comprehensive, integrated data to support landscape-level fire management planning and prioritization, community and firefighter protection, effective resource allocation, and collaboration between agencies and the public. The LANDFIRE data production framework is interdisciplinary, science-based and fully repeatable, and integrates many geospatial technologies including biophysical gradient analyses, remote sensing, vegetation modelling, ecological simulation, and landscape disturbance and successional modelling. LANDFIRE data products are created as 30-m raster grids and are available over the internet at www.landfire.gov, accessed 22 April 2009. The data products are produced at scales that may be useful for prioritizing and planning individual hazardous fuel reduction and ecosystem restoration projects; however, the applicability of data products varies by location and specific use, and products may need to be adjusted by local users.

  17. Evaluating and operationalizing unmanned aircraft for wildland fire use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many potential uses of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) related to wildland fire research and operations have been demonstrated, but the vast majority of these have been proof-of-concept or one-time flights. Scientists, practitioners, and firefighting agencies look forward to the widespread adoption of this powerful technology and its regular use. Similarly, the UAS industry awaits opportunities for commercialization. Our collaboration brings together UAS industry, research and management agencies, and universities in the USA and Canada to investigate the perceived effectiveness of UAS for wildland fire use, and the factors affecting their commercial-scale employment. Our current and future activities include market research, training and technology transfer, and deployment of UAS over fires to promote development of sensors as well as their safe integration into fire operations. We will present initial results, and as a part of our presentation we also invite participation of the AGU community for planned future project phases. We anticipate that the outcomes of our work will be useful to potential users who are unfamiliar with UAS, and to researchers and practitioners with experience or an interest in their use in fire and related natural-resource disciplines.

  18. A load on my mind: Evidence that anhedonic depression is like multi-tasking

    OpenAIRE

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Brockmole, James R.; Boot, Walter R.; Simons, Daniel J.; Most, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-tasking can increase susceptibility to distraction, affecting whether irrelevant objects capture attention. Similarly, people with depression often struggle to concentrate when performing cognitively demanding tasks. This parallel suggests that depression is like multi-tasking. To test this idea, we examined relations between self-reported levels of anhedonic depression (a dimension that reflects the unique aspects of depression not shared with anxiety or other forms of distress) and at...

  19. Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, Francois R; Gold, Gabriel; Rizzoli, René,; Trombetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Background: in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether 6 months of music-based multitask training had beneficial effects on cognitive functioning and mood in older adults. Methods: 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk for falling were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 66) who attended once weekly 1-h supervised group classes of multitask exercises, executed to the rhythm of piano music, or a control group with dela...

  20. Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Yu; Zanto, Theodore P; Anguera, Joaquin A; Lin, Yung-Yang; Gazzaley, Adam

    2015-08-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been proposed to play an important role in neural processes that underlie multitasking performance. However, this claim is underexplored in terms of direct causal evidence. The current study aimed to delineate the causal involvement of the DLPFC during multitasking by modulating neural activity with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prior to engagement in a demanding multitasking paradigm. The study is a single-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experiment. Anodal tDCS or sham tDCS was applied over left DLPFC in forty-one healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years) immediately before they engaged in a 3-D video game designed to assess multitasking performance. Participants were separated into three subgroups: real-sham (i.e., real tDCS in the first session, followed by sham tDCS in the second session 1 h later), sham-real (sham tDCS first session, real tDCS second session), and sham-sham (sham tDCS in both sessions). The real-sham group showed enhanced multitasking performance and decreased multitasking cost during the second session, compared to first session, suggesting delayed cognitive benefits of tDCS. Interestingly, performance benefits were observed only for multitasking and not on a single-task version of the game. No significant changes were found between the first and second sessions for either the sham-real or the sham-sham groups. These results suggest a causal role of left prefrontal cortex in facilitating the simultaneous performance of more than one task, or multitasking. Moreover, these findings reveal that anodal tDCS may have delayed benefits that reflect an enhanced rate of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributed Multi-task APA over Adaptive Networks Based on Partial Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gogineni, Vinay Chakravarthi; Chakraborty, Mrityunjoy

    2015-01-01

    Distributed multi-task adaptive strategies are useful to estimate multiple parameter vectors simultaneously in a collaborative manner. The existed distributed multi-task strategies use diffusion mode of cooperation in which during adaptation step each node gets the cooperation from it neighborhood nodes but not in the same cluster and during combining step each node combines the intermediate estimates of it neighboring nodes that belong to the same cluster. For this the nodes need to transmit...

  2. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meglicki, Zdzislaw, E-mail: gustav@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Office of the Vice President for Information Technology, 601 E. Kirkwood Ave., Room 116, Bloomington, IN 47405-1223 (United States)

    2011-07-04

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  3. How Multi-Tasking Job Designs Affect Productivity: Evidence from Australian Coal Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shingo Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    The author studies how the Australian coal mining industry adopted multitasking job designs by eliminating two types of task demarcations: (a) the demarcation between production and maintenance stream tasks and (b) the demarcation within the production stream. Using an original data set of Australian open-cut coal mines covering the period 1985-2005, he estimates the effect of multi-tasking on productivity and explains its effects. Results indicate that the elimination of between-demarcation ...

  4. Can measures of executive functions and spatial ability predict multitasking performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that individual differences in Executive Functionings (EF) are independent predictors of multitasking performance and mediated by spatial ability. However, these studies lacked multiple measures of EF and their observed effects of spatial processing may have been induced by the nature of the spatial task per se. In this study, participants completed a multitasking session in which they monitored deadlines of four digital clocks running at different rates along wi...

  5. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Multitasking Throughput Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Nelson; Richard Andrew McKinley; Chandler Phillips; Lindsey McIntire; Chuck Goodyear; Aerial Camden; Lanie Monforton

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multitasking has become an integral attribute associated with military operations within the past several decades. As the amount of information that needs to be processed during these high level multitasking environments exceeds the human operators’ capabilities, the information throughput capacity reaches an asymptotic limit. At this point, the human operator can no longer effectively process and respond to the incoming information resulting in a plateau or decline in performan...

  6. Enhancement of multitasking performance and neural oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wan-Yu; Zanto, Theodore P.; van Schouwenburg, Martine R.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking is associated with the generation of stimulus-locked theta (4?7 Hz) oscillations arising from prefrontal cortex (PFC). Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that influences endogenous brain oscillations. Here, we investigate whether applying alternating current stimulation within the theta frequency band would affect multitasking performance, and explore tACS effects on neurophysiological measures. Brief runs of bilatera...

  7. Multitask Deep Learning models for real-time deployment in embedded systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martí i Rabadán, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Multitask Learning (MTL) was conceived as an approach to improve thegeneralization ability of machine learning models. When applied to neu-ral networks, multitask models take advantage of sharing resources forreducing the total inference time, memory footprint and model size. Wepropose MTL as a way to speed up deep learning models for applicationsin which multiple tasks need to be solved simultaneously, which is par-ticularly useful in embedded, real-time systems such as the ones foundin auto...

  8. The Effect of a Stress Condition on an Ecological Measure of Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Deckro, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Stress hormones have been shown to influence the frontal lobes, adversely impacting the executive functions which rely on them. These same executive processes have been found to underlie multitasking ability. Therefore, it was expected that a stress condition using time constraint and ego threat, would impair performance on an ecologically valid measure of multitasking, the simulated breakfast task. However, no significant effect of the stress condition was found on breakfast task performance...

  9. Dealing with media distractions: An observational study of computer-based multitasking among children and adults in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate differences in computer-based multitasking among children and adults. Moreover, the study investigated how attention problems are related to computer-based multitasking and how these individual differences interact with age. Computer-based multitasking was observed for a 10-minute period among children (N = 164, aged 6–13) and adults (N = 160, aged 18–75) in the Netherlands. The findings indicated that individuals find it indeed difficult...

  10. Multitasking and prospective memory: Resistance to the effect of interruptions in a computer-based student study setting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jining

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of frequent, complex and dissimilar interruptions on multitasking and prospective memory (PM) performance in a computer-based student study setting. Participants were either uninterrupted or unexpectedly interrupted three times while performing four study-related tasks, in addition to an event-based PM task. Our results show that PM, multitasking and multitasking-related behaviours, such as task-switching, were unaffected by interruptions. However, w...

  11. Demystifying Multitask Deep Neural Networks for Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuting; Ma, Junshui; Liaw, Andy; Sheridan, Robert P; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2017-10-23

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) are complex computational models that have found great success in many artificial intelligence applications, such as computer vision1,2 and natural language processing.3,4 In the past four years, DNNs have also generated promising results for quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) tasks.5,6 Previous work showed that DNNs can routinely make better predictions than traditional methods, such as random forests, on a diverse collection of QSAR data sets. It was also found that multitask DNN models-those trained on and predicting multiple QSAR properties simultaneously-outperform DNNs trained separately on the individual data sets in many, but not all, tasks. To date there has been no satisfactory explanation of why the QSAR of one task embedded in a multitask DNN can borrow information from other unrelated QSAR tasks. Thus, using multitask DNNs in a way that consistently provides a predictive advantage becomes a challenge. In this work, we explored why multitask DNNs make a difference in predictive performance. Our results show that during prediction a multitask DNN does borrow "signal" from molecules with similar structures in the training sets of the other tasks. However, whether this borrowing leads to better or worse predictive performance depends on whether the activities are correlated. On the basis of this, we have developed a strategy to use multitask DNNs that incorporate prior domain knowledge to select training sets with correlated activities, and we demonstrate its effectiveness on several examples.

  12. Media Multitasking across Generations: Simultaneous Mobile Internet and Television Usage Behaviors and Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhmiin Chang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous mobile internet and television usage has been getting very popular. Few, if any, studies explicated generational differences in this type of media multitasking behaviors. This study is the first to examine whether different generations have different behaviors and motives in the mobile internet-television media multitasking context. A national face-to-face survey with the probability proportional to size random sampling method was employed. The results showed that Web generation was most likely to perform mobile internet-television media multitasking behavior, followed by X generation and Baby Boomer generation. Web generation paid most attention to the contents on the mobile Internet, X generation focused their attention on either television or mobile internet, and Baby Boomer generation paid most attention to the contents on television. The results also showed that the motives driving mobile internet-television media multitasking behavior were the same across generations, including “habit and convenience” and “cognition and status.” All these findings supported the proposed theory of cross generation media multitasking behavior and the proposed method of analyzing the motives driving media multitasking behaviors.

  13. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Thomas E; Green, C Shawn

    2016-04-18

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. 'media multitasking') is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today's society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population.

  14. Everyday Multitasking Abilities in Older HIV+ Adults: Neurobehavioral Correlates and the Mediating Role of Metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, P L; Casaletto, K B; Woods, S P; Umlauf, A; Scott, J C; Moore, D J

    2017-05-31

    The prevalence of older adults living with HIV is rising, as is their risk for everyday functioning problems associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Multitasking, the ability to maintain and carry out subgoals in support of a larger goal, is a multidimensional skill ubiquitous during most real-life tasks and associated with prefrontal networks that are vulnerable in HIV. Understanding factors associated with multitasking will improve characterization of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Metacognition is also associated with frontal systems, is impaired among individuals with HIV, and may contribute to multitasking. Ninety-nine older (≥50 years) adults with HIV completed: the Everyday Multitasking Test (MT), a performance-based measure during which participants concurrently attempt four everyday tasks (e.g., medication management) within a time limit; a comprehensive neuropsychological battery; measures of metacognition regarding their MT performance (e.g., metacognitive knowledge and online awareness). Better global neuropsychological performance (i.e., average T-score across all domains) was associated with better Everyday MT total scores (rho = 0.34; p multitasking, and metacognition of task performance was a pathway through which successful multitasking occurred. Interventions aimed at modifying metacognition to improve daily functioning may be warranted among older adults with HIV.

  15. Anodal tDCS applied during multitasking training leads to transferable performance gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Lyons, Maxwell; Mattingley, Jason B; Dux, Paul E

    2017-10-11

    Cognitive training can lead to performance improvements that are specific to the tasks trained. Recent research has suggested that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied during training of a simple response-selection paradigm can broaden performance benefits to an untrained task. Here we assessed the impact of combined tDCS and training on multitasking, stimulus-response mapping specificity, response-inhibition, and spatial attention performance in a cohort of healthy adults. Participants trained over four days with concurrent tDCS - anodal, cathodal, or sham - applied to the left prefrontal cortex. Immediately prior to, 1 day after, and 2 weeks after training, performance was assessed on the trained multitasking paradigm, an untrained multitasking paradigm, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a visual search task. Training combined with anodal tDCS, compared with training plus cathodal or sham stimulation, enhanced performance for the untrained multitasking paradigm and visual search tasks. By contrast, there were no training benefits for the go/no-go task. Our findings demonstrate that anodal tDCS combined with multitasking training can extend to untrained multitasking paradigms as well as spatial attention, but with no extension to the domain of response inhibition.

  16. Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Salo, E; Carlson, S; Salonen, O; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K

    2016-07-01

    The current generation of young people indulges in more media multitasking behavior (e.g., instant messaging while watching videos) in their everyday lives than older generations. Concerns have been raised about how this might affect their attentional functioning, as previous studies have indicated that extensive media multitasking in everyday life may be associated with decreased attentional control. In the current study, 149 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24years) performed speech-listening and reading tasks that required maintaining attention in the presence of distractor stimuli in the other modality or dividing attention between two concurrent tasks. Brain activity during task performance was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied the relationship between self-reported daily media multitasking (MMT), task performance and brain activity during task performance. The results showed that in the presence of distractor stimuli, a higher MMT score was associated with worse performance and increased brain activity in right prefrontal regions. The level of performance during divided attention did not depend on MMT. This suggests that daily media multitasking is associated with behavioral distractibility and increased recruitment of brain areas involved in attentional and inhibitory control, and that media multitasking in everyday life does not translate to performance benefits in multitasking in laboratory settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of multitasking performance and neural oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Yu; Zanto, Theodore P; van Schouwenburg, Martine R; Gazzaley, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking is associated with the generation of stimulus-locked theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations arising from prefrontal cortex (PFC). Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that influences endogenous brain oscillations. Here, we investigate whether applying alternating current stimulation within the theta frequency band would affect multitasking performance, and explore tACS effects on neurophysiological measures. Brief runs of bilateral PFC theta-tACS were applied while participants were engaged in a multitasking paradigm accompanied by electroencephalography (EEG) data collection. Unlike an active control group, a tACS stimulation group showed enhancement of multitasking performance after a 90-minute session (F1,35 = 6.63, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.16; effect size = 0.96), coupled with significant modulation of posterior beta (13-30 Hz) activities (F1,32 = 7.66, p = 0.009, ηp2 = 0.19; effect size = 0.96). Across participant regression analyses indicated that those participants with greater increases in frontal theta, alpha and beta oscillations exhibited greater multitasking performance improvements. These results indicate frontal theta-tACS generates benefits on multitasking performance accompanied by widespread neuronal oscillatory changes, and suggests that future tACS studies with extended treatments are worth exploring as promising tools for cognitive enhancement.

  18. The effect of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E; Becker, William

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Despite knowledge on general motion sickness, little is known about the effect of motion sickness and sopite syndrome on multitasking cognitive performance. Specifically, there is a gap in existing knowledge in the gray area of mild motion sickness. Fifty-one healthy individuals performed a multitasking battery. Three independent groups of participants were exposed to two experimental sessions. Two groups received motion only in the first or the second session, whereas the control group did not receive motion. Measurements of motion sickness, sopite syndrome, alertness, and performance were collected during the experiment Only during the second session, motion sickness and sopite syndrome had a significant negative association with cognitive performance. Significant performance differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic participants in the second session were identified in composite (9.43%), memory (31.7%), and arithmetic (14.7%) task scores. The results suggest that performance retention between sessions was not affected by mild motion sickness. Multitasking cognitive performance declined even when motion sickness and soporific symptoms were mild. The results also show an order effect. We postulate that the differential effect of session on the association between symptomatology and multitasking performance may be related to the attentional resources allocated to performing the multiple tasks. Results suggest an inverse relationship between motion sickness effects on performance and the cognitive effort focused on performing a task. Even mild motion sickness has potential implications for multitasking operational performance.

  19. Nurses' perceptions of multitasking in the emergency department: effective, fun and unproblematic (at least for me) – a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Helena Hvitfeldt; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to understand how multitasking is experienced by registered nurses and how it relates to their everyday practice in the emergency department. Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with registered nurses (n = 9) working in one of two included emergency departments in Sweden. Data were analyzed using Schilling's structured model for qualitative content analysis. Three core concepts related to multitasking emerged from the interviews: 'multitasking - an attractive prerequisite for ED care'; 'multitasking implies efficiency' and 'multitasking is not stressful'. From these core concepts an additional theme emerged: '… and does not cause errors – at least for me', related to patient safety. This study shows how the patient load and the unreflected multitasking that follows relate to nurses' perceived efficiency and job satisfaction. It also shows that the relationship between multitasking and errors is perceived to be mediated by whom the actor is, and his or her level of experience. Findings from this study add value to the discourse on multitasking and the emergency department context, as few studies go beyond examining the quantitative aspect of interruptions and multitasking and how it is experienced by the staff in their everyday practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Master of Puppets: Cooperative Multitasking for In Situ Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lukic, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific and engineering simulations track the time evolution of billions of elements. For such large runs, storing most time steps for later analysis is not a viable strategy. It is far more efficient to analyze the simulation data while it is still in memory. Here, we present a novel design for running multiple codes in situ: using coroutines and position-independent executables we enable cooperative multitasking between simulation and analysis, allowing the same executables to post-process simulation output, as well as to process it on the fly, both in situ and in transit. We present Henson, an implementation of our design, and illustrate its versatility by tackling analysis tasks with different computational requirements. This design differs significantly from the existing frameworks and offers an efficient and robust approach to integrating multiple codes on modern supercomputers. The techniques we present can also be integrated into other in situ frameworks.

  1. Computer multitasking with Desqview 386 in a family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A E

    1990-08-15

    Computers are now widely used in medical practice for accounting and secretarial tasks. However, it has been much more difficult to use computers in more physician-related activities of daily practice. I investigated the Desqview multitasking system on a 386 computer as a solution to this problem. Physician-directed tasks of management of patient charts, retrieval of reference information, word processing, appointment scheduling and office organization were each managed by separate programs. Desqview allowed instantaneous switching back and forth between the various programs. I compared the time and cost savings and the need for physician input between Desqview 386, a 386 computer alone and an older, XT computer. Desqview significantly simplified the use of computer programs for medical information management and minimized the necessity for physician intervention. The time saved was 15 minutes per day; the costs saved were estimated to be $5000 annually.

  2. Improving multi-tasking ability through action videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Dan; Conger, Mark; Liao, Janet; Caldwell, J Lynn; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2013-03-01

    The present study examined whether action videogames can improve multi-tasking in high workload environments. Two groups with no action videogame experience were pre-tested using the Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB). It consists of two primary tasks; tracking and fuel management, and two secondary tasks; systems monitoring and communication. One group served as a control group, while a second played action videogames a minimum of 5 h a week for 10 weeks. Both groups returned for a post-assessment on the MATB. We found the videogame treatment enhanced performance on secondary tasks, without interfering with the primary tasks. Our results demonstrate action videogames can increase people's ability to take on additional tasks by increasing attentional capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. General-purpose interface bus for multiuser, multitasking computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.; Stang, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The architecture of a multiuser, multitasking, virtual-memory computer system intended for the use by a medium-size research group is described. There are three central processing units (CPU) in the configuration, each with 16 MB memory, and two 474 MB hard disks attached. CPU 1 is designed for data analysis and contains an array processor for fast-Fourier transformations. In addition, CPU 1 shares display images viewed with the image processor. CPU 2 is designed for image analysis and display. CPU 3 is designed for data acquisition and contains 8 GPIB channels and an analog-to-digital conversion input/output interface with 16 channels. Up to 9 users can access the third CPU simultaneously for data acquisition. Focus is placed on the optimization of hardware interfaces and software, facilitating instrument control, data acquisition, and processing.

  4. Proximal Multitask Learning Over Networks With Sparsity-Inducing Coregularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Roula; Richard, Cedric; Ferrari, Andre; Sayed, Ali H.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we consider multitask learning problems where clusters of nodes are interested in estimating their own parameter vector. Cooperation among clusters is beneficial when the optimal models of adjacent clusters have a good number of similar entries. We propose a fully distributed algorithm for solving this problem. The approach relies on minimizing a global mean-square error criterion regularized by non-differentiable terms to promote cooperation among neighboring clusters. A general diffusion forward-backward splitting strategy is introduced. Then, it is specialized to the case of sparsity promoting regularizers. A closed-form expression for the proximal operator of a weighted sum of $\\ell_1$-norms is derived to achieve higher efficiency. We also provide conditions on the step-sizes that ensure convergence of the algorithm in the mean and mean-square error sense. Simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  5. Joint Face Detection and Alignment Using Multitask Cascaded Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaipeng; Zhang, Zhanpeng; Li, Zhifeng; Qiao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Face detection and alignment in unconstrained environment are challenging due to various poses, illuminations and occlusions. Recent studies show that deep learning approaches can achieve impressive performance on these two tasks. In this paper, we propose a deep cascaded multi-task framework which exploits the inherent correlation between them to boost up their performance. In particular, our framework adopts a cascaded structure with three stages of carefully designed deep convolutional networks that predict face and landmark location in a coarse-to-fine manner. In addition, in the learning process, we propose a new online hard sample mining strategy that can improve the performance automatically without manual sample selection. Our method achieves superior accuracy over the state-of-the-art techniques on the challenging FDDB and WIDER FACE benchmark for face detection, and AFLW benchmark for face alignment, while keeps real time performance.

  6. Modeling the human as a controller in a multitask environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, T.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Modeling the human as a controller of slowly responding systems with preview is considered. Along with control tasks, discrete noncontrol tasks occur at irregular intervals. In multitask situations such as these, it has been observed that humans tend to apply piecewise constant controls. It is believed that the magnitude of controls and the durations for which they remain constant are dependent directly on the system bandwidth, preview distance, complexity of the trajectory to be followed, and nature of the noncontrol tasks. A simple heuristic model of human control behavior in this situation is presented. The results of a simulation study, whose purpose was determination of the sensitivity of the model to its parameters, are discussed.

  7. Multitask learning improves prediction of cancer drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Paskov, Ivan; Paskov, Hristo; González, Alvaro J; Leslie, Christina S

    2016-08-23

    Precision oncology seeks to predict the best therapeutic option for individual patients based on the molecular characteristics of their tumors. To assess the preclinical feasibility of drug sensitivity prediction, several studies have measured drug responses for cytotoxic and targeted therapies across large collections of genomically and transcriptomically characterized cancer cell lines and trained predictive models using standard methods like elastic net regression. Here we use existing drug response data sets to demonstrate that multitask learning across drugs strongly improves the accuracy and interpretability of drug prediction models. Our method uses trace norm regularization with a highly efficient ADMM (alternating direction method of multipliers) optimization algorithm that readily scales to large data sets. We anticipate that our approach will enhance efforts to exploit growing drug response compendia in order to advance personalized therapy.

  8. Multitask neurovision processor with extensive feedback and feedforward connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madan M.; Knopf, George K.

    1991-11-01

    A multi-task neuro-vision parameter which performs a variety of information processing operations associated with the early stages of biological vision is presented. The network architecture of this neuro-vision processor, called the positive-negative (PN) neural processor, is loosely based on the neural activity fields exhibited by thalamic and cortical nervous tissue layers. The computational operation performed by the processor arises from the strength of the recurrent feedback among the numerous positive and negative neural computing units. By adjusting the feedback connections it is possible to generate diverse dynamic behavior that may be used for short-term visual memory (STVM), spatio-temporal filtering (STF), and pulse frequency modulation (PFM). The information attributes that are to be processes may be regulated by modifying the feedforward connections from the signal space to the neural processor.

  9. Modeling the protection afforded by burrows, cavities, and roosts during wildland surface fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony Bova; Matthew Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Wildland surface fires produce many toxic and irritating compounds, such as formaldehyde and acrolein, and harmful gases such as carbon monoxide. Several factors influence the degree of protection offered by animal shelters against combustion products and heat.

  10. Integrating research on wildland fires and air quality: needs and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Michael J. Arbaugh; Christian Andersen; Allen R. Riebau

    2009-01-01

    A summary is presented that integrates general information on the causes and effects of wildland fires and emissions with various ecological impacts of forest fires and air pollution in forests and other ecosystems. We also...

  11. NACP Integrated Wildland and Cropland 30-m Fuel Characteristics Map, U.S.A., 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set provides a 30-m comprehensive fuelbed characteristics map for both the wildland and cropland areas of the conterminous United States (CONUS) for 2010....

  12. The Wildland-Urban Interface in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan I. Stewart; Volker C. Radeloff; Roger Hammer

    2003-01-01

    Wildland urban interface (WUI) issues are significant for urban foresters. An analysis of 12 metropolitan areas shows that The WUI is concentrated in these metro areas relative to the rest of their respective states.

  13. 75 FR 58347 - Information Collection; Overcoming Barriers to Wildland Fire Defensible Space Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... chosen to reflect a variety of setting attributes such as distance from wildlands, recent fire history... and assumptions used; (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be...

  14. NACP Integrated Wildland and Cropland 30-m Fuel Characteristics Map, U.S.A., 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set provides a 30-m comprehensive fuelbed characteristics map for both the wildland and cropland areas of the conterminous United States (CONUS)...

  15. Multitask learning for host-pathogen protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2013-07-01

    An important aspect of infectious disease research involves understanding the differences and commonalities in the infection mechanisms underlying various diseases. Systems biology-based approaches study infectious diseases by analyzing the interactions between the host species and the pathogen organisms. This work aims to combine the knowledge from experimental studies of host-pathogen interactions in several diseases to build stronger predictive models. Our approach is based on a formalism from machine learning called 'multitask learning', which considers the problem of building models across tasks that are related to each other. A 'task' in our scenario is the set of host-pathogen protein interactions involved in one disease. To integrate interactions from several tasks (i.e. diseases), our method exploits the similarity in the infection process across the diseases. In particular, we use the biological hypothesis that similar pathogens target the same critical biological processes in the host, in defining a common structure across the tasks. Our current work on host-pathogen protein interaction prediction focuses on human as the host, and four bacterial species as pathogens. The multitask learning technique we develop uses a task-based regularization approach. We find that the resulting optimization problem is a difference of convex (DC) functions. To optimize, we implement a Convex-Concave procedure-based algorithm. We compare our integrative approach to baseline methods that build models on a single host-pathogen protein interaction dataset. Our results show that our approach outperforms the baselines on the training data. We further analyze the protein interaction predictions generated by the models, and find some interesting insights. The predictions and code are available at: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/∼mkshirsa/ismb2013_paper320.html . Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Multitask learning for host–pathogen protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Meghana; Carbonell, Jaime; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: An important aspect of infectious disease research involves understanding the differences and commonalities in the infection mechanisms underlying various diseases. Systems biology-based approaches study infectious diseases by analyzing the interactions between the host species and the pathogen organisms. This work aims to combine the knowledge from experimental studies of host–pathogen interactions in several diseases to build stronger predictive models. Our approach is based on a formalism from machine learning called ‘multitask learning’, which considers the problem of building models across tasks that are related to each other. A ‘task’ in our scenario is the set of host–pathogen protein interactions involved in one disease. To integrate interactions from several tasks (i.e. diseases), our method exploits the similarity in the infection process across the diseases. In particular, we use the biological hypothesis that similar pathogens target the same critical biological processes in the host, in defining a common structure across the tasks. Results: Our current work on host–pathogen protein interaction prediction focuses on human as the host, and four bacterial species as pathogens. The multitask learning technique we develop uses a task-based regularization approach. We find that the resulting optimization problem is a difference of convex (DC) functions. To optimize, we implement a Convex–Concave procedure-based algorithm. We compare our integrative approach to baseline methods that build models on a single host–pathogen protein interaction dataset. Our results show that our approach outperforms the baselines on the training data. We further analyze the protein interaction predictions generated by the models, and find some interesting insights. Availability: The predictions and code are available at: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/∼mkshirsa/ismb2013_paper320.html Contact: j.klein-seetharaman@warwick.ac.uk Supplementary information

  17. Leveraging Sequence Classification by Taxonomy-Based Multitask Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Christian; Leiva, Jose; Altun, Yasemin; Rätsch, Gunnar

    In this work we consider an inference task that biologists are very good at: deciphering biological processes by bringing together knowledge that has been obtained by experiments using various organisms, while respecting the differences and commonalities of these organisms. We look at this problem from an sequence analysis point of view, where we aim at solving the same classification task in different organisms. We investigate the challenge of combining information from several organisms, whereas we consider the relation between the organisms to be defined by a tree structure derived from their phylogeny. Multitask learning, a machine learning technique that recently received considerable attention, considers the problem of learning across tasks that are related to each other. We treat each organism as one task and present three novel multitask learning methods to handle situations in which the relationships among tasks can be described by a hierarchy. These algorithms are designed for large-scale applications and are therefore applicable to problems with a large number of training examples, which are frequently encountered in sequence analysis. We perform experimental analyses on synthetic data sets in order to illustrate the properties of our algorithms. Moreover, we consider a problem from genomic sequence analysis, namely splice site recognition, to illustrate the usefulness of our approach. We show that intelligently combining data from 15 eukaryotic organisms can indeed significantly improve the prediction performance compared to traditional learning approaches. On a broader perspective, we expect that algorithms like the ones presented in this work have the potential to complement and enrich the strategy of homology-based sequence analysis that are currently the quasi-standard in biological sequence analysis.

  18. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  19. P5.2-8 Technical guide to map and describe wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs)

    OpenAIRE

    Lampin-Maillet, C.; Bouillon, C.; Long, M; Morge, D.; Jappiot, M.; Herrero, G.; Galiana, L.; Mantzavelas, A.

    2009-01-01

    This guide presents a method for wildland-urban interface mapping, applied to large areas, at a large scale. This method can be adapted easily to specific situations observed in different European countries. The guide is based on a combination of four housing configuration types and three types of horizontal structure of vegetation. Twelve wildland-urban interface types have been produced. It is particularly well adapted to the French environment, but the method has also been well adapted (an...

  20. A new virtual-reality training module for laparoscopic surgical skills and equipment handling: can multitasking be trained? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.J.; van Hove, P.D.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Schreuder, HWR; Dankelman, J.

    Objective During laparoscopic surgery distractions often occur and multitasking between surgery and other tasks, such as technical equipment handling, is a necessary competence. In psychological research, reduction of adverse effects of distraction is demonstrated when specifically multitasking is

  1. WILDLAND FIRE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION

    2003-09-01

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) and the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve) is based on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) fire management planning procedures and was developed in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE) by Brookhaven Science Associates. As the Upton Reserve is contained within the BNL 5,265-acre site, it is logical that the plan applies to both the Upton Reserve and BNL. The Department of the Interior policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by FWS that can sustain fire must have an FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures and specifies values to be protected or enhanced. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL/Upton Reserve Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered and threatened species and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL and the Upton Reserve. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of FWS, BNL, and the Upton Reserve. This Fire Management Plan is a modified version of the Long Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex Fire plan (updated in 2000), which contains all FWS fire plan requirements and is presented in the format specified by the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. FWS shall be, through an Interagency Agreement dated November 2000 (Appendix C), responsible for coordinating and

  2. Developing the US Wildland Fire Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new decision support tool, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS has been developed to support risk-informed decision-making for individual fires in the United States. WFDSS accesses national weather data and forecasts, fire behavior prediction, economic assessment, smoke management assessment, and landscape databases to efficiently formulate and apply information to the decision making process. Risk-informed decision-making is becoming increasingly important as a means of improving fire management and offers substantial opportunities to benefit natural and community resource protection, management response effectiveness, firefighter resource use and exposure, and, possibly, suppression costs. This paper reviews the development, structure, and function of WFDSS, and how it contributes to increased flexibility and agility in decision making, leading to improved fire management program effectiveness.

  3. The wildland-urban interface raster dataset of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Evers, Cody R; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    We provide the wildland urban interface (WUI) map of the autonomous community of Catalonia (Northeastern Spain). The map encompasses an area of some 3.21 million ha and is presented as a 150-m resolution raster dataset. Individual housing location, structure density and vegetation cover data were used to spatially assess in detail the interface, intermix and dispersed rural WUI communities with a geographical information system. Most WUI areas concentrate in the coastal belt where suburban sprawl has occurred nearby or within unmanaged forests. This geospatial information data provides an approximation of residential housing potential for loss given a wildfire, and represents a valuable contribution to assist landscape and urban planning in the region.

  4. Wildland-urban interface maps vary with purpose and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.I.; Wilmer, B.; Hammer, R.B.; Aplet, G.H.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Miller, C.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of the wildland-urban interface (WUI) are both policy tools and powerful visual images. Although the growing number of WUI maps serve similar purposes, this article indicates that WUI maps derived from the same data sets can differ in important ways related to their original intended application. We discuss the use of ancillary data in modifying census data to improve WUI maps and offer a cautionary note about this practice. A comparison of two WUI mapping approaches suggests that no single map is "best" because users' needs vary. The analysts who create maps are responsible for ensuring that users understand their purpose, data, and methods; map users are responsible for paying attention to these features and using each map accordingly. These considerations should apply to any analysis but are especially important to analyses of the WUI on which policy decisions will be made.

  5. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational data within a causal inference framework. Our methods account for aggregation and potential bias of the numerical model simulation, and address uncertainty in the causal estimates. We apply the proposed method to estimation of ozone and fine particulate matter from wildland fires and the impact on health burden assessment. We develop a causal inference framework to assess contributions of fire to ambient PM in the presence of spatial interference.

  6. Older Adult Multitasking Performance Using a Gaze-Contingent Useful Field of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nathan; Gaspar, John G; Neider, Mark B; Crowell, James; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Hank; Ringer, Ryan V; Johnson, Aaron P; Loschky, Lester C; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-12-01

    Objective We implemented a gaze-contingent useful field of view paradigm to examine older adult multitasking performance in a simulated driving environment. Background Multitasking refers to the ability to manage multiple simultaneous streams of information. Recent work suggests that multitasking declines with age, yet the mechanisms supporting these declines are still debated. One possible framework to better understand this phenomenon is the useful field of view, or the area in the visual field where information can be attended and processed. In particular, the useful field of view allows for the discrimination of two competing theories of real-time multitasking, a general interference account and a tunneling account. Methods Twenty-five older adult subjects completed a useful field of view task that involved discriminating the orientation of lines in gaze-contingent Gabor patches appearing at varying eccentricities (based on distance from the fovea) as they operated a vehicle in a driving simulator. In half of the driving scenarios, subjects also completed an auditory two-back task to manipulate cognitive workload, and during some trials, wind was introduced as a means to alter general driving difficulty. Results Consistent with prior work, indices of driving performance were sensitive to both wind and workload. Interestingly, we also observed a decline in Gabor patch discrimination accuracy under high cognitive workload regardless of eccentricity, which provides support for a general interference account of multitasking. Conclusion The results showed that our gaze-contingent useful field of view paradigm was able to successfully examine older adult multitasking performance in a simulated driving environment. Application This study represents the first attempt to successfully measure dynamic changes in the useful field of view for older adults completing a multitasking scenario involving driving.

  7. Dealing with media distractions: An observational study of computer-based multitasking among children and adults in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate differences in computer-based multitasking among children and adults. Moreover, the study investigated how attention problems are related to computer-based multitasking and how these individual differences interact with age. Computer-based

  8. The development of multitasking in children aged 7-12 years: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.X.; Xie, W.; Chen, C.S.; Altgassen, A.M.; Wang, Y.; Cheung, E.F.C.; Chan, R.C.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the development of multitasking ability across childhood. A sample of 65 typically developing children aged 7, 9, and 11 years completed two multitasking tests across three time points within a year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data consistently indicated continuous

  9. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kep Kee Loh

    Full Text Available Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today's society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multitasking activity and brain structure. Research has demonstrated that brain structure can be altered upon prolonged exposure to novel environments and experience. Thus, we expected differential engagements in media multitasking to correlate with brain structure variability. This was confirmed via Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses: Individuals with higher Media Multitasking Index (MMI scores had smaller gray matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Functional connectivity between this ACC region and the precuneus was negatively associated with MMI. Our findings suggest a possible structural correlate for the observed decreased cognitive control performance and socio-emotional regulation in heavy media-multitaskers. While the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow us to specify the direction of causality, our results brought to light novel associations between individual media multitasking behaviors and ACC structure differences.

  10. Improving our understanding of multi-tasking in healthcare: Drawing together the cognitive psychology and healthcare literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Heather E; Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-03-01

    Multi-tasking is an important skill for clinical work which has received limited research attention. Its impacts on clinical work are poorly understood. In contrast, there is substantial multi-tasking research in cognitive psychology, driver distraction, and human-computer interaction. This review synthesises evidence of the extent and impacts of multi-tasking on efficiency and task performance from health and non-healthcare literature, to compare and contrast approaches, identify implications for clinical work, and to develop an evidence-informed framework for guiding the measurement of multi-tasking in future healthcare studies. The results showed healthcare studies using direct observation have focused on descriptive studies to quantify concurrent multi-tasking and its frequency in different contexts, with limited study of impact. In comparison, non-healthcare studies have applied predominantly experimental and simulation designs, focusing on interleaved and concurrent multi-tasking, and testing theories of the mechanisms by which multi-tasking impacts task efficiency and performance. We propose a framework to guide the measurement of multi-tasking in clinical settings that draws together lessons from these siloed research efforts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Multitasking on Listening Effectiveness in the Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Kushniryk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study evaluated the impact of multitasking and social presence on students’ performances in the learning environment. In the first live-presenter group, the participants listened to a lecture in a face-to-face environment. In the second virtual-presenter group, the participants listened on their computers to a pre-recorded lecture. The participants of these groups listened to a lecture and simultaneously wrote responses to open-ended online survey questions. While the participants of the first two groups were multitasking, those in the third group completed listening and writing tasks sequentially. It was found that multitasking significantly decreased performances on both the listening and writing tasks. The experiment also uncovered that the degree of social presence did not affect students’ performances on the listening or writing tasks in the learning environment. The perceived degree of social presence was the same in the virtual- and live-presenter groups.La présente étude expérimentale évalue les conséquences de la multiplicité des tâches et de la présence sociale sur la performance des étudiants dans l’environnement d’apprentissage. Le premier groupe a assisté à une cours donnée par un conférencier sur place. Le deuxième groupe a écouté le cours préenregistrée à partir d’un ordinateur. Les participants de ces deux groupes ont répondu simultanément en ligne aux questions ouvertes d’un sondage. Alors que les participants des deux premiers groupes ont effectué des tâches multiples simultanément, ceux du troisième groupe ont d’abord écouté puis ont répondu au sondage de façon séquentielle. Les chercheurs ont découvert que le fait de réaliser des tâches multiples entraînent une baisse importante de la performance en ce qui a trait à l’écoute et à la rédaction des réponses. L’expérience a aussi permis de découvrir que la présence en classe n’influe pas sur la

  12. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L; Migliore, Elaina M; Chipps, Esther M; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today's dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives.

  13. Media multitasking: Issues posed in measuring the effects of television sexual content exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who see more sexual content on television are more likely to initiate intercourse over the subsequent year. The present study hypothesized that use of the internet while watching television would moderate this relationship. Internet use might either strengthen or weaken the association between television-viewing and sex; various theories conflict in their predictions. A national sample of 1,762 12–17 year olds completed a telephone survey at baseline and one year later. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline exposure to sexual content on television was used to predict intercourse initiation by follow-up among baseline virgins. The equation controlled for potentially confounding characteristics and tested for an interaction between sexual content exposure and self-reported multitasking. Half of youth reported using the internet while watching television. The interaction between multitasking and sexual content exposure was significant; exposure to sexual content on television was more strongly related to sexual initiation among multitaskers. Divided attention may allow television messages to “slip past the radar” of viewers who would reject these messages if they devoted cognitive resources to critically examining them. Media multitasking is likely to become more prevalent as new media continue to be introduced. Future studies of television-viewing effects may need to assess multitasking to avoid missing effects in this important subgroup of viewers. PMID:20390045

  14. Short-term mindfulness intervention reduces the negative attentional effects associated with heavy media multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Thomas E.; Green, C. Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that frequently switching between various forms of media (i.e. ‘media multitasking’) is associated with diminished attentional abilities, a disconcerting result given the prevalence of media multitasking in today’s society. In the present study, we sought to investigate the extent to which the deficits associated with frequent media multitasking can be temporarily ameliorated via a short-term mindfulness intervention previously shown to produce beneficial effects on the attentional abilities of normally functioning individuals. Consistent with previous work, we found: (1) that heavy media multitaskers showed generally poorer attentional abilities than light media multitaskers and (2) that all participants showed benefits from the short-term mindfulness intervention. Furthermore, we found that the benefits of the short-term mindfulness intervention were not equivalently large across participants. Instead, these benefits were disproportionately large in the heavy media multitaskers. While the positive outcomes were short-lived, this opens the possibility of performing long-term interventions with the goal of realizing lasting gains in this population. PMID:27086504

  15. Improving multitasking assessment in healthy older adults using a prop-based version of the Breakfast task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowicz, Maria; MacPherson, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    Computerized cognitive assessment is becoming increasingly more common in clinical neuropsychological assessment and cognitive neuropsychological research. A number of computerized tasks now exist to assess multitasking abilities that are essential for everyday tasks such as cooking, shopping, or driving, but little is known about whether these tasks are appropriate for assessing older adults' multitasking. The present study directly compared age effects on multitasking when assessed using a computerized and a prop-based version of Craik and Bialystok's ( 2006 ) Breakfast task. Twenty participants aged 18 to 24 years and 20 participants aged 60 to 79 years were assessed on both versions of the Breakfast task. While age-related decrements in multitasking performance were found using the computerized task, significant age differences were not found on the majority of measures when the prop-based version was administered. The results suggest that age-related deficits in multitasking will be less when more contextualized, noncomputer based tasks are used.

  16. A load on my mind: evidence that anhedonic depression is like multi-tasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredemeier, Keith; Berenbaum, Howard; Brockmole, James R; Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Most, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Multi-tasking can increase susceptibility to distraction, affecting whether irrelevant objects capture attention. Similarly, people with depression often struggle to concentrate when performing cognitively demanding tasks. This parallel suggests that depression is like multi-tasking. To test this idea, we examined relations between self-reported levels of anhedonic depression (a dimension that reflects the unique aspects of depression not shared with anxiety or other forms of distress) and attention capture by salient items in a visual search task. Furthermore, we compared these relations to the effects of performing a concurrent auditory task on attention capture. Strikingly, both multi-tasking and elevated levels of anhedonic depression were associated with increased capture by uniquely colored items, but decreased capture by abruptly appearing items. At least with respect to attention capture and distraction, depression seems to be functionally comparable to juggling a second, unrelated cognitive task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-Stage Multi-Task Representation Learning for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Target Images Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Yijian; Tan, Zhiying; Li, Dong; Liu, Shujun; Wang, Tao; Li, Yongming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a two-stage multi-task learning representation method for the classification of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target images. The first stage of the proposed approach uses multi-features joint sparse representation learning, modeled as a ℓ 2 , 1 -norm regularized multi-task sparse learning problem, to find an effective subset of training samples. Then, a new dictionary is constructed based on the training subset. The second stage of the method is to perform target images classification based on the new dictionary, utilizing multi-task collaborative representation. The proposed algorithm not only exploits the discrimination ability of multiple features but also greatly reduces the interference of atoms that are irrelevant to the test sample, thus effectively improving classification performance. Conducted with the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) public SAR database, experimental results show that the proposed approach is effective and superior to many state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Avian migration: temporal multitasking and a case study of melatonin cycles in waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Barbara; Gwinner, Eberhard; Koolhaas, Anita; Battley, Phil; Schwabl, Ingrid; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2012-01-01

    Timing "in the real world" must cope with the temporal complexity of natural environments. Extreme examples for the resultant "multitasking" are migratory birds, which precisely time movements to remote areas. New field technologies highlight temporal accuracy, while captivity studies emphasize underlying programs and plasticity of schedules. After reviewing these findings, we focus on waders, which undertake spectacular long-distance migrations, have robust circannual clocks, and cope with diel, tidal, and polar environments. To explore features that may facilitate such multitasking, we speculated that melatonin amplitudes are low and damped during seasons when entrainment to subtle Zeitgebers occurs. We measured melatonin profiles under European daylength in two species with different ecologies and found low-amplitude melatonin cycles that changed over the year. Annual patterns neither fully supported our hypothesis, nor simply reflected daylight availability. While migratory birds are inspiring models for chronobiology, mechanistic understanding of their multitasking is still poor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Online Multitasking Line-Scan Imaging Techniques for Simultaneous Safety and Quality Evaluation of Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Sung; Lee, Kangjin; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Jun, Won

    We developed a push-broom, line-scan imaging system capable of simultaneous measurements of reflectance and fluorescence. The system allows multitasking inspections for quality and safety attributes of apples due to its dynamic capabilities in simultaneously capturing fluorescence and reflectance, and selectivity in multispectral bands. A multitasking image-based inspection system for online applications has been suggested in that a single imaging device that could perform a multitude of both safety and quality inspection needs. The presented multitask inspection approach in online applications may provide an economically viable means for a number of food processing industries being able to adapt to operate and meet the dynamic and specific inspection and sorting needs.

  20. The role of saccades in multitasking: towards an output-related view of eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestegge, Lynn

    2011-11-01

    The present paper presents an overview of research on the role of saccades in multitasking. Multitasking is known to cause performance costs in terms of increased response times and/or error rates. However, most of the previous research on multitasking was focused on manual and vocal action demands, and the role of eye movements has been largely neglected. As a consequence, saccade execution was mainly considered with respect to its functional role in gathering new visual information (input side of information processing). However, several more recent experiments confirmed that saccades both exhibit and cause dual-task costs in the context of other actions and should thus also be regarded as a response modality (output side of information processing). Theoretical implications as well as several open issues for future research will be outlined.

  1. Experiences and results multitasking a hydrodynamics code on global and local memory machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, D.

    1987-01-01

    A one-dimensional, time-dependent Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a Godunov solution method has been multitasked for the Cray X-MP/48, the Intel iPSC hypercube, the Alliant FX series and the IBM RP3 computers. Actual multitasking results have been obtained for the Cray, Intel and Alliant computers and simulated results were obtained for the Cray and RP3 machines. The differences in the methods required to multitask on each of the machines is discussed. Results are presented for a sample problem involving a shock wave moving down a channel. Comparisons are made between theoretical speedups, predicted by Amdahl's law, and the actual speedups obtained. The problems of debugging on the different machines are also described.

  2. On the optimization of multitasking process with multiplayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Wang, Nianxin; Xi, Zhendong; Li, Yujian; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In society, many problems can be understood as multitasking process with multiplayer (MPM). Choosing different strategies or different orders in processing tasks, an individual will spend a different amount of time to complete all the tasks. Therefore, a good strategy or a good order can help an individual work more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a model to study the optimization problems of MPM. The average time spent for all the tasks by an individual is calculated in each strategy, and we find the random choice strategy can make an individual spend less time in completing all tasks. The correlation coefficient between the order of each task processed by an individual and the corresponding time spent for all the tasks by the individual is also calculated. Then the internal statistics law between the order and the corresponding time is found and explains why the random choice strategy is better. Finally, we research the change of the queue length in each task with the time. These results have certain significance on theory and practical application on MPM.

  3. Mechanism of Resource Virtualization in RCS for Multitask Stream Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kirischian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization of logic, routing, and communication resources in recent FPGA devices can provide a dramatic improvement in cost-efficiency for reconfigurable computing systems (RCSs. The presented work is “proof-of-concept” research for the virtualization of the above resources in partially reconfigurable FPGA devices with a tile-based architecture. The following aspects have been investigated, prototyped, tested, and analyzed: (i platform architecture for hardware support of the dynamic allocation of Application Specific Virtual Processors (ASVPs, (ii mechanisms for run-time on-chip ASVP assembling using virtual hardware Components (VHCs as building blocks, and (iii mechanisms for dynamic on-chip relocation of VHCs to predetermined slots in the target FPGA. All the above mechanisms and procedures have been implemented and tested on a prototype platform—MARS (multitask adaptive reconfigurable system using a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA. The on-chip communication infrastructure has been developed and investigated in detail, and its timing and hardware overhead were analyzed. It was determined that component relocation can be done without affecting the ASVP pipeline cycle time and throughput. The hardware overhead was estimated as relatively small compared to the gain of other performance parameters. Finally, industrial applications associated with next generation space-borne platforms are discussed, where the proposed approach can be beneficial.

  4. Timing in multitasking: memory contamination and time pressure bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jungaa; Anderson, John R

    2013-01-01

    There can be systematic biases in time estimation when it is performed in complex multitasking situations. In this paper we focus on the mechanisms that cause participants to tend to respond too quickly and underestimate a target interval (250-400 ms) in a complex, real-time task. We hypothesized that two factors are responsible for the too-early bias: (1) Memory contamination from an even shorter time interval in the task, and (2) time pressure to take appropriate actions in time. In a simpler experiment that was focused on just these two factors, we found a strong too-early bias when participants estimated the target interval in alternation with a shorter interval and when they had little time to perform the task. The too-early bias was absent when they estimated the target interval in isolation without contamination and time pressure. A strong too-late bias occurred when the target interval alternated with a longer interval and there was no time pressure to respond. The effects were captured by incorporating the timing model of Taatgen and van Rijn (2011) into the ACT-R model for the Space Fortress task (Bothell, 2010). The results show that to properly understand time estimation in a dynamic task one needs to model the multiple influences that are occurring from the surrounding context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Driving and Multitasking: The Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer P.; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks. PMID:27877147

  6. What happens when we switch tasks: pupil dilation in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katidioti, Ioanna; Borst, Jelmer P; Taatgen, Niels A

    2014-12-01

    Interruption studies typically focus on external interruptions, even though self-interruptions occur at least as often in real work environments. In this article, we therefore contrast external interruptions with self-interruptions. Three multitasking experiments were conducted, in which we examined changes in pupil size when participants switched from a primary to a secondary task. Results showed an increase in pupil dilation several seconds before a self-interruption, which we could attribute to the decision to switch. This indicates that the decision takes a relatively large amount of time. This was supported by the fact that in Experiment 2, participants were significantly slower on the self-interruption blocks than on the external interruption blocks. These findings suggest that the decision to switch is costly, but may also be open for modification through appropriate training. In addition, we propose that if one must switch tasks, it can be more efficient to implement a forced switch after the completion of a subtask instead of leaving the decision to the user. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The problem state: a cognitive bottleneck in multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Taatgen, Niels A; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2010-03-01

    The main challenge for theories of multitasking is to predict when and how tasks interfere. Here, we focus on interference related to the problem state, a directly accessible intermediate representation of the current state of a task. On the basis of Salvucci and Taatgen's (2008) threaded cognition theory, we predict interference if 2 or more tasks require a problem state but not when only one task requires one. This prediction was tested in a series of 3 experiments. In Experiment 1, a subtraction task and a text entry task had to be carried out concurrently. Both tasks were presented in 2 versions: one that required maintaining a problem state and one that did not. A significant overadditive interaction effect was observed, showing that the interference between tasks was maximal when both tasks required a problem state. The other 2 experiments tested whether the interference was indeed due to a problem state bottleneck, instead of cognitive load (Experiment 2: an alternative subtraction and text entry experiment) or a phonological loop bottleneck (Experiment 3: a triple-task experiment that added phonological processing). Both experiments supported the problem state hypothesis. To account for the observed behavior, computational cognitive models were developed using threaded cognition within the context of the cognitive architecture ACT-R (Anderson, 2007). The models confirm that a problem state bottleneck can explain the observed interference.

  8. Diffusion LMS for Multitask Problems With Local Linear Equality Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Roula; Richard, Cedric; Ferrari, Andre; Sayed, Ali H.

    2017-10-01

    We consider distributed multitask learning problems over a network of agents where each agent is interested in estimating its own parameter vector, also called task, and where the tasks at neighboring agents are related according to a set of linear equality constraints. Each agent possesses its own convex cost function of its parameter vector and a set of linear equality constraints involving its own parameter vector and the parameter vectors of its neighboring agents. We propose an adaptive stochastic algorithm based on the projection gradient method and diffusion strategies in order to allow the network to optimize the individual costs subject to all constraints. Although the derivation is carried out for linear equality constraints, the technique can be applied to other forms of convex constraints. We conduct a detailed mean-square-error analysis of the proposed algorithm and derive closed-form expressions to predict its learning behavior. We provide simulations to illustrate the theoretical findings. Finally, the algorithm is employed for solving two problems in a distributed manner: a minimum-cost flow problem over a network and a space-time varying field reconstruction problem.

  9. Changes in gait pattern during multitask using smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, SoYeong; Kim, ChoRong; Song, SunHae; Lee, GyuChang

    2015-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, smartphones have been deeply involved in people's everyday lives, and many perform various tasks simultaneously on smartphones. To investigate gait pattern changes on performing multitask simultaneously when using smartphones. Three tasks were performed by 26 healthy adults. In the first, participants were directed to walk without using smartphones (single-task). In the second, they were required to walk while finding applications (dual-task). Lastly, in addition to performing the second task, they were asked to listen to questions and answer them on their smartphone (triple-task). Spatiotemporal variables of gait and degree of lateral deviation during walking were measured. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the single-task and dual tasks, as well as between the single task and triple task in all variables (p < 0.05). In particular, gait velocity decreased by 33.49% in the dual task and 41.69% in the triple task compared to the single-task, the degree of deviation increased by 119.18% in the dual task and 122.67% in the triple task in comparison to the single-task. It was determined that changes in gait, appear when walk while using smartphones in comparison to walking without using smartphones.

  10. A unified multitask architecture for predicting local protein properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Qi

    Full Text Available A variety of functionally important protein properties, such as secondary structure, transmembrane topology and solvent accessibility, can be encoded as a labeling of amino acids. Indeed, the prediction of such properties from the primary amino acid sequence is one of the core projects of computational biology. Accordingly, a panoply of approaches have been developed for predicting such properties; however, most such approaches focus on solving a single task at a time. Motivated by recent, successful work in natural language processing, we propose to use multitask learning to train a single, joint model that exploits the dependencies among these various labeling tasks. We describe a deep neural network architecture that, given a protein sequence, outputs a host of predicted local properties, including secondary structure, solvent accessibility, transmembrane topology, signal peptides and DNA-binding residues. The network is trained jointly on all these tasks in a supervised fashion, augmented with a novel form of semi-supervised learning in which the model is trained to distinguish between local patterns from natural and synthetic protein sequences. The task-independent architecture of the network obviates the need for task-specific feature engineering. We demonstrate that, for all of the tasks that we considered, our approach leads to statistically significant improvements in performance, relative to a single task neural network approach, and that the resulting model achieves state-of-the-art performance.

  11. Multitask Gaussian processes for multivariate physiological time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürichen, Robert; Pimentel, Marco A F; Clifton, Lei; Schweikard, Achim; Clifton, David A

    2015-01-01

    Gaussian process (GP) models are a flexible means of performing nonparametric Bayesian regression. However, GP models in healthcare are often only used to model a single univariate output time series, denoted as single-task GPs (STGP). Due to an increasing prevalence of sensors in healthcare settings, there is an urgent need for robust multivariate time-series tools. Here, we propose a method using multitask GPs (MTGPs) which can model multiple correlated multivariate physiological time series simultaneously. The flexible MTGP framework can learn the correlation between multiple signals even though they might be sampled at different frequencies and have training sets available for different intervals. Furthermore, prior knowledge of any relationship between the time series such as delays and temporal behavior can be easily integrated. A novel normalization is proposed to allow interpretation of the various hyperparameters used in the MTGP. We investigate MTGPs for physiological monitoring with synthetic data sets and two real-world problems from the field of patient monitoring and radiotherapy. The results are compared with standard Gaussian processes and other existing methods in the respective biomedical application areas. In both cases, we show that our framework learned the correlation between physiological time series efficiently, outperforming the existing state of the art.

  12. A Unified Multitask Architecture for Predicting Local Protein Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjun; Oja, Merja; Weston, Jason; Noble, William Stafford

    2012-01-01

    A variety of functionally important protein properties, such as secondary structure, transmembrane topology and solvent accessibility, can be encoded as a labeling of amino acids. Indeed, the prediction of such properties from the primary amino acid sequence is one of the core projects of computational biology. Accordingly, a panoply of approaches have been developed for predicting such properties; however, most such approaches focus on solving a single task at a time. Motivated by recent, successful work in natural language processing, we propose to use multitask learning to train a single, joint model that exploits the dependencies among these various labeling tasks. We describe a deep neural network architecture that, given a protein sequence, outputs a host of predicted local properties, including secondary structure, solvent accessibility, transmembrane topology, signal peptides and DNA-binding residues. The network is trained jointly on all these tasks in a supervised fashion, augmented with a novel form of semi-supervised learning in which the model is trained to distinguish between local patterns from natural and synthetic protein sequences. The task-independent architecture of the network obviates the need for task-specific feature engineering. We demonstrate that, for all of the tasks that we considered, our approach leads to statistically significant improvements in performance, relative to a single task neural network approach, and that the resulting model achieves state-of-the-art performance. PMID:22461885

  13. Generalized SMO algorithm for SVM-based multitask learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Cherkassky, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Exploiting additional information to improve traditional inductive learning is an active research area in machine learning. In many supervised-learning applications, training data can be naturally separated into several groups, and incorporating this group information into learning may improve generalization. Recently, Vapnik proposed a general approach to formalizing such problems, known as "learning with structured data" and its support vector machine (SVM) based optimization formulation called SVM+. Liang and Cherkassky showed the connection between SVM+ and multitask learning (MTL) approaches in machine learning, and proposed an SVM-based formulation for MTL called SVM+MTL for classification. Training the SVM+MTL classifier requires the solution of a large quadratic programming optimization problem which scales as O(n(3)) with sample size n. So there is a need to develop computationally efficient algorithms for implementing SVM+MTL. This brief generalizes Platt's sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm to the SVM+MTL setting. Empirical results show that, for typical SVM+MTL problems, the proposed generalized SMO achieves over 100 times speed-up, in comparison with general-purpose optimization routines.

  14. Driving and Multitasking: The Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer P; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  15. Driving and Multitasking: the Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Nijboer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver’s ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver’s lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  16. Multitasking: Effects of processing multiple auditory feature patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tova; Chen, Sufen; Lee, Wei Wei; Sussman, Elyse S

    2015-09-01

    ERPs and behavioral responses were measured to assess how task-irrelevant sounds interact with task processing demands and affect the ability to monitor and track multiple sound events. Participants listened to four-tone sequential frequency patterns, and responded to frequency pattern deviants (reversals of the pattern). Irrelevant tone feature patterns (duration and intensity) and respective pattern deviants were presented together with frequency patterns and frequency pattern deviants in separate conditions. Responses to task-relevant and task-irrelevant feature pattern deviants were used to test processing demands for irrelevant sound input. Behavioral performance was significantly better when there were no distracting feature patterns. Errors primarily occurred in response to the to-be-ignored feature pattern deviants. Task-irrelevant elicitation of ERP components was consistent with the error analysis, indicating a level of processing for the irrelevant features. Task-relevant elicitation of ERP components was consistent with behavioral performance, demonstrating a "cost" of performance when there were two feature patterns presented simultaneously. These results provide evidence that the brain tracked the irrelevant duration and intensity feature patterns, affecting behavioral performance. Overall, our results demonstrate that irrelevant informational streams are processed at a cost, which may be considered a type of multitasking that is an ongoing, automatic processing of task-irrelevant sensory events. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Personal PM2.5 exposure among wildland firefighters working at prescribed forest burns in southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Adetona; K Dunn; Gary Achtemeier; A Stock; L Naeher

    2011-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are primarily responsible forwildfire suppression in wildlands, including forests, grasslands, and brush, but also engage in prescribed burning. Prescribed burns, as opposed to wildfires, are intentionally set by firefighters and are used as a land management tool for improving forage value of the forests, and reducing wildfire hazard and...

  18. Effects of season on ignition of live wildland fuels using the forced ignition and flame spread test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. McAllister; D. R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of what variables affect the ignition of live wildland fuels is crucial to predicting crown fire spread, the most poorly understood type of wildland fire. Ignition tests were performed over the course of an entire year for ten species (three species in year one, seven in year two) to evaluate seasonal changes in flammability. Ignition delay and mass...

  19. Social science to improve fuels management: a synthesis of research on the impacts of wildland fires on communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. McCool; James Burchfield; Daniel R. Williams; Matt Carroll; Patricia Cohn; Yoshitaka Kumagai; Tam Ubben

    2007-01-01

    A series of syntheses were commissioned by the U.S. Forest Service to aid in fuels mitigation project planning. Focusing on research on the social impacts of wildland fire, this synthesis explores decisions and actions taken by communities before, during, and after a wildland fire to minimize its impacts. It then synthesizes the research studying (1) the consequences...

  20. Laboratory investigation of fire transfer from exterior wood decks to buildings in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Donald S. Stone; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2017-01-01

    In the wildland-urban interface, wood decks are a target for wildfire and may be ignited by firebrands or flaming debris. Wood decks also present a potential source for ignition of structures in the wildland-urban interface. However, their role in ignition of the adjacent structure is unclear and current regulation is based in part on anecdotal evidence. This paper...

  1. A site-specific approach for assessing the fire risk to structures at the wildland/urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Cohen

    1991-01-01

    The essence of the wildland/urban interface fire problem is the loss of homes. The problem is not new, but is becoming increasingly important as more homes with inadequate adherence to safety codes are built at the wildland/urban interface. Current regulatory codes are inflexible. Specifications for building and site characteristics cannot be adjusted to accommodate...

  2. A changing landscape in the wildland-urban interface: permanent and seasonal home owners, recreation and fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine A. Vogt; Stanley J. Cindrity

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports research completed in the fall/winter seasons of 2001/2002 on home owners living in the wildland urban interface for the USDA Forest Service. The primary research focus was to understand human dimensions of wildland fire, particularly attitudes toward and approval of three fuel treatment types (prescribed burning, mechanical thinning, and defensible...

  3. Residents warming up to fuels management: homeowners? acceptance of wildfire and fuels management in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Winter; Christine Vogt; Sarah McCaffrey

    2006-01-01

    Many wildland fire managers, concerned about public acceptance of local fuels management programs, want to better communicate with local residents about these programs. Research at diverse study sites shows wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents rely on common factors to decide whether or not to support particular fuels management approaches such as prescribed...

  4. Assessing wildfire exposure in the Wildland-Urban Interface area of the mountains of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argañaraz, J P; Radeloff, V C; Bar-Massada, A; Gavier-Pizarro, G I; Scavuzzo, C M; Bellis, L M

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery. The areas where houses and wildland vegetation intermingle were classified as Intermix WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km2 and wildland vegetation cover > 50%), and the areas where wildland vegetation abuts settlements were classified as Interface WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km2, wildland vegetation cover wildfires and most of the buildings located in areas of higher burn probability. Our findings can help focus fire management activities in areas of higher risk, and ultimately provide support for landscape management and planning aimed at reducing wildfire risk in WUI communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

    2009-06-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

  6. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on Multitasking Throughput Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Nelson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multitasking has become an integral attribute associated with military operations within the past several decades. As the amount of information that needs to be processed during these high level multitasking environments exceeds the human operators’ capabilities, the information throughput capacity reaches an asymptotic limit. At this point, the human operator can no longer effectively process and respond to the incoming information resulting in a plateau or decline in performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-invasive brain stimulation technique known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied to a scalp location over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC to improve information processing capabilities during a multitasking environment. Methods: The study consisted of 20 participants from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (16 male and 4 female with an average age of 31.1 (SD = 4.5. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups, each consisting of eight males and two females. Group one received 2mA of anodal tDCS and group two received sham tDCS over the lDLPFC on their testing day. Results: The findings indicate that anodal tDCS significantly improves the participants’ information processing capability resulting in improved performance compared to sham tDCS. For example, the multitasking throughput capacity for the sham tDCS group plateaued near 1.0 bits/s at the higher baud input (2.0 bits/s whereas the anodal tDCS group plateaued near 1.3 bits/s. Conclusion: The findings provided new evidence that tDCS has the ability to augment and enhance multitasking capability in a human operator. Future research should be conducted to determine the longevity of the enhancement of transcranial direct current stimulation on multitasking performance, which has yet to be accomplished.

  7. Inferring latent task structure for Multitask Learning by Multiple Kernel Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Christian; Toussaint, Nora C; Altun, Yasemin; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2010-10-26

    The lack of sufficient training data is the limiting factor for many Machine Learning applications in Computational Biology. If data is available for several different but related problem domains, Multitask Learning algorithms can be used to learn a model based on all available information. In Bioinformatics, many problems can be cast into the Multitask Learning scenario by incorporating data from several organisms. However, combining information from several tasks requires careful consideration of the degree of similarity between tasks. Our proposed method simultaneously learns or refines the similarity between tasks along with the Multitask Learning classifier. This is done by formulating the Multitask Learning problem as Multiple Kernel Learning, using the recently published q-Norm MKL algorithm. We demonstrate the performance of our method on two problems from Computational Biology. First, we show that our method is able to improve performance on a splice site dataset with given hierarchical task structure by refining the task relationships. Second, we consider an MHC-I dataset, for which we assume no knowledge about the degree of task relatedness. Here, we are able to learn the task similarities ab initio along with the Multitask classifiers. In both cases, we outperform baseline methods that we compare against. We present a novel approach to Multitask Learning that is capable of learning task similarity along with the classifiers. The framework is very general as it allows to incorporate prior knowledge about tasks relationships if available, but is also able to identify task similarities in absence of such prior information. Both variants show promising results in applications from Computational Biology.

  8. Inferring latent task structure for Multitask Learning by Multiple Kernel Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun Yasemin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of sufficient training data is the limiting factor for many Machine Learning applications in Computational Biology. If data is available for several different but related problem domains, Multitask Learning algorithms can be used to learn a model based on all available information. In Bioinformatics, many problems can be cast into the Multitask Learning scenario by incorporating data from several organisms. However, combining information from several tasks requires careful consideration of the degree of similarity between tasks. Our proposed method simultaneously learns or refines the similarity between tasks along with the Multitask Learning classifier. This is done by formulating the Multitask Learning problem as Multiple Kernel Learning, using the recently published q-Norm MKL algorithm. Results We demonstrate the performance of our method on two problems from Computational Biology. First, we show that our method is able to improve performance on a splice site dataset with given hierarchical task structure by refining the task relationships. Second, we consider an MHC-I dataset, for which we assume no knowledge about the degree of task relatedness. Here, we are able to learn the task similarities ab initio along with the Multitask classifiers. In both cases, we outperform baseline methods that we compare against. Conclusions We present a novel approach to Multitask Learning that is capable of learning task similarity along with the classifiers. The framework is very general as it allows to incorporate prior knowledge about tasks relationships if available, but is also able to identify task similarities in absence of such prior information. Both variants show promising results in applications from Computational Biology.

  9. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Multitasking Throughput Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Justin; McKinley, Richard A; Phillips, Chandler; McIntire, Lindsey; Goodyear, Chuck; Kreiner, Aerial; Monforton, Lanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multitasking has become an integral attribute associated with military operations within the past several decades. As the amount of information that needs to be processed during these high level multitasking environments exceeds the human operators' capabilities, the information throughput capacity reaches an asymptotic limit. At this point, the human operator can no longer effectively process and respond to the incoming information resulting in a plateau or decline in performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a non-invasive brain stimulation technique known as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to a scalp location over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) to improve information processing capabilities during a multitasking environment. Methods: The study consisted of 20 participants from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (16 male and 4 female) with an average age of 31.1 (SD = 4.5). Participants were randomly assigned into two groups, each consisting of eight males and two females. Group one received 2 mA of anodal tDCS and group two received sham tDCS over the lDLPFC on their testing day. Results: The findings indicate that anodal tDCS significantly improves the participants' information processing capability resulting in improved performance compared to sham tDCS. For example, the multitasking throughput capacity for the sham tDCS group plateaued near 1.0 bits/s at the higher baud input (2.0 bits/s) whereas the anodal tDCS group plateaued near 1.3 bits/s. Conclusion: The findings provided new evidence that tDCS has the ability to augment and enhance multitasking capability in a human operator. Future research should be conducted to determine the longevity of the enhancement of transcranial direct current stimulation on multitasking performance, which has yet to be accomplished.

  10. A neuropsychological investigation of multitasking in HIV infection: implications for everyday functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Cobb; Woods, Steven Paul; Vigil, Ofilio; Heaton, Robert K; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Marcotte, Thomas D

    2011-07-01

    A subset of individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment experience related deficits in "real world" functioning (i.e., independently performing instrumental activities of daily living [IADL]). While performance-based tests of everyday functioning are reasonably sensitive to HIV-associated IADL declines, questions remain regarding the extent to which these tests' highly structured nature fully captures the inherent complexities of daily life. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive and ecological validity of a novel multitasking measure in HIV infection. Participants included 60 individuals with HIV infection (HIV+) and 25 demographically comparable seronegative adults (HIV-). Participants were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, questionnaires assessing mood and everyday functioning, and a novel standardized test of multitasking, which involved balancing the demands of four interconnected performance-based functional tasks (i.e., financial management, cooking, medication management, and telephone communication). HIV+ individuals demonstrated significantly worse overall performance, fewer simultaneous task attempts, and increased errors on the multitasking test as compared to the HIV- group. Within the HIV+ sample, multitasking impairments were modestly associated with deficits on standard neuropsychological measures of executive functions, episodic memory, attention/working memory, and information processing speed, providing preliminary evidence for convergent validity. More importantly, multivariate prediction models revealed that multitasking deficits were uniquely predictive of IADL dependence beyond the effects of depression and global neurocognitive impairment, with excellent sensitivity (86%), but modest specificity (57%). Taken together, these data indicate that multitasking ability may play an important role in successful everyday functioning in HIV+ individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights

  11. Multitasking: multiple, domain-specific cognitive functions in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Robert H; Trawley, Steven; Law, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Multitasking among three or more different tasks is a ubiquitous requirement of everyday cognition, yet rarely is it addressed in research on healthy adults who have had no specific training in multitasking skills. Participants completed a set of diverse subtasks within a simulated shopping mall and office environment, the Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). The aim was to investigate how different cognitive functions, such as planning, retrospective and prospective memory, and visuospatial and verbal working memory, contribute to everyday multitasking. Subtasks were chosen to be diverse, and predictions were derived from a statistical model of everyday multitasking impairments associated with frontal-lobe lesions (Burgess, Veitch, de Lacy Costello, & Shallice, 2000b). Multiple regression indicated significant independent contributions from measures of retrospective memory, visuospatial working memory, and online planning, but not from independent measures of prospective memory or verbal working memory. Structural equation modelling showed that the best fit to the data arose from three underlying constructs, with Memory and Planning having a weak link, but with both having a strong directional pathway to an Intent construct that reflected implementation of intentions. Participants who followed their preprepared plan achieved higher scores than those who altered their plan during multitask performance. This was true regardless of whether the plan was efficient or poor. These results substantially develop and extend the Burgess et al. (2000b) model to healthy adults and yield new insight into the poorly understood area of everyday multitasking. The findings also point to the utility of using virtual environments for investigating this form of complex human cognition.

  12. The functional neuroanatomy of multitasking: combining dual tasking with a short term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprez, Sabine; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ron; Emsell, Louise; Amant, Frederic; Sunaert, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Insight into the neural architecture of multitasking is crucial when investigating the pathophysiology of multitasking deficits in clinical populations. Presently, little is known about how the brain combines dual-tasking with a concurrent short-term memory task, despite the relevance of this mental operation in daily life and the frequency of complaints related to this process, in disease. In this study we aimed to examine how the brain responds when a memory task is added to dual-tasking. Thirty-three right-handed healthy volunteers (20 females, mean age 39.9 ± 5.8) were examined with functional brain imaging (fMRI). The paradigm consisted of two cross-modal single tasks (a visual and auditory temporal same-different task with short delay), a dual-task combining both single tasks simultaneously and a multi-task condition, combining the dual-task with an additional short-term memory task (temporal same-different visual task with long delay). Dual-tasking compared to both individual visual and auditory single tasks activated a predominantly right-sided fronto-parietal network and the cerebellum. When adding the additional short-term memory task, a larger and more bilateral frontoparietal network was recruited. We found enhanced activity during multitasking in components of the network that were already involved in dual-tasking, suggesting increased working memory demands, as well as recruitment of multitask-specific components including areas that are likely to be involved in online holding of visual stimuli in short-term memory such as occipito-temporal cortex. These results confirm concurrent neural processing of a visual short-term memory task during dual-tasking and provide evidence for an effective fMRI multitasking paradigm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Responses in bird communities to wildland fires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Mark B.; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Rochester, Carlton J.; Stokes, Drew C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature covering the responses of bird species to wildland fire events. Our study was unique among these because we investigated the effects of large-scale wildland fires on entire bird communities across multiple vegetation types. We conducted avian point counts during the breeding seasons for two years before and two years after the Cedar and Otay Fires in 2003 in southern California. Our balanced sampling effort took place at two sites, one low-elevation and one high-elevation, each containing replicate stations (burned and unburned) within five vegetation types: chaparral, coastal sage scrub, grassland, oak woodland, and riparian. Although fire caused some degree of change in the vegetation structure at all of our impacted survey points, we found that the post-fire shrub and tree cover was significantly lower in only two of the vegetation types within the low-elevation site, coastal sage scrub and chaparral. We found no significant changes in cover at the high-elevation site. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we tested whether the fires were associated with a change in bird species diversity, community structure, and the relative abundance of individuals within a species. We found that species diversity changed in only one circumstance: it increased in coastal sage scrub at the low-elevation site. Multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in the post-fire bird community structure in the low-elevation chaparral, low-elevation coastal sage scrub, and the high-elevation grassland communities. Vegetation characteristics altered by fire, such as decreases in shrub and tree cover, influenced the changes we observed in the bird communities. The relative abundance of some species (lazuli bunting [Passerina amoena] and horned lark [Eremophila alpestris]) significantly increased after the fires, while other species declined significantly (Anna's hummingbird [Calypte anna], wrentit [Chamaea fasciata], and bushtit

  14. Dedicated workspaces: Faster resumption times and reduced cognitive load in sequential multitasking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that virtual desktops have become a widespread approach to window management within desktop environments. However, despite their success, there is no experimental evidence of their effect on multitasking. In this paper, we present an experimental study incorporating 16 participants...... to perform the same tasks. Results show that adopting virtual desktops as dedicated workspaces allows for faster task resumption (10 s faster on average) and reduced cognitive load during sequential multitasking. Within our experiment the majority of users already benefited from using dedicated workspaces...

  15. Multitasking for flows about multiple body configurations using the chimera grid scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, F. C.; Morgan, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The multitasking of a finite-difference scheme using multiple overset meshes is described. In this chimera, or multiple overset mesh approach, a multiple body configuration is mapped using a major grid about the main component of the configuration, with minor overset meshes used to map each additional component. This type of code is well suited to multitasking. Both steady and unsteady two dimensional computations are run on parallel processors on a CRAY-X/MP 48, usually with one mesh per processor. Flow field results are compared with single processor results to demonstrate the feasibility of running multiple mesh codes on parallel processors and to show the increase in efficiency.

  16. A cross-sectional survey of occupational history as a wildland firefighter and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Erin O; Domitrovich, Joseph; Conway, Kathrene; Noonan, Curtis W

    2016-04-01

    Little is known regarding the impact of long-term wildland firefighting on health. Our objective was to investigate associations between duration of wildland firefighting experience and the prevalence of self-reported health outcomes. We ascertained employment, health, and demographic information on 499 current wildland firefighters (WLFFs) via questionnaire. Relative to those with less than 10 years of experience as a WLFF, those with 10-19 years of experience had significantly greater odds of having ever been diagnosed with hypertension, as did those with 20 or more years of experience. Significant associations were observed for report of physician-diagnosed heart arrhythmia and previous knee surgery. We observed significant links between a greater number of years as a WLFF and self-report of two subclinical cardiovascular risk factors as well as markers of musculoskeletal health. Additional studies are needed to determine if findings can be generalized to all WLFFs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  18. “Women Are Better Than Men”–Public Beliefs on Gender Differences and Other Aspects in Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szameitat, André J.; Hamaida, Yasmin; Tulley, Rebecca S.; Saylik, Rahmi; Otermans, Pauldy C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Reports in public media suggest the existence of a stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. The present online survey aimed at supporting this incidental observation by empirical data. For this, 488 participants from various ethnic backgrounds (US, UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey, and others) filled out a self-developed online-questionnaire. Results showed that overall more than 50% of the participants believed in gender differences in multitasking abilities. Of those who believed in gender differences, a majority of 80% believed that women were better at multitasking. The main reasons for this were believed to be an evolutionary advantage and more multitasking practice in women, mainly due to managing children and household and/or family and job. Findings were consistent across the different countries, thus supporting the existence of a widespread gender stereotype that women are better at multitasking than men. Further questionnaire results provided information about the participants’ self-rated own multitasking abilities, and how they conceived multitasking activities such as childcare, phoning while driving, and office work. PMID:26479359

  19. Does multitasking mediate the relationships between episodic memory, attention, executive functions and apathetic manifestations in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, Annabelle; Rochat, Lucien; Dromer, Emilie; Azouvi, Philippe; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-05-27

    Apathy is frequently described in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); its negative consequences particularly affect functional independence. Among apathetic manifestations, lack of initiative and lack of interest have mainly been associated with cognitive impairments. However, few studies have been conducted to precisely identify the underlying cognitive processes. Our aims were (1) to determine the best predictor of apathy from among several cognitive processes, including episodic memory and attention/executive mechanisms and multitasking, and (2) to examine to what extent multitasking could mediate the relationships between specific cognitive processes and lack of initiative/interest. Seventy participants (34 patients with TBI matched with 36 control participants) were given a questionnaire to assess anxio-depressive symptoms, four tasks to assess specific cognitive processes, and one task to assess real-life multitasking. Participants' relatives completed an apathy questionnaire. Multitasking, as assessed by the number of goals not achieved, was the only significant predictor of apathetic manifestations. In addition, the mediation analyses revealed that multitasking performance mediated the relationships between verbal episodic memory and lack of initiative/interest, whereas executive and attentional functions were only indirectly related to lack of initiative/interest due to their significant impacts on multitasking. These results shed new light on the aetiology of apathetic manifestations in patients with TBI, indicating how specific cognitive deficits are expressed in real-life multitasking, and consequently, how they may lead to the development and/or maintenance of apathetic manifestations. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The development of multitasking in children aged 7-12years: Evidence from cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Xiao; Xie, Weizhen; Chen, Chu-Sheng; Altgassen, Mareike; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the development of multitasking ability across childhood. A sample of 65 typically developing children aged 7, 9, and 11years completed two multitasking tests across three time points within a year. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data consistently indicated continuous linear growth in children's multitasking ability. By the age of 12years, children could effectively perform a simple multitasking scenario comprising six equally important tasks, although their ability to strategically organize assorted tasks with varied values and priorities in a complex multitasking setting had not reached proficiency yet. Cognitive functions underlying a complex multitasking scenario varied in their developmental trajectories. Retrospective memory developed continuously from 7 to 12years of age, suggesting its supporting role in the development of multitasking. Planning skills developed slowly and showed practice effects for older children but not for younger children. The ability to adhere to plans also developed slowly, and children of all age groups benefited from practice. This study offers a preliminary benchmark for future comparison with clinical populations and may help to inform the development of targeted interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific and social challenges for the management of fire-prone wildland-urban interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A. Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L.

    2009-09-01

    At their worst, fires at the rural-urban or wildland-urban interface cause tragic loss of human lives and homes, but mitigating these fire effects through management elicits many social and scientific challenges. This paper addresses four interconnected management challenges posed by socially disastrous landscape fires. The issues concern various assets (particularly houses, human life and biodiversity), fuel treatments, and fire and human behaviours. The topics considered are: 'asset protection zones'; 'defensible space' and urban fire spread in relation to house ignition and loss; 'stay-or-go' policy and the prediction of time available for safe egress and the possible conflict between the creation of defensible space and wildland management objectives. The first scientific challenge is to model the effective width of an asset protection zone of an urban area. The second is to consider the effect of vegetation around a house, potentially defensible space, on fire arrival at the structure. The third scientific challenge is to present stakeholders with accurate information on rates of spread, and where the fire front is located, so as to allow them to plan safe egress or preparation time in their particular circumstances. The fourth scientific challenge is to be able to predict the effects of fires on wildland species composition. Associated with each scientific challenge is a social challenge: for the first two scientific challenges the social challenge is to co-ordinate fuel management within and between the urban and rural or wildland sides of the interface. For the third scientific challenge, the social challenge is to be aware of, and appropriately use, fire danger information so that the potential for safe egress from a home can be estimated most accurately. Finally, the fourth social challenge is to for local residents of wildland-urban interfaces with an interest in biodiversity conservation to understand the effects of fire regimes on biodiversity, thereby

  2. Scientific and social challenges for the management of fire-prone wildland-urban interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, A Malcolm [Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Acton, ACT, 0200 (Australia); Stephens, Scott L [Division of Ecosystem Science, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    At their worst, fires at the rural-urban or wildland-urban interface cause tragic loss of human lives and homes, but mitigating these fire effects through management elicits many social and scientific challenges. This paper addresses four interconnected management challenges posed by socially disastrous landscape fires. The issues concern various assets (particularly houses, human life and biodiversity), fuel treatments, and fire and human behaviours. The topics considered are: 'asset protection zones'; 'defensible space' and urban fire spread in relation to house ignition and loss; 'stay-or-go' policy and the prediction of time available for safe egress and the possible conflict between the creation of defensible space and wildland management objectives. The first scientific challenge is to model the effective width of an asset protection zone of an urban area. The second is to consider the effect of vegetation around a house, potentially defensible space, on fire arrival at the structure. The third scientific challenge is to present stakeholders with accurate information on rates of spread, and where the fire front is located, so as to allow them to plan safe egress or preparation time in their particular circumstances. The fourth scientific challenge is to be able to predict the effects of fires on wildland species composition. Associated with each scientific challenge is a social challenge: for the first two scientific challenges the social challenge is to co-ordinate fuel management within and between the urban and rural or wildland sides of the interface. For the third scientific challenge, the social challenge is to be aware of, and appropriately use, fire danger information so that the potential for safe egress from a home can be estimated most accurately. Finally, the fourth social challenge is to for local residents of wildland-urban interfaces with an interest in biodiversity conservation to understand the effects of fire

  3. Assessing the Role and Impact of Geospatial Data for Wildland Fire Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. A.; Lev, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 Wildland and Fire Science and Technology Task Force Final Report, produced by the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, highlighted the increasing frequency of large wildfires and the growing demand for science to inform critical resource decisions to manage, mitigate, respond to, and recover from wildland fires. Federal spending on fire suppression from 2005-2015 has more than doubled despite policy changes that prioritize the mitigation of fire risks through the use of fuel treatments, prescribed fire, and management of naturally occurring wildfires to protect life and property. Fire suppression policies over the last century have created forests primed for severe fire, and in the face of a changing climate, the benefits of re-introducing fire into once fire-resilient ecosystems are clear. There are a range of complex factors and regional variation associated with wildland fire risk that complicate our understanding and effective management of this hazard. Data derived from Earth-observing (EO) systems and networks are a crucial input for managers when making decisions about fire suppression and fuel management. EO data can also be used to develop pre- and post-fire metrics that can aid in the evaluating the effectiveness of wildland fire management decisions. A value-tree method for mapping the role of EO systems and networks in delivering societal benefit through key Federal objectives related to wildland fire management will be presented. The value-tree methodology utilizes input from subject matter experts to assess the availability and usability of data and data products and to evaluate the impact of individual EO data inputs for achieving wildland fire management objectives. The results provide a qualitative assessment of the value of the data for the objectives described and identify critical gaps and continuity issues associated with

  4. Adaptive postural control for joint immobilization during multitask performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    Motor abundance is an essential feature of adaptive control. The range of joint combinations enabled by motor abundance provides the body with the necessary freedom to adopt different positions, configurations, and movements that allow for exploratory postural behavior. This study investigated the adaptation of postural control to joint immobilization during multi-task performance. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 males and 6 females; 21-29 yr) without any known neurological deficits, musculoskeletal conditions, or balance disorders participated in this study. The participants executed a targeting task, alone or combined with a ball-balancing task, while standing with free or restricted joint motions. The effects of joint configuration variability on center of mass (COM) stability were examined using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The UCM method separates joint variability into two components: the first is consistent with the use of motor abundance, which does not affect COM position (VUCM); the second leads to COM position variability (VORT). The analysis showed that joints were coordinated such that their variability had a minimal effect on COM position. However, the component of joint variability that reflects the use of motor abundance to stabilize COM (VUCM) was significant decreased when the participants performed the combined task with immobilized joints. The component of joint variability that leads to COM variability (VORT) tended to increase with a reduction in joint degrees of freedom. The results suggested that joint immobilization increases the difficulty of stabilizing COM when multiple tasks are performed simultaneously. These findings are important for developing rehabilitation approaches for patients with limited joint movements.

  5. Adaptive postural control for joint immobilization during multitask performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li Hsu

    Full Text Available Motor abundance is an essential feature of adaptive control. The range of joint combinations enabled by motor abundance provides the body with the necessary freedom to adopt different positions, configurations, and movements that allow for exploratory postural behavior. This study investigated the adaptation of postural control to joint immobilization during multi-task performance. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 males and 6 females; 21-29 yr without any known neurological deficits, musculoskeletal conditions, or balance disorders participated in this study. The participants executed a targeting task, alone or combined with a ball-balancing task, while standing with free or restricted joint motions. The effects of joint configuration variability on center of mass (COM stability were examined using uncontrolled manifold (UCM analysis. The UCM method separates joint variability into two components: the first is consistent with the use of motor abundance, which does not affect COM position (VUCM; the second leads to COM position variability (VORT. The analysis showed that joints were coordinated such that their variability had a minimal effect on COM position. However, the component of joint variability that reflects the use of motor abundance to stabilize COM (VUCM was significant decreased when the participants performed the combined task with immobilized joints. The component of joint variability that leads to COM variability (VORT tended to increase with a reduction in joint degrees of freedom. The results suggested that joint immobilization increases the difficulty of stabilizing COM when multiple tasks are performed simultaneously. These findings are important for developing rehabilitation approaches for patients with limited joint movements.

  6. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, John S

    2003-04-01

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  7. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management Environmental Assessment - April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    2003-04-30

    DOE prepared an environmental assessment (EA)for wildland fire management activities on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) (DOE/EA-1372). The EA was developed to evaluate wildland fire management options for pre-fire, fire suppression, and post fire activities. Those activities have an important role in minimizing the conversion of the native sagebrush steppe ecosystem found on the INEEL to non-native weeds. Four alternative management approaches were analyzed: Alternative 1 - maximum fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 2 - balanced fire protection; Alternative 3 - protect infrastructure and personnel; and Alternative 4 - no action/traditional fire protection.

  8. A Nation in Need: The Air Reserve Component and Wildland Firefighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    i AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A NATION IN NEED: THE AIR RESERVE COMPONENT AND WILDLAND FIREFIGHTING by Jupe A. Etheridge, Lt Col...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Nation In Need: The Air Reserve Component And Wildland Firefighting 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...lines of authority, it may not be in the best interest of the DoD or the ARC. Background The origins of the MAFFS firefighting capability extends

  9. New Research on Multitasking Points to Role of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    For a generation of children immersed in technology, emerging research suggests that while the temptation to multitask may be pervasive, the ability to control it could be the real bellwether of academic success. The pervasiveness of technology and social media, coupled with a fear of missing out on something important, has led students to pay…

  10. Examining the Effects of Distractive Multitasking with Peripheral Computing in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Jaime E.

    2017-01-01

    The growing use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in college campuses has dramatically increased the potential for multitasking among students who have to juggle classes, school assignments, work, and recreational activities. These students believe that they have become more efficient by performing two or more tasks…

  11. No A 4 U: The Relationship between Multitasking and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junco, Reynol; Cotten, Shelia R.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation and ease of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Facebook, text messaging, and instant messaging has resulted in ICT users being presented with more real-time streaming data than ever before. Unfortunately, this has also resulted in individuals increasingly engaging in multitasking as an information…

  12. Multi-tasking control system for real-time processing of biomedical signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westdijk, J.A.; van Alste, Jan A.; Schoute, Albert L.

    1988-01-01

    A general multi-tasking control system has been developed for real-time signal processing. This control system, written in the language PASCAL, enables tasks (expressed as PASCAL procedures) to be performed as separate, concurrent processes, with adjustable priority levels. Modifications of this

  13. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  14. [Ecological validity and multitasking environments in the evaluation of the executive functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombín-González, Igor; Cifuentes-Rodríguez, Alicia; Climent-Martínez, Gema; Luna-Lario, Pilar; Cardas-Ibáñez, Jaione; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Díaz-Orueta, Unai

    2014-07-16

    Evaluation of executive functions is a major issue of neuropsychological assessment, due to the role displayed by these on a cognitive, behavioural and emotional level, and the implication of these functions in daily life functioning. In order to perform a reliable assessment, the strategy traditionally followed for the evaluation of executive functions has been their atomization in different cognitive subprocesses, which is useful in a clinical or a research context. However, in clinical practice it is frequently artificial to disintegrate a global and complex cognitive process, such as executive functions, in a variety of related components; thus, tests designed according to these theoretical processes have low value in clinical procedures (diagnosis, rehabilitation design) due to their poor correspondence with the subject's or patient's clinical reality. The aims of the present work are to revise the concept of ecological validity applied to the evaluation of executive functions, and to perform a critical review of executive functions assessment by means of multitask paradigms as a way to increase the ecological validity and predictive value of the subject's functional performance. After a historical journey around the (low) ecological validity of single-task tests, and the bet in favour of a multitask paradigm for the evaluation of executive functions, up-to-date existing multitask tests are presented meticulously (with their respective advantages and disadvantages). Finally, concrete recommendations about how to develop multitask tests in the future are presented, attending to concrete parameters related to the context, tasks, objectives, rules and scoring.

  15. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  16. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  17. Comparing capacity coefficient and dual task assessment of visual multitasking workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, Leslie M.

    2017-07-14

    Capacity coefficient analysis could offer a theoretically grounded alternative approach to subjective measures and dual task assessment of cognitive workload. Workload capacity or workload efficiency is a human information processing modeling construct defined as the amount of information that can be processed by the visual cognitive system given a specified of amount of time. In this paper, I explore the relationship between capacity coefficient analysis of workload efficiency and dual task response time measures. To capture multitasking performance, I examine how the relatively simple assumptions underlying the capacity construct generalize beyond the single visual decision making tasks. The fundamental tools for measuring workload efficiency are the integrated hazard and reverse hazard functions of response times, which are defined by log transforms of the response time distribution. These functions are used in the capacity coefficient analysis to provide a functional assessment of the amount of work completed by the cognitive system over the entire range of response times. For the study of visual multitasking, capacity coefficient analysis enables a comparison of visual information throughput as the number of tasks increases from one to two to any number of simultaneous tasks. I illustrate the use of capacity coefficients for visual multitasking on sample data from dynamic multitasking in the modified Multi-attribute Task Battery.

  18. Multitask TSK fuzzy system modeling by mining intertask common hidden structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yizhang; Chung, Fu-Lai; Ishibuchi, Hisao; Deng, Zhaohong; Wang, Shitong

    2015-03-01

    The classical fuzzy system modeling methods implicitly assume data generated from a single task, which is essentially not in accordance with many practical scenarios where data can be acquired from the perspective of multiple tasks. Although one can build an individual fuzzy system model for each task, the result indeed tells us that the individual modeling approach will get poor generalization ability due to ignoring the intertask hidden correlation. In order to circumvent this shortcoming, we consider a general framework for preserving the independent information among different tasks and mining hidden correlation information among all tasks in multitask fuzzy modeling. In this framework, a low-dimensional subspace (structure) is assumed to be shared among all tasks and hence be the hidden correlation information among all tasks. Under this framework, a multitask Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy system model called MTCS-TSK-FS (TSK-FS for multiple tasks with common hidden structure), based on the classical L2-norm TSK fuzzy system, is proposed in this paper. The proposed model can not only take advantage of independent sample information from the original space for each task, but also effectively use the intertask common hidden structure among multiple tasks to enhance the generalization performance of the built fuzzy systems. Experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets demonstrate the applicability and distinctive performance of the proposed multitask fuzzy system model in multitask regression learning scenarios.

  19. Low-Rank Representation-Based Object Tracking Using Multitask Feature Learning with Joint Sparsity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuncheol Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address object tracking problem as a multitask feature learning process based on low-rank representation of features with joint sparsity. We first select features with low-rank representation within a number of initial frames to obtain subspace basis. Next, the features represented by the low-rank and sparse property are learned using a modified joint sparsity-based multitask feature learning framework. Both the features and sparse errors are then optimally updated using a novel incremental alternating direction method. The low-rank minimization problem for learning multitask features can be achieved by a few sequences of efficient closed form update process. Since the proposed method attempts to perform the feature learning problem in both multitask and low-rank manner, it can not only reduce the dimension but also improve the tracking performance without drift. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms existing state-of-the-art tracking methods for tracking objects in challenging image sequences.

  20. BCIs in multimodal interaction and multitask environments : Theoretical issues and initial guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Thurlings, M.E.; Brouwer, A.M.; Werkhoven, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The development of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) enters a phase in which these devices are no longer restricted to applications in controlled, single-task environments. For instance, BCIs for gaming or high-end operator stations will function as part of a multimodal user interface in a multitask

  1. When is multitask learning effective? Semantic sequence prediction under varying data conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Plank, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Multitask learning has been applied successfully to a range of tasks, mostly morphosyntactic. However, little is known on when MTL works and whether there are data characteristics that help to determine its success. In this paper we evaluate a range of semantic sequence labeling tasks in a MTL

  2. Integrating Knowledge of Multitasking and Interruptions Across Different Perspectives and Research Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Chris; Gould, Sandy J. J.; Li, Simon Y.W.; Cox, Anna L.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    Multitasking and interruptions have been studied using a variety of methods in multiple fields (e.g., HCI, cognitive science, computer science, and social sciences). This diversity brings many complementary insights. However, it also challenges researchers to understand how seemingly disparate ideas

  3. Reading Performances between Novices and Experts in Different Media Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Robertson, Tip; Lee, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated connections between subject expertise and multitasking ability among college students. One hundred thirty college students participated in the study. Participants were assessed on their subject expertise and reading tasks under three conditions: (a) reading only (silence condition), (b) reading with a video…

  4. High Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Novel Test of Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Rachael; Charman, Tony; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2006-01-01

    High functioning children with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger's syndrome (HF-ASD) often experience difficulties organising goal-directed actions in their day-to-day lives, requiring support to schedule daily activities. This study aimed to capture these everyday difficulties experimentally using multitasking, a methodology that taps into the…

  5. ONLINE MULTITASKING LINE-SCAN IMAGING TECHNIQUES FOR SIMULTANEOUS SAFETY AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF APPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lab developed a push-broom, line-scan imaging system capable of simultaneous measurements of reflectance and fluorescence. The system allows multitasking inspections for quality and safety attributes of apples due to its dynamic capabilities in simultaneously capturing fluorescence and reflectan...

  6. Der Zusammenhang zwischen medialem Multitasking, Aufmerksamkeitsfähigkeit und Hyperaktivität bei Jugendlichen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Weeda, W.D.; Huizinga, M.; Kleinen von Königslöw, K.; Förster, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mediales Multitasking ist eine immer häufiger vorkommende Form der Mediennutzung, besonders bei Jugendlichen. Die wachsende Bedeutung dieser Form der Mediennutzung hat zu Bedenken über mögliche Auswirkungen geführt. So wird zum Beispiel angenommen, dass durch die ständige Stimulation mit

  7. An Introduction to Multitasking and Texting: Prevalence and Impact on Grades and GPA in Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Dennis E.; Haley, Debra A.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study looks at the phenomena of texting in a marketing education context. It outlines the difficulties of multitasking within two metacognitive models of learning and sets the stage for further research on the effects of texting within class. Students in marketing classes in two different universities were surveyed. They received…

  8. Resistance to the impact of interruptions during multitasking by healthy adults and dysexecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Anna S; Logie, Robert H; Pearson, David G; Cantagallo, Anna; Moretti, Eva; Dimarco, Francesca

    2004-07-01

    Two experiments (one with healthy adult volunteers and the other with controls and dysexecutive patients) assessed the impact of interruptions on a novel test of multitasking. The test involved switching repeatedly between four tasks (block construction, bead threading, paper folding, alphabetical searching) over a 10 min period. In Experiment 1, there were four groups of 20 healthy participants. One group attempted multitasking with no interruption, a second group was interrupted early in the test, a third group late in the test and a fourth group was interrupted both early and late. Interruption involved carrying out a fifth, unexpected task for a period of 1 min before returning to the four main tasks. There was no difference in multitasking performance between the groups. In Experiment 2 the participants were seven dysexecutive patients and 14 age-matched controls. A repeated measures approach was employed to assess the impact of two interruptions (early and late) for both groups. Contrary to predictions, the patients as well as controls were resistant to the effects of interruptions, despite their clearly impaired multitasking performance. These results suggest that the ability to deal with interruptions may be separable from the ability to organise and execute multiple tasks within a limited time frame.

  9. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com [City Unity College, Thiseos 15-17, Athens, 105 62 (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  10. Identifying beneficial task relations for multi-task learning in deep neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingel, Joachim; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Multi-task learning (MTL) in deep neural networks for NLP has recently received increasing interest due to some compelling benefits, including its potential to efficiently regularize models and to reduce the need for labeled data. While it has brought significant improvements in a number of NLP...

  11. Cognitive control in media multitaskers: Two replication studies and a meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiradhany, Wisnu; Nieuwenstein, Mark R

    2017-11-01

    Ophir, Nass, and Wagner (2009, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(37), 15583-15587) found that people with high scores on the media-use questionnaire-a questionnaire that measures the proportion of media-usage time during which one uses more than one medium at the same time-show impaired performance on various tests of distractor filtering. Subsequent studies, however, did not all show this association between media multitasking and distractibility, thus casting doubt on the reliability of the initial findings. Here, we report the results of two replication studies and a meta-analysis that included the results from all published studies into the relationship between distractor filtering and media multitasking. Our replication studies included a total of 14 tests that had an average replication power of 0.81. Of these 14 tests, only five yielded a statistically significant effect in the direction of increased distractibility for people with higher scores on the media-use questionnaire, and only two of these effects held in a more conservative Bayesian analysis. Supplementing these outcomes, our meta-analysis on a total of 39 effect sizes yielded a weak but significant association between media multitasking and distractibility that turned nonsignificant after correction for small-study effects. Taken together, these findings lead us to question the existence of an association between media multitasking and distractibility in laboratory tasks of information processing.

  12. The effects of multitasking on psychological stress reactivity in recreational users of cannabis and MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Atherton, Katie; Grainger, Jessica; Brosnan, Robert; Scholey, Andrew B

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is associated with psychobiological and neurocognitive deficits. Assessments of the latter typically include tests of memory and everyday cognitive functioning. However, to date, little attention has been paid to effects of drug use on psychological stress reactivity. We report three studies examining the effects of recreational use of cannabis and MDMA on mood and psychological responses to multitasking using a cognitively demanding laboratory stressor that provides an analogue for everyday situations involving responses to multiple stimuli. The effects of the multitasking framework on mood and perceived workload were assessed in cannabis (N=25), younger (N=18) and older (N=20) MDMA users and compared with non-target drug controls. Compared with respective control groups, cannabis users became less alert and content, and both MDMA groups became less calm following acute stress. Unexpectedly, the stressor increased ratings of calm in cannabis users. Users also scored higher than their controls with respect to ratings of resources needed to complete the multitasking framework. These findings show, for the first time, that recreational use of cannabis and MDMA, beyond the period of intoxication, can negatively influence psychological responses to a multitasking stressor, and this may have implications for real-life situations which place high demands on cognitive resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Continuously informing vibrotactile displays in support of attention management and multitasking in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Thomas K; Sarter, Nadine

    2011-12-01

    A novel vibrotactile display type was investigated to determine the potential benefits for supporting the attention and task management of anesthesiologists. Recent research has shown physiological monitoring and multitasking performance can benefit from displaying patient data via alarm-like tactile notifications and via continuously informing auditory displays (e.g., sonifications). The current study investigated a novel combination of these two approaches: continuously informing tactile displays. A tactile alarm and two continuously informing tactile display designs were evaluated in an anesthesia induction simulation with anesthesiologists as participants. Several performance measures were collected for two tasks: physiological monitoring and anesthesia induction. A multitask performance score equivalently weighted components from each task, normalized across experimental scenarios. Subjective rankings of the displays were also collected. Compared to the baseline (visual and auditory only) display configuration, each tactile display significantly improved performance in several objective measures, including multitask performance score. The continuously informing display that encoded the severity of patient health into the salience of its signals supported significantly better performance than the other two tactile displays. Contrasting the objective results, participants subjectively ranked the tactile alarm display highest. Continuously informing tactile displays with alarm-like properties (e.g., salience mapping) can better support anesthesiologists' physiological monitoring and multitasking performance under the high task demands of anesthesia induction. Adaptive display mechanisms may improve user acceptance. This study can inform display design to support multitasking performance of anesthesiologists in the clinical setting and other supervisory control operators in work domains characterized by high demands for visual and auditory resources.

  15. Multitask training promotes automaticity of a fundamental laparoscopic skill without compromising the rate of skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolton, Jamie M; Zhu, Frank F; Malhotra, Neha; Leung, Gilberto K K; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2016-09-01

    A defining characteristic of expertise is automated performance of skills, which frees attentional capacity to better cope with some common intraoperative stressors. There is a paucity of research on how best to foster automated performance by surgical trainees. This study examined the use of a multitask training approach to promote automated, robust laparoscopic skills. Eighty-one medical students completed training of a fundamental laparoscopic task in either a traditional single-task training condition or a novel multitask training condition. Following training, participants' laparoscopic performance was tested in a retention test, two stress transfer tests (distraction and time pressure) and a secondary task test, which was included to evaluate automaticity of performance. The laparoscopic task was also performed as part of a formal clinical examination (OSCE). The training groups did not differ in the number of trials required to reach task proficiency (p = .72), retention of skill (ps > .45), or performance in the clinical examination (p = .14); however, the groups did differ with respect to the secondary task (p = .016). The movement efficiency (number of hand movements) of single-task trainees, but not multitask trainees, was negatively affected during the secondary task test. The two stress transfer tests had no discernable impact on the performance of either training group. Multitask training was not detrimental to the rate of learning of a fundamental laparoscopic skill and added value by providing resilience in the face of a secondary task load, indicative of skill automaticity. Further work is needed to determine the extent of the clinical utility afforded by multitask training.

  16. Integrative analysis of multiple diverse omics datasets by sparse group multitask regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dongdong; Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jingyao; He, Hao; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    A variety of high throughput genome-wide assays enable the exploration of genetic risk factors underlying complex traits. Although these studies have remarkable impact on identifying susceptible biomarkers, they suffer from issues such as limited sample size and low reproducibility. Combining individual studies of different genetic levels/platforms has the promise to improve the power and consistency of biomarker identification. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative method, namely sparse group multitask regression, for integrating diverse omics datasets, platforms, and populations to identify risk genes/factors of complex diseases. This method combines multitask learning with sparse group regularization, which will: (1) treat the biomarker identification in each single study as a task and then combine them by multitask learning; (2) group variables from all studies for identifying significant genes; (3) enforce sparse constraint on groups of variables to overcome the "small sample, but large variables" problem. We introduce two sparse group penalties: sparse group lasso and sparse group ridge in our multitask model, and provide an effective algorithm for each model. In addition, we propose a significance test for the identification of potential risk genes. Two simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance of our integrative method by comparing it with conventional meta-analysis method. The results show that our sparse group multitask method outperforms meta-analysis method significantly. In an application to our osteoporosis studies, 7 genes are identified as significant genes by our method and are found to have significant effects in other three independent studies for validation. The most significant gene SOD2 has been identified in our previous osteoporosis study involving the same expression dataset. Several other genes such as TREML2, HTR1E, and GLO1 are shown to be novel susceptible genes for osteoporosis, as confirmed from other

  17. Integrative analysis of multiple diverse omics datasets by sparse group multitask regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong eLin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A variety of high throughput genome-wide assays enable the exploration of genetic risk factors underlying complex traits. Although these studies have remarkable impact on identifying susceptible biomarkers, they suffer from issues such as limited sample size and low reproducibility. Combining individual studies of different genetic levels/platforms has the promise to improve the power and consistency of biomarker identification. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative method, namely sparse group multitask regression, for integrating diverse omics datasets, platforms and populations to identify risk genes/factors of complex diseases. This method combines multitask learning with sparse group regularization, which will: 1 treat the biomarker identification in each single study as a task and then combine them by multitask learning; 2 group variables from all studies for identifying significant genes; 3 enforce sparse constraint on groups of variables to overcome the ‘small sample, but large variables’ problem. We introduce two sparse group penalties: sparse group lasso and sparse group ridge in our multitask model, and provide an effective algorithm for each model. In addition, we propose a significance test for the identification of potential risk genes. Two simulation studies are performed to evaluate the performance of our integrative method by comparing it with conventional meta-analysis method. The results show that our sparse group multitask method outperforms meta-analysis method significantly. In an application to our osteoporosis studies, 7 genes are identified as significant genes by our method and are found to have significant effects in other three independent studies for validation. The most significant gene SOD2 has been identified in our previous osteoporosis study involving the same expression dataset. Several other genes such as TREML2, HTR1E and GLO1 are shown to be novel susceptible genes for osteoporosis, as confirmed

  18. Measuring the relationship between interruptions, multitasking and prescribing errors in an emergency department: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raban, Magdalena Z; Walter, Scott R; Douglas, Heather E; Strumpman, Dana; Mackenzie, John; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2015-10-13

    Interruptions and multitasking are frequent in clinical settings, and have been shown in the cognitive psychology literature to affect performance, increasing the risk of error. However, comparatively less is known about their impact on errors in clinical work. This study will assess the relationship between prescribing errors, interruptions and multitasking in an emergency department (ED) using direct observations and chart review. The study will be conducted in an ED of a 440-bed teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Doctors will be shadowed at proximity by observers for 2 h time intervals while they are working on day shift (between 0800 and 1800). Time stamped data on tasks, interruptions and multitasking will be recorded on a handheld computer using the validated Work Observation Method by Activity Timing (WOMBAT) tool. The prompts leading to interruptions and multitasking will also be recorded. When doctors prescribe medication, type of chart and chart sections written on, along with the patient's medical record number (MRN) will be recorded. A clinical pharmacist will access patient records and assess the medication orders for prescribing errors. The prescribing error rate will be calculated per prescribing task and is defined as the number of errors divided by the number of medication orders written during the prescribing task. The association between prescribing error rates, and rates of prompts, interruptions and multitasking will be assessed using statistical modelling. Ethics approval has been obtained from the hospital research ethics committee. Eligible doctors will be provided with written information sheets and written consent will be obtained if they agree to participate. Doctor details and MRNs will be kept separate from the data on prescribing errors, and will not appear in the final data set for analysis. Study results will be disseminated in publications and feedback to the ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission

  19. Evaluation of a new multitasking platform for endoscopic full-thickness resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiichi; Sumiyama, Kazuki; Tajiri, Hisao; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Seigo

    2011-01-01

    The advent of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has accelerated the development of new technology in the field of GI endoscopy. Various suturing devices or multitasking platforms are expected to be valuable for endoluminal surgery as well as for NOTES. To evaluate a new multitasking platform in performing endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR). Bench-top comparison study. Research laboratory study of 10 ex vivo porcine models. Ten EFTRs (5 with a double-channel endoscope vs 5 with a new multitasking platform) assisted with percutaneous gastric lifting. Each group was given the task of resecting a full-thickness specimen of the gastric wall including a pseudolesion 10 mm in diameter with an effective margin. Outcome measurements included time to perform the procedure, accuracy of the resection, and efficiency for the task. Accuracy was assessed according to variability of the surgical margin and misalignment between the mucosal layer and the seromuscular layer. Efficiency was assessed according to the duty ratio, which is the percentage of time spent for the main purposes compared with the total procedure time. Mean diameter of the specimen was not significantly different between the groups. All other assessment items were significantly superior in group B to those in group A (P multitasking platform compared with use of a conventional endoscope in a porcine model. A multitasking platform developed for NOTES procedures would be useful for advanced endoluminal surgery such as endoscopic submucosal dissection or EFTR as well as NOTES. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Barriers to implementation of risk management for federal wildland fire management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Alan A. Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we review progress towards the implementation of a risk-based management framework for U.S. Federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical...