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Sample records for wild type analysis

  1. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  2. DNA vaccines encoding proteins from wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Kristensen, Birte; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Lund, Morten; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2012-10-01

    Immunity induced by DNA vaccines containing the hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in mink (Mustela vison), a highly susceptible natural host of CDV. All DNA-immunized mink seroconverted, and significant levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies were present on the day of challenge with wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccines also primed the cell-mediated memory responses, as indicated by an early increase in the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocytes after challenge. Importantly, the wild-type and attenuated CDV DNA vaccines had a long-term protective effect against wild-type CDV challenge. The vaccine-induced immunity induced by the H and N genes from wild-type CDV and those from attenuated CDV was comparable. Because these two DNA vaccines were shown to protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge, it is suggested that the genetic/antigenic heterogeneity between vaccine strains and contemporary wild-type strains are unlikely to cause vaccine failure.

  3. A Ten-Week Biochemistry Lab Project Studying Wild-Type and Mutant Bacterial Alkaline Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important…

  4. Exploratory biomarker analysis for treatment response in KRAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer patients who received cetuximab plus irinotecan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Tae; Ahn, Tae Jin; Lee, Eunjin; Do, In-Gu; Lee, Su Jin; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Suk Hyeong; Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Hee Cheol

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the patients selected based on KRAS mutation status fail to respond to the treatment with cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We designed a study to identify additional biomarkers that could act as indicators for cetuximab treatment in mCRC. We investigated 58 tumor samples from wild type KRAS CRC patients treated with cetuximab plus irinotecan (CI). We conducted the genotyping for mutations in either BRAF or PIK3CA and profiled comprehensively the expression of 522 kinase genes. BRAF mutation was detected in 5.1 % (3/58) of patients. All 50 patients showed wild type PIK3CA. Gene expression patterns that categorized patients with or without the disease control to CI were compared by supervised classification analysis. PSKH1, TLK2 and PHKG2 were overexpressed significantly in patients with the disease control to IC. The higher expression value of PSKH1 (r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and TLK2 (r = 0.361, p = 0.005) had the significant correlation to prolonged PFS. The result of this work demonstrated that expression nature of kinase genes such as PSKH1, TLK2 and PHKG2 may be informative to predict the efficacy of CI in wild type KRAS CRC. Mutations in either BRAF or PIK3CA were rare subsets in wild type KRAS CRC

  5. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied...... that the wild-type protein bodies contained large amounts of prolamines (the storage protein group which is soluble in 55 % isopropanol) and some glutelins (the storage proteins soluble in dilute alkali), whereas the mutant protein bodies have glutelin as the major component and little prolamines...

  6. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from

  7. Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2011-04-01

    We report metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis red cells and genome-wide gene expression analysis associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways between red cells and wild-type (WT) cells. Red cells of A. thaliana were engineered for the first time from the leaves of production of anthocyanin pigment 1-Dominant (pap1-D). These red cells produced seven anthocyanin molecules including a new one that was characterized by LC-MS analysis. Wild-type cells established as a control did not produce anthocyanins. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that nearly 66 and 65% of genes in the genome were expressed in the red cells and wild-type cells, respectively. In comparison with the WT cells, 3.2% of expressed genes in the red cells were differentially expressed. The expression levels of 14 genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly higher in the red cells than in the WT cells. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 complex regulated the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Furthermore, most of the genes with significant differential expression levels in the red cells versus the WT cells were characterized with diverse biochemical functions, many of which were mapped to different metabolic pathways (e.g., ribosomal protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and plant secondary metabolisms) or organelles (e.g., chloroplast). We suggest that the difference in gene expression profiles between the two cell lines likely results from cell types, the overexpression of PAP1, and the high metabolic flux toward anthocyanins.

  8. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole test for susceptibility testing of wild-type and non-wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2. The essent......We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2...

  9. UV-sensitivity and repair of UV-damage in Salmonella of wild type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Y.S.; Brukhansky, G.V.; Andreeva, I.V.; Skavronskaya, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The UV-sensitivity of wild type Salmonella strains has been compared to that of wild type E.coli and its UV-sensitive mutants. Many wild type Salmonella strains are 4-5 times more sensitive than wild type E.coli and their inactivation curve is similar to that for E.coli with a mutation in the polA gene. Alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation has shown a deficiency of these strains in normal excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. This deficiency is not a Salmonella genus feature because one strain as resistant as wild type E.coli was found. This resistant strain showed normal excision repair in alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation experiments. The possible influence of plasmids and mutations in repair genes on the ability of Salmonella to repair UV-damaged DNA is discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. UV-sensitivity and repair of UV-damage in Salmonella of wild type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratiev, Y S; Brukhansky, G V; Andreeva, I V; Skavronskaya, A G [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii

    1977-12-01

    The UV-sensitivity of wild type Salmonella strains has been compared to that of wild type E.coli and its UV-sensitive mutants. Many wild type Salmonella strains are 4-5 times more sensitive than wild type E.coli and their inactivation curve is similar to that for E.coli with a mutation in the polA gene. Alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation has shown a deficiency of these strains in normal excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. This deficiency is not a Salmonella genus feature because one strain as resistant as wild type E.coli was found. This resistant strain showed normal excision repair in alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation experiments. The possible influence of plasmids and mutations in repair genes on the ability of Salmonella to repair UV-damaged DNA is discussed.

  11. Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study further confirms the presence of Sabin and wild-type poliovirus among children in Nigeria. The isolation of Sabin strain of poliovirus is advantageous to the polio eradication program as it is capable of inducing natural immunity in susceptible hosts. Transmission of wild-type poliovirus among children ...

  12. A ten-week biochemistry lab project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D Scott

    2016-11-12

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important techniques, students acquire novel biochemical data in their kinetic analysis of mutant enzymes. The experiments are designed to build on students' work from week to week in a way that requires them to apply quantitative analysis and reasoning skills, reinforcing traditional textbook biochemical concepts. Students are assessed through lab reports focused on journal style writing, quantitative and conceptual question sheets, and traditional exams. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):555-564, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Alam, Muhammad M; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2012-02-22

    Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type 1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas, associated with high risk population groups which include migrants

  14. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angez Mehar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. Methods In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. Results One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Conclusion Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the wild-type haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variant DhaA13 complexed with different ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Chaloupkova, Radka; Fortova, Andrea; Brynda, Jiri; Weiss, Manfred S.; Damborsky, Jiri; Kuta Smatanova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Crystals of the wild-type haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA derived from R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 and of its catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 were grown in the presence of various ligands and diffraction data were collected to high and atomic resolution. Haloalkane dehalogenases make up an important class of hydrolytic enzymes which catalyse the cleavage of carbon–halogen bonds in halogenated aliphatic compounds. There is growing interest in these enzymes owing to their potential use in environmental and industrial applications. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 can slowly detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Structural analysis of this enzyme complexed with target ligands was conducted in order to obtain detailed information about the structural limitations of its catalytic properties. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of complexes of wild-type DhaA with 2-propanol and with TCP and of complexes of the catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 with the dye coumarin and with TCP are described. The crystals of wild-type DhaA were plate-shaped and belonged to the triclinic space group P1, while the variant DhaA13 can form prism-shaped crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 as well as plate-shaped crystals belonging to the triclinic space group P1. Diffraction data for crystals of wild-type DhaA grown from crystallization solutions with different concentrations of 2-propanol were collected to 1.70 and 1.26 Å resolution, respectively. A prism-shaped crystal of DhaA13 complexed with TCP and a plate-shaped crystal of the same variant complexed with the dye coumarin diffracted X-rays to 1.60 and 1.33 Å resolution, respectively. A crystal of wild-type DhaA and a plate-shaped crystal of DhaA13, both complexed with TCP, diffracted to atomic resolutions of 1.04 and 0.97 Å, respectively

  16. STUDY DATA OF KRAS- AND RAS-UNMUTATED (WILD TYPE OF COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gorbunova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  Analysis of latest trials, comparing treatment schemes including chemotherapy with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies or bevacizumab is presented in this article. The data in these trials is inconsistent, but detailed analysis of FIRE-3 trial allows to distinguish a wild-type RAS patient group that benefits most from chemotherapy with cetuximab or panitumumab as 1st line metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. A final analysis of this patient group in CALGB/SWOG 80 405 trial is pending. The RAS analysis is pivotal for choice of 1st line chemotherapy.

  17. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of wild-type and of an active-site mutant of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourigny, David S.; Elliott, Paul R.; Edgell, Louise J.; Hudson, Gregg M.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2010-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of wild-type and of an active-site mutant of C. jejuni glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is reported. The genome of the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni encodes a single glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that can utilize either NADP + or NAD + as coenzymes for the oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of both the wild type and an active-site mutant of the enzyme are presented. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that in both cases the crystals diffracted to beyond 1.9 Å resolution. The space group is shown to be I4 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = 90.75, b = 90.75, c = 225.48 Å, α = 90.46, β = 90.46, γ = 222.79°; each asymmetric unit contains only one subunit of the tetrameric enzyme

  18. Activation Of Wild-Type Hras Suppresses The Earliest Stages Of Pancreatic Cancer

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    Jamie Weyandt

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Loss of wild-type Hras promotes the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and moreover results in more rapid progression of the disease. As such, mechanisms leading to activation of wild-type Ras proteins, including but not limited to redox-dependent reactions, may influence the development of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the wild-type haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and its variant DhaA13 complexed with different ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Chaloupkova, Radka; Fortova, Andrea; Brynda, Jiri; Weiss, Manfred S; Damborsky, Jiri; Smatanova, Ivana Kuta

    2011-02-01

    Haloalkane dehalogenases make up an important class of hydrolytic enzymes which catalyse the cleavage of carbon-halogen bonds in halogenated aliphatic compounds. There is growing interest in these enzymes owing to their potential use in environmental and industrial applications. The haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA from Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064 can slowly detoxify the industrial pollutant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP). Structural analysis of this enzyme complexed with target ligands was conducted in order to obtain detailed information about the structural limitations of its catalytic properties. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of complexes of wild-type DhaA with 2-propanol and with TCP and of complexes of the catalytically inactive variant DhaA13 with the dye coumarin and with TCP are described. The crystals of wild-type DhaA were plate-shaped and belonged to the triclinic space group P1, while the variant DhaA13 can form prism-shaped crystals belonging to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) as well as plate-shaped crystals belonging to the triclinic space group P1. Diffraction data for crystals of wild-type DhaA grown from crystallization solutions with different concentrations of 2-propanol were collected to 1.70 and 1.26 Å resolution, respectively. A prism-shaped crystal of DhaA13 complexed with TCP and a plate-shaped crystal of the same variant complexed with the dye coumarin diffracted X-rays to 1.60 and 1.33 Å resolution, respectively. A crystal of wild-type DhaA and a plate-shaped crystal of DhaA13, both complexed with TCP, diffracted to atomic resolutions of 1.04 and 0.97 Å, respectively.

  20. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

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    ÁNGELA D ARMENDÁRIZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a genomics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-. As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80% belong to two major categories: 1 metabolism; and 2 cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of wild-type Epstein-Barr virus genomes derived from healthy individuals of the 1,000 Genomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santpere, Gabriel; Darre, Fleur; Blanco, Soledad; Alcami, Antonio; Villoslada, Pablo; Mar Albà, M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-04-01

    Most people in the world (∼90%) are infected by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which establishes itself permanently in B cells. Infection by EBV is related to a number of diseases including infectious mononucleosis, multiple sclerosis, and different types of cancer. So far, only seven complete EBV strains have been described, all of them coming from donors presenting EBV-related diseases. To perform a detailed comparative genomic analysis of EBV including, for the first time, EBV strains derived from healthy individuals, we reconstructed EBV sequences infecting lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the 1000 Genomes Project. As strain B95-8 was used to transform B cells to obtain LCLs, it is always present, but a specific deletion in its genome sets it apart from natural EBV strains. After studying hundreds of individuals, we determined the presence of natural EBV in at least 10 of them and obtained a set of variants specific to wild-type EBV. By mapping the natural EBV reads into the EBV reference genome (NC007605), we constructed nearly complete wild-type viral genomes from three individuals. Adding them to the five disease-derived EBV genomic sequences available in the literature, we performed an in-depth comparative genomic analysis. We found that latency genes harbor more nucleotide diversity than lytic genes and that six out of nine latency-related genes, as well as other genes involved in viral attachment and entry into host cells, packaging, and the capsid, present the molecular signature of accelerated protein evolution rates, suggesting rapid host-parasite coevolution.

  2. Quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wenna; Zhao, Hui; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Cong; Yang, Menglong; Bai, Fali

    2011-11-11

    Simple and rapid quantitative determination of fatty-acid-based biofuels is greatly important for the study of genetic engineering progress for biofuels production by microalgae. Ideal biofuels produced from biological systems should be chemically similar to petroleum, like fatty-acid-based molecules including free fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols and fatty alkanes. This study founded a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of seven free fatty acids, nine fatty acid methyl esters, five fatty acid ethyl esters, five fatty alcohols and three fatty alkanes produced by wild-type Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically engineered strain. Data obtained from GC-MS analyses were quantified using internal standard peak area comparisons. The linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and precision (RSD) of the method were evaluated. The results demonstrated that fatty-acid-based biofuels can be directly determined by GC-MS without derivation. Therefore, rapid and reliable quantitative analysis of fatty-acid-based biofuels produced by wild-type and genetically engineered cyanobacteria can be achieved using the GC-MS method founded in this work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim-Weber, Robab; Krogsdam, Anne-M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was expressed in the cell cycle and late cellular differentiation phase during adipogenesis. To investigate...... this dual role of pRb in the early and late stages of adipogenesis we used microarrays to perform a comprehensive systems-level analysis of the common transcriptional program of the classic 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and retinoblastoma gene-deficient MEFs...... of experimental data and computational analyses pinpointed a feedback-loop between Pparg and Foxo1.To analyze the effects of the retinoblastoma protein at the transcriptional level we chose a perturbated system (Rb-/- MEFs) for comparison to the transcriptional program of wild-type MEFs. Gene ontology analysis...

  4. The correlation between the use of personal protective equipment and level wild-type p53 of dental technicians in Surabaya

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    Puspa Dila Rohmaniar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of metals among dental technicians that come from the working environment can lead to the formation reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS can cause mutations in the p53 gene (p53. The mutation is transversion mutation GuanineThymine. p53 mutations can lead to low expression of the wild-type p53 protein (p53. Wild-type p53 involved in many biological processes such as regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, cell growth after DNA damage, and apoptosis. However, exposure to metals among dental technicians can be prevented through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE during work. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the use of personal protective equipment to wild-type p53 protein levels among dental technicians in Surabaya. Method: This study was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. 40 samples were taken by random sampling. Data were retrieved through interviews and observations. Wild-type p53 was analyzed from saliva with indirect ELISA method. Analysis of data used Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test and a Pearson correlation test. Value significance was p<0.05 (95% confidence level. Result: There was a significant association between the use of personal protective equipment with wild-type p53 levels with p=0.002 Conclusion: The use PPE properly is positively correlated with the wild-type p53 protein levels of dental technicians in Surabaya.

  5. Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopy, R.J.; Haniotakis, G.E.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different. (author)

  6. Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

    1999-05-19

    Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has

  7. Phosphorylated EGFR expression may predict outcome of EGFR-TKIs therapy for the advanced NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR

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    Wang Fen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EGFR mutation is a strong predictive factor of EGFR-TKIs therapy. However, at least 10% of patients with EGFR wild-type are responsive to TKIs, suggesting that other determinants of outcome besides EGFR mutation might exist. We hypothesized that activation of phosphorylated EGFR could be a potential predictive biomarker to EGFR-TKIs treatment among patients in wild-type EGFR. Method Total of 205 stage IIIb and IV NSCLC patients, tissue samples of whom were available for molecular analysis, were enrolled in this study. The phosphorylation of EGFR at tyrosine 1068 (pTyr1068 and 1173 (pTyr1173 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and EGFR mutations were detected by denaturing high performance liquid chromatograph (DHPLC. Results Among 205 patients assessable for EGFR mutation and phosphorylation analysis, 92 (44.9% were EGFR mutant and 165 patients (57.6% had pTyr1173 expression. Superior progression-free survival (PFS was seen after EGFR-TKIs therapy in patients with pTyr1068 expression compared to pTyr1068 negative ones (median PFS 7.0 months vs. 1.2 months, P P = 0.016. In subgroup of patients with wild-type EGFR, pTyr1068 expression positive ones had a significantly prolonged PFS (4.2 months vs.1.2 months P  Conclusion pTyr1068 may be a predictive biomarker for screening the population for clinical response to EGFR-TKIs treatment; especially for patients with wild-type EGFR.

  8. Differentiation between probiotic and wild-type Bacillus cereus isolates by antibiotic susceptibility test and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietke, Henriette; Beer, W; Schleif, Julia; Schabert, G; Reissbrodt, R

    2010-05-30

    Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar. Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ss-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing. When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800 cm(-1) ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900 cm(-1) ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700 cm(-1) ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

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    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  10. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  11. Differential induction of Toll-like receptors & type 1 interferons by Sabin attenuated & wild type 1 polioviruses in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu C; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2013-01-01

    Polioviruses are the causative agent of paralytic poliomyelitis. Attenuated polioviruses (Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine strains) do not replicate efficiently in neurons as compared to the wild type polioviruses and therefore do not cause disease. This study was aimed to investigate the differential host immune response to wild type 1 poliovirus (wild PV) and Sabin attenuated type 1 poliovirus (Sabin PV) in cultured human neuronal cells. By using flow cytometry and real time PCR methods we examined host innate immune responses and compared the role of toll like receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic RNA helicases in cultured human neuronal cells (SK-N-SH) infected with Sabin PV and wild PV. Human neuronal cells expressed very low levels of TLRs constitutively. Sabin PV infection induced significantly higher expression of TLR3, TLR7 and melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) m-RNA in neuronal cells at the beginning of infection (up to 4 h) as compared to wild PV. Further, Sabin PV also induced the expression of interferon α/β at early time point of infection. The induced expression of IFN α/β gene by Sabin PV in neuronal cells could be suppressed by inhibiting TLR7. Neuronal cell innate immune response to Sabin and wild polioviruses differ significantly for TLR3, TLR7, MDA5 and type 1 interferons. Effects of TLR7 activation and interferon production and Sabin virus replication in neuronal cells need to be actively investigated in future studies.

  12. Establishment of new transmissible and drug-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 wild types due to transmission of nucleoside analogue-resistant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ronde, A; van Dooren, M; van Der Hoek, L; Bouwhuis, D; de Rooij, E; van Gemen, B; de Boer, R; Goudsmit, J

    2001-01-01

    Sequence analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from 74 persons with acute infections identified eight strains with mutations in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene at positions 41, 67, 68, 70, 215, and 219 associated with resistance to the nucleoside analogue zidovudine (AZT). Follow-up of the fate of these resistant HIV-1 strains in four newly infected individuals revealed that they were readily replaced by sensitive strains. The RT of the resistant viruses changed at amino acid 215 from tyrosine (Y) to aspartic acid (D) or serine (S), with asparagine (N) as a transient intermediate, indicating the establishment of new wild types. When we introduced these mutations and the original threonine (T)-containing wild type into infectious molecular clones and assessed their competitive advantage in vitro, the order of fitness was in accord with the in vivo observations: 215Y types with D, S, or N residues at position 215 may be warranted in order to estimate the threat to long-term efficacy of regimens including nucleoside analogues.

  13. Economic Analysis of First-Line Treatment with Cetuximab or Panitumumab for RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Irina A; Huxley, Nicola; Snowsill, Tristan; Crathorne, Louise; Varley-Campbell, Jo; Napier, Mark; Hoyle, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Combination therapies with cetuximab (Erbitux ® ; Merck Serono UK Ltd) and panitumumab (Vectibix ® ; Amgen UK Ltd) are shown to be less effective in adults with metastatic colorectal cancer who have mutations in exons 2, 3 and 4 of KRAS and NRAS oncogenes from the rat sarcoma (RAS) family. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of these drugs in patients with previously untreated RAS wild-type (i.e. non-mutated) metastatic colorectal cancer, not eligible for liver resection at baseline, from the UK National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective. We constructed a partitioned survival model to evaluate the long-term costs and benefits of cetuximab and panitumumab combined with either FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) or FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil and irinotecan) vs. FOLFOX or FOLFIRI alone. The economic analysis was based on three randomised controlled trials. Costs and quality-adjusted life-years were discounted at 3.5% per annum. Based on the evidence available, both drugs fulfil the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's end-of-life criteria. In the analysis, assuming discount prices for the drugs from patient access schemes agreed by the drug manufacturers with the Department of Health, predicted mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for cetuximab + FOLFOX, panitumumab + FOLFOX and cetuximab + FOLFIRI compared with chemotherapy alone appeared cost-effective at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's threshold of £50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, applicable to end-of-life treatments. Cetuximab and panitumumab were recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for patients with previously untreated RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, not eligible for liver resection at baseline, for use within the National Health Service in England. Both treatments are available via the UK Cancer Drugs Fund.

  14. Differential induction of Toll-like receptors & type 1 interferons by Sabin attenuated & wild type 1 polioviruses in human neuronal cells

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    Madhu C Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Polioviruses are the causative agent of paralytic poliomyelitis. Attenuated polioviruses (Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine strains do not replicate efficiently in neurons as compared to the wild type polioviruses and therefore do not cause disease. This study was aimed to investigate the differential host immune response to wild type 1 poliovirus (wild PV and Sabin attenuated type 1 poliovirus (Sabin PV in cultured human neuronal cells. Methods: By using flow cytometry and real time PCR methods we examined host innate immune responses and compared the role of toll like receptors (TLRs and cytoplasmic RNA helicases in cultured human neuronal cells (SK-N-SH infected with Sabin PV and wild PV. Results: Human neuronal cells expressed very low levels of TLRs constitutively. Sabin PV infection induced significantly higher expression of TLR3, TLR7 and melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5 m-RNA in neuronal cells at the beginning of infection (up to 4 h as compared to wild PV. Further, Sabin PV also induced the expression of interferon α/β at early time point of infection. The induced expression of IFN α/β gene by Sabin PV in neuronal cells could be suppressed by inhibiting TLR7. Interpretation & conclusions: Neuronal cell innate immune response to Sabin and wild polioviruses differ significantly for TLR3, TLR7, MDA5 and type 1 interferons. Effects of TLR7 activation and interferon production and Sabin virus replication in neuronal cells need to be actively investigated in future studies.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scartozzi Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Methods Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Results Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60% and 2 (9% cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and Conclusion FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  16. Pharmacologic Treatment Assigned for Niemann Pick Type C1 Disease Partly Changes Behavioral Traits in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Victoria; Thieme, Markus; Holzmann, Carsten; Witt, Martin; Grittner, Ulrike; Rolfs, Arndt; Wree, Andreas

    2016-11-09

    Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Previously, we demonstrated that BALB/c-npc1 nih Npc1 -/- mice treated with miglustat, cyclodextrin and allopregnanolone generally performed better than untreated Npc1 -/- animals. Unexpectedly, they also seemed to accomplish motor tests better than their sham-treated wild-type littermates. However, combination-treated mutant mice displayed worse cognition performance compared to sham-treated ones. To evaluate effects of these drugs in healthy BALB/c mice, we here analyzed pharmacologic effects on motor and cognitive behavior of wild-type mice. For combination treatment mice were injected with allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin weekly, starting at P7. Miglustat injections were performed daily from P10 till P23. Starting at P23, miglustat was embedded in the chow. Other mice were treated with miglustat only, or sham-treated. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of accelerod, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, open field and hot-plate tests. Motor capabilities and spontaneous motor behavior were unaltered in both drug-treated groups. Miglustat-treated wild-type mice displayed impaired spatial learning compared to sham- and combination-treated mice. Both combination- and miglustat-treated mice showed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze compared to sham-treated mice. Additionally, combination treatment as well as miglustat alone significantly reduced brain weight, whereas only combination treatment reduced body weight significantly. Our results suggest that allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin ameliorate most side effects of miglustat in wild-type mice.

  17. Pharmacologic Treatment Assigned for Niemann Pick Type C1 Disease Partly Changes Behavioral Traits in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Schlegel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1 is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Previously, we demonstrated that BALB/c-npc1nihNpc1−/− mice treated with miglustat, cyclodextrin and allopregnanolone generally performed better than untreated Npc1−/− animals. Unexpectedly, they also seemed to accomplish motor tests better than their sham-treated wild-type littermates. However, combination-treated mutant mice displayed worse cognition performance compared to sham-treated ones. To evaluate effects of these drugs in healthy BALB/c mice, we here analyzed pharmacologic effects on motor and cognitive behavior of wild-type mice. For combination treatment mice were injected with allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin weekly, starting at P7. Miglustat injections were performed daily from P10 till P23. Starting at P23, miglustat was embedded in the chow. Other mice were treated with miglustat only, or sham-treated. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of accelerod, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, open field and hot-plate tests. Motor capabilities and spontaneous motor behavior were unaltered in both drug-treated groups. Miglustat-treated wild-type mice displayed impaired spatial learning compared to sham- and combination-treated mice. Both combination- and miglustat-treated mice showed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze compared to sham-treated mice. Additionally, combination treatment as well as miglustat alone significantly reduced brain weight, whereas only combination treatment reduced body weight significantly. Our results suggest that allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin ameliorate most side effects of miglustat in wild-type mice.

  18. Comparison of the proteomes of three yeast wild type strains: CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Mose Larsen, P.; Blomberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains...

  19. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

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    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  20. Characterization of two second-site mutations preventing wild type protein aggregation caused by a dominant negative PMA1 mutant.

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    Pilar Eraso

    Full Text Available The correct biogenesis and localization of Pma1 at the plasma membrane is essential for yeast growth. A subset of PMA1 mutations behave as dominant negative because they produce aberrantly folded proteins that form protein aggregates, which in turn provoke the aggregation of the wild type protein. One approach to understand this dominant negative effect is to identify second-site mutations able to suppress the dominant lethal phenotype caused by those mutant alleles. We isolated and characterized two intragenic second-site suppressors of the PMA1-D378T dominant negative mutation. We present here the analysis of these new mutations that are located along the amino-terminal half of the protein and include a missense mutation, L151F, and an in-frame 12bp deletion that eliminates four residues from Cys409 to Ala412. The results show that the suppressor mutations disrupt the interaction between the mutant and wild type enzymes, and this enables the wild type Pma1 to reach the plasma membrane.

  1. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

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    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  2. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana, ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  3. Annotating and quantifying pri-miRNA transcripts using RNA-Seq data of wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Armenta-Medina, Alma; Xiang, Daoquan; Datla, Raju; Gillmor, C Stewart; Abreu-Goodger, Cei

    2017-12-01

    The genome annotation for the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana does not include the primary transcripts from which MIRNAs are processed. Here we present and analyze the raw mRNA sequencing data from wild type and serrate-1 globular stage embryos of A. thaliana , ecotype Columbia. Because SERRATE is required for pri-miRNA processing, these precursors accumulate in serrate-1 mutants, facilitating their detection using standard RNA-Seq protocols. We first use the mapping of the RNA-Seq reads to the reference genome to annotate the potential primary transcripts of MIRNAs expressed in the embryo. We then quantify these pri-miRNAs in wild type and serrate-1 mutants. Finally, we use differential expression analysis to determine which are up-regulated in serrate-1 compared to wild type, to select the best candidates for bona fide pri-miRNAs expressed in the globular stage embryos. In addition, we analyze a previously published RNA-Seq dataset of wild type and dicer-like 1 mutant embryos at the globular stage [1]. Our data are interpreted and discussed in a separate article [2].

  4. Mineral phosphate solubilization by wild type and radiation induced mutants of pantoea dispersa and pantoea terrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jung Hun

    2009-01-01

    Three mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) bacteria where isolated from rhizosphere soil samples of common bean and weed plants. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the isolate P2 and P3 are closely related to Pantoea dispersa while isolate P4 is closely related to Pantoea terrae. Islates P2 and P3 recorded 381.60 μg ml -1 of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization respectively on 3 days incubation. Isolate P4 recorded the TCP solubilization of 215.85 μg ml -1 and the pH was dropped to 4.44 on 24 h incubation. Further incubation of P4 sharply decreased the available phosphorous to 28.94 μg ml -1 and pH level was raised to 6.32. Gamma radiation induced mutagenesis was carried out at LD 99 dose of the wild type strains. The total of 14 mutant clones with enhanced MPS activity and 4 clones with decreased activity were selected based on solubilization index (SI) and phosphate solubilization assay. Mutant P2-M1 recorded the highest P-solubilizing potential among any other wild or mutnat clones by releasing 504.21 μg ml -1 of phosphorous i.e. 35% higher than its wild type by the end of day 5. A comparative evaluation of TCP solubilization by wild type isolates of Pantoea and their mutants, led to select three MPS mutant clones such as P2-M1, P3-M2 and P3-M4 with a potential to release >471.67 μg ml 1 of phosphorous from TCP. These over expressing mutant clones are considered as suitable candidates for biofertilization

  5. The wild type as concept and in experimental practice: A history of its role in classical genetics and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tarquin

    2017-06-01

    Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c. 1900 (resulting in the production of standardised lab strains), and the conflict among early geneticists between interactionist and atomist accounts of wild type, which would eventually lead to the conceptual disintegration of wild types and the triumph of genocentrism and population genetics. I conclude by discussing how the strategy of using wild type strains to represent nature in the lab has nonetheless survived the downfall of the wild type concept and continues to provide, significant limitations acknowledged, an epistemically productive means of investigating heredity and evolutionary variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of commensal and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli from domestic and wild lagomorphs in Italy

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    Giorgia Dotto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the multilocus sequence types of Escherichia coli from diseased farm rabbits and apparently healthy wild lagomorphs, and the genetic relatedness among them. Fifty-five enteropathogenic E. coli from reared rabbits and 32 from wild rabbits and hares were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST according to the Michigan State University EcMLST scheme. Isolates were differentiated into 37 sequence types (STs, which were grouped into 8 clonal complexes (CCs. The most common ST was ST140 (CC31, followed by ST238 and ST119 (CC17. MLST analysis revealed 22 novel STs. Phylogenetic analyses showed a heterogeneous distribution of STs into 3 clusters of genetically related strains. The genetic relationship among STs of different origin and the detection of new, as well as previously described STs as human pathogens, indicate a widespread distribution and adaptability of particular lineages to different hosts. These findings highlight the need for further research to improve the knowledge about E. coli populations colonising the gut of lagomorphs and their zoonotic potential.

  7. Fusarium spp. Associated with Field-Grown Grain of Near-Isogenic Low Lignin and Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. associated with field-grown grain of near-isogenic low lignin and wild-type sorghum. Deanna Funnell-Harris and Jeff Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE Previous studies indicated that low lignin brown midrib (bmr) sorghum may be more resistant to Fusarium spp. than wild-type and that phen...

  8. Transplacental and oral transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle after experimental infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, A.; Heutink, C.G.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential vertical transmission of wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle was explored in this experiment. We demonstrated transplacental transmission of wild-type BTV-8 in one calf and oral infection with BTV-8 in another calf. Following the experimental BTV-8 infection of seven

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartozzi, Mario; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Pierantoni, Chiara; Loupakis, Fotios; Zaniboni, Alberto; Negri, Francesca; Quadri, Antonello; Zorzi, Fausto; Galizia, Eva; Berardi, Rossana; Biscotti, Tommasina; Labianca, Roberto; Masi, Gianluca; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2009-08-27

    K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60%) and 2 (9%) cases with a FISH EGFR GCN >or= 2.6 and CISH EGFR GCN >or= 2.12 and CISH EGFR GCN whereas it was 2.9 and 3.1 months in those with low FISH and CISH EGFR GCN (p = 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  10. DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthill, S.; Poellinger, L.

    1988-01-01

    The current model of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) entails stimulation of target gene transcription via the formation of dioxin-receptor complexes and subsequent accumulation of the complexes within the cell nucleus. Here, the authors have analyzed the DNA binding properties of the dioxin receptor in wild-type mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells and a class of nonresponsive mutant cells which fail to accumulate dioxin-receptor complexes within the nucleus in vivo. In vitro, both the wild-type and mutant [ 3 H]dioxin-receptor complexes exhibited low affinity for DNA-cellulose (5-8% and around 4% retention, respectively) in the absence of prior biochemical manipulations. However, following chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, the wild-type but not the mutant dioxin receptor was transformed to a species with an increased affinity for DNA (40-50% retention on DNA-cellulose). The gross molecular structure of the mutant, non DNA binding dioxin receptor did not appear to be altered as compared to that of the wild-type receptor. These results imply that the primary deficiency in the mutant dioxin receptor form may reside at the DNA binding level and that, in analogy to steroid hormone receptors, DNA binding of the receptor may be an essential step in the regulation of target gene transcription by dioxin

  11. The effect of UVB on flavonoid biosynthesis in wild type and mutant petunia and arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.G.; Swinny, E.E.; Markham, K.R.; Winefield, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Flavonoids may protect plants against damage by UVB radiation. Flavonoid composition and mRNA expression were determined following growth of plants under natural light, and under natural light with low UVB and with enhanced UVB. In wild-type Arabidopsis and Petunia, UVB induced an increase in total levels of flavonols and this was due to an up-regulation of, several genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In addition, UVB induced a higher rate of production of the di-hydroxylated si flavonol, quercetin glycoside than of the mono-hydroxylated equivalent, of kaempferol glycoside. Thus the ratio of quercetin to kaempferol increased with UVB treatment in wild type plants, and this suggests that the flavonoid r 3'hydroxylase (F3'H) enzyme, which converts dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, may play a key role in plant protection from UVB. Mutant plants of both species lacking this F3'H gene were grown under similar UV conditions. Leaves of the mutant Arabidopsis plant (tt7) did not contain quercetin, even under the enhanced UVB treatment. Under the low UVB treatment the total amount of flavonol was similar to the wild-type (Ler), but with increasing UVB, total flavonol (i.e. kaempferol) levels were significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants. In the Petunia F3'H mutant, low levels of quercetin were found even in the low UVB treatment, which indicates this variety may be producing some quercetin via an alternative pathway. Under UVB radiation, total flavonoids increased to levels significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants, and most of this material was kaempferol. These observations suggest that quercetin is the preferred protective flavonol in wild type plants, due perhaps to enhanced antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity. In mutant plants lacking the F3'H enzyme, the response is to produce a larger amount of a less effective photoprotectant

  12. Effects of regionally applied heating on the respiration of wild type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nocturnal dark respiration (Rn) in wild type and transgenic soybean plants ... Illinois, USA under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions was examined in this study. ... Experimental plants were transferred to a controlled growth chamber at V4 ...

  13. Wild-type MIC distributions for aminoglycoside and cyclic polypeptide antibiotics used for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P; Angeby, K; Sturegård, E; Chryssanthou, E; Giske, C G; Werngren, J; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed +/-1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  14. Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with acute flaccid paralysis in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedeji, A O; Okonko, I O; Adu, F D

    2012-09-01

    Sensitive poliovirus surveillance to detect vaccine-derived-polioviruses will continue to increase in importance. Isolating and identifying poliovirus strains from children of pediatrics age in Nigeria. A total of 120 fecal samples were randomly collected from children under the age of five who presented with acute flaccid paralysis. Samples were tested by tissue culture technique and further characterized by intratypic differentiation testing using ELISA and PCR methods. The study confirmed the presence of 22(18.3%) enteroviral isolates comprising 19(86.4%) polioviruses and 3(13.6%) non-polio enteroviruses. These 19 polioviruses include: Sabin-type poliovirus-1 (15.8%), poliovirus-2 (10.5%), poliovirus-3 (10.5%) and wild-type poliovirus-1 (63.2%) isolates. It showed that poliovirus infection was higher in children ages 6-11 months (18.9%), females (18.4%), northern states (91.0%) with no vaccination record (75.0%). Wild-type poliovirus-1 was isolated from the stool samples of 12(54.6%) children from northern states and in all age groups except 18-23 months. No significant differences (P >0.05) between poliovirus infection and age (18.9% vs. 17.7%; 81.9% vs. 18.2%) and sex (18.3% vs. 18.4%). There was significant differences (Pvaccination (75.0% vs. 0.0%). No wild-type poliovirus was found in those with complete vaccination. This study further confirms the presence of Sabin and wild-type poliovirus among children in Nigeria. The isolation of Sabin strain of poliovirus is advantageous to the polio eradication program as it is capable of inducing natural immunity in susceptible hosts. Transmission of wild-type poliovirus among children with incomplete vaccination poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria. Environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria.

  15. Repair of gamma radiation damage in wild type and a radiation sensitive mutant of Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuma, Nagayo

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to examine production and repair of radiation-induced single and double strand breaks in the DNA, a repair-deficient wild type and a repair-deficient mutant, UV17, of Deinococcus radiodurans were subjected to Co-60 gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 6.3 kGy/hr for wild type and 3.9 kGy/hr for UV17 mutant. The shoulder of the curve of UV17 mutant was narrow but existed with the intercept of 0.7 kGy and the corresponding value of the wild type was 4.2 kGy. Mutant cells exhibited about 6 fold increases in sensitivity for the shoulder relative to the wild type. The D 37 doses in the wild type and the mutant were 0.57 kGy and 0.25 kGy, respectively. From the survival curves, difference in the sensitivity between two strains was mainly due to difference of repair capacity than the number of radiation sensitive target. Sedimentation rate of the main component in the irradiated cells of UV17 mutant increased almost to the level of unirradiated control by the postincubation at 30deg C for 3 hrs. The results indicated that this sensitive mutant also exhibited an ability to restore single strand breaks after exposure to a sublethal dose of 0.6 kGy. When restitution of double strand breaks was analyzed by sedimentation in a neutral sucrose gradient, the wild type showed restitution to DNA-membrane complex from large part of the breaks. For UV17 mutant, the apparent increase in DNA-membrane complex formation was seen after 3 hours incubation. Large part of the decrease in the activities of peak 2 was recovered in the peak 1 for the wild type. For the mutant, there was little restitution to peak 1. Almost free DNA component in UV17 mutant, therefore, was merely degraded into shorter pieces. Restoration of DNA-membrane complex from free DNA derived from gamma-ray induced double strand scission involved closely in the repair of gamma-induced damage and survival. (N.K.)

  16. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  17. Genetic recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses among wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Roth, Anette; Bergström, Tomas

    2013-06-05

    Genetic recombination has been suggested to occur in mosquito-borne flaviviruses. In contrast, tick-borne flaviviruses have been thought to evolve in a clonal manner, although recent studies suggest that recombination occurs also for these viruses. We re-analyzed the data and found that previous conclusions on wild type recombination were probably falsely drawn due to misalignments of nucleotide sequences, ambiguities in GenBank sequences, or different laboratory culture histories suggestive of recombination events in laboratory. To evaluate if reliable predictions of wild type recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses can be made, we analyzed viral strains sequenced exclusively for this study, and other flavivirus sequences retrieved from GenBank. We detected genetic signals supporting recombination between viruses within the three clades of TBEV-Eu, TBEV-Sib and TBEV-Fe, respectively. Our results suggest that the tick-borne encephalitis viruses may undergo recombination under natural conditions, but that geographic barriers restrict most recombination events to involve only closely genetically related viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wild-Type MIC Distributions for Aminoglycoside and Cyclic Polypeptide Antibiotics Used for Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P.; Ängeby, K.; Sturegård, E.; Chryssanthou, E.; Giske, C. G.; Werngren, J.; Nordvall, M.; Johansson, A.; Kahlmeter, G.; Hoffner, S.; Schön, T.

    2010-01-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed ±1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20237102

  19. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  20. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  1. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  2. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (−/−) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5–6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82–95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 μM) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20–23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: ► C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. ► Wild type and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout littermates

  3. Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regeneration was obtained with 2 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L kinetin. ... Wild root, stem and leaves exhibited higher amounts (approx. ... Despite several medical benefits offered by .... The initial screening of hyoscine from all samples ... Mobile phase of 0.02 mol/L ..... compounds in commercial herbal drugs and spices from.

  4. Research on the ultrafast fluorescence property of thylakoid membranes of the wild-type and mutant rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhao-Yu; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Shui-Cai; Xin, Yue-Yong; He, Jun-Fang; Hou, Xun

    2003-10-01

    A high yielding rice variety mutant (Oryza sativa L., Zhenhui 249) with low chlorophyll b (Chl b) has been discovered in natural fields. It has a quality character controlled by a pair of recessive genes (nuclear gene). The partial loss of Chl b in content affects the efficiency of light harvest in a light harvest complex (LHC), thus producing the difference of the exciting energy transfer and the efficiency of photochemistry conversion between the mutant and wild-type rice in photosynthetic unit. The efficiency of utilizing light energy is higher in the mutant than that in the wild-type rice relatively. For further discussion of the above-mentioned difference and learning about the mechanism of the increase in the photochemical efficiency of the mutant, the pico-second resolution fluorescence spectrum measurement with delay-frame-scanning single photon counting technique is adopted. Thylakoid membranes of the mutant and the wild-type rice are excited by an Ar+ laser with a pulse width of 120 ps, repetition rate of 4 MHz and wavelength of 514 nm. Compared with the time and spectrum property of exciting fluorescence, conclusions of those ultrafast dynamic experiments are: 1) The speeds of the exciting energy transferred in photo-system I are faster than that in photo-system II in both samples. 2) The speeds of the exciting energy transfer of mutant sample are faster than those of the wild-type. This might be one of the major reasons why the efficiency of photosynthesis is higher in mutant than that in the wild-type rice.

  5. Structural Characterization of Lignin in Wild-Type versus COMT Down-Regulated Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Reichel [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pu, Yunqiao, E-mail: yunqiao.pu@ipst.gatech.edu [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jiang, Nan [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fu, Chunxiang [Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Wang, Zeng-Yu [BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Forage Improvement Division, The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Ragauskas, Arthur, E-mail: yunqiao.pu@ipst.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); BioEnergy Science Center, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This study examined the chemical structural characteristics of cellulolytic enzyme lignin isolated from switchgrass focusing on comparisons between wild-type control and caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT) down-regulated transgenic line. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques including {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P, and two-dimensional {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H heteronuclear single quantum coherence as well as gel permeation chromatography were employed. Compared to the wild-type, the COMT down-regulated transgenic switchgrass lignin demonstrated a decrease in syringyl (S):guaiacyl (G) ratio and p-coumarate:ferulate ratio, an increase in relative abundance of phenylcoumaran unit, and a comparable content of total free phenolic OH groups along with formation of benzodioxane unit. In addition, COMT down-regulation had no significant effects on the lignin molecular weights during its biosynthesis process.

  6. The JH2 domain and SH2-JH2 linker regulate JAK2 activity: A detailed kinetic analysis of wild type and V617F mutant kinase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Sanz, Arturo; Niranjan, Yashavanthi; Hammarén, Henrik; Ungureanu, Daniela; Ruijtenbeek, Rob; Touw, Ivo P; Silvennoinen, Olli; Hilhorst, Riet

    2014-10-01

    JAK2 tyrosine kinase regulates many cellular functions. Its activity is controlled by the pseudokinase (JH2) domain by still poorly understood mechanisms. The V617F mutation in the pseudokinase domain activates JAK2 and causes myeloproliferative neoplasms. We conducted a detailed kinetic analysis of recombinant JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain (JH1) and wild-type and V617F tandem kinase (JH1JH2) domains using peptide microarrays to define the functions of the kinase domains. The results show that i) JAK2 follows a random Bi-Bi reaction mechanism ii) JH2 domain restrains the activity of the JH1 domain by reducing the affinity for ATP and ATP competitive inhibitors iii) V617F decreases affinity for ATP but increases catalytic activity compared to wild-type and iv) the SH2-JH2 linker region participates in controlling activity by reducing the affinity for ATP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  8. Differential inhibition of ex-vivo tumor kinase activity by vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E and BRAF wild-type metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andliena Tahiri

    Full Text Available Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma patients harboring BRAF(V600E has improved drastically after the discovery of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib. However, drug resistance is a recurring problem, and prognoses are still very bad for patients harboring BRAF wild-type. Better markers for targeted therapy are therefore urgently needed.In this study, we assessed the individual kinase activity profiles in 26 tumor samples obtained from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma using peptide arrays with 144 kinase substrates. In addition, we studied the overall ex-vivo inhibitory effects of vemurafenib and sunitinib on kinase activity status.Overall kinase activity was significantly higher in lysates from melanoma tumors compared to normal skin tissue. Furthermore, ex-vivo incubation with both vemurafenib and sunitinib caused significant decrease in phosphorylation of kinase substrates, i.e kinase activity. While basal phosphorylation profiles were similar in BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors, analysis with ex-vivo vemurafenib treatment identified a subset of 40 kinase substrates showing stronger inhibition in BRAF(V600E tumor lysates, distinguishing the BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors. Interestingly, a few BRAF wild-type tumors showed inhibition profiles similar to BRAF(V600E tumors. The kinase inhibitory effect of vemurafenib was subsequently analyzed in cell lines harboring different BRAF mutational status with various vemurafenib sensitivity in-vitro.Our findings suggest that multiplex kinase substrate array analysis give valuable information about overall tumor kinase activity. Furthermore, intra-assay exposure to kinase inhibiting drugs may provide a useful tool to study mechanisms of resistance, as well as to identify predictive markers.

  9. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  10. No evidence for functional inactivation of wild-type p53 protein by MDM2 overexpression in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, P.; Craanen, M. E.; Dekker, W.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    Inactivation of wild-type p53 during gastric carcinogenesis is usually caused by mutations within exons 5-8 of the p53 gene leading to mutated, usually immunohistochemically detectable p53 proteins. However, functional inactivation of wild-type p53, mimicking mutational inactivation, may also result

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scartozzi, Mario; Galizia, Eva; Berardi, Rossana; Biscotti, Tommasina; Labianca, Roberto; Masi, Gianluca; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano; Bearzi, Italo; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Pierantoni, Chiara; Loupakis, Fotios; Zaniboni, Alberto; Negri, Francesca; Quadri, Antonello; Zorzi, Fausto

    2009-01-01

    K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60%) and 2 (9%) cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and < 2.6 respectively (p = 0.002) and in 10 (36%) and 1 (6%) cases with a CISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.12 and < 2.12 respectively (p = 0.03). Median TTP was 7.7 and 6.4 months in patients showing increased FISH and CISH EGFR GCN whereas it was 2.9 and 3.1 months in those with low FISH and CISH EGFR GCN (p = 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab

  12. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian...... cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild-type...

  13. Phase II Study of the Dual EGFR/HER3 Inhibitor Duligotuzumab (MEHD7945A) versus Cetuximab in Combination with FOLFIRI in Second-Line RAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew G; Findlay, Michael P; Burge, Matthew E; Jackson, Christopher; Alfonso, Pilar Garcia; Samuel, Leslie; Ganju, Vinod; Karthaus, Meinolf; Amatu, Alessio; Jeffery, Mark; Bartolomeo, Maria Di; Bridgewater, John; Coveler, Andrew L; Hidalgo, Manuel; Kapp, Amy V; Sufan, Roxana I; McCall, Bruce B; Hanley, William D; Penuel, Elicia M; Pirzkall, Andrea; Tabernero, Josep

    2018-05-15

    Purpose: Duligotuzumab is a dual-action antibody directed against EGFR and HER3. Experimental Design: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with KRAS ex2 wild-type received duligotuzumab or cetuximab and FOLFIRI until progression or intolerable toxicity. Mandatory tumor samples underwent mutation and biomarker analysis. Efficacy analysis was conducted in patients with RAS exon 2/3 wild-type tumors. Results: Of 134 randomly assigned patients, 98 had RAS ex2/3 wild-type. Duligotuzumab provided no progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) benefit compared with cetuximab, although there was a trend for a lower objective response rate (ORR) in the duligotuzumab arm. No relationship was seen between PFS or ORR and ERBB3, NRG1, or AREG expression. There were fewer skin rash events for duligotuzumab but more diarrhea. Although the incidence of grade ≥3 AEs was similar, the frequency of serious AEs was higher for duligotuzumab. Conclusions: Duligotuzumab plus FOLFIRI did not appear to improve the outcomes in patients with RAS exon 2/3 wild-type mCRC compared with cetuximab + FOLFIRI. Clin Cancer Res; 24(10); 2276-84. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  15. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  16. Liver steatosis study_PFAA treated Wild type and PPAR KO mouse data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al,...

  17. Dose selenomethionine have radio-protective effect on cell lines with wild type p53?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Hagihira, T.; Ohnishi, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Matsumoto, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Selenium compounds are known to have cancer preventive effects. It is reported recently that selenium in the form of selenomethionine (SeMet) can protect cells with wild type p53 from UV-induced cell killing by activating the DNA repair mechanism of p53 tumor suppressor protein via redox factor Ref1 by reducing p53 cysteine residue 275 and 277. In contrast, SeMet has no protective effect on UV-induced cell killing in p53-null cells. If SeMet also has protective effect in cells with wild type p53 on cell killing by photon irradiation, SeMet can be used as normal tissue radio-protector. We examined the effect of SeMet on cell killing by X-ray irradiation in several cell lines with different p53 status at exponentially growing phase. Cell lines used in this experiment were as follows: H1299/neo; human lung cancer cell line of p53 null type tranfected with control vector with no p53, H1299/wp53; wild type p53 transfected counterpart. A172/neo; human glioblastoma cell line with wild type p53, A172/mp53-248; mp53-248 (248-mutant, ARG >TRP) transfected counterpart. SAS/neo; human tongue cancer cell line with wild type p53, and SAS/mp53-248; mp53-248 transfected counterpart. Cells were subcultured at monolayer in D-MEM containing 10% FBS. Survivals of the cells were determined by colony forming ability. Ten-MV linac X-ray was used to irradiate the cells. Exponentially growing cells were incubated with 20μM of SeMet for 15 hours before irradiation. After 24 hours exposure of SeMet, cells were incubated up to two weeks in growth medium for colony formation. Twenty-four hours exposure of 20μM of SeMet had no cytotoxicity on these cell lines. SeMet had no modification effect on cell killing by photon irradiation in H1299/neo, H1299/wp53, SAS/neo, SAS/mp53-248, and A172/mp53-248. On the other hand, SeMet sensitized A172/neo in radiation cell killing. The effects of p53 on interaction of SeMet and photon irradiation differ according to cell lines

  18. ELECTROPHORETIC MOBILITIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI 0157:H7 AND WILD-TYPE ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of a number of human-virulent and "wild-type" Escherichia coli strains in phosphate buffered water was measured. The impact of pH, ionic strength, cation type (valence) and concentration, and bacterial strain on the EPM was investigated. Resul...

  19. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  1. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis - A virus and its attenuated candidate vaccine derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.I.; Rosenblum, B.; Ticehurst, J.R.; Daemer, R.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Development of attenuated mutants for use as vaccines is in progress for other viruses, including influenza, rotavirus, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis-A virus (HAV). Attenuated viruses may be derived from naturally occurring mutants that infect human or nonhuman hosts. Alternatively, attenuated mutants may be generated by passage of wild-type virus in cell culture. Production of attenuated viruses in cell culture is a laborious and empiric process. Despite previous empiric successes, understanding the molecular basis for attenuation of vaccine viruses could facilitate future development and use of live-virus vaccines. Comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences of wild-type (virulent) and vaccine (attenuated) viruses has been reported for polioviruses and yellow fever virus. Here, the authors compare the nucleotide sequence of wild-type HAV HM-175 with that of a candidate vaccine derivative

  2. Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Malik, Farzana; Rehman, Lubna; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2014-11-01

    The environmental surveillance has proven to be a useful tool to identify poliovirus circulation in different countries and was started in Pakistan during July 2009 to support the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system. Sewage samples were collected from 27 environmental sampling (ENV) sites and processed for poliovirus isolation through 2-phase separation method. Poliovirus isolates were identified as Sabin-like or wild type through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Wild-type strains were subjected to VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis performed using MEGA 5.0. During 2011-2013, a total of 668 samples were collected from 4 provinces that resulted in 40% of samples positive for wild poliovirus type-1 (WPV-1). None of the samples were positive for WPV-3. The areas with high frequency of WPV-1 detection were Karachi-Gadap (69%), Peshawar (82%), and Rawalpindi (65%), whereas the samples from Quetta and Sukkur remained negative for WPV during 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters with multiple poliovirus lineages circulating across different country areas as well as in bordering areas of Afghanistan. Environmental surveillance in Pakistan has been proven to be a powerful tool to detect WPV circulation in the absence of poliomyelitis cases in many communities. Our findings emphasize the need to continue and expand such surveillance activities to other high-risk areas in the country. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleser S

    2012-09-01

    cost for the treatment of adverse events were included. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation (1000 iterations were performed.Results: According to the model simulations, first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC resulted in 4.57 months of life gained (17.82 months for erlotinib versus 13.24 months for best supportive care and 1.14 months of life without progression gained (erlotinib 4.29 versus best supportive care 3.15, and incremental total costs of erlotinib from €7897 (UK to €9580 (Germany. The corresponding mean incremental cost per life-year gained of erlotinib ranged between €20,711 (UK and €25,124 (Germany. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results.Conclusion: First-line erlotinib maintenance treatment is cost-effective compared with best supportive care in EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC, irrespective of the country setting.Keywords: nonsmall cell lung cancer, erlotinib, cost-benefit analysis, epidermal growth factor receptor, wild-type, Europe

  4. No survival benefit from adding cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in KRAS wild type patients: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-wei Zhou

    Full Text Available The efficacy of combined therapies of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs remains controversial in colorectal cancer (CRC. The aim of this study is to estimate the efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in the first line treatment in KRAS wild type patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC through meta-analysis.Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane library, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO were searched. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs which evaluated oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR drugs (cetuximab or panitumumab in untreated KRAS wild type patients with mCRC. The outcomes included overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS, overall response rate (ORR and toxicities. Hazard ratios (HR and risk ratio (RR were used for the meta-analysis and were expressed with 95% confidence intervals.This meta-analysis included four RCTs with 1270 patients, and all of the patients were administered oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy regimens with or without anti-EGFR MAbs. The result of heterogeneity of OS was not significant. Compared with chemotherapy alone, the addition of cetuximab or panitumumab didn't result in significant improvement in OS (HR = 1.00, 95%CI [0.88, 1.13], P = 0.95 or PFS (HR = 0.86, 95%CI [0.71, 1.04], P = 0.13. The subgroup analysis of cetuximab also revealed no significant benefit in OS (HR = 1.02, 95%CI [0.89, 1.18], P = 0.75 or in PFS (HR = 0.87, 95%CI [0.65, 1.17], P = 0.36. Patients who received combined therapy didn't have a higher ORR (Risk Ratio = 1.08, 95%CI [0.86, 1.36]. Toxicities slightly increased in anti-EGFR drugs group.The addition of cetuximab or panitumumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in first-line treatment of mCRC in wild type KRAS population did not improve efficacy in

  5. The fusion protein of wild-type canine distemper virus is a major determinant of persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattet, Philippe; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Zuber, BenoIt; Brunner, Jean-Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Wittek, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The wild-type A75/17 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain induces a persistent infection in the central nervous system but infects cell lines very inefficiently. In contrast, the genetically more distant Onderstepoort CDV vaccine strain (OP-CDV) induces extensive syncytia formation. Here, we investigated the roles of wild-type fusion (F WT ) and attachment (H WT ) proteins in Vero cells expressing, or not, the canine SLAM receptor by transfection experiments and by studying recombinants viruses expressing different combinations of wild-type and OP-CDV glycoproteins. We show that low fusogenicity is not due to a defect of the envelope proteins to reach the cell surface and that H WT determines persistent infection in a receptor-dependent manner, emphasizing the role of SLAM as a potent enhancer of fusogenicity. However, importantly, F WT reduced cell-to-cell fusion independently of the cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating that the fusion protein of the neurovirulent A75/17-CDV strain plays a key role in determining persistent infection

  6. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in wild-type and ada mutants of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Pal, B.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    O 6 -Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is induced in Escherichia coli during growth in low levels of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. We have developed a sensitive assay for quantitating low levels of this activity with a synthetic DNA substrate containing 3 H-labeled O 6 -methylguanine as the only modified base. Although both wild-type and adaptation-deficient (ada) mutants of E. coli contained low but comparable numbers (from 13 to 60) of the enzyme molecules per cell, adaptation treatment caused a significant increase of the enzyme in the wild type but not in the ada mutants, suggesting that the ada mutation is in a regulatory locus and not in the structural gene for the methyltransferase

  7. Expression of wild-type and mutant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNA in eucaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1992-01-01

    An effective EBV-based expression system for eucaryotic cells has been developed and used for the study of the mitochondrial enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). 1325 bp of PCR-generated MCAD cDNA, containing the entire coding region, was placed between the SV40 early promoter...... and polyadenylation signals in the EBV-based vector. Both wild-type MCAD cDNA and cDNA containing the prevalent disease-causing mutation A to G at position 985 of the MCAD cDNA were tested. In transfected COS-7 cells, the steady state amount of mutant MCAD protein was consistently lower than the amount of wild......-type human enzyme. The enzyme activity in extracts from cells harbouring the wild-type MCAD cDNA was dramatically higher than in the controls (harbouring the vector without the MCAD gene) while only a slightly higher activity was measured with the mutant MCAD. The mutant MCAD present behaves like wild...

  8. Phenylbutyrate Sensitizes Human Glioblastoma Cells Lacking Wild-Type P53 Function to Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Carlos A.; Feng, Felix Y.; Herman, Joseph M.; Nyati, Mukesh K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ljungman, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a HDAC inhibitor used clinically for treatment of urea cycle disorders. Because of its low cytotoxicity, cerebrospinal fluid penetration, and high oral bioavailability, we investigated PB as a potential radiation sensitizer in human glioblastoma cell lines. Methods and Materials: Four glioblastoma cell lines were selected for this study. Phenylbutyrate was used at a concentration of 2 mM, which is achievable in humans. Western blots were used to assess levels of acetylated histone H3 in tumor cells after treatment with PB. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of PB on radiation sensitivity. We used shRNA against p53 to study the role of p53 in radiosensitization. Results: Treatment with PB alone resulted in hyperacetylation of histones, confirmed by Western blot analysis. The PB alone resulted in cytostatic effects in three cell lines. There was no evidence of G 1 arrest, increase in sub-G 1 fraction or p21 protein induction. Clonogenic assays showed radiosensitization in two lines harboring p53 mutations, with enhancement ratios (± SE) of 1.5 (± 0.2) and 1.3 (± 0.1), respectively. There was no radiopotentiating effect in two cell lines with wild-type p53, but knockdown of wild-type p53 resulted in radiosensitization by PB. Conclusions: Phenylbutyrate can produce p21-independent cytostasis, and enhances radiation sensitivity in p53 mutant human glioblastoma cells in vitro. This suggests the potential application of combined PB and radiotherapy in glioblastoma harboring mutant p53

  9. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition....

  10. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  11. A cerebellar learning model of vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation in wild-type and mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopath, Claudia; Badura, Aleksandra; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Brunel, Nicolas

    2014-05-21

    Mechanisms of cerebellar motor learning are still poorly understood. The standard Marr-Albus-Ito theory posits that learning involves plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses under control of the climbing fiber input, which provides an error signal as in classical supervised learning paradigms. However, a growing body of evidence challenges this theory, in that additional sites of plasticity appear to contribute to motor adaptation. Here, we consider phase-reversal training of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), a simple form of motor learning for which a large body of experimental data is available in wild-type and mutant mice, in which the excitability of granule cells or inhibition of Purkinje cells was affected in a cell-specific fashion. We present novel electrophysiological recordings of Purkinje cell activity measured in naive wild-type mice subjected to this VOR adaptation task. We then introduce a minimal model that consists of learning at the parallel fibers to Purkinje cells with the help of the climbing fibers. Although the minimal model reproduces the behavior of the wild-type animals and is analytically tractable, it fails at reproducing the behavior of mutant mice and the electrophysiology data. Therefore, we build a detailed model involving plasticity at the parallel fibers to Purkinje cells' synapse guided by climbing fibers, feedforward inhibition of Purkinje cells, and plasticity at the mossy fiber to vestibular nuclei neuron synapse. The detailed model reproduces both the behavioral and electrophysiological data of both the wild-type and mutant mice and allows for experimentally testable predictions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347203-13$15.00/0.

  12. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  13. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qiu

    Full Text Available Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou and a wild line (Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3 high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49 were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4 over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  14. Genetic analysis of the porcine group B rotavirus NSP2 gene from wild-type Brazilian strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Médici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Group B rotaviruses (RV-B were first identified in piglet feces, being later associated with diarrhea in humans, cattle, lambs, and rats. In human beings, the virus was only described in China, India, and Bangladesh, especially infecting adults. Only a few studies concerning molecular analysis of the RV-B NSP2 gene have been conducted, and porcine RV-B has not been characterized. In the present study, three porcine wild-type RV-B strains from piglet stool samples collected from Brazilian pig herds were used for analysis. PAGE results were inconclusive for those samples, but specific amplicons of the RV-B NSP2 gene (segment 8 were obtained in a semi-nested PCR assay. The three porcine RV-B strains showed the highest nucleotide identity with the human WH1 strain and the alignments with other published sequences resulted in three groups of strains divided according to host species. The group of human strains showed 92.4 to 99.7% nucleotide identity while the porcine strains of the Brazilian RV-B group showed 90.4 to 91.8% identity to each other. The identity of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains with outer sequences consisting of group A and C rotaviruses was only 35.3 to 38.8%. A dendrogram was also constructed to group the strains into clusters according to host species: human, rat, and a distinct third cluster consisting exclusively of the Brazilian porcine RV-B strains. This is the first study of the porcine RV-B NSP2 gene that contributes to the partial characterization of this virus and demonstrates the relationship among RV-B strains from different host species.

  15. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  16. Interleukin-1 receptor type I gene-deficient mice are less susceptible to Staphylococcus epidermidis biomaterial-associated infection than are wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, J. J.; van der Poll, T.; Zaat, S. A.; Murk, J. L.; Weening, J. J.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) were found in tissue surrounding biomaterials infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis. To determine the role of IL-1 in biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), IL-1 receptor type I-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) and wild-type mice received subcutaneous

  17. Effects of phorbol ester on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activity in wild-type and phorbol ester-resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K C; Homma, M K; Licciardi, K A; Seger, R; Ahn, N G; Peterson, M J; Krebs, E G; Meier, K E

    1993-08-05

    Phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cell lines differ in their ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to phorbol ester. Treatment of wild-type EL4 cells with phorbol ester results in the rapid activations of MAPK and pp90rsk kinase, a substrate for MAPK, while neither kinase is activated in response to phorbol ester in variant EL4 cells. This study examines the activation of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), an activator of MAPK, in wild-type and variant EL4 cells. Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa substrate, identified as MAPK, was observed following in vitro phosphorylation reactions using cytosolic extracts or Mono Q column fractions prepared from phorbol ester-treated wild-type EL4 cells. MAPKK activity coeluted with a portion of the inactive MAPK upon Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography, permitting detection of the MAPKK activity in fractions containing both kinases. This MAPKK activity was present in phorbol ester-treated wild-type cells, but not in phorbol ester-treated variant cells or in untreated wild-type or variant cells. The MAPKK from wild-type cells was able to activate MAPK prepared from either wild-type or variant cells. MAPKK activity could be stimulated in both wildtype and variant EL4 cells in response to treatment of cells with okadaic acid. These results indicate that the failure of variant EL4 cells to activate MAP kinase in response to phorbol ester is due to a failure to activate MAPKK. Therefore, the step that confers phorbol ester resistance to variant EL4 cells lies between the activation of protein kinase C and the activation of MAPKK.

  18. Wild-type and mutated IDH1/2 enzymes and therapy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Remco J; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Wilmink, Johanna W; van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2018-04-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) are key enzymes in cellular metabolism, epigenetic regulation, redox states, and DNA repair. IDH1/2 mutations are causal in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer due to supraphysiological production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate. In various tumor types, IDH1/2-mutated cancers predict for improved responses to treatment with irradiation or chemotherapy. The present review discusses the molecular basis of the sensitivity of IDH1/2-mutated cancers with respect to the function of mutated IDH1/2 in cellular processes and their interactions with novel IDH1/2-mutant inhibitors. Finally, lessons learned from IDH1/2 mutations for future clinical applications in IDH1/2 wild-type cancers are discussed.

  19. Phase II marker-driven trial of panitumumab and chemotherapy in KRAS wild-type biliary tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L H; Lindebjerg, J; Ploen, J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy has proven beneficial in biliary tract cancer and further improvements may be achieved by individualizing treatment based on biomarkers and by adding biological agents. We report the effect of chemotherapy with panitumumab as first-line therapy for KRAS wild....... Combination chemotherapy with panitumumab in patients with KRAS wild-type tumors met the efficacy criteria for future testing in a randomized trial....

  20. Genetic analysis of wild and cultivated germplasm of pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the efficiency of the use of single versus multiple markers, the genetic diversity was quantified among 12 diverse pigeonpea germplasm comprised of eight wild and four cultivated using both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and how well these two types ...

  1. Explaining the resurgent popularity of the wild: motivations for wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunko, Christoph; Grasser, Susanne; Vogl, Christian R

    2015-06-30

    Wild plant gathering becomes again a popular and fashionable activity in Europe after gathering practices have been increasingly abandoned over the last decades. Recent ethnobotanical research documented a diversity of gathering practices from people of diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds who gather in urban and rural areas. Few efforts were though made to study the motivations for gathering wild plants and to understand the resurgent popularity of wild plant gathering. This paper addresses the following research questions: (1) which motivations activate wild plant gatherers? (2) which motivation-types of gatherers exist in the Grosses Walsertal? (3) how do the motivations for gathering relate to the socio-demographic background of gatherers? Field research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal, Austria in the years 2008 and 2009 in two field research periods. Thirty-six local farmers were first interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The motivations identified in these interviews were then included in a structured questionnaire, which was used to interview 353 residents of the valley. Pupils of local schools participated in the data collection as interviewers. Principal Component Analysis was used to categorize the motivations and to identify motivation-types of wild plant gatherers. Generalized Linear Models were calculated to identify relations between motivations and the socio-demographic background of gatherers. The respondents listed 13 different motivations for gathering wild plants and four motivations for not gathering. These 17 motivations were grouped in five motivation-types of wild plant gatherers, which are in decreasing importance: product quality, fun, tradition, not-gathering, income. Women, older respondents and homegardeners gather wild plants more often for fun; older respondents gather more often for maintaining traditions; non-homegardeners more frequently mention motivations for not gathering. The resurgent popularity of

  2. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  3. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20433759

  4. Mid-aged and aged wild-type and progestin receptor knockout (PRKO) mice demonstrate rapid progesterone and 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, C A; Sumida, K; Lydon, J P; O'Malley, B W; Pfaff, D W

    2006-05-01

    Progesterone (P) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), facilitate sexual behavior of rodents via agonist-like actions at intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) and membrane GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes (GBRs), respectively. Given that ovarian secretion of progestins declines with aging, whether or not senescent mice are responsive to progestins was of interest. Homozygous PR knockout (PRKO) or wild-type mice that were between 10-12 (mid-aged) or 20-24 (aged) months of age were administered P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and the effect on lordosis were examined. Effects of a progestin-priming regimen that enhances PR-mediated (experiment 1) or more rapid, PR-independent effects of progestins (experiments 2 and 3) on sexual behavior were examined. Levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were examined in tissues from aged mice (experiment 4). Wild-type, but not PRKO, mice were responsive when primed with 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.5 microg) and administered P (500 microg, subcutaneously). Mid-aged wild-type mice demonstrated greater increases in lordosis 6 h later compared to their pre-P, baseline test than did aged wild-type mice (experiment 1). Lordosis of younger and older wild-type, but not PRKO, mice was significantly increased within 5 min of intravenous (IV) administration of P (100 ng), compared with E(2)-priming alone (experiment 2). However, wild-type and PRKO mice demonstrated significant increases in lordosis 5 min after IV administration of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, an effect which was more pronounced in mid-aged than in aged animals (100 ng-experiment 3). In tissues from aged wild-type and PRKO mice, levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were increased by P administration (experiment 4). PR binding was lower in the cortex of PRKO than that of wild-type mice. Mid-aged and aged PRKO and wild-type mice demonstrated rapid P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis that may be

  5. Antibody production of wild-type and enzyme V279F variants of PAF-AH as a risk factor for Cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, Anggia N.; Puspitarini, Sapti; Sari, Anissa N.; Widodo

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) has emerged as a leading cause of death in Indonesia nowadays. WHO data in 2012 revealed that 37% of the Indonesian population died from this disease. CAD occurs because of endothelial dysfunction in the arteries. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), is a phospholipase A2 enzyme, encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. This protein is predicted to be involved in inflammatory phospholipid metabolism so it can be used as a biomarker of CAD in the early phase. Thus, the purpose of this research is to discover the difference in antibody production between wild-type and mutant V279F. The PAF-AH enzyme was isolated from mice lymphocyte cells in order to develop this enzyme as a biomarker of cardiovascular disease. PAF-AH migrates at 55kDa according to SDS-PAGE analysis. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mutant PAF-AH (V279F) is more antigenic than wild-type PAF-AH. The missense mutation of V279F PAF-AH means this enzyme cannot catabolize the acetyl group at the sn-2 position of PAF.

  6. Identification of concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-negative mutant and wild-type strains by genomic, transcriptional, and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchland, Robert J; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xia, Minsheng; Bhatia, Ajay; Chu, Hencelyn G; Rockey, Daniel D; Stamm, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription, and growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo in comparison with IncA-positive C. trachomatis strains. Three clinical samples were identified that contained a mixture of IncA-positive and -negative same-serovar C. trachomatis populations, and two more such pairs were found in serial isolates from persistently infected individuals. Genomic sequence analysis of individual strains from each of two serovar-matched pairs showed that these pairs were very similar genetically. In contrast, the genome sequence of an unmatched IncA-negative strain contained over 5,000 nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the genome sequence of a serovar-matched but otherwise unlinked strain. Transcriptional analysis, in vitro culture kinetics, and animal modeling demonstrated that IncA-negative strains isolated in the presence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain are phenotypically more similar to the wild-type strain than are IncA-negative strains isolated in the absence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain. These studies support a model suggesting that a change from an IncA-positive strain to the previously described IncA-negative phenotype may involve multiple steps, the first of which involves a translational inactivation of incA, associated with subsequent unidentified steps that lead to the observed decrease in transcript level, differences in growth rate, and differences in mouse infectivity.

  7. Changes in fatty acid content and composition between wild type and CsHMA3 overexpressing Camelina sativa under heavy-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won; Feng, Yufeng; Kim, Hyojin; Suh, Mi Chung; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Under heavy-metal stress, CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic Camelina plants displayed not only a better quality, but also a higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in their seeds compared with wild type. Camelina sativa L. belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is frequently used as a natural vegetable oil source, as its seeds contain a high content of fatty acids. In this study, we observed that, when subjected to heavy metals (Cd, Co, Zn and Pb), the seeds of CsHMA3 (Heavy-Metal P1B-ATPase 3) transgenic lines retained their original golden yellow color and smooth outline, unlike wild-type seeds. Furthermore, we investigated the fatty acids content and composition of wild type and CsHMA3 transgenic lines after heavy metal treatments compared to the control. The results showed higher total fatty acid amounts in seeds of CsHMA3 transgenic lines compared with those in wild-type seeds under heavy-metal stresses. In addition, the compositions of unsaturated fatty acids-especially 18:1 (oleic acid), 18:2 (linoleic acid; only in case of Co treatment), 18:3 (linolenic acid) and 20:1 (eicosenoic acid)-in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines treated with heavy metals were higher than those of wild-type seeds under the same conditions. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents in wild-type leaves and roots when treated with heavy metal were higher than in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines. These results indicate that overexpression of CsHMA3 affects fatty acid composition and content-factors that are responsible for the fuel properties of biodiesel-and can alleviate ROS accumulation caused by heavy-metal stresses in Camelina. Due to these factors, we propose that CsHMA3 transgenic Camelina can be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil as well as for oil production.

  8. The Use of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in EGFR Wild-Type Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2016-04-01

    The objective response rate and progression-free survival observed with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) in patients with metastatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are modest. The adverse events associated with EGFR TKIs are manageable but they must be considered in the context of the limited efficacy. The development of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy as second-line therapy has reduced the role of EGFR TKIs in EGFR wild-type NSCLC. Recently, there has been increased recognition of the benefit of the earlier integration of palliative care and symptom management, and this is reasonable alternative to treatment with an EGFR TKI for many patients. My practice pattern for patients with EGFR wild-type NSCLC is platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line therapy, immunotherapy as second-line therapy, and single-agent chemotherapy as third-line therapy for patients with preserved performance status who want to pursue further therapy. Only a small proportion of patients are eligible for fourth-line therapy, and I prefer to enroll them in clinical trials rather than use EGFR TKIs. I suspect that the use of EGFR TKIs in clinical use and as a comparator arm for clinical trials will continue to decline over the next several years.

  9. Capacity for cooperative binding of thyroid hormone (T3) receptor dimers defines wild type T3 response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, G A; Williams, G R; Harney, J W; Forman, B M; Samuels, H H; Moore, D D; Larsen, P R

    1992-04-01

    Thyroid hormone response elements (T3REs) have been identified in a variety of promoters including those directing expression of rat GH (rGH), alpha-myosin heavy chain (rMHC), and malic enzyme (rME). A detailed biochemical and genetic analysis of the rGH element has shown that it consists of three hexamers related to the consensus [(A/G)GGT(C/A)A]. We have extended this analysis to the rMHC and rME elements. Binding of highly purified thyroid hormone receptor (T3R) to T3REs was determined using the gel shift assay, and thyroid hormone (T3) induction was measured in transient tranfections. We show that the wild type version of each of the three elements binds T3R dimers cooperatively. Mutational analysis of the rMHC and rME elements identified domains important for binding T3R dimers and allowed a direct determination of the relationship between T3R binding and function. In each element two hexamers are required for dimer binding, and mutations that interfere with dimer formation significantly reduce T3 induction. Similar to the rGH element, the rMHC T3RE contains three hexameric domains arranged as a direct repeat followed by an inverted copy, although the third domain is weaker than in rGH. All three are required for full function and T3R binding. The rME T3RE is a two-hexamer direct repeat T3RE, which also binds T3R monomer and dimer. Across a series of mutant elements, there was a strong correlation between dimer binding in vitro and function in vivo for rMHC (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and rME (r = 0.67, P less than 0.05) T3REs. Our results demonstrate a similar pattern of T3R dimer binding to a diverse array of hexameric sequences and arrangements in three wild type T3REs. Addition of nuclear protein enhanced T3R binding but did not alter the specificity of binding to wild type or mutant elements. Binding of purified T3R to T3REs was highly correlated with function, both with and without the addition of nuclear protein. T3R dimer formation is the common

  10. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  11. Effects of age and liquid holding on the UV-radiation sensitivities of wild-type and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, P S

    1984-01-01

    The dauer larva is a facultative developmental stage in the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dauer larvae, which can survive under starvation for over 60 days, resume normal development when feeding is resumed. Wild-type (N2) and 4 radiation-sensitive (rad) mutant dauer larvae were tested for their abilities to develop into adults after UV-irradiation. The rad-3 mutant was over 30 times as sensitive as N2; rad-1, rad-2 and rad-7 mutants were not hypersensitive. Irradiation also delayed development in survivors. Wild-type dauer larvae did not differ in radiation sensitivity from 0 through 50 days of age. There was no liquid holding recovery (LHR); that is, survival did not increase when wild-type dauer larvae were held in buffer after irradiation. (orig.). 28 refs.; 4 figs.

  12. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  13. Genotyping assay for differentiation of wild-type and vaccine viruses in subjects immunized with live attenuated influenza vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Matyushenko

    Full Text Available Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs are considered as safe and effective tool to control influenza in different age groups, especially in young children. An important part of the LAIV safety evaluation is the detection of vaccine virus replication in the nasopharynx of the vaccinees, with special attention to a potential virus transmission to the unvaccinated close contacts. Conducting LAIV clinical trials in some geographical regions with year-round circulation of influenza viruses warrants the development of robust and reliable tools for differentiating vaccine viruses from wild-type influenza viruses in nasal pharyngeal wash (NPW specimens of vaccinated subjects. Here we report the development of genotyping assay for the detection of wild-type and vaccine-type influenza virus genes in NPW specimens of young children immunized with Russian-backbone seasonal trivalent LAIV using Sanger sequencing from newly designed universal primers. The new primer set allowed amplification and sequencing of short fragments of viral genes in NPW specimens and appeared to be more sensitive than conventional real-time RT-PCR protocols routinely used for the detection and typing/subtyping of influenza virus in humans. Furthermore, the new assay is capable of defining the origin of wild-type influenza virus through BLAST search with the generated sequences of viral genes fragments.

  14. Cross-experimental analysis of coat color variations and morphological characteristics of the japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Iwasa, Masahiro A

    2013-01-01

    There are many coat colors in the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. On the basis of traditional genetics, there are four loci, A-D, related to coat color expressions. As shown by previous studies, Japanese wild mice have gray backs and white bellies and are assumed to carry the A(w) allele at the A (agouti) locus, which is dominant over any other alleles. However, we collected Japanese wild mice from central Honshu with black coats. To understand this black coat expression, we performed cross experiments concerning the four loci using wild-caught mice and DBA/2 laboratory mice from the standpoint of traditional genetics. The offspring of the current crosses showed the wild type, the blackish type, and the intermediate type from some combinations of parents. Considering the coat colors of the offspring, we did not obtain any evidence that the Japanese wild mice always carry the A(w) allele at the A locus. Furthermore, we were not able to explain the current coat color expressions using the traditional logic with regard to the A-D loci and concluded that it is possible for another locus (loci) to be related to the coat color expressions. On the other hand, skull characteristics and external body measurements of the captured wild mice were fundamentally different from those of DBA/2 and offspring from captured wild mice and DBA/2 combinations. Thus, we concluded that the Japanese wild mice had original criteria from a morphological viewpoint.

  15. Unique Safety Issues Associated with Virus Vectored Vaccines: Potential for and Theoretical Consequences of Recombination with Wild Type Virus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Richard C.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Sheets, Rebecca; Seligman, Stephen J.; Monath, Thomas P.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Gurwith, Marc; Bok, Karin; Robertson, James S.; Kim, Denny; Hendry, Michael; Singh, Vidisha; Mac, Lisa M.; Chen, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003 and 2013, the World Health Organization convened informal consultations on characterization and quality aspects of vaccines based on live virus vectors. In the resulting reports, one of several issues raised for future study was the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. This paper presents an assessment of this issue formulated by the Brighton Collaboration. To provide an appropriate context for understanding the potential for recombination of virus-vectored vaccines, we review briefly the current status of virus vectored vaccines, mechanisms of recombination between viruses, experience with recombination involving live attenuated vaccines in the field, and concerns raised previously in the literature regarding recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type virus strains. We then present a discussion of the major variables that could influence recombination between a virus-vectored vaccine and circulating wild type virus and the consequences of such recombination, including intrinsic recombination properties of the parent virus used as a vector; sequence relatedness of vector and wild virus; virus host range, pathogenesis and transmission; replication competency of vector in target host; mechanism of vector attenuation; additional factors potentially affecting virulence; and circulation of multiple recombinant vectors in the same target population. Finally, we present some guiding principles for vector design and testing intended to anticipate and mitigate the potential for and consequences of recombination of virus-vectored vaccines with wild type pathogenic virus strains. PMID:27346303

  16. MLH1-deficient Colorectal Carcinoma With Wild-type BRAF and MLH1 Promoter Hypermethylation Harbor KRAS Mutations and Arise From Conventional Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchoukh, Lama; Kuan, Shih-Fan; Dudley, Beth; Brand, Randall; Nikiforova, Marina; Pai, Reetesh K

    2016-10-01

    Between 10% and 15% of colorectal carcinomas demonstrate sporadic DNA mismatch-repair protein deficiency as a result of MLH1 promoter methylation and are thought to arise from sessile serrated adenomas, termed the serrated neoplasia pathway. Although the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation is indicative of a sporadic cancer, up to 30% to 50% of colorectal carcinomas with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation will lack a BRAF mutation. We report the clinicopathologic and molecular features of MLH1-deficient colorectal carcinoma with wild-type BRAF and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation (referred to as MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinoma, n=36) in comparison with MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinoma (n=113) and Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (n=36). KRAS mutations were identified in 31% of MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas compared with 0% of MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinomas and 37% of Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinomas. When a precursor polyp was identified, MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas arose from precursor polyps resembling conventional tubular/tubulovillous adenomas in contrast to MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinomas, which arose from precursor sessile serrated adenomas (PMLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinoma and MLH1-deficient BRAF-mutated colorectal carcinoma had a predilection for the right colon compared with Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma (86% vs. 92% vs. 49%, P0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that MLH1-hypermethylated BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas can harbor KRAS mutations and arise from precursor polyps resembling conventional tubular/tubulovillous adenomas.

  17. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  18. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  19. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  20. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B is a predictor of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma expressing wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takumi; Ezaki, Junji; Okabe, Naoyuki; Takagi, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Hoshino, Mika; Osugi, Jun; Shio, Yutaka; Waguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hirosumi; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Emi; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Honma, Reiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with tumors that harbor no targetable driver gene mutation, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene mutations, have unfavorable prognosis, and thus, novel therapeutic targets are required. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B ( FAM83B ) is a biomarker for squamous cell lung cancer. FAM83B has also recently been shown to serve an important role in the EGFR signaling pathway. In the present study, the molecular and clinical impact of FAM83B in lung ADC was investigated. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from 216 patients who underwent complete lung resection for primary lung ADC and were examined for FAM83B expression using cDNA microarray analysis. The associations between FAM83B expression and clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival, were examined. FAM83B was highly expressed in tumors from males, smokers and in tumors with wild-type EGFR . Multivariate analyses further confirmed that wild-type EGFR tumors were significantly positively associated with FAM83B expression. In survival analysis, FAM83B expression was associated with poor outcomes in disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly when stratified against tumors with wild-type EGFR . Furthermore, FAM83B knockdown was performed to investigate its phenotypic effect on lung ADC cell lines. Gene silencing by FAM83B RNA interference induced growth suppression in the HLC-1 and H1975 lung ADC cell lines. FAM83B may be involved in lung ADC tumor proliferation and can be a predictor of poor survival. FAM83B is also a potential novel therapeutic target for ADC with wild-type EGFR .

  1. Mathematical model of the SOS response regulation in wild-type Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of the SOS response in Escherichia coli, which is a set of inducible cellular reactions introduced after DNA damage, is due to specific interaction of LexA and RecA proteins. LexA protein is a common repressor of the genes of the SOS system, and RecA protein, once transiently activated by the so-called SOS-inducing signal, promotes LexA protein destruction. We have described the SOS regulation by means of differential equations with regard to LexA and RecA concentrations elsewhere. The 'input' function for model equations is the level of the SOS-inducing signal against time. Here we present a means for calculating the concentration of single-stranded DNA (SOS-inducing signal) as a function of time in wild-type cells after ultraviolet irradiation. With model equations one can simulate kinetic curves of SOS regulatory proteins after DNA damage to survey the SOS response kinetics. Simulation of LexA protein kinetics agrees with experimental data. We compare simulated LexA kinetic curves in wild-type and uνr - mutant bacteria, which is useful in investigating the way uνrABC-dependent excision repair modulates the SOS response kinetics. Possible applications of the model to investigating various aspects of the SOS induction are discussed

  2. Differential tumor biology effects of double-initiation in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model comparing wild type versus protein kinase Cepsilon overexpression mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafan; Wheeler, Deric L; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N; Verma, Ajit K; Oberley, Terry D

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies showed that protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) verexpression in mouse skin resulted in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by single 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promotion in the absence of preceding papilloma formation as is typically observed in wild type mice. The present study demonstrates that double-DMBA initiation modulates tumor incidence, multiplicity, and latency period in both wild type and PKCepsilon overexpression transgenic (PKCepsilon-Tg) mice. After 17 weeks (wks) of tumor promotion, a reduction in papilloma multiplicity was observed in double- versus single-DMBA initiated wild type mice. Papilloma multiplicity was inversely correlated with cell death indices of interfollicular keratinocytes, indicating decreased papilloma formation was caused by increased cell death and suggesting the origin of papillomas is in interfollicular epidermis. Double-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice had accelerated carcinoma formation and cancer incidence in comparison to single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice. Morphologic analysis of mouse skin following double initiation and tumor promotion showed a similar if not identical series of events to those previously observed following single initiation and tumor promotion: putative preneoplastic cells were observed arising from hyperplastic hair follicles (HFs) with subsequent cancer cell infiltration into the dermis. Single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice exhibited increased mitosis in epidermal cells of HFs during tumor promotion.

  3. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1{+-}0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2{+-}0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  4. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1±0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2±0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  5. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  6. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  7. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pteridine reductase in wild-type and antimony-resistant Leishmania lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moreira, Douglas; Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-01-01

    Pteridine reductase (PTR1) is an NADPH-dependent reductase that participates in the salvage of pteridines, which are essential to maintain growth of Leishmania. In this study, we performed the molecular characterization of ptr1 gene in wild-type (WTS) and SbIII-resistant (SbR) lines from Leishmania guyanensis (Lg), Leishmania amazonensis (La), Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and Leishmania infantum (Li), evaluating the chromosomal location, mRNA levels of the ptr1 gene and PTR1 protein expression. PFGE results showed that the ptr1 gene is located in a 797 kb chromosomal band in all Leishmania lines analyzed. Interestingly, an additional chromosomal band of 1070 kb was observed only in LbSbR line. Northern blot results showed that the levels of ptr1 mRNA are increased in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines. Western blot assays using the polyclonal anti-LmPTR1 antibody demonstrated that PTR1 protein is more expressed in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines compared to their respective WTS counterparts. Nevertheless, no difference in the level of mRNA and protein was observed between the LiWTS and LiSbR lines. Functional analysis of PTR1 enzyme was performed to determine whether the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis and L. infantum lines would change the SbIII-resistance phenotype of transfected parasites. Western blot results showed that the expression level of PTR1 protein was increased in the transfected parasites compared to the non-transfected ones. IC50 analysis revealed that the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis line increased 2-fold the SbIII-resistance phenotype compared to the non-transfected counterpart. Furthermore, the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. infantum line did not change the SbIII-resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the PTR1 enzyme may be implicated in the SbIII-resistance phenotype in L. braziliensis line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set...... of Micro CT scannings of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an atlas...

  9. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  10. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie L Morgan

    Full Text Available The role for royal jelly (RJ in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species.

  11. Glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive trafficking of proteolytically processed cell surface-associated glycoproteins in wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacher, S.L.; Goodman, L.J.; Bravo, D.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Goldfine, I.D.; Hawley, D.M.; Firestone, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate the trafficking of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) glycoproteins to the cell surface in the rat hepatoma cell line M1.54, but not in the immunoselected sorting variant CR4. To compare the localization of MMTV glycoproteins to another proteolytically processed glycoprotein, both wild type M1.54 cells and variant CR4 cells were transfected with a human insulin receptor (hIR) expression vector, pRSVhIR. The production of cell surface hIR was monitored in dexamethasone-treated and -untreated wild type M1.54 and variant CR4 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, direct plasma membrane immunoprecipitation, and by [125I] insulin binding. In both wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells, hIR were localized at the cell surface in the presence or in the absence of 1 microM dexamethasone. In contrast, the glucocorticoid-regulated trafficking of cell surface MMTV glycoproteins occurred only in wild type M1.54 cells. We conclude that the hIR, which undergoes posttranslational processing reactions similar to MMTV glycoproteins, does not require glucocorticoids to be transported to the plasma membrane and is representative of a subset of cell surface glycoproteins whose trafficking is constitutive in rat hepatoma cells. Thus, MMTV glycoproteins and hIR provide specific cell surface markers to characterize the glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive sorting pathways

  12. Genome Sequences of Three Vaccine Strains and Two Wild-Type Canine Distemper Virus Strains from a Recent Disease Outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Angelika K; Du Plessis, Morné; Dalton, Desiré Lee; Mitchell, Emily; Venter, Estelle H

    2017-07-06

    Canine distemper virus causes global multihost infectious disease. This report details complete genome sequences of three vaccine and two new wild-type strains. The wild-type strains belong to the South African lineage, and all three vaccine strains to the America 1 lineage. This constitutes the first genomic sequences of this virus from South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Loots et al.

  13. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  14. Detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus by a duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Li, W H; Zhu, J L; Liu, W J; Zhao, M Q; Luo, Y W; Chen, J D

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of canine distemper (CD) which is a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. In the present study, a duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of CDV. Four primers were designed to detect and discriminate the two viruses by generating 638- and 781-bp cDNA products, respectively. Furthermore, the duplex RT-PCR method was used to detect 67 field samples suspected of CD from Guangdong province in China. Results showed that, 33 samples were to be wild-type-like. The duplex RT-PCR method exhibited high specificity and sensitivity which could be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type and vaccine CDV, indicating its use for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  15. Comparative Study on Growth Performance of Transgenic (Over-Expressed OsNHX1 and Wild-Type Nipponbare under Different Salinity Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kahrani ISHAK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Nipponbare which over-expressed a Na+/H+ antiporter gene OsNHX1 was used to compare its growth performance, water status and photosynthetic efficiency with its wild type under varying salinity regimes. Chlorophyll content, quantum yield and photosynthetic rate were measured to assess the impact of salinity stress on photosynthetic efficiency for transgenic and wild-type Nipponbare. Effects of salinity on water status and gas exchange to both lines were studied by measuring water use efficiency, instantaneous transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Dry shoot weight and leaf area were determined after three months of growth to assess the impacts of salinity on the growth of those two lines. Our study showed that both lines were affected by salinity stress, however, the transgenic line showed higher photosynthetic efficiency, better utilization of water, and better growth due to low transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. Reduction of photosynthetic efficiency exhibited by the wild-type Nipponbare was correlated to its poor growth under salinity stress.

  16. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and record...

  17. Genotype-temperature interaction in the regulation of development, growth, and morphometrics in wild-type, and growth-hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e.g. most fishes, are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures.By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production at six different temperatures, ranging between 8 degrees and 18 degrees C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12 degrees C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16 degrees C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves.Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to differentially respond and adapt to shifts in environmental

  18. Brain response to traumatic brain injury in wild-type and interleukin-6 knockout mice: a microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Penkowa, Milena; Borup, Rehannah

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability. Brain response to injury is orchestrated by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. We here report the results obtained with microarrays...... in wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 days post-lesion. Overall gene expression was analyzed by using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays with approximately 12,400 probe sets corresponding to approximately 10...... in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma. IL-6 deficiency showed a dramatic effect in the expression of many genes, especially in the 1 day post-lesion timing, which presumably underlies the poor capacity of IL-6 knockout mice to cope with brain damage. The results highlight...

  19. A comparative transcriptome analysis of a wild purple potato and its red mutant provides insight into the mechanism of anthocyanin transformation.

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    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, a red mutant was obtained through in vitro regeneration of a wild purple potato. High-performance liquid chromatography and Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside and petunidin-3-O-glucoside were main anthocyanins in the mutant and wild type tubers, respectively. In order to thoroughly understand the mechanism of anthocyanin transformation in two materials, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the mutant and wild type was carried out through high-throughput RNA sequencing, and 295 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were obtained. Real-time qRT-PCR validation of DEGs was consistent with the transcriptome date. The DEGs mainly influenced biological and metabolic pathways, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and translation, and biosynthesis of flavone and flavonol. In anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, the analysis of structural genes expressions showed that three genes, one encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, one encoding 4-coumarate-CoA ligase and one encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylasem were significantly down-regulated in the mutant; one gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was significantly up-regulated. Moreover, the transcription factors, such as bZIP family, MYB family, LOB family, MADS family, zf-HD family and C2H2 family, were significantly regulated in anthocyanin transformation. Response proteins of hormone, such as gibberellin, abscisic acid and brassinosteroid, were also significantly regulated in anthocyanin transformation. The information contributes to discovering the candidate genes in anthocyanin transformation, which can serve as a comprehensive resource for molecular mechanism research of anthocyanin transformation in potatoes.

  20. Primary tumor location predicts poor clinical outcome with cetuximab in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dalyong; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Ji Sung; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Kim, Jihun; Jang, Se Jin; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Kim, Tae Won

    2017-11-23

    In metastatic colorectal cancer, the location of the primary tumor has been suggested to have biological significance. In this study, we investigated whether primary tumor location affects cetuximab efficacy in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Genotyping by the SequenomMassARRAY technology platform (OncoMap) targeting KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF was performed in tumors from 307 patients who had been given cetuximab as salvage treatment. Tumors with mutated RAS (KRAS or NRAS; n = 127) and those with multiple primary location (n = 10) were excluded. Right colon cancer was defined as a tumor located in the proximal part to splenic flexure. A total of 170 patients were included in the study (right versus left, 23 and 147, respectively). Patients with right colon cancer showed more mutated BRAF (39.1% vs. 5.4%), mutated PIK3CA (13% vs. 1.4%), poorly differentiated tumor (17.4% vs. 3.4%), and peritoneal involvement (26.1% vs. 8.8%) than those with left colon and rectal cancer. Right colon cancer showed poorer progression-free survival (2.0 vs.5.0 months, P = 0.002) and overall survival (4.1 months and 13.0 months, P < 0.001) than the left colon and rectal cancer. By multivariable analysis, BRAF mutation, right colon primary, poorly differentiated histology, and peritoneal involvement were associated with risk of death. In RAS wild-type colon cancer treated with cetuximab as salvage treatment, right colon primary was associated with poorer survival outcomes than left colon and rectal cancer.

  1. Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides

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    Bruce D. Hammock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2 and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field, AcMNPV, and SlNPV using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%, AcAaIT-field (1.2%, and SlNPV (4.0%. Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal

  2. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

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    Ningyue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice.

  3. Proteomics of Arabidopsis Seed Germination : a Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Gibberellin-Deficient Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, K.; Job, C.; Groot, S.P.C.; Puype, M.; Vandekerckhove, J.; Job, D.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the role of gibberellins (GAs) in germination of Arabidopsis seeds by a proteomic approach. For that purpose, we used two systems. The first system consisted of seeds of the GA-deficient ga1 mutant, and the second corresponded to wild-type seeds incubated in paclobutrazol, a specific GA

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationship of wild type 1 poliovirus strains circulating across Pakistan and Afghanistan bordering areas during 2010-2012.

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    Shahzad Shaukat

    Full Text Available Pakistan and Afghanistan share a long uncontrolled border with extensive population movement on both sides. Wild poliovirus transmission has never been interrupted in this block due to war against terrorism, poor public health infrastructure, misconceptions about polio vaccines and inadequate immunization activities. All these issues complicate the eradication operations and reinforce the complexity of wiping out poliomyelitis from this region. This study illustrates the origins and routes of cross-border wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 transmission during 2010-2012 between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Sequence analyses were conducted based on complete VP1 capsid protein sequences for WPV1 study strains to determine the origin of poliovirus genetic lineages and their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic tree was constructed from VP1 gene sequences applying Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura 2- parameter model in MEGA program v 5.0. A total of 72 (14.3% out of 502 wild-type 1 polioviruses were found circulating in border areas of both countries during 2010-2012. Molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these strains in to two sub-genotypes with four clusters and 18 lineages. Genetic data confirmed that the most of WPV1 lineages (12; 66.6% were transmitted from Pakistan to Afghanistan. However, the genetic diversity was significantly reduced during 2012 as most of the lineages were completely eliminated. In conclusion, Pakistan-Afghanistan block has emerged as a single poliovirus reservoir sharing the multiple poliovirus lineages due to uncontrolled movement of people across the borders between two countries. If it is neglected, it can jeopardize the extensive global efforts done so-far to eradicate the poliovirus infection. Our data will be helpful to devise the preventive strategies for effective control of wild poliovirus transmission in this region.

  5. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and

  6. CD7 in acute myeloid leukemia: correlation with loss of wild-type CEBPA, consequence of epigenetic regulation

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    Drexler Hans G

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD7 is a negative prognostic marker in myeloid malignancies. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, an inverse correlation exists between expression of wild-type CEBPA and CD7. Aim of this study was to find out whether C/EBPα is a negative regulator of CD7 and which other regulatory mechanisms might be involved. Results As already described for primary AML cells, the majority of AML cell lines tested were either C/EBPα+/CD7- or C/EBPα-/CD7+. However, the existence of isolated CD7+ cell lines expressing wild-type C/EBPα challenges the notion that C/EBPα acts as a unique repressor of CD7. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CEBPA did not reduce CD7 in CD7+ cells and knock-down of C/EBPα failed to induce CD7 in CD7- cells. In contrast, the DNA demethylating agent Aza-2'deoxycytidine triggered CD7 expression in CD7- AML and in T-cell lines suggesting epigenetic regulation of CD7. Bisulfite sequencing data confirmed that CpGs in the CD7 exon1 region are methylated in CD7- cell lines, and unmethylated in CD7+ cell lines. Conclusion We confirmed an inverse correlation between the expression of wild-type CEBPA and of CD7 in AML cells. Our results contradict the hypothesis that C/EBPα acts as repressor for CD7, and instead show that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for CD7 regulation, in AML cells as well as in T-cells, the typical CD7 expressing cell type.

  7. Molecular Modeling and Structural Stability of Wild-Type and Mutant CYP51 from Leishmania major: In Vitro and In Silico Analysis of a Laboratory Strain

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    Masoud Keighobadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease and a major public health in the most countries. Leishmania major is the most common cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the Leishmania parasites, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sterols, has been identified as an attractive target for development of new therapeutic agents. In this study, the sequence and structure of CYP51 in a laboratory strain (MRHO/IR/75/ER of L. major were determined and compared to the wild-type strain. The results showed 19 mutations including seven non-synonymous and 12 synonymous ones in the CYP51 sequence of strain MRHO/IR/75/ER. Importantly, an arginine to lysine substitution at position of 474 resulted in destabilization of CYP51 (ΔΔG = 1.17 kcal/mol in the laboratory strain; however, when the overall effects of all substitutions were evaluated by 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation, the final structure did not show any significant changes (p-value < 0.05 in stability parameter of the strain MRHO/IR/75/ER compared to the wild-type protein. The energy level for the CYP51 of wild-type and MRHO/IR/75/ER strain were −40,027.1 and −39,706.48 Kcal/mol respectively. The overall Root-mean-square deviation (RMSD deviation between two proteins was less than 1 Å throughout the simulation and Root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF plot also showed no substantial differences between amino acids fluctuation of the both protein. The results also showed that, these mutations were located on the protein periphery that neither interferes with protein folding nor with substrate/inhibitor binding. Therefore, L. major strain MRHO/IR/75/ER is suggested as a suitable laboratory model for studying biological role of CYP51 and inhibitory effects of sterol 14α-demethylase inhibitors.

  8. Partially dissecting the steady-state electron fluxes in Photosystem I in wild-type and pgr5 and ndh mutants of Arabidopsis

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    Jiancun eKou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flux (CEF around Photosystem I (PS I is difficult to quantify. We obtained the linear electron flux (LEFO2 through both photosystems and the total electron flux through PS I (ETR1 in Arabidopsis in CO2-enriched air. DeltaFlux = ETR1 – LEFO2 is an upper estimate of CEF, which consists of two components, an antimycin A-sensitive, PGR5 (proton gradient regulation 5 protein-dependent component and an insensitive component facilitated by a chloroplastic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH. Using wild type as well as pgr5 and ndh mutants, we observed that (1 40% of the absorbed light was partitioned to PS I; (2 at high irradiance a substantial antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type and the ndh mutant; (3 at low irradiance a sizable antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type but not in the ndh mutant, suggesting an enhancing effect of NDH in low light; and (4 in the pgr5 mutant, and the wild type and ndh mutant treated with antimycin A, a residual DeltaFlux existed at high irradiance, attributable to charge recombination and/or pseudo-cyclic electron flow. Therefore, in low-light-acclimated plants exposed to high light, DeltaFlux has contributions from various paths of electron flow through PS I.

  9. Hepcidin regulation in wild-type and Hfe knockout mice in response to alcohol consumption: evidence for an alcohol-induced hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Mandy L; Murphy, Therese L; Bridle, Kim R; Anderson, Gregory J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Fletcher, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    Expression of Hamp1, the gene encoding the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin, is inappropriately low in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and Hfe knockout mice (Hfe(-/-)). Since chronic alcohol consumption is also associated with disturbances in iron metabolism, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on hepcidin mRNA expression in Hfe(-/-) mice. Hfe(-/-) and C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice were pair-fed either an alcohol liquid diet or control diet for up to 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of hepcidin and ferroportin were measured at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) was measured by western blot. Hamp1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and duodenal ferroportin expression was increased in alcohol-fed wild-type mice at 8 weeks. Time course experiments showed that the decrease in hepcidin mRNA was not immediate, but was significant by 4 weeks. Consistent with the genetic defect, Hamp1 mRNA was decreased and duodenal ferroportin mRNA expression was increased in Hfe(-/-) mice fed on the control diet compared with wild-type animals and alcohol further exacerbated these effects. HIF-1alpha protein levels were elevated in alcohol-fed wild-type animals compared with controls. Alcohol may decrease Hamp1 gene expression independently of the HFE pathway possibly via alcohol-induced hypoxia.

  10. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  11. Mutant INS-gene induced diabetes of youth: proinsulin cysteine residues impose dominant-negative inhibition on wild-type proinsulin transport.

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    Ming Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a syndrome of Mutant INS-gene-induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY, derived from one of 26 distinct mutations has been identified as a cause of insulin-deficient diabetes, resulting from expression of a misfolded mutant proinsulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Genetic deletion of one, two, or even three alleles encoding insulin in mice does not necessarily lead to diabetes. Yet MIDY patients are INS-gene heterozygotes; inheritance of even one MIDY allele, causes diabetes. Although a favored explanation for the onset of diabetes is that insurmountable ER stress and ER stress response from the mutant proinsulin causes a net loss of beta cells, in this report we present three surprising and interlinked discoveries. First, in the presence of MIDY mutants, an increased fraction of wild-type proinsulin becomes recruited into nonnative disulfide-linked protein complexes. Second, regardless of whether MIDY mutations result in the loss, or creation, of an extra unpaired cysteine within proinsulin, Cys residues in the mutant protein are nevertheless essential in causing intracellular entrapment of co-expressed wild-type proinsulin, blocking insulin production. Third, while each of the MIDY mutants induces ER stress and ER stress response; ER stress and ER stress response alone appear insufficient to account for blockade of wild-type proinsulin. While there is general agreement that ultimately, as diabetes progresses, a significant loss of beta cell mass occurs, the early events described herein precede cell death and loss of beta cell mass. We conclude that the molecular pathogenesis of MIDY is initiated by perturbation of the disulfide-coupled folding pathway of wild-type proinsulin.

  12. Identification and comparative profiling of miRNAs in an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange and its wild type by genome-wide deep sequencing.

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    Lei-Ming Sun

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a regulatory role in various biological and metabolic processes by negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. While the number of known Arabidopsis and rice miRNAs is continuously increasing, information regarding miRNAs from woody plants such as citrus remains limited. Solexa sequencing was performed at different developmental stages on both an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and its wild-type in this study, resulting in the obtainment of 141 known miRNAs belonging to 99 families and 75 novel miRNAs in four libraries. A total of 317 potential target genes were predicted based on the 51 novel miRNAs families, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that high ranked miRNA-target genes are those implicated in diverse cellular processes in plants, including development, transcription, protein degradation and cross adaptation. To characterize those miRNAs expressed at the juvenile and adult development stages of the mutant and its wild-type, further analysis on the expression profiles of several miRNAs through real-time PCR was performed. The results revealed that most miRNAs were down-regulated at adult stage compared with juvenile stage for both the mutant and its wild-type. These results indicate that both conserved and novel miRNAs may play important roles in citrus growth and development, stress responses and other physiological processes.

  13. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  14. lambda. -prophage induction in repair-deficient and wild type E. coli strains by. gamma. -rays and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonev, M.N.; Kozubek, S.; Krasavin, E.A.; Amirtajev, K.G. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    1990-05-01

    {lambda}-prophage induction in repair-deficient and wild-type E. coli strains by heavy ions and {gamma}-rays was investigated. The dose dependence of the fraction of induced cells has been measured and its initial slope ({lambda}-induction potency) determined. Induction by {gamma}-rays was found to be more efficient in a polA-repair-deficient strain; the value of {lambda}-induction potency is zero in lexA{sup -} and recA{sup -} strains. The {lambda}-induction potency potency increased with LET for wild-type cells but remained constant in polA{sup -} mutant cells. It is suggested that DNA damage triggering the {lambda}-prophage induction in the case of ionizing radiation could be a type of DNA single-strand break with complex structures which cannot be repaired by fast repair processes, and requires a substantial level of energy deposition for induction in a DNA molecule. (author).

  15. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

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    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  16. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, Victor; Outor-Monteiro, D.; Mourão, J.L.; Cone, J.W.; Guimaraes Dias Lourenco, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit

  17. The In Vivo Granulopoietic Response to Dexamethasone Injection Is Abolished in Perforin-Deficient Mutant Mice and Corrected by Lymphocyte Transfer from Nonsensitized Wild-Type Donors

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    Pedro Xavier-Elsas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenously administered glucocorticoids enhance eosinophil and neutrophil granulocyte production from murine bone-marrow. A hematological response dependent on endogenous glucocorticoids underlies bone-marrow eosinophilia induced by trauma or allergic sensitization/challenge. We detected a defect in granulopoiesis in nonsensitized, perforin-deficient mice. In steady-state conditions, perforin- (Pfp- deficient mice showed significantly decreased bone-marrow and blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and colony formation in response to GM-CSF, relative to wild-type controls of comparable age and/or weight. By contrast, peripheral blood or spleen total cell and lymphocyte numbers were not affected by perforin deficiency. Dexamethasone enhanced colony formation by GM-CSF-stimulated progenitors from wild-type controls, but not Pfp mice. Dexamethasone injection increased bone-marrow eosinophil and neutrophil counts in wild-type controls, but not Pfp mice. Because perforin is expressed in effector lymphocytes, we examined whether this defect would be corrected by transferring wild-type lymphocytes into perforin-deficient recipients. Short-term reconstitution of the response to dexamethasone was separately achieved for eosinophils and neutrophils by transfer of distinct populations of splenic lymphocytes from nonsensitized wild-type donors. Transfer of the same amount of splenic lymphocytes from perforin-deficient donors was ineffective. This demonstrates that the perforin-dependent, granulopoietic response to dexamethasone can be restored by transfer of innate lymphocyte subpopulations.

  18. Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancini, Cesare; Gargiulo, Gaetano; van den Berk, Paul C M; Citterio, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The data described here provide genome-wide expression profiles of murine primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of B cell populations, obtained by high throughput sequencing. Cells are derived from wild-type mice and from mice deficient for the ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ). Modification of histone proteins by ubiquitin plays a crucial role in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR) (Jackson and Durocher, 2013) [1]. USP3 is a histone H2A deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR in response to DNA double-strand breaks (Nicassio et al., 2007; Doil et al., 2008) [2], [3]. Deletion of USP3 in mice increases the incidence of spontaneous tumors and affects hematopoiesis [4]. In particular, Usp3-knockout mice show progressive loss of B and T cells and decreased functional potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during aging. USP3-deficient cells, including HSCs, display enhanced histone ubiquitination, accumulate spontaneous DNA damage and are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. To address whether USP3 loss leads to deregulation of specific molecular pathways relevant to HSC homeostasis and/or B cell development, we have employed the RNA-sequencing technology and investigated transcriptional differences between wild-type and Usp3Δ/Δ LSK, naïve B cells or in vitro activated B cells. The data relate to the research article "Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells" (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. The RNA-sequencing and analysis data sets have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar et al., 2002) [5] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE58495 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE58495). With this article, we present validation of the RNA-seq data set through quantitative real-time PCR and comparative analysis.

  19. Reconstitution of wild type viral DNA in simian cells transfected with early and late SV40 defective genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F J; Gao, Y; Xu, X

    1993-11-01

    The DNAs of polyomaviruses ordinarily exist as a single circular molecule of approximately 5000 base pairs. Variants of SV40, BKV and JCV have been described which contain two complementing defective DNA molecules. These defectives, which form a bipartite genome structure, contain either the viral early region or the late region. The defectives have the unique property of being able to tolerate variable sized reiterations of regulatory and terminus region sequences, and portions of the coding region. They can also exchange coding region sequences with other polyomaviruses. It has been suggested that the bipartite genome structure might be a stage in the evolution of polyomaviruses which can uniquely sustain genome and sequence diversity. However, it is not known if the regulatory and terminus region sequences are highly mutable. Also, it is not known if the bipartite genome structure is reversible and what the conditions might be which would favor restoration of the monomolecular genome structure. We addressed the first question by sequencing the reiterated regulatory and terminus regions of E- and L-SV40 DNAs. This revealed a large number of mutations in the regulatory regions of the defective genomes, including deletions, insertions, rearrangements and base substitutions. We also detected insertions and base substitutions in the T-antigen gene. We addressed the second question by introducing into permissive simian cells, E- and L-SV40 genomes which had been engineered to contain only a single regulatory region. Analysis of viral DNA from transfected cells demonstrated recombined genomes containing a wild type monomolecular DNA structure. However, the complete defectives, containing reiterated regulatory regions, could often compete away the wild type genomes. The recombinant monomolecular genomes were isolated, cloned and found to be infectious. All of the DNA alterations identified in one of the regulatory regions of E-SV40 DNA were present in the recombinant

  20. Role of UV-inducible proteins in repair of various wild-type Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedliakova, M.; Slezarikova, V.; Brozmanova, J.; Masek, F.; Bayerova, V.

    1980-01-01

    3 wild-type strains of E. coli, namely K12 AB2497, B/r WP2 and 15 555-7, proficient in excision and post-replication repair, differ markedly in their UV resistance. To elucidate this difference, the influence was investigated of induction by application of inducing fluence (IF) before lethal fluence (LF) on repair processes after LF. In cells distinguished by low UV resistance (E. coli 15 555-7; E. coli B/r WP2), dimer excision was less complete in cultures irradiated with IF + LF than in cultures irradiated with LF only. The highly resistant E. coli K12 AB2497 performed complete excision both after IF + LF or after LF alone. All 3 types of cell survived better after IF + LF than after LF only. Because, in most strains so far investigated, the application of IF reduced dimer excision and increased survival, dimer excision per se does not appear important for survival. We conclude that the rate and completeness of dimer excision can serve as a measure of efficiency of the excision system whose action is necessary for repair of another lesion. Cells of all investigated strains could not resume DNA replication and died progressively when irradiated with LF and post-incubated with chloramphenicol (LF CAP + ). Thus, it appears that inducible proteins are necessary for repair in all wild-type E. coli cells given with potentially lethal doses of UV irradiation. (orig.)

  1. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Söll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 ± 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 ± 17%; phenylalanine, 1 ± 1%; threonine, 1 ± 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

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    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  3. Crystal structures of wild-type Trichoderma reesei Cel7A catalytic domain in open and closed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Annette M. [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA; Meilleur, Flora [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2016-11-07

    Trichoderma reesei Cel7A efficiently hydrolyses cellulose. We report here the crystallographic structures of the wild-type TrCel7A catalytic domain (CD) in an open state and, for the first time, in a closed state. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the loops along the CD tunnel move in concerted motions. Together, the crystallographic and MD data suggest that the CD cycles between the tense and relaxed forms that are characteristic of work producing enzymes. Analysis of the interactions formed by R251 provides a structural rationale for the concurrent decrease in product inhibition and catalytic efficiency measured for product-binding site mutants.

  4. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  5. A Quantitative Analysis of Pulsed Signals Emitted by Wild Bottlenose Dolphins.

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    Ana Rita Luís

    Full Text Available Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, produce a wide variety of vocal emissions for communication and echolocation, of which the pulsed repertoire has been the most difficult to categorize. Packets of high repetition, broadband pulses are still largely reported under a general designation of burst-pulses, and traditional attempts to classify these emissions rely mainly in their aural characteristics and in graphical aspects of spectrograms. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of pulsed signals emitted by wild bottlenose dolphins, in the Sado estuary, Portugal (2011-2014, and test the reliability of a traditional classification approach. Acoustic parameters (minimum frequency, maximum frequency, peak frequency, duration, repetition rate and inter-click-interval were extracted from 930 pulsed signals, previously categorized using a traditional approach. Discriminant function analysis revealed a high reliability of the traditional classification approach (93.5% of pulsed signals were consistently assigned to their aurally based categories. According to the discriminant function analysis (Wilk's Λ = 0.11, F3, 2.41 = 282.75, P < 0.001, repetition rate is the feature that best enables the discrimination of different pulsed signals (structure coefficient = 0.98. Classification using hierarchical cluster analysis led to a similar categorization pattern: two main signal types with distinct magnitudes of repetition rate were clustered into five groups. The pulsed signals, here described, present significant differences in their time-frequency features, especially repetition rate (P < 0.001, inter-click-interval (P < 0.001 and duration (P < 0.001. We document the occurrence of a distinct signal type-short burst-pulses, and highlight the existence of a diverse repertoire of pulsed vocalizations emitted in graded sequences. The use of quantitative analysis of pulsed signals is essential to improve classifications and to better assess the

  6. Recovery of deficient homologous recombination in Brca2-depleted mouse cells by wild-type Rad51 expression.

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    Lee, Shauna A; Roques, Céline; Magwood, Alissa C; Masson, Jean-Yves; Baker, Mark D

    2009-02-01

    The BRCA2 tumor suppressor is important in maintaining genomic stability. BRCA2 is proposed to control the availability, cellular localization and DNA binding activity of the central homologous recombination protein, RAD51, with loss of BRCA2 resulting in defective homologous recombination. Nevertheless, the roles of BRCA2 in regulating RAD51 and how other proteins implicated in RAD51 regulation, such as RAD52 and RAD54 function relative to BRCA2 is not known. In this study, we tested whether defective homologous recombination in Brca2-depleted mouse hybridoma cells could be rectified by expression of mouse Rad51 or the Rad51-interacting mouse proteins, Rad52 and Rad54. In the Brca2-depleted cells, defective homologous recombination can be restored by over-expression of wild-type mouse Rad51, but not mouse Rad52 or Rad54. Correction of the homologous recombination defect requires Rad51 ATPase activity. A sizeable fraction ( approximately 50%) of over-expressed wild-type Rad51 is nuclear localized. The restoration of homologous recombination in the presence of a low (i.e., non-functional) level of Brca2 by wild-type Rad51 over-expression is unexpected. We suggest that Rad51 may access the nuclear compartment in a Brca2-independent manner and when Rad51 is over-expressed, the normal requirement for Brca2 control over Rad51 function in homologous recombination is dispensable. Our studies support loss of Rad51 function as a critical underlying factor in the homologous recombination defect in the Brca2-depleted cells.

  7. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  8. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Wild-Type and Knock-in Q140/Q140 Huntington's Disease Mouse Brains Reveals Changes in Glycerophospholipids Including Alterations in Phosphatidic Acid and Lyso-Phosphatidic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, Petr; Mo, Shunyan; Tousley, Adelaide; Green, Karin M; Sapp, Ellen; Iuliano, Maria; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Shaffer, Scott A; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian; Kegel-Gleason, Kimberly B

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HD gene, which encodes the protein Huntingtin. Huntingtin associates with membranes and can interact directly with glycerophospholipids in membranes. We analyzed glycerophospholipid profiles from brains of 11 month old wild-type (WT) and Q140/Q140 HD knock-in mice to assess potential changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism. Polar lipids from cerebellum, cortex, and striatum were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography and negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS). Gene products involved in polar lipid metabolism were studied using western blotting, immuno-electron microscopy and qPCR. Significant changes in numerous species of glycerophosphate (phosphatidic acid, PA) were found in striatum, cerebellum and cortex from Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT mice at 11 months. Changes in specific species could also be detected for other glycerophospholipids. Increases in species of lyso-PA (LPA) were measured in striatum of Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT. Protein levels for c-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a regulator of PA biosynthesis, were reduced in striatal synaptosomes from HD mice compared to wild-type at 6 and 12 months. Immunoreactivity for CtBP1 was detected on membranes of synaptic vesicles in striatal axon terminals in the globus pallidus. These novel results identify a potential site of molecular pathology caused by mutant Huntingtin that may impart early changes in HD.

  9. Characterization of a sensitive mouse Aβ40 PD biomarker assay for Alzheimer's disease drug development in wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanmei; Hoyte, Kwame; Montgomery, William H; Luk, Wilman; He, Dongping; Meilandt, William J; Zuchero, Y Joy Yu; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Watts, Ryan J; DeForge, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Transgenic mice that overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with Swedish or London (APPswe or APPlon) mutations have been widely used for preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. AD patients, however, rarely possess these mutations or overexpress APP. We developed a sensitive ELISA that specifically and accurately measures low levels of endogenous Aβ40 in mouse plasma, brain and CSF. In wild-type mice treated with a bispecific anti-TfR/BACE1 antibody, significant Aβ reductions were observed in the periphery and the brain. APPlon transgenic mice showed a slightly less reduction, whereas APPswe mice did not have any decrease. This sensitive and well-characterized mouse Aβ40 assay enables the use of wild-type mice for preclinical PK/PD and efficacy studies of potential AD therapeutics.

  10. Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; Pabortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

  11. Genetic diversity and structure analysis in wild and landraces of barley from Jordan by using ISJ markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. W.; Balogh, M. J.; Baloch, M.; Baloch, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and structure analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained Results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms. (author)

  12. Analysis of Metal-Binding Features of the Wild Type and Two Domain-Truncated Mutant Variants of Littorina littorea Metallothionein Reveals Its Cd-Specific Character

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    Òscar Palacios

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the resolution of the 3D structure of the Cd9-aggregate of the Littorina littorea metallothionein (MT, we report here a detailed analysis of the metal binding capabilities of the wild type MT, LlwtMT, and of two truncated mutants lacking either the N-terminal domain, Lltr2MT, or both the N-terminal domain, plus four extra flanking residues (SSVF, Lltr1MT. The recombinant synthesis and in vitro studies of these three proteins revealed that LlwtMT forms unique M9-LlwtMT complexes with Zn(II and Cd(II, while yielding a complex mixture of heteronuclear Zn,Cu-LlwtMT species with Cu(I. As expected, the truncated mutants gave rise to unique M6-LltrMT complexes and Zn,Cu-LltrMT mixtures of lower stoichiometry with respect to LlwtMT, with the SSVF fragment having an influence on their metal binding performance. Our results also revealed a major specificity, and therefore a better metal-coordinating performance of the three proteins for Cd(II than for Zn(II, although the analysis of the Zn(II/Cd(II displacement reaction clearly demonstrates a lack of any type of cooperativity in Cd(II binding. Contrarily, the analysis of their Cu(I binding abilities revealed that every LlMT domain is prone to build Cu4-aggregates, the whole MT working by modules analogously to, as previously described, certain fungal MTs, like those of C. neoformans and T. mesenterica. It is concluded that the Littorina littorea MT is a Cd-specific protein that (beyond its extended binding capacity through an additional Cd-binding domain confers to Littorina littorea a particular adaptive advantage in its changeable marine habitat.

  13. Insights into the molecular basis for substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type L-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgü, Hüseyin; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Gapsys, Vytautas; Ucurum, Zöhre; de Groot, Bert L; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-13

    Pathogenic enterobacteria need to survive the extreme acidity of the stomach to successfully colonize the human gut. Enteric bacteria circumvent the gastric acid barrier by activating extreme acid-resistance responses, such as the arginine-dependent acid resistance system. In this response, l-arginine is decarboxylated to agmatine, thereby consuming one proton from the cytoplasm. In Escherichia coli, the l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC facilitates the export of agmatine in exchange of l-arginine, thus providing substrates for further removal of protons from the cytoplasm and balancing the intracellular pH. We have solved the crystal structures of wild-type AdiC in the presence and absence of the substrate agmatine at 2.6-Å and 2.2-Å resolution, respectively. The high-resolution structures made possible the identification of crucial water molecules in the substrate-binding sites, unveiling their functional roles for agmatine release and structure stabilization, which was further corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Structural analysis combined with site-directed mutagenesis and the scintillation proximity radioligand binding assay improved our understanding of substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Finally, we present a potential mechanism for conformational changes of the AdiC transport cycle involved in the release of agmatine into the periplasmic space of E. coli.

  14. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was measles in China. PMID:24073194

  15. Comparison of mating performance of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing and wild type strains: field cage and video recording experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagno, G.E.; Vilardi, J.C.; Manso, F.

    2002-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) efforts are being devoted to obtain genetic sexing strains (GSS). The present work was carried out in order to compare the mating efficiency of flies from the GSS [(Ty34228 y + /X)sw x ] and from a wild type strain (Mendoza). Females of the GSS (T228) exhibit longer embryonic development, while males develop in a normal time period. In a field-cage experiment, mating competitiveness was compared between the T228 and the Mendoza, Argentina mass reared strain. The number and duration of matings and the location of copula in the tree were recorded. The analysis was repeated using irradiated males of T228. The results showed that mating efficiency of the GSS is good in comparison with that of the Mendoza strain. Although copulatory success in T228 is reduced by the radiation treatment, the high numbers of sterilized males released would compensate this effect in the control programs. In a second experiment, under laboratory conditions, video recording techniques were applied. In this case two virgin males, one of the GSS and one emerged from wild collected fruits, competed during 30 min for a virgin wild female. The proportion of successful males did not differ between strains, but some differences were observed between strains in the time spent in different stages of the courtship. Males of the T228 were more aggressive, and they attempted to copulate with the other male more frequently than did wild males. These differences may be due to selection for more aggressive individuals under the overcrowded laboratory breeding conditions for this strain. (author)

  16. Compositional and Functional Differences in the Human Gut Microbiome Correlate with Clinical Outcome following Infection with Wild-Type Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Brady, Arthur; Jones, Cheron; Song, Yang; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Blohmke, Christoph J; Pollard, Andrew J; Magder, Laurence S; Fasano, Alessio; Sztein, Marcelo B; Fraser, Claire M

    2018-05-08

    Insights into disease susceptibility as well as the efficacy of vaccines against typhoid and other enteric pathogens may be informed by better understanding the relationship between the effector immune response and the gut microbiota. In the present study, we characterized the composition (16S rRNA gene profiling) and function (RNA sequencing [RNA-seq]) of the gut microbiota following immunization and subsequent exposure to wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a human challenge model to further investigate the central hypothesis that clinical outcomes may be linked to the gut microbiota. Metatranscriptome analysis of longitudinal stool samples collected from study subjects revealed two stable patterns of gene expression for the human gut microbiota, dominated by transcripts from either Methanobrevibacter or a diverse representation of genera in the Firmicutes phylum. Immunization with one of two live oral attenuated vaccines against S.  Typhi had minimal effects on the composition or function of the gut microbiota. It was observed that subjects harboring the methanogen-dominated transcriptome community at baseline displayed a lower risk of developing symptoms of typhoid following challenge with wild-type S.  Typhi. Furthermore, genes encoding antioxidant proteins, metal homeostasis and transport proteins, and heat shock proteins were expressed at a higher level at baseline or after challenge with S.  Typhi in subjects who did not develop symptoms of typhoid. These data suggest that functional differences relating to redox potential and ion homeostasis in the gut microbiota may impact clinical outcomes following exposure to wild-type S.  Typhi. IMPORTANCE S.  Typhi is a significant cause of systemic febrile morbidity in settings with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water. It has been demonstrated that the human gut microbiota can influence mucosal immune responses, but there is little information available on the impact of the human gut

  17. The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 induces tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse model of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Roper

    Full Text Available To examine the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC.PIK3CA mutant and wild-type human CRC cell lines were treated in vitro with NVP-BEZ235, and the resulting effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling were assessed. Colonic tumors from a genetically engineered mouse (GEM model for sporadic wild-type PIK3CA CRC were treated in vivo with NVP-BEZ235. The resulting effects on macroscopic tumor growth/regression, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and signaling were examined.In vitro treatment of CRC cell lines with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K blockade, sustained decreases in mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling, and a corresponding decrease in cell viability (median IC(50 = 9.0-14.3 nM. Similar effects were seen in paired isogenic CRC cell lines that differed only in the presence or absence of an activating PIK3CA mutant allele. In vivo treatment of colonic tumor-bearing mice with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K inhibition and sustained blockade of mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling. Longitudinal tumor surveillance by optical colonoscopy demonstrated a 97% increase in tumor size in control mice (p = 0.01 vs. a 43% decrease (p = 0.008 in treated mice. Ex vivo analysis of the NVP-BEZ235-treated tumors demonstrated a 56% decrease in proliferation (p = 0.003, no effects on apoptosis, and a 75% reduction in angiogenesis (p = 0.013.These studies provide the preclinical rationale for studies examining the efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type CRC.

  18. Control of acute, chronic, and constitutive hyperammonemia by wild-type and genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Charles; Prozzi, Deborah; Viaene, Eric; Moreno, Christophe; Gustot, Thierry; Quertinmont, Eric; Demetter, Pieter; Suain, Valérie; Goffin, Philippe; Devière, Jacques; Hols, Pascal

    2008-10-01

    Hyperammonemia is a common complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. Often accompanied with side effects, therapeutic interventions such as antibiotics or lactulose are generally targeted to decrease the intestinal production and absorption of ammonia. In this study, we aimed to modulate hyperammonemia in three rodent models by administration of wild-type Lactobacillus plantarum, a genetically engineered ammonia hyperconsuming strain, and a strain deficient for the ammonia transporter. Wild-type and metabolically engineered L. plantarum strains were administered in ornithine transcarbamoylase-deficient Sparse-fur mice, a model of constitutive hyperammonemia, in a carbon tetrachloride rat model of chronic liver insufficiency and in a thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure mice model. Constitutive hyperammonemia in Sparse-fur mice and hyperammonemia in a rat model of chronic hepatic insufficiency were efficiently decreased by Lactobacillus administration. In a murine thioacetamide-induced model of acute liver failure, administration of probiotics significantly increased survival and decreased blood and fecal ammonia. The ammonia hyperconsuming strain exhibited a beneficial effect at a lower dose than its wild-type counterpart. Improved survival in the acute liver failure mice model was associated with lower blood ammonia levels but also with a decrease of astrocyte swelling in the brain cortex. Modulation of ammonia was abolished after administration of the strain deficient in the ammonium transporter. Intestinal pH was clearly lowered for all strains and no changes in gut flora were observed. Hyperammonemia in constitutive model or after acute or chronic induced liver failure can be controlled by the administration of L. plantarum with a significant effect on survival. The mechanism involved in this ammonia decrease implicates direct ammonia consumption in the gut.

  19. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-03-01

    1. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl(-) channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl(-) channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. 2. The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide ((125)I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques on three distinct cellular models: (1). CFTR-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, (2). human airway Calu-3 epithelial cells and (3). human airway JME/CF15 epithelial cells which express the delF508-CFTR mutant. 3. Our data show for the first time that n-alkanols activate both wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant. Octanol stimulated (125)I efflux in a dose-dependent manner in CFTR-expressing cells (wild-type and delF508) but not in cell lines lacking CFTR. (125)I efflux and Cl(-) currents induced by octanol were blocked by glibenclamide but insensitive to 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, as expected for a CFTR Cl(-) current. 4. CFTR activation by octanol was neither due to cell-to-cell uncoupling properties of octanol nor to an intracellular cAMP increase. CFTR activation by octanol requires phosphorylation by protein kinase-A (PKA) since it was prevented by H-89, a PKA inhibitor. 5. n-Alkanols chain length was an important determinant for channel activation, with rank order of potencies: 1-heptanoloctanoloctanol<1-decanol. Our findings may be of valuable interest for developing novel therapeutic strategies for CF.

  20. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  2. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...

  3. Effect of deuterium on the circadian period and metabolism in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Homozygous tau mutant Syrian hamsters (tau-/-) have a free-running circadian period (tau) around 20 h and a proportionally higher metabolic rate compared with wild-type hamsters (tau+/+) with a period of circa 24 h. In this study, we applied deuterium oxide (D2O) to hamsters to test whether

  4. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 {mu}M). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one.

  5. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-01-01

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 μM). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one

  6. Chinese herbal extract Su-duxing had potent inhibitory effects on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and effectively suppressed HBV replication in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yao, Weiming; Si, Lanlan; Hou, Jun; Wang, Jiabo; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Weijie; Chen, Jianhong; Li, Ruisheng; Li, Penggao; Bo, Lvping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Lan, Jinchu; Xu, Dongping

    2018-04-24

    The present study aimed to investigate anti-HBV effect and major active compounds of Su-duxing, a medicine extracted from Chinese herbs. HBV-replicating cell lines HepG2.2.15 (wild-type) and HepG2. A64 (entecavir-resistant) were used for in vitro test. C57BL/6 mice infected by adeno-associated virus carrying 1.3 mer wild-type HBV genome were used for in vivo test. Inhibitory rates of Su-duxing (10 μg/mL) on HBV replicative intermediate and HBsAg levels were 75.1%, 51.0% in HepG2.2.15 cells and 65.2%, 42.9% in HepG2. A64 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration of Su-duxing and entecavir on HBV replicative intermediates had 0.2-fold and 712.5-fold increase respectively for entecavir-resistant HBV compared to wild-type HBV. Mice treated with Su-duxing (45.0 mg kg -1  d -1 for 2 weeks) had 1.39 log 10 IU/mL decrease of serum HBV DNA, and 48.9% and 51.7% decrease of serum HBsAg and HBeAg levels. GeneChip and KEGG analysis proposed that anti-HBV mechanisms included relief of HBx stability and viral replication, deregulation of early cell cycle checkpoints, and induction of type I interferon. Six active compounds (Matrine, Oxymatrine, Chlorogenic acid, Sophocarpine, Baicalein, and Wogonin) against HBV were identified in Su-duxing. Greater anti-HBV effects were observed in some compound pairs compared to each single compound. In conclusion, Su-duxing had potent inhibitory effects on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant HBV. Its effects were associated with coordinated roles of active compounds in its composition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Role of wild-type p53 in apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death induced by X-irradiation and heat treatment in p53-mutated mouse M10 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsushi; Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    The sensitizing effects of wild-type p53 on X-ray-induced cell death and on heat-induced apoptosis in M10, a radiosensitive and Trp53 (mouse p53 gene)-mutated lymphoma cell line which dies through necrosis by X-irradiation, were investigated using three M10 derived transfectants with wild-type TP53 (human p53 gene). Cell death was determined by colony formation and/or dye exclusion test, and apoptosis was detected as the changes in nuclear morphology by Giemsa staining. Expression of wild-type p53 protein increased radiosensitivity of cell death as determined by both clonogenic and dye exclusion assays. This increase in radiosensitivity was attributable largely to apoptosis induction in addition to a small enhancement of necrosis. Interestingly neither pathway to cell death was accompanied by caspase-3 activation. On the other hand, heat-induced caspase-3 dependent apoptotic cell death without transfection was further increased by the transfection of wild-type p53. In conclusion, the introduction of wild-type p53 enhanced apoptotic cell death by X-rays or heat via different mechanisms that do or do not activate caspase-3, respectively. In addition, p53 also enhanced the X-ray-induced necrosis in M10 cells. (author)

  8. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  9. Photomorphogenic responses to UV radiation III: a comparative study of UVB effects on anthocyanin and flavonoid accumulation in wild-type and aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.; Giannini, A.; Lercari, B.

    1995-01-01

    The UV-mediated induction of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds was characterized in etiolated hypocotyls of wild-type and aurea (au) mutant tomato seedlings. Ultraviolet radiation induced significant increases of anthocyanin and UV-absorbing compounds in hypocotyls of the au mutant and of its isogenic wild-type, but the differences in the time courses of UV-induced pigment accumulation indicate that different photoregulatory mechanisms are involved for each of these two groups of pigments. It appears that prolonged presence of adequate levels of UVB (290-320 nm) energy and consequently the action of a specific UVB photoreceptor are indispensable for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in UV-irradiated hypocotyl of the au mutant that is missing the labile phytochrome pool. The large difference found between the wild-type and the au mutant strongly indicate the involvement of labile phytochrome as the primary functional photoreceptor for the photoinduction of anthocyanin accumulation in wild-type tomato hypocotyls. (author)

  10. Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Lancini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data described here provide genome-wide expression profiles of murine primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK and of B cell populations, obtained by high throughput sequencing. Cells are derived from wild-type mice and from mice deficient for the ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ. Modification of histone proteins by ubiquitin plays a crucial role in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR (Jackson and Durocher, 2013 [1]. USP3 is a histone H2A deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB that regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR in response to DNA double-strand breaks (Nicassio et al., 2007; Doil et al., 2008 [2,3]. Deletion of USP3 in mice increases the incidence of spontaneous tumors and affects hematopoiesis [4]. In particular, Usp3-knockout mice show progressive loss of B and T cells and decreased functional potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during aging. USP3-deficient cells, including HSCs, display enhanced histone ubiquitination, accumulate spontaneous DNA damage and are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (Lancini et al., 2014 [4]. To address whether USP3 loss leads to deregulation of specific molecular pathways relevant to HSC homeostasis and/or B cell development, we have employed the RNA-sequencing technology and investigated transcriptional differences between wild-type and Usp3Δ/Δ LSK, naïve B cells or in vitro activated B cells. The data relate to the research article “Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells” (Lancini et al., 2014 [4]. The RNA-sequencing and analysis data sets have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar et al., 2002 [5] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE58495 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE58495. With this article, we present validation of the RNA-seq data set through quantitative real-time PCR and comparative analysis. Keywords: B

  11. The In Vivo DNA Binding Properties of Wild-Type and Mutant p53 Proteins in Mammary Cell Lines During the Course of Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    that my statement of work (SOW) for the current project omitted many of the tasks that had to be carried out in order to get the lab up and running...that we knew that we could stabilize wild-type p53 in ML-1 cells along with the possibility of being able to get an excellent elutriation profile with...nuclear protein extract was immunoprecipitated with PAb421 cross-linked to ProteinA -Sepharose beads and analysed by SDS-PAGE Western blot analysis with

  12. Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates from Wild Boars Hunted in Lower Saxony, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Altrock, Alexandra; Seinige, Diana; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-07-01

    Yersiniosis is strongly associated with the consumption of pork contaminated with enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, which is harbored by domestic pigs without showing clinical signs of disease. In contrast to data on Y. enterocolitica isolated from conventionally reared swine, investigations into the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in wild boars in Germany are rare. The objectives of the study were to get knowledge about these bacteria and their occurrence in wild boars hunted in northern Germany by isolation of the bacteria from the tonsils, identification of the bioserotypes, determination of selected virulence factors, macrorestriction analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and testing of antimicrobial susceptibility. Altogether, tonsils from 17.1% of 111 tested wild boars were positive for Y. enterocolitica by culture methods. All but two isolates belonged to biotype (BT) 1A, with the majority of isolates bearing a ystB nucleotide sequence which was revealed to have 85% identity to internal regions of Y. enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin type B genes. The remaining Y. enterocolitica isolates were identified to be BT 1B and did not carry the virulence plasmid. However, two BT 1A isolates carried the ail gene. Macrorestriction analysis and results from MLST showed a high degree of genetic diversity of the isolates, although the region where the samples were taken was restricted to Lower Saxony, Germany, and wild boars were shot during one hunting season. In conclusion, most Y. enterocolitica isolates from wild boars investigated in this study belonged to biotype 1A. Enteropathogenic Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9, usually harbored by commercially raised pigs in Europe, could not be identified. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Extracellular enzyme activities during lignocellulose degradation by Streptomyces spp.: a comparative study of wild-type and genetically manipulated strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandra, M.; Crawford, D.L.; Pometto, A.L. III

    1987-01-01

    The wild-type ligninolytic actinomycete Streptomyces viridosporus T7A and two genetically manipulated strains with enhanced abilities to produce a water-soluble lignin degradation intermediate, an acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), were grown on lignocellulose in solid-state fermentation cultures. Culture filtrates were periodically collected, analyzed for APPL, and assayed for extracellular lignocellulose-catabolizing enzyme activities. Two APPL-overproducing strains, UV irradiation mutant T7A-81 and protoplast fusion recombinant SR-10, had higher and longer persisting peroxidase, esterase, and endoglucanase activities than did the wild-type strain T7A. Results implicated one or more of these enzymes in lignin solubilization. Only mutant T7A-81 had higher xylanase activity than the wild type. The peroxidase was induced by both lignocellulose and APPL. This extracellular enzyme has some similarities to previously described ligninases in fungi. This is the first report of such an enzyme in Streptomyces spp. Four peroxidase isozymes were present, and all catalyzed the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, while one also catalyzed hydrogen peroxide-dependent oxidation of homoprotocatechuic acid and caffeic acid. Three constitutive esterase isozymes were produced which differed in substrate specificity toward α-naphthyl acetate and α-naphthyl butyrate. Three endoglucanase bands, which also exhibited a low level of xylanase activity, were identified on polyacrylamide gels as was one xylanase-specific band. There were no major differences in the isoenzymes produced by the different strains. The probable role of each enzyme in lignocellulose degradation is discussed

  14. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  15. Characteristics of alpha/beta interferon induction after infection of murine fibroblasts with wild-type and mutant alphaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Crystal W.; Gardner, Christina L.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the characteristics of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) induction after alphavirus or control Sendai virus (SeV) infection of murine fibroblasts (MEFs). As expected, SeV infection of wild-type (wt) MEFs resulted in strong dimerization of IRF3 and the production of high levels of IFN-α/β. In contrast, infection of MEFs with multiple alphaviruses failed to elicit detectable IFN-α/β. In more detailed studies, Sindbis virus (SINV) infection caused dimerization and nuclear migration of IRF3, but minimal IFN-β promoter activity, although surprisingly, the infected cells were competent for IFN production by other stimuli early after infection. A SINV mutant defective in host macromolecular synthesis shutoff induced IFN-α/β in the MEF cultures dependent upon the activities of the TBK1 IRF3 activating kinase and host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) PKR and MDA5 but not RIG-I. These results suggest that wild-type alphaviruses antagonize IFN induction after IRF3 activation but also may avoid detection by host PRRs early after infection.

  16. Staurosporine scaffold-based rational discovery of the wild-type sparing reversible inhibitors of EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutant in lung cancer with analog-sensitive kinase technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Xingcai; Ding, Xi

    2017-04-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been established as an attractive target for lung cancer therapy. However, an acquired EGFR T790M gatekeeper mutation is frequently observed in patients treated with first-line anticancer agents such as gefitinib and erlotinib to cause drug resistance, largely limiting the application of small-molecule kinase inhibitors in EGFR-targeted chemotherapy. Previously, the reversible pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine and its several analogs such as Gö6976 and K252a have been reported to selectively inhibit the EGFR T790M mutant (EGFR T790M ) over wild-type kinase (EGFR WT ), suggesting that the staurosporine scaffold is potentially to develop the wild-type sparing reversible inhibitors of EGFR T790M . Here, we systematically evaluated the inhibitor response of 28 staurosporine scaffold-based compounds to EGFR T790M mutation at structural, energetic, and molecular levels by using an integrated in silico-in vitro analog-sensitive (AS) kinase technology. With the strategy, we were able to identify 4 novel wild-type sparing inhibitors UCN-01, UCN-02, AFN941, and SB-218078 with high or moderate selectivity of 30-, 45-, 5-, and 8-fold for EGFR T790M over EGFR WT , respectively, which are comparable with or even better than that of the parent compound staurosporine (24-fold). Molecular modeling and structural analysis revealed that van der Waals contacts and hydrophobic forces can form between the side chain of mutated residue Met790 and the pyrrolidinone moiety of inhibitor ligand UCN-02, which may simultaneously improve the favorable interaction energy between the kinase and inhibitor, and reduce the unfavorable desolvation penalty upon the kinase-inhibitor binding. A hydroxyl group of UCN-02 additional to staurosporine locates at the pyrrolidinone moiety, which can largely alter the electronic distribution of pyrrolidinone moiety and thus promote the intermolecular interaction with Met790 residue. This can well explain

  17. EvoWild: a demosimulator about wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Palacio Gayoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last years we can see how AI (Artificial Intelligence is reappearing because of technological improvements. These improvements make possible the management of large groups of information with acceptable reply times.On the other hand, cost reductions in technology make possible that an investigation field like AI becomes to an inversion field closer to scale economies, that’s why it’ll be economically profitable to invert in this type of applications.One of the fastest consequences is the AI implantation in a big amount of devices of our environment, cell telephones, palms and of course, in the video game industry.This is the reason that took us to develop EvoWild, a simulation about wild life that has video game format and tools but at the same time implements AI algorithms like genetic algorithms and reasoning based in cases.

  18. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Beyond T and DHT - novel steroid derivatives capable of wild type androgen receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2014-01-01

    While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the primary treatment for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment, and residual intratumoral androgens are implicated in nearly every mechanism by which androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling promotes castration-resistant disease. The uptake and intratumoral (intracrine) conversion of circulating adrenal androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) to steroids capable of activating the wild type AR is a recognized driver of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, less well-characterized adrenal steroids, including 11-deoxcorticosterone (DOC) and 11beta-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OH-AED) may also play a previously unrecognized role in promoting AR activation. In particular, recent data demonstrate that the 5α-reduced metabolites of DOC and 11OH-AED are activators of the wild type AR. Given the well-recognized presence of SRD5A activity in CRPC tissue, these observations suggest that in the low androgen environment of CRPC, alternative sources of 5α-reduced ligands may supplement AR activation normally mediated by the canonical 5α-reduced agonist, 5α-DHT. Herein we review the emerging data that suggests a role for these alternative steroids of adrenal origin in activating the AR, and discuss the enzymatic pathways and novel downstream metabolites mediating these effects. We conclude by discussing the potential implications of these findings for CRPC progression, particularly in context of new agents such as abiraterone and enzalutamide which target the AR-axis for prostate cancer therapy.

  20. Action potentials and ion conductances in wild-type and CALHM1-knockout type II taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saung, Wint Thu; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering nonvesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. In this study, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1 knockout (KO) mice. The activation kinetics of large voltage-gated outward currents were accelerated in cells from Calhm1 KO mice, and their associated nonselective tail currents, previously shown to be highly correlated with ATP release, were completely absent in Calhm1 KO cells, suggesting that CALHM1 contributes to all of these currents. Calhm1 deletion did not significantly alter resting membrane potential or input resistance, the amplitudes and kinetics of Na+ currents either estimated from action potentials or recorded from steady-state voltage pulses, or action potential threshold, overshoot peak, afterhyperpolarization, and firing frequency. However, Calhm1 deletion reduced the half-widths of action potentials and accelerated the deactivation kinetics of transient outward currents, suggesting that the CALHM1-associated conductance becomes activated during the repolarization phase of action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY CALHM1 is an essential ion channel component of the ATP neurotransmitter release mechanism in type II taste bud cells. Its contribution to type II cell resting membrane properties and excitability is unknown. Nonselective voltage-gated currents, previously associated with ATP release, were absent in cells lacking CALHM1. Calhm1 deletion was without effects on resting membrane properties or voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels but contributed modestly to the kinetics of action potentials. PMID:28202574

  1. Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition...

  2. Paternal spatial training enhances offspring's cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity in wild-type but not improve memory deficit in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhouyi; Liu, Yanchao; Gao, Yuan; Tan, Lu; Liu, Enjie; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Gongping; Chen, Haote; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-05-08

    Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantly enhanced progeny's spatial cognitive performance and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice. Among several synapse- or memory-associated proteins, we observed that the expression level of synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) was significantly increased in the hippocampus of the paternally trained-offspring. Paternal training increased histone acetylation at the promoter of SYT1 in both fathers' and the offspring's hippocampus, and as well as in the fathers' sperm. Finally, paternal spatial training for one week did not improve memory and synaptic plasticity in 3XTg AD F1 offspring. Our findings suggest paternal spatial training for one week benefits the offspring's cognitive performance in wild-type mice with the mechanisms involving an enhanced transgenerational histone acetylation at SYT1 promoter.

  3. Use of tissue-specific microRNA to control pathology of wild-type adenovirus without attenuation of its ability to kill cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Ryan; Chen, Hannah H; Carroll, Fionnadh; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; van Rooijen, Nico; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-05-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.

  4. Wild-type and A315T mutant TDP-43 exert differential neurotoxicity in a Drosophila model of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Patricia S.; Boehringer, Ashley; Zwick, Rebecca; Tang, Jonathan E.; Grigsby, Brianna; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2011-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein TDP-43 has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both as a causative locus and as a marker of pathology. With several missense mutations being identified within TDP-43, efforts have been directed towards generating animal models of ALS in mouse, zebrafish, Drosophila and worms. Previous loss of function and overexpression studies have shown that alterations in TDP-43 dosage recapitulate hallmark features of ALS pathology, including neuronal loss and locomotor dysfunction. Here we report a direct in vivo comparison between wild-type and A315T mutant TDP-43 overexpression in Drosophila neurons. We found that when expressed at comparable levels, wild-type TDP-43 exerts more severe effects on neuromuscular junction architecture, viability and motor neuron loss compared with the A315T allele. A subset of these differences can be compensated by higher levels of A315T expression, indicating a direct correlation between dosage and neurotoxic phenotypes. Interestingly, larval locomotion is the sole parameter that is more affected by the A315T allele than wild-type TDP-43. RNA interference and genetic interaction experiments indicate that TDP-43 overexpression mimics a loss-of-function phenotype and suggest a dominant-negative effect. Furthermore, we show that neuronal apoptosis does not require the cytoplasmic localization of TDP-43 and that its neurotoxicity is modulated by the proteasome, the HSP70 chaperone and the apoptosis pathway. Taken together, our findings provide novel insights into the phenotypic consequences of the A315T TDP-43 missense mutation and suggest that studies of individual mutations are critical for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of ALS and related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21441568

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  6. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  7. Anatomical location differences between mutated and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 in low-grade gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Ji, Chunhong; Lian, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Anatomical location of gliomas has been considered as a factor implicating the contributions of a specific precursor cells during the tumor growth. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a pathognomonic biomarker with a significant impact on the development of gliomas and remarkable prognostic effect. The correlation between anatomical location of tumor and IDH1 states for low-grade gliomas was analyzed quantitatively in this study. Ninety-two patients diagnosed of low-grade glioma pathologically were recruited in this study, including 65 patients with IDH1-mutated glioma and 27 patients with wide-type IDH1. A convolutional neural network was designed to segment the tumor from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging images. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was then employed to study the tumor location distribution differences between gliomas with mutated and wild-type IDH1. In order to characterize the location differences quantitatively, the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas was used to partition the standard brain atlas into 116 anatomical volumes of interests (AVOIs). The percentages of tumors with different IDH1 states in 116 AVOIs were calculated and compared. Support vector machine and AdaBoost algorithms were used to estimate the IDH1 status based on the 116 location features of each patient. Experimental results proved that the quantitative tumor location measurement could be a very important group of imaging features in biomarker estimation based on radiomics analysis of glioma.

  8. MT-PCR panel detection of canine parvovirus (CPV-2): Vaccine and wild-type CPV-2 can be difficult to differentiate in canine diagnostic fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, Maira N; Ly, Anna; Rysnik-Steck, Benjamin; Silva, Carolina; Zhang, Joshua; Higgins, Damien P; Muscatello, Gary; Norris, Jacqueline M; Krockenberger, Mark; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) remains an important cause of devastating enteritis in young dogs. It can be successfully prevented with live attenuated CPV-2 vaccines when given at the appropriate age and in the absence of maternal antibody interference. Rapid diagnosis of parvoviral enteritis in young dogs is essential to ensuring suitable barrier nursing protocols within veterinary hospitals. The current diagnostic trend is to use multiplexed PCR panels to detect an array of pathogens commonly responsible for diarrhea in dogs. The multiplexed PCR assays do not distinguish wild from vaccine CPV-2. They are highly sensitive and detect even a low level of virus shedding, such as those caused by the CPV-2 vaccine. The aim of this study was to identify the CPV-2 subtypes detected in diagnostic specimens and rule out occult shedding of CPV-2 vaccine strains. For a total of 21 samples that tested positive for CPV-2 in a small animal fecal pathogens diagnostic multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) panel during 2014-2016 we partially characterized the VP2 gene of CPV-2. Vaccine CPV-2 strain, wild type CPV-2a subtypes and vaccine-like CPV-2b subtypes were detected. High copy number was indicative of wild-type CPV-2a presence, but presence of vaccine-like CPV-2b had a variable copy number in fecal samples. A yardstick approach to a copy number or C t -value to discriminate vaccine strain from a wild type virus of CPV-2 can be, in some cases, potentially misleading. Therefore, discriminating vaccine strain from a wild type subtype of CPV-2 remains ambitious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties. PMID:28191468

  10. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1 in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbod Sahebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties.

  11. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Mahbod; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Rafii, M Y; Azizi, Parisa; Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties.

  12. The use of lac-type promoters in control analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Westerhoff, H. v.; Michelsen, Ole

    1993-01-01

    experimentally by constructing E. coli strains, in which the chromosomal atp operon is transcribed from the lacUV5 and the tacI promoter. We measured the concentration of the c subunit of H+-ATPase, and found that the expression of this enzyme could be modulated between non-detectable levels and up to five times...... the wild-type level. Thus, in the absence of inducer, no expression of atp genes could be detected when the atp operon was controlled by the lacUV5 promoter, and we estimate that the expression was less than 0.0025 times the wild-type level. We show that the introduction of a lac Y mutation facilitated...

  13. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  14. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiographic patterns and survival of patients with early and late brain metastases in EGFR wild type and mutant non small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Ren; Yamada, Andrew; Weber, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Brain metastasis (BM) in NSCLC is a negative prognostic indicator. In the era of EGFR mutations we evaluated the difference between early (≤6 months from diagnosis) versus late BM (>6 months), in EGFR wild type (WT) and mutant (MT) NSCLC patients with respect to radiographic patterns and overall...... BM: WT 24.9 months versus MT 25.6 months (p = 0.51). In multivariate analysis chemotherapy, single lesion and late BM were associated with better survival in WT patients whereas age, and systemic treatment but not BM timing or single lesion were predictive of better outcomes in MT patients. In early...

  16. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in wild felines from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoplasma infections are emerging and wild fauna can represent an important reservoir of these pathogens. However, there are very few epidemiological studies about the occurrence of hemoplasmas in wild cats around the world. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1 evaluate the occurrence and phylogeny of hemoplasmas in captive wild felines at a zoo in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and (2 verify the correlation between subpopulations of these bacteria and the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals. PCR was used to detect hemoplasmas in the blood of three cougars (Puma concolor, a jaguar (Panthera onca, a tiger (Panthera tigris and a lion (Panthera leo, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cougars and jaguar were found to be hemoplasma-positive by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences enabled the identification of genotypes of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ circulating in this zoo. The identified sequences were closely related to hemoplasma sequences originating from domestic cats and other wild cats, but the infected cougars and jaguar were healthy and showed no hematological or biochemical changes. It was concluded that P. concolor and P. onca are exposed to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in Paraná, but further research is suggested to assess the resistance of wild cats to different hemoplasma subpopulations.

  17. Trichoderma reesei xylanase 5 is defective in the reference strain QM6a but functional alleles are present in other wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoni, Jonas; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2017-05-01

    Trichoderma reesei is a paradigm for the regulation and industrial production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. Among these, five xylanases, including the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 XYN1 and XYN2, the GH10 XYN3, and the GH30 XYN4 and XYN6, were described. By genome mining and transcriptome analysis, a further putative xylanase, encoded by xyn5, was identified. Analysis of xyn5 from the genome-sequenced reference strain T. reesei QM6a shows that it encodes a non-functional, truncated form of XYN5. However, non-truncated orthologues are present in other genome sequenced Trichoderma spp., and sequencing of xyn5 in other T. reesei wild-type isolates shows that they harbor a putative functional xyn5 allele. In silico analysis and 3D modeling revealed that the encoded XYN5 has significant structural similarities to xylanases of the GH11 family, including a GH-typical substrate binding groove and a carboxylate pair in the active site. The xyn5 of wild-type strain TUCIM1282 was recombinantly expressed in a T. reesei strain with a (hemi)cellulase-free background and the corresponding protein purified to apparent homogeneity. The pH and temperature optima and the kinetic parameters of the purified XYN5 were pH 4, 50 °C, and V max  = 2646 nkat/mg with a K m of 9.68 mg/ml. This functional xyn5 allele was used to replace the mutated version which led to an overall increase of the xylanolytic activity. These findings are of particular importance as GH11 xylanases are of high biotechnological relevance, and T. reesei is one of the main industrial producers of such lignocellulose-degrading enzymes.

  18. A speculated ribozyme site in the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript gene is not essential for a wild-type reactivation phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dale; Singh, Sukhpreet; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Jin, Ling; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2010-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latency in sensory neurons, LAT (latency-associated transcript) is the only abundantly expressed viral gene. LAT plays an important role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, because LAT deletion mutants have a significantly decreased reactivation phenotype. Based solely on sequence analysis, it was speculated that LAT encodes a ribozyme that plays an important role in how LAT enhances the virus’ reactivation phenotype. Because LAT ribozyme activity has never been reported, we decided to test the converse hypothesis, namely, that this region of LAT does not encode a ribozyme function important for LAT’s ability to enhance the reactivation phenotype. We constructed a viral mutant (LAT-Rz) in which the speculated ribozyme consensus sequence was altered such that no ribozyme was encoded. We report here that LAT-Rz had a wild-type reactivation phenotype in mice, confirming the hypothesis that the speculated LAT ribozyme is not a dominant factor in stimulating the latency-reactivation cycle in mice. PMID:18982533

  19. Pulmonary hypertension in wild type mice and animals with genetic deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wandall-Frostholm

    Full Text Available In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.Male wild type and KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype.Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary

  20. Investigations on the contamination of Saxonian wild boars with radiocaesium; Untersuchungen zur Radiocaesiumbelastung von saechsischem Schwarzwild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, T.; Abraham, A.; Preusse, W.; Pianski, J.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Lange, S. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl fallout some parts of the free state of Saxony were contaminated with radioactive caesium. Based on published maps of the soil contamination and on additional investigations some regions of elevated contamination could be localized. Parallel to soil investigations a game monitoring to wild boars and roe deer was performed. For both types of game typical seasonal variations of contamination were found. In Saxony only the contamination of wild boars is important. In the south of the Vogtland a region was found, where in all seasons the recommended high value of 600 Bq/kg was exceeded in game. In this region the investigation on radiocaesium is now obligatory for wild boars. The hunter can combine this analysis with the analysis on trichina. After three years measurements the region for obligatory analysis was adapted and expanded to neighbouring counties.

  1. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  2. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  3. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  4. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Lund, Bente

    , and head and neck cancer. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of panitumumab in OC based on KRAS mutation status. Methods: Eligibility criteria are confirmed stage I-IV primary epithelial ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with progression either during or within 6 months after end...... to a total of 33 patients. At present, 15 patients have been enrolled. The primary endpoint is to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild- type OC patients treated with PLD supplemented with panitumumab. Translational research is included as a secondary endpoint and tumor tissue...

  5. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Synovial deposition of wild-type transthyretin-derived amyloid in knee joint osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masayuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamazaki, Hideshi; Nawata, Masashi; Katagiri, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    To investigate histological features of deposited amyloid in the synovial tissue and its clinical significance in knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We prospectively enrolled 232 consecutive patients who underwent arthroplasty or total replacement of the knee joint for treatment of OA. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry were performed in the synovial tissue obtained at surgery. When transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid was positive, we analyzed all 4 exons of the TTR gene using the direct DNA sequencing method in order to detect mutations. We analyzed 322 specimens in this study. Twenty-six specimens (8.1%) obtained from 21 patients (5 men and 16 women; mean, 79.0 ± 4.6 years) showed deposition of amyloid, which was positively stained with the anti-TTR antibody. Eighteen patients showed inhomogeneous accumulations of amyloid in the loose connective tissue under the synovial epithelia sometimes with nodule formation, while in the remaining three, small vessels in the adipose tissue were involved. Medical records of these patients revealed nothing remarkable in the clinical course, laboratory data or macroscopic intraarticular findings at surgery. No mutations were detectable in the TTR gene analysis. Wild-type TTR-derived amyloid may affect the synovial tissue as a result of long-term mechanical stress or as a part of senile systemic amyloidosis in approximately 8% of knee joint OA patients. No obvious clinical significance was found in synovial deposition of amyloid.

  7. Single-Agent Panitumumab in Frail Elderly Patients With Advanced RAS and BRAF Wild-Type Colorectal Cancer: Challenging Drug Label to Light Up New Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremolini, Chiara; Aprile, Giuseppe; Lonardi, Sara; Orlandi, Armando; Mennitto, Alessia; Berenato, Rosa; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Casagrande, Mariaelena; Marsico, Valentina; Marmorino, Federica; Cardellino, Giovanni Gerardo; Bergamo, Francesca; Tomasello, Gianluca; Formica, Vincenzo; Longarini, Raffaella; Giommoni, Elisa; Caporale, Marta; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Loupakis, Fotios; de Braud, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Background. No prospective trials have specifically addressed the efficacy and safety of panitumumab in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of single agent panitumumab in “frail” elderly patients diagnosed with metastatic RAS and BRAF wild-type CRC. Materials and Methods. Forty elderly patients (aged ≥75 years) with metastatic RAS-BRAF wild-type CRC received off-label prescriptions of single-agent panitumumab at seven Italian institutions. Treatment was administered as first line in patients with absolute contraindication to any chemotherapy or as second-line treatment after failure of a fluoropyrimidine-based treatment, in the presence of contraindication to irinotecan. The outcome measures included objective response rate (ORR), as well as progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results. The median PFS and OS were 6.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9–8 months) and 14.3 months (95% CI: 10.9–17.7 months), respectively. ORR was 32.5%, and DCR was 72.5%. Dose reductions related to adverse events (AEs) were reported in 9 (23%) patients, but no permanent treatment discontinuation caused by was reported. The most frequent grade 3 AE was skin rash, with an incidence of 20%. Conclusion. Panitumumab is effective and well-tolerated in frail elderly patients with RAS-BRAF wild-type metastatic CRC and deemed unfit for chemotherapy. A randomized study is needed to confirm these data. Implications for Practice: Treatment of elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer represents a difficult challenge in clinical practice. A significant proportion of frail elderly patients do not receive treatment, reflecting ongoing uncertainty of clinical benefit and toxicity of chemotherapy. Unfit condition in this cohort of patients further limits antineoplastic prescription and consequently patient survival. RAS and BRAF wild-type status could

  8. Tenofovir alafenamide demonstrates broad cross-genotype activity against wild-type HBV clinical isolates and maintains susceptibility to drug-resistant HBV isolates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Miller, Michael D; Kitrinos, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV). This study evaluated the antiviral activity of TAF against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates as well as adefovir-resistant, lamivudine-resistant, and entecavir-resistant HBV isolates. Full length HBV genomes or the polymerase/reverse transcriptase (pol/RT) region from treatment-naïve patients infected with HBV genotypes A-H were amplified and cloned into an expression vector under the control of a CMV promoter. In addition, 11 drug resistant HBV constructs were created by site-directed mutagenesis of a full length genotype D construct. Activity of TAF was measured by transfection of each construct into HepG2 cells and assessment of HBV DNA levels following treatment across a range of TAF concentrations. TAF activity in vitro was similar against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. All lamivudine- and entecavir-resistant isolates and 4/5 adefovir-resistant isolates were found to be sensitive to inhibition by TAF in vitro as compared to the wild-type isolate. The adefovir-resistant isolate rtA181V + rtN236T exhibited low-level reduced susceptibility to TAF. TAF is similarly active in vitro against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. The TAF sensitivity results for all drug-resistant isolates are consistent with what has been observed with the parent drug TFV. The in vitro cell-based HBV phenotyping assay results support the use of TAF in treatment of HBV infected subjects with diverse HBV genotypes, in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HBV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the Spatial Relationship between Cattle and Wild Ungulates across Different Land-Use Systems in a Tropical Savanna Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many African savanna landscapes, domestic and wild herbivores cooccur across different land-use systems, but the role of land-use in shaping their spatial relationship is poorly understood. We evaluated the spatial relationship between cattle and wild herbivores categorized by body sizes and feeding habits across different land-use types, namely, private ranches (PR, transitional lands (TRL, and pastoral grazing areas (PGA, in Laikipia County, Kenya. Cattle and wild herbivores spatial distribution data were obtained from Kenya’s Department of Resources Survey and Remote Sensing (DRSRS. Spatial relationships between cattle and different wild herbivore guilds were analyzed using Ripley’s bivariate K12 function. In PR, wild herbivore guilds showed significant attraction to cattle at short distances. In TRL, wild grazers, mixed feeders, megaherbivores, and medium-sized ungulates exhibited significant attraction to cattle. Additionally, repulsion was observed between cattle and browsers at short distances under this land-use system. In PGA, wild grazers, mixed feeders, and megaherbivores repelled strongly with cattle at short distances while browsers and medium-sized ungulates were significantly attracted to cattle. Cattle and wild herbivores were more randomly and independently distributed in PR than in TRL and PGA. These spatial relationships imply better coexistence between cattle and wild herbivores in PR than in TRL and PGA.

  10. Characterization of global yeast quantitative proteome data generated from the wild-type and glucose repression Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: The comparison of two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Wohlschlegel, James; Venable, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The quantitative proteomic analysis of complex protein mixtures is emerging as a technically challenging but viable systems-level approach for studying cellular function. This study presents a large-scale comparative analysis of protein abundances from yeast protein lysates derived from both wild......-type yeast and yeast strains lacking key components of the Snf1 kinase complex. Four different strains were grown under well-controlled chemostat conditions. Multidimensional protein identification technology followed by quantitation using either spectral counting or stable isotope labeling approaches...... labeling strategy. The stable isotope labeling based quantitative approach was found to be highly reproducible among biological replicates when complex protein mixtures containing small expression changes were analyzed. Where poor correlation between stable isotope labeling and spectral counting was found...

  11. Brucella abortus ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity against wild type challenge in a mouse model of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jonathan W; Herrou, Julien; Czyz, Daniel M; Cheng, Jason X; Crosson, Sean

    2016-09-30

    The Brucella abortus general stress response (GSR) system regulates activity of the alternative sigma factor, σ(E1), which controls transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for persistence in a BALB/c mouse chronic infection model. We evaluated the host response to infection by a B. abortus strain lacking σ(E1) (ΔrpoE1), and identified pathological and immunological features that distinguish ΔrpoE1-infected mice from wild-type (WT), and that correspond with clearance of ΔrpoE1 from the host. ΔrpoE1 infection was indistinguishable from WT in terms of splenic bacterial burden, inflammation and histopathology up to 6weeks post-infection. However, Brucella-specific serum IgG levels in ΔrpoE1-infected mice were 5 times higher than WT by 4weeks post-infection, and remained significantly higher throughout the course of a 12-week infection. Total IgG and Brucella-specific IgG levels peaked strongly in ΔrpoE1-infected mice at 6weeks, which correlated with reduced splenomegaly and bacterial burden relative to WT-infected mice. Given the difference in immune response to infection with wild-type and ΔrpoE1, we tested whether ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity to wild-type challenge. Mice immunized with ΔrpoE1 completely resisted WT infection and had significantly higher serum titers of Brucella-specific IgG, IgG2a and IFN-γ after WT challenge relative to age-matched naïve mice. We conclude that immunization of BALB/c mice with the B. abortus GSR pathway mutant, ΔrpoE1, elicits an adaptive immune response that confers significant protective immunity against WT infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preclinical efficacy of the MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 in MDM2 amplified and TP53 wild-type glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Maite; Schmitt, Charlotte; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Pelton, Kristine; Haidar, Samer; Levasseur, Camille; Guehennec, Jeremy; Knoff, David; Labussiere, Marianne; Marie, Yannick; Ligon, Azra H.; Mokhtari, Karima; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Sanson, Marc; Alexander, Brian M; Wen, Patrick Y.; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Ligon, Keith L.; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Rationale p53 pathway alterations are key molecular events in glioblastoma (GBM). MDM2 inhibitors increase expression and stability of p53 and are presumed to be most efficacious in patients with TP53 wild-type and MDM2-amplified cancers. However, this biomarker hypothesis has not been tested in patients or patient-derived models for GBM. Methods We performed a preclinical evaluation of RG7112 MDM2 inhibitor, across a panel of 36 patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCLs), each genetically characterized according to their P53 pathway status. We then performed a pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of RG7112 distribution in mice and evaluated the therapeutic activity of RG7112 in orthotopic and subcutaneous GBM models. Results MDM2-amplified PDCLs were 44 times more sensitive than TP53 mutated lines that showed complete resistance at therapeutically attainable concentrations (avg. IC50 of 0.52 μM vs 21.9 μM). MDM4 amplified PDCLs were highly sensitive but showed intermediate response (avg. IC50 of 1.2 μM), whereas response was heterogeneous in TP53 wild-type PDCLs with normal MDM2/4 levels (avg. IC50 of 7.7 μM). In MDM2-amplified lines, RG7112 restored p53 activity inducing robust p21 expression and apoptosis. PK profiling of RG7112-treated PDCL intracranial xenografts demonstrated that the compound significantly crosses the blood-brain and the blood-tumor barriers. Most importantly, treatment of MDM2-amplified/TP53 wild-type PDCL-derived model (subcutaneous and orthotopic) reduced tumor growth, was cytotoxic, and significantly increased survival. Conclusion These data strongly support development of MDM2 inhibitors for clinical testing in MDM2-amplified GBM patients. Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2 amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. PMID:26482041

  13. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  14. Molecular Evolution of a Type 1 Wild-Vaccine Poliovirus Recombinant during Widespread Circulation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Du-Ping; Zhang, Li-Bi; Oberste, M. Steven; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen M.

    2000-01-01

    Type 1 wild-vaccine recombinant polioviruses were isolated from poliomyelitis patients in China from 1991 to 1993. We compared the sequences of 34 recombinant isolates over the 1,353-nucleotide (nt) genomic interval (nt 2480 to 3832) encoding the major capsid protein, VP1, and the protease, 2A. All recombinants had a 367-nt block of sequence (nt 3271 to 3637) derived from the Sabin 1 oral poliovirus vaccine strain spanning the 3′-terminal sequences of VP1 (115 nt) and the 5′ half of 2A (252 nt). The remaining VP1 sequences were closely (up to 99.5%) related to those of a major genotype of wild type 1 poliovirus endemic to China up to 1994. In contrast, the non-vaccine-derived sequences at the 3′ half of 2A were more distantly related (polioviruses from China. The vaccine-derived sequences of the earliest (April 1991) isolates completely matched those of Sabin 1. Later isolates diverged from the early isolates primarily by accumulation of synonymous base substitutions (at a rate of ∼3.7 × 10−2 substitutions per synonymous site per year) over the entire VP1-2A interval. Distinct evolutionary lineages were found in different Chinese provinces. From the combined epidemiologic and evolutionary analyses, we propose that the recombinant virus arose during mixed infection of a single individual in northern China in early 1991 and that its progeny spread by multiple independent chains of transmission into some of the most populous areas of China within a year of the initiating infection. PMID:11070012

  15. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  16. Purification and cellular localization of wild type and mutated dihydrolipoyltransacetylases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli expressed in E. coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Egbert; Westphal, Adrie H.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kok, Arie de

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  17. Abscisic Acid–Responsive Guard Cell Metabolomes of Arabidopsis Wild-Type and gpa1 G-Protein Mutants[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofen; Wang, Rui-Sheng; Zhu, Mengmeng; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Albert, Reka; Chen, Sixue; Assmann, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Individual metabolites have been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells, but a metabolite profile of this specialized cell type is lacking. We used liquid chromatography–multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for targeted analysis of 85 signaling-related metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cell protoplasts over a time course of ABA treatment. The analysis utilized ∼350 million guard cell protoplasts from ∼30,000 plants of the Arabidopsis Columbia accession (Col) wild type and the heterotrimeric G-protein α subunit mutant, gpa1, which has ABA-hyposensitive stomata. These metabolomes revealed coordinated regulation of signaling metabolites in unrelated biochemical pathways. Metabolites clustered into different temporal modules in Col versus gpa1, with fewer metabolites showing ABA-altered profiles in gpa1. Ca2+-mobilizing agents sphingosine-1-phosphate and cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose exhibited weaker ABA-stimulated increases in gpa1. Hormone metabolites were responsive to ABA, with generally greater responsiveness in Col than in gpa1. Most hormones also showed different ABA responses in guard cell versus mesophyll cell metabolomes. These findings suggest that ABA functions upstream to regulate other hormones, and are also consistent with G proteins modulating multiple hormonal signaling pathways. In particular, indole-3-acetic acid levels declined after ABA treatment in Col but not gpa1 guard cells. Consistent with this observation, the auxin antagonist α-(phenyl ethyl-2-one)-indole-3-acetic acid enhanced ABA-regulated stomatal movement and restored partial ABA sensitivity to gpa1. PMID:24368793

  18. Genetic variability in Cynara cardunculus L. domestic and wild types for grain oil production and fatty acids composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raccuia, Salvatore Antonino; Piscioneri, Ilario; Sharma, Neeta; Melilli, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the genetic variability within different types of Cynara cardunculus L., domestic and wild types, for their grain oil amount and oil fatty acid composition. The grain oils were extracted from 8 domestic cardoons and 4 wild cardoons, by Soxhlet method, and obtained oils were characterized for palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids by gas chromatography. The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM with a good range of variability (CV = 11.7%). Unsaturated acids (oleic and linoleic) predominated over saturated ones (stearic and palmitic acids), the chemical characterization of extracted oil, showed the main compound (as % of analysed fatty acids), averaged for all populations, was linoleic acid (44.5%), followed by oleic acid (42.6%), palmitic acid (9.8%) and stearic acid (3.1%). In particular referring the oleic acid wild cardoon populations showed a mean value of 289 g kg -1 oil, against a mean value of 472 g kg -1 oil showed by domestic cardoon accessions. Three of the studied domestic cardoon ('DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7') showed values higher than 795 g kg -1 oil, while all the other accessions had concentration lower than 370 g kg -1 oil. The three types of domestic cardoon 'DC1', 'DC3' and 'DC7' showed a fatty acids profile similar to genetic modified sunflower oil, representing new genetic material that potentially could be used for high quality biodiesel production, characterised by a low Iodine Number. -- Highlights: → The grain oils from 12 cardoons were characterized for fatty acids composition. → The oil amount, resulted on average of accessions 216 g kg -1 DM. → Oleic and linoleic acids predominated over stearic and palmitic acids. → Three domestic cardoons grain oil showed high oleic acid content (795 g kg -1 oil). → This oil could be used for high quality biodiesel production, with a low IN.

  19. Cetuximab Plus Various Chemotherapy Regimens for Patients with KRAS Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, Payam; Mortazavi, Nafiseh; Tahmasebi, Arezoo; Hosseini Kamal, Farnaz; Novin, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and hematologic toxicity of cetuximab combined with various types of chemotherapy regimens in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival of the patients were analyzed. In total, 45 patients were included in the study. The overall response rate for the combination of cetuximab and FOLFOX, FOLFIRI and CAPOX was 20, 46 and 30%, respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. The median PFS for the three groups were 8, 6 and 3.5 months, respectively, but again these differences were not significant. All-grade leukopenia and anemia for the cetuximab plus FOLFOX group were significantly higher than for the other chemotherapy regimens. Our findings suggest that the combination of cetuximab and the three standard chemotherapy regimens resulted in the same outcomes in our patient population of mCRC, with higher hematologic toxicities among the FOLFOX subgroup. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Analysis of 2-(2-Phenylethylchromones by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and Multivariate Statistical Methods in Wild and Cultivated Agarwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agarwood is the fragrant resinous material mainly formed from species of Aquilaria. 2-(2-phenylethylchromones, especially the highly oxidized 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethylchromones, are the main representative compounds from agarwood. It is important to determine whether agarwood in trade is from cultivated trees or natural trees in the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES. We characterized the 2-(2-phenylethylchromones in agarwood by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS and differentiated wild from cultivated agarwood by metabolomic analysis. A total of 141 chromones including 50 potentially new compounds were evaluated as belonging to four structural classes (unoxidized 2-(2-phenylethylchromones, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-(2-phenylethyl-chromones, bi-2-(2-phenylethylchromones, and tri-2-(2-phenylethylchromones. The metabolic difference between wild and cultivated agarwood was analyzed by component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Fourteen markers of metabolisms in wild and cultivated agarwood were constructed (e.g., 6,7-dimethoxy-2-(2-phenylethylchromone, 6,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethylchromone, 6-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethylchromone, etc.. These results indicated that UPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics analysis in agarwood may be useful for distinguishing wild agarwood from cultivated agarwood.

  1. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  2. Innate immune responses to obesity in cloned and wild-type domestic pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    as a refined pig model for obesity-induced innate host responses by reducing pig-to-pig biological variation compared to wild-type (WT) pigs (n=19). Pigs were fed ad libitum with a high fat/high sucrose diet to induce obesity or kept lean on a restricted diet (60% of ad libitum intake) beginning at three...... months of age. mRNA expression levels were determined for 39 innate immune factors on a high-throughput qPCR system in samples from liver, abdominal fat, mesenteric fat and subcutaneous fat. Previous findings have suggested that cloning may affect certain phenotypic traits of pigs including basic...... concentrations and responsiveness of components of the innate immune system. Terminal body weights at 7½ - 9½ months of age were significantly higher for both (WT and cloned) obese groups compared to the lean groups. However, obese WT pigs weighed significantly more than obese cloned pigs (P

  3. The effect of dietary folic acid deficiency on the cytotoxic and mutagenic responses to methyl methanesulfonate in wild-type and in 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase-deficient Aag null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Richard F; O'Neill, J Patrick; Brooks, Elice M; Powden, Cheryl; Naud, Shelly J; Nicklas, Janice A

    2007-02-03

    Folic acid deficiency (FA-) augments DNA damage caused by alkylating agents. The role of DNA repair in modulating this damage was investigated in mice. Weanling wild-type or 3-methyladenine glycosylase (Aag) null mice were maintained on a FA- diet or the same diet supplemented with folic acid (FA+) for 4 weeks. They were then treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 100mg/kg i.p. Six weeks later, spleen cells were collected for assays of non-selected and 6-thioguanine (TG) selected cloning efficiency to measure the mutant frequency at the Hprt locus. In wild-type mice, there was no significant effect of either MMS treatment or folate dietary content on splenocyte non-selected cloning efficiency. In contrast, non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in MMS-treated Aag null mice than in saline treated controls (diet-gene interaction variable, p=0.04). The non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in the FA+ diet than in the FA- diet group after MMS treatment of Aag null mice. Mutant frequency after MMS treatment was significantly higher in FA- wild-type and Aag null mice and in FA+ Aag null mice, but not in FA+ wild-type mice. For the Aag null mice, mutant frequency was higher in the FA+ mice than in the FA- mice after either saline or MMS treatment. These studies indicate that in wild-type mice treated with MMS, dietary folate content (FA+ or FA-) had no effect on cytotoxicity, but FA- diet increased DNA mutation frequency compared to FA+ diet. In Aag null mice, FA- diet increased the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents but decreased the risk of DNA mutation.

  4. Labeled Azospirillum brasilense wild type and excretion-ammonium strains in association with barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adrian Richard Schenberger; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Furmam, Rafaela Wiegand; Freitas, Denis Leandro de; Santos, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Ayub, Ricardo Antônio; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Galvão, Carolina Weigert

    2017-09-01

    Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A. brasilense Sp7 derivative inside the root hair cells of barley and highlight the promising use of A. brasilense HM053 as plant growth-promoting bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric Medullary Carcinoma with Sporadic Mismatch Repair Deficiency and a TP53 R273C Mutation: An Unusual Case with Wild-Type BRAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M. Lowenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary carcinoma has long been recognized as a subtype of colorectal cancer associated with microsatellite instability and Lynch syndrome. Gastric medullary carcinoma is a very rare neoplasm. We report a 67-year-old male who presented with a solitary gastric mass. Total gastrectomy revealed a well-demarcated, poorly differentiated carcinoma with an organoid growth pattern, pushing borders, and abundant peritumoral lymphocytic response. The prior cytology was cellular with immunohistochemical panel consistent with upper gastrointestinal/pancreaticobiliary origin. Overall, the histopathologic findings were consistent with gastric medullary carcinoma. A mismatch repair panel revealed a mismatch repair protein deficient tumor with loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression. BRAF V600E immunostain (VE1 and BRAF molecular testing were negative, indicating a wild-type gene. Tumor sequencing of MLH1 demonstrated a wild-type gene, while our molecular panel identified TP53 c.817C>T (p.R273C mutation. These findings were compatible with a sporadic tumor. Given that morphologically identical medullary tumors often occur in Lynch syndrome, it is possible that mismatch repair loss is an early event in sporadic tumors with p53 mutation being a late event. Despite having wild-type BRAF, this tumor is sporadic and unrelated to Lynch syndrome. This case report demonstrates that coordinate ancillary studies are needed to resolve sporadic versus hereditary rare tumors.

  6. IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Rona; Nemirovsky, Anna; Harpaz, Idan

    2008-01-01

    the spatial learning and memory performance of the animals. In older mice, the effect of IFN-gamma is more pronounced in both wild-type mice and mice with Alzheimer's-like disease and is associated with neuroprotection. In addition, IFN-gamma reverses the increase in oligodendrogenesis observed in a mouse...... mechanisms can generate immunity to such deficits in neuronal repair. We demonstrate that in contrast to primarily innate immunity cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the adaptive immunity cytokine IFN-gamma enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice and improves...

  7. Influence of developmental stage and genotype on liver mRNA levels among wild, domesticated, and hybrid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Sakhrani, Dionne; Danzmann, Roy G; Devlin, Robert H

    2013-10-02

    Release of domesticated strains of fish into nature may pose a threat to wild populations with respect to their evolved genetic structure and fitness. Understanding alterations that have occurred in both physiology and genetics as a consequence of domestication can assist in evaluating the risks posed by introgression of domesticated genomes into wild genetic backgrounds, however the molecular causes of these consequences are currently poorly defined. The present study has examined levels of mRNA in fast-growing pure domesticated (D), slow-growing age-matched pure wild (Wa), slow-growing size-matched pure wild (Ws), and first generation hybrid cross (W/D) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to investigate the influence of genotype (domesticated vs. wild, and their interactions in hybrids) and developmental stage (age- or size-matched animals) on genetic responses (i.e. dominant vs. recessive) and specific physiological pathways. Highly significant differences in mRNA levels were found between domesticated and wild-type rainbow trout genotypes (321 mRNAs), with many mRNAs in the wild-domesticated hybrid progeny showing intermediate levels. Differences were also found between age-matched and size-matched wild-type trout groups (64 mRNAs), with unique mRNA differences for each of the wild-type groups when compared to domesticated trout (Wa: 114 mRNAs, Ws: 88 mRNAs), illustrating an influence of fish developmental stage affecting findings when used as comparator groups to other genotypes. Analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs (found for both wild-type trout to domesticated comparisons) among the genotypes indicates that 34.8% are regulated consistent with an additive genetic model, whereas 39.1% and 26.1% show a recessive or dominant mode of regulation, respectively. These molecular data are largely consistent with phenotypic data (growth and behavioural assessments) assessed in domesticated and wild trout strains. The present molecular data are concordant with

  8. A PCR-based genotyping method to distinguish between wild-type and ornamental varieties of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseke, Leland J; Talley, Sharon M

    2012-02-20

    Wild-type I. cylindrica (cogongrass) is one of the top ten worst invasive plants in the world, negatively impacting agricultural and natural resources in 73 different countries throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, Oceania and the Americas(1-2). Cogongrass forms rapidly-spreading, monodominant stands that displace a large variety of native plant species and in turn threaten the native animals that depend on the displaced native plant species for forage and shelter. To add to the problem, an ornamental variety [I. cylindrica var. koenigii (Retzius)] is widely marketed under the names of Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra', Red Baron, and Japanese blood grass (JBG). This variety is putatively sterile and noninvasive and is considered a desirable ornamental for its red-colored leaves. However, under the correct conditions, JBG can produce viable seed (Carol Holko, 2009 personal communication) and can revert to a green invasive form that is often indistinguishable from cogongrass as it takes on the distinguishing characteristics of the wild-type invasive variety(4) (Figure 1). This makes identification using morphology a difficult task even for well-trained plant taxonomists. Reversion of JBG to an aggressive green phenotype is also not a rare occurrence. Using sequence comparisons of coding and variable regions in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA, we have confirmed that JBG has reverted to the green invasive within the states of Maryland, South Carolina, and Missouri. JBG has been sold and planted in just about every state in the continental U.S. where there is not an active cogongrass infestation. The extent of the revert problem in not well understood because reverted plants are undocumented and often destroyed. Application of this molecular protocol provides a method to identify JBG reverts and can help keep these varieties from co-occurring and possibly hybridizing. Cogongrass is an obligate outcrosser and, when crossed with a different genotype, can produce

  9. Time Courses of Cortical Glucose Metabolism and Microglial Activity Across the Life Span of Wild-Type Mice: A PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Matthias; Focke, Carola; Blume, Tanja; Peters, Finn; Deussing, Maximilian; Probst, Federico; Jaworska, Anna; Overhoff, Felix; Albert, Nathalie; Lindner, Simon; von Ungern-Sternberg, Barbara; Bartenstein, Peter; Haass, Christian; Kleinberger, Gernot; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2017-12-01

    Contrary to findings in the human brain, 18 F-FDG PET shows cerebral hypermetabolism of aged wild-type (WT) mice relative to younger animals, supposedly due to microglial activation. Therefore, we used dual-tracer small-animal PET to examine directly the link between neuroinflammation and hypermetabolism in aged mice. Methods: WT mice (5-20 mo) were investigated in a cross-sectional design using 18 F-FDG ( n = 43) and translocator protein (TSPO) ( 18 F-GE180; n = 58) small-animal PET, with volume-of-interest and voxelwise analyses. Biochemical analysis of plasma cytokine levels and immunohistochemical confirmation of microglial activity were also performed. Results: Age-dependent cortical hypermetabolism in WT mice relative to young animals aged 5 mo peaked at 14.5 mo (+16%, P mice. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. Fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity in wild-type strains of Lactobacillus, isolated from the intestinal tract of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolado-Martínez, E; Acedo-Félix, E; Peregrino-Uriarte, A B; Yepiz-Plascencia, G

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoketolases are key enzymes of the phosphoketolase pathway of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which include lactobacilli. In heterofermentative lactobacilli xylulose 5-phosphate phosphoketolase (X5PPK) is the main enzyme of the phosphoketolase pathway. However, activity of fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) has always been considered absent in lactic acid bacteria. In this study, the F6PPK activity was detected in 24 porcine wild-type strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus mucosae, but not in the Lactobacillus salivarius or in L. reuteri ATCC strains. The activity of F6PPK increased after treatment of the culture at low-pH and diminished after porcine bile-salts stress conditions in wild-type strains of L. reuteri. Colorimetric quantification at 505 nm allowed to differentiate between microbial strains with low activity and without the activity of F6PPK. Additionally, activity of F6PPK and the X5PPK gene expression levels were evaluated by real time PCR, under stress and nonstress conditions, in 3 L. reuteri strains. Although an exact correlation, between enzyme activity and gene expression was not obtained, it remains possible that the xpk gene codes for a phosphoketolase with dual substrate, at least in the analyzed strains of L. reuteri.

  11. General anesthetic octanol and related compounds activate wild-type and delF508 cystic fibrosis chloride channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marcet, Brice; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline; Delmas, Patrick; Verrier, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is defective during cystic fibrosis (CF). Activators of the CFTR Cl− channel may be useful for therapy of CF. Here, we demonstrate that a range of general anesthetics like normal-alkanols (n-alkanols) and related compounds can stimulate the Cl− channel activity of wild-type CFTR and delF508-CFTR mutant.The effects of n-alkanols like octanol on CFTR activity were measured by iodide (125I) efflux and patch-clamp techniques o...

  12. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  13. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  14. Location of Primary Tumor and Benefit From Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients With RAS and BRAF Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Roberto; Cremolini, Chiara; Rossini, Daniele; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Battaglin, Francesca; Mennitto, Alessia; Bergamo, Francesca; Loupakis, Fotios; Marmorino, Federica; Berenato, Rosa; Marsico, Valentina Angela; Caporale, Marta; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Masi, Gianluca; Salvatore, Lisa; Borelli, Beatrice; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lonardi, Sara; De Braud, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Right- and left-sided colorectal cancers (CRCs) differ in clinical and molecular characteristics. Some retrospective analyses suggested that patients with right-sided tumors derive less benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies; however, molecular selection in those studies was not extensive. Patients and Methods. Patients with RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were treated with single-agent anti-EGFRs or with cetuximab-irinotecan (if refractory to previous irinotecan) were included in the study. Differences in outcome between patients with right- and left-sided tumors were investigated. Results. Of 75 patients, 14 and 61 had right- and left-sided tumors, respectively. None of the right-sided tumors responded according to RECIST, compared with 24 left-sided tumors (overall response rate: 0% vs. 41%; p = .0032), and only 2 patients with right-sided tumors (15%) versus 47 patients with left-sided tumors (80%) achieved disease control (p < .0001). The median duration of progression-free survival was 2.3 and 6.6 months in patients with right-sided and left-sided tumors, respectively (hazard ratio: 3.97; 95% confidence interval: 2.09–7.53; p < .0001). Conclusion. Patients with right-sided RAS and BRAF wild-type mCRC seemed to derive no benefit from single-agent anti-EGFRs. Implications for Practice: Right- and left-sided colorectal tumors have peculiar epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics, distinct gene expression profiles and genetic alterations, and different prognoses. This study assessed the potential predictive impact of primary tumor site with regard to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated the lack of activity of anti-EGFRs in RAS and BRAF wild-type, right-sided tumors, thus suggesting a potential role for primary tumor location in driving treatment choices

  15. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  16. Non-invasive genetics outperforms morphological methods in faecal dietary analysis, revealing wild boar as a considerable conservation concern for ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-01-01

    Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet. To distinguish between different mammalian predator species, as well as different grouse prey species, we developed a molecular method based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA that allows accurate species identification. We collected 109 wild boar faeces at protected capercaillie leks and surrounding areas and analysed bird consumption using genetic methods and classical morphological examination. Genetic analysis revealed that the proportion of birds in wild boar faeces was significantly higher (17.3%; 4.5×) than indicated by morphological examination (3.8%). Moreover, the genetic method allowed considerably more precise taxonomic identification of consumed birds compared to morphological analysis. Our results demonstrate: (i) the value of using genetic approaches in faecal dietary analysis due to their higher sensitivity, and (ii) that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, deserving serious consideration in conservation planning for capercaillie and other grouse.

  17. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and recorded, and at the end of experiments, tumor xenografts were removed for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to control groups (negative control, regular-dose icotinib [IcoR], high-dose icotinib [IcoH], and docetaxel [DTX]) and regular icotinib dose (60 mg/kg) with docetaxel, treatment of mice with a high-dose (1200 mg/kg) of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel for 3 weeks (IcoH-DTX) had an additive effect on suppression of tumor xenograft size and volume (P Icotinib-containing treatments markedly reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt), but only the high-dose icotinib-containing treatments showed an additive effect on CD34 inhibition (P icotinib plus docetaxel had a similar effect on mouse weight loss (a common way to measure adverse reactions in mice), compared to the other treatment combinations. The study indicate that the high dose of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel (IcoH-DTX) have an additive effect on suppressing the growth of wild-type EGFR NSCLC cell nude mouse xenografts, possibly through microvessel density reduction. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:27852073

  18. A comparative study of age-related hearing loss in wild type and insulin-like growth factor I deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Riquelme

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to

  19. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Hodl, [No Value; Poll, C; Kandeler, E; Gerzabek, MH; van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant

  20. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jin; Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance.

  1. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  2. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  3. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  4. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Étienne; Vereecken, Nicolas J; Buddle, Christopher M; Fournier, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks) within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852) and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775). Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal) but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Salt Stress Responsiveness in the Seedlings of Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping; Cui, Fenglei; Zhang, Fantao; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.), and is well known for its superior level of tolerance against cold, drought and diseases. To date, however, little is known about the salt-tolerant character of Dongxiang wild rice. To elucidate the molecular genetic mechanisms of salt-stress tolerance in Dongxiang wild rice, the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of the leaves and roots at the seedling stage under salt stress compared with those under normal conditions. The analysis results for the sequencing data showed that 6,867 transcripts were differentially expressed in the leaves (2,216 up-regulated and 4,651 down-regulated) and 4,988 transcripts in the roots (3,105 up-regulated and 1,883 down-regulated). Among these differentially expressed genes, the detection of many transcription factor genes demonstrated that multiple regulatory pathways were involved in salt stress tolerance. In addition, the differentially expressed genes were compared with the previous RNA-Seq analysis of salt-stress responses in cultivated rice Nipponbare, indicating the possible specific molecular mechanisms of salt-stress responses for Dongxiang wild rice. A large number of the salt-inducible genes identified in this study were co-localized onto fine-mapped salt-tolerance-related quantitative trait loci, providing candidates for gene cloning and elucidation of molecular mechanisms responsible for salt-stress tolerance in rice.

  6. Detection by hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genetic characterization of wild type strains of Canine distemper virus in suspected infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Cristina E; Di Francesco, Daniela; Di Martino, Barbara; Speranza, Roberto; Santori, Domenico; Boari, Andrea; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    A new highly sensitive and specific hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was applied to detect nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Canine distemper virus (CDV) in samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological signs. Thirty-eight out of 86 samples were positive suggesting that despite the vaccination, canine distemper may still represent a high risk to the canine population. The 968 base pair (bp) fragments from the hemagglutinin (H) gene of 10 viral strains detected in positive samples were amplified and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using AluI and PsiI enzymes in order to differentiate among vaccine and wild-type CDV strains and to characterize the field viral strains. The products of the both enzymatic digestions allowed identification all viruses as wild strains of CDV. In addition, the RFLP analysis with AluI provided additional information about the identity level among the strains analyzed on the basis of the positions of the cleavage site in the nucleotide sequences of the H gene. The method could be a more useful and simpler method for molecular studies of CDV strains.

  7. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  8. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase families in wild and cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and was associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequence, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases and demethylase in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in known MET, CMT and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 numbers didn’t contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize, soybean. Five DNA demethylase were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTases gene mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or drought stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTases and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut.

  9. Quantitative analysis of sesquiterpene lactone cnicin in seven Centaurea species wild-growing in Serbia and Montenegro using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIS DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available 1H-NMR spectroscopy was applied for the quantitative analysis of cnicin, a bioactive germacranolide type sesquiterpene lactone, in the aerial parts of seven wild-growing Centaurea species collected in Serbia and Montenegro. The analysis was performed by comparison of the integral of the one-proton signal of cnicin (H-13, δ 5.75 with that of the two-proton singlet (δ 6.98 of 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-4-methylphenol (BHT, used as the internal standard. Cnicin, within concentration the range 1.06–6.12 mg/g, calculated per weight of the fresh plant material was detected in six species, the exception being C. salonitana. This method allows the rapid and simple quantification of cnicin without any pre-purification step.

  10. Electrotransformation and expression of cellulase genes in wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wang; Yang, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Guang-Qin; He, Wan-Ling; Li, Yuan-Xiao; Chen, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Two cellulase genes, Cel15 and Cel73, were amplified from Bacillus subtilis genome DNA in a previous study. Two integrative vectors, pLEM4153 and pLEM4154, containing the genes Cel15 and Cel73, respectively, were constructed and successfully electroporated into the wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri which was isolated from chick guts through an optimized procedure. Two recombinant L. reuteri were selected from a Man, Rogosa, and Sharp (MRS) plate with 10 µg/ml erythromycin, and named L. reuteri XNY-Cel15 and L. reuteri XNY-Cel73, respectively. To verify the transcription and expression of the two cellulase genes in the recombinant L. reuteri strains, the mRNA relative quantity (RQ) and the cellulase activity were determined. The mRNA RQ of Cel15 in L. reuteri XNY-Cel15 is 1,8849.5, and that of Cel73 in L. reuteri XNY-Cel73 is 1,388, and the cellulase activity of the modified MRS broth cultured with L. reuteri XNY-Cel15 was 0.158 U/ml, whereas that with L. reuteri XNY-Cel73 was 0.15 U/ml. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparative Study of Nonautolytic Mutant and Wild-Type Strains of Coprinopsis cinerea Supports an Important Role of Glucanases in Fruiting Body Autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Niu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wenming; Yang, Mingmei; Liu, Cuicui; Xiong, Yuanjing; Zhao, Yan; Pei, Siyu; Qin, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Yuan; Yuan, Sheng

    2015-11-04

    Autolysis of Coprinopsis cinerea fruiting bodies affects its commercial value. In this study, a mutant of C. cinerea that exhibits pileus expansion without pileus autolysis was obtained using ultraviolet mutagenesis. This suggests that pileus expansion and pileus autolysis involve different enzymes or proteins. Among the detected hydrolytic enzymes, only β-1,3-glucanase activity increased with expansion and autolysis of pilei in the wild-type strain, but the increase was abolished in the mutant. This suggests that β-1,3-glucanases plays a major role in the autolysis. Although there are 43 possible β-1,3-glucoside hydrolases genes, only 4 known genes, which have products that are thought to act synergistically to degrade the β-1,3-glucan backbone of cell walls during fruiting body autolysis, and an unreported gene were upregulated during pileus expansion and autolysis in the wild-type stain but were suppressed in the mutant. This suggests that expression of these β-1,3-glucanases is potentially controlled by a single regulatory mechanism.

  12. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  13. Differential effects of silver nanoparticles on DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in Ogg1-deficient and wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanthighal, Sameera; Chan, Cadia; Murray, Thomas M; Mosier, Aaron P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Reliene, Ramune

    2017-10-01

    Due to extensive use in consumer goods, it is important to understand the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and identify susceptible populations. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) excises 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG), a pro-mutagenic lesion induced by oxidative stress. To understand whether defects in OGG1 is a possible genetic factor increasing an individual's susceptibly to AgNPs, we determined DNA damage, genome rearrangements, and expression of DNA repair genes in Ogg1-deficient and wild type mice exposed orally to 4 mg/kg of citrate-coated AgNPs over a period of 7 d. DNA damage was examined at 3 and 7 d of exposure and 7 and 14 d post-exposure. AgNPs induced 8-oxoG, double strand breaks (DSBs), chromosomal damage, and DNA deletions in both genotypes. However, 8-oxoG was induced earlier in Ogg1-deficient mice and 8-oxoG levels were higher after 7-d treatment and persisted longer after exposure termination. AgNPs downregulated DNA glycosylases Ogg1, Neil1, and Neil2 in wild type mice, but upregulated Myh, Neil1, and Neil2 glycosylases in Ogg1-deficient mice. Neil1 and Neil2 can repair 8-oxoG. Thus, AgNP-mediated downregulation of DNA glycosylases in wild type mice may contribute to genotoxicity, while upregulation thereof in Ogg1-deficient mice could serve as an adaptive response to AgNP-induced DNA damage. However, our data show that Ogg1 is indispensable for the efficient repair of AgNP-induced damage. In summary, citrate-coated AgNPs are genotoxic in both genotypes and Ogg1 deficiency exacerbates the effect. These data suggest that humans with genetic polymorphisms and mutations in OGG1 may have increased susceptibility to AgNP-mediated DNA damage.

  14. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.

  15. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) - Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals.

  16. Genetic analysis and characterization of wild poliovirus type 1 during sustained transmission in a population with >95% vaccine coverage, Israel 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Martin, Javier; Sofer, Danit; Burns, Cara C; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Gavrilin, Eugene; Wilton, Thomas; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Gamzo, Ronni; Mendelson, Ella; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-04-01

    Israel has >95% polio vaccine coverage with the last 9 birth cohorts immunized exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Using acute flaccid paralysis and routine, monthly countrywide environmental surveillance, no wild poliovirus circulation was detected between 1989 and February 2013, after which wild type 1 polioviruses South Asia genotype (WPV1-SOAS) have persistently circulated in southern Israel and intermittently in other areas without any paralytic cases as determined by intensified surveillance of environmental and human samples. We aimed to characterize antigenic and neurovirulence properties of WPV1-SOAS silently circulating in a highly vaccinated population. WPV1-SOAS capsid genes from environmental and stool surveillance isolates were sequenced, their neurovirulence was determined using transgenic mouse expressing the human poliovirus receptor (Tg21-PVR) mice, and their antigenicity was characterized by in vitro neutralization using human sera, epitope-specific monoclonal murine anti-oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) antibodies, and sera from IPV-immunized rats and mice. WPV1 amino acid sequences in neutralizing epitopes varied from Sabin 1 and Mahoney, with little variation among WPV1 isolates. Neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against 3 of 4 OPV epitopes was lost. Three-fold lower geometric mean titers (Z = -4.018; P < .001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test) against WPV1 than against Mahoney in human serum correlated with 4- to 6-fold lower neutralization titers in serum from IPV-immunized rats and mice. WPV1-SOAS isolates were neurovirulent (50% intramuscular paralytic dose in Tg21-PVR mice: log10(7.0)). IPV-immunized mice were protected against WPV1-induced paralysis. Phenotypic and antigenic profile changes of WPV1-SOAS may have contributed to the intense silent transmission, whereas the reduced neurovirulence may have contributed to the absence of paralytic cases in the background of high population immunity. © The Author 2014. Published by

  17. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    Full Text Available Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry, and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils, which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  18. Functional analysis in mouse embryonic stem cells reveals wild-type activity for three MSH6 variants found in suspected Lynch syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva A L Wielders

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome confers an increased risk to various types of cancer, in particular early onset colorectal and endometrial cancer. Mutations in mismatch repair (MMR genes underlie Lynch syndrome, with the majority of mutations found in MLH1 and MSH2. Mutations in MSH6 have also been found but these do not always cause a clear cancer predisposition phenotype and MSH6-defective tumors often do not show the standard characteristics of MMR deficiency, such as microsatellite instability. In particular, the consequences of MSH6 missense mutations are challenging to predict, which further complicates genetic counseling. We have previously developed a method for functional characterization of MSH2 missense mutations of unknown significance. This method is based on endogenous gene modification in mouse embryonic stem cells using oligonucleotide-directed gene targeting, followed by a series of functional assays addressing the MMR functions. Here we have adapted this method for the characterization of MSH6 missense mutations. We recreated three MSH6 variants found in suspected Lynch syndrome families, MSH6-P1087R, MSH6-R1095H and MSH6-L1354Q, and found all three to behave like wild type MSH6. Thus, despite suspicion for pathogenicity from clinical observations, our approach indicates these variants are not disease causing. This has important implications for counseling of mutation carriers.

  19. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  20. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    p53 genes, in a L9V/HLA-A2 specific and restricted fashion. Thus, the normal tolerance against endogenously processed p53 protein-derived self-epitopes can be broken by peptide-specific in vitro priming. p53 protein-derived wild-type peptides might thus represent tumor associated target molecules...

  2. Tumour gene expression predicts response to cetuximab in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J B; Dutta, D; Watson, D; Maddala, T; Munneke, B M; Shak, S; Rowinsky, E K; Xu, L-A; Harbison, C T; Clark, E A; Mauro, D J; Khambata-Ford, S

    2011-02-01

    Although it is accepted that metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs) that carry activating mutations in KRAS are unresponsive to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, a significant fraction of KRAS wild-type (wt) mCRCs are also unresponsive to anti-EGFR therapy. Genes encoding EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG) are promising gene expression-based markers but have not been incorporated into a test to dichotomise KRAS wt mCRC patients with respect to sensitivity to anti-EGFR treatment. We used RT-PCR to test 110 candidate gene expression markers in primary tumours from 144 KRAS wt mCRC patients who received monotherapy with the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. Results were correlated with multiple clinical endpoints: disease control, objective response, and progression-free survival (PFS). Expression of many of the tested candidate genes, including EREG and AREG, strongly associate with all clinical endpoints. Using multivariate analysis with two-layer five-fold cross-validation, we constructed a four-gene predictive classifier. Strikingly, patients below the classifier cutpoint had PFS and disease control rates similar to those of patients with KRAS mutant mCRC. Gene expression appears to identify KRAS wt mCRC patients who receive little benefit from cetuximab. It will be important to test this model in an independent validation study.

  3. Two skin cell lines from wild-type and albino Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): establishment, characterization, virus susceptibility, efficient transfection, and application to albinism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoqing; Zhang, Nianwei; Wang, Renkai; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Na

    2017-12-01

    In order to provide an applicable cell platform to study fish pathology and skin pigmentation, two cell lines derived from skin tissues of wild-type and albino Japanese flounder were established and named JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb, respectively. These two cell lines were cultured for 45 passages within approximately 300 days. JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium and Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture (DMEM/F12) supplemented with antibiotics, fetal bovine serum (FBS), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me), N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The optimal growth temperature for JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells was 24 °C, and microscopically, the two cell lines were composed of fibroblast-like cells. Chromosomal analysis revealed that JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells had an identical diploid karyotype with 2n = 48t. Results of viral inoculation assays revealed that both cell lines shared similar patterns of viral susceptibility to nervous necrosis virus (NNV). High transfection efficiency was observed in JFSK_wt and JFSK_alb cells transfected with a pEGFP-N3 reporter plasmid and Cy3-siRNA. The detection of dermal marker Dermo-1 showed that these two cells were both derived from the dermis. Finally, three genes involved in the melanogenesis pathway, including adenylate cyclase type 5 (adcy5), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (mitf), and endothelin B receptor (ednrb), were downregulated in JFSK_alb versus JFSK_wt cells. Thus, the two cell lines, sampled from skin tissue of wild-type and albino Japanese flounder will be not only helpful for fish pathogen research but also beneficial for albinism-related gene function studies.

  4. Taxonomic and functional trait diversity of wild bees in different urban settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Normandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is one of the major anthropogenic processes contributing to local habitat loss and extirpation of numerous species, including wild bees, the most widespread pollinators. Little is known about the mechanisms through which urbanization impacts wild bee communities, or the types of urban green spaces that best promote their conservation in cities. The main objective of this study was to describe and compare wild bee community diversity, structure, and dynamics in two Canadian cities, Montreal and Quebec City. A second objective was to compare functional trait diversity among three habitat types (cemeteries, community gardens and urban parks within each city. Bees were collected using pan traps and netting on the same 46 sites, multiple times, over the active season in 2012 and 2013. A total of 32,237 specimens were identified, representing 200 species and 6 families, including two new continental records, Hylaeus communis Nylander (1852 and Anthidium florentinum (Fabricius, 1775. Despite high community evenness, we found significant abundance of diverse species, including exotic ones. Spatio-temporal analysis showed higher stability in the most urbanized city (Montreal but low nestedness of species assemblages among the three urban habitats in both cities. Our study demonstrates that cities are home to diverse communities of wild bees, but in turn affect bee community structure and dynamics. We also found that community gardens harbour high levels of functional trait diversity. Urban agriculture therefore contributes substantially to the provision of functionally diverse bee communities and possibly to urban pollination services.

  5. Hunting with lead: association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Blumenthal, Wendy; Kennedy, Chinaro; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Pickard, Stephen; Flanders, W Dana; Loringer, Kelly; Kruger, Kirby; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jean Brown, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Wild game hunting is a popular activity in many regions of the United States. Recently, the presence of lead fragments in wild game meat, presumably from the bullets or shot used for hunting, has raised concerns about health risks from meat consumption. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (PbB) and wild game consumption. We recruited 742 participants, aged 2-92 years, from six North Dakota cities. Blood lead samples were collected from 736 persons. Information on socio-demographic background, housing, lead exposure source, and types of wild game consumption (i.e., venison, other game such as moose, birds) was also collected. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the association between PbB and wild game consumption. Most participants reported consuming wild game (80.8%) obtained from hunting (98.8%). The geometric mean PbB were 1.27 and 0.84 microg/dl among persons who did and did not consume wild game, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, persons who consumed wild game had 0.30 microg/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.44 microg/dl) higher PbB than persons who did not. For all game types, recent (game consumption was associated with higher PbB. PbB was also higher among those who consumed a larger serving size (> or = 2 oz vs. game' consumption only. Participants who consumed wild game had higher PbB than those who did not consume wild game. Careful review of butchering practices and monitoring of meat-packing processes may decrease lead exposure from wild game consumption.

  6. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  7. Wild carnivores (Mammalia) as hosts for ticks (Ixodida) in Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Esser, H.J.; Miranda, R.; Moreno, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports ticks collected from wild carnivores from different habitat types in Panama. We examined 94 individual wild carnivores and we found 87 parasitized by ticks: seven coyotes, six crab-eating foxes, 54 coatis, four raccoons, five ocelots, two pumas, two gray foxes, two skunks, and one

  8. Retention of the In Vitro Radiosensitizing Potential of Gemcitabine Under Anoxic Conditions, in p53 Wild-Type and p53-Deficient Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Lambrechts, Hilde A.J.; Pattyn, Greet G.O.; Ides, Johan; Baay, Marc; Meijnders, Paul; Peeters, Marc; Vermorken, Jan B.; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Whereas radiosensitization by gemcitabine is well studied under normal oxygen conditions, little is known about its radiosensitizing potential under reduced oxygen conditions. Therefore, the present study evaluated the impact of anoxia on gemcitabine-mediated radiosensitization. Methods and Materials: The clonogenic assay was performed in three isogenic A549 cell lines differing in p53 status (24 h, 0-15 nM gemcitabine, 0-8 Gy irradiation, normoxia vs. anoxia). Using radiosensitizing conditions, cells were collected for cell cycle analysis and apoptosis detection. Results: Whereas wild-type p53 A549-LXSN cells were more sensitive to radiation than p53-deficient A549-E6 cells, both cell lines showed similar radiosensitization by gemcitabine under normoxia and anoxia. Independent of p53 functionality, gemcitabine was able to overcome anoxia-induced G 0/1 arrest and established an (early) S phase block in normoxic and anoxic cells. The percentage early and late apoptotic/necrotic cells increased with the gemcitabine/radiation combination, with a significant difference between A549-LXSN and A549-E6. Conclusions: This study is the first to show that gemcitabine retains its radiosensitizing potential under low oxygen conditions. Although radiosensitization was observed in both p53 wild-type and p53-deficient cells, p53 status might influence induction of apoptosis after gemcitabine/radiation treatment, whereas no effect on cell cycle progression was noticed.

  9. Effects of ketoconazole on the biodistribution and metabolism of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and [{sup 11}C]N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type and P-gp knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seneca, Nicholas; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Shetty, H. Umesha; Tuan, Edward; Kannan, Pavitra; Taku, Andrew; Innis, Robert B. [Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Pike, Victor W. [Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: pikev@mail.nih.gov

    2010-04-15

    Introduction: [{sup 11}C]Loperamide and [{sup 11}C]N-desmethyl-loperamide ([{sup 11}C]dLop) have been proposed as radiotracers for imaging brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. A major route of [{sup 11}C]loperamide metabolism is N-demethylation to [{sup 11}C]dLop. We aimed to test whether inhibition of CYP3A4 with ketoconazole might reduce the metabolism of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and [{sup 11}C]dLop in mice, and thereby improve the quality of these radiotracers. Methods: Studies were performed in wild-type and P-gp knockout (mdr-1a/b -/-) mice. During each of seven study sessions, one pair of mice, comprising one wild-type and one knockout mouse, was pretreated with ketoconazole (50 mg/kg, ip), while another such pair was left untreated. Mice were sacrificed at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]loperamide or [{sup 11}C]dLop. Whole brain and plasma samples were measured for radioactivity and analyzed with radio-high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Ketoconazole increased the plasma concentrations of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and its main radiometabolite, [{sup 11}C]dLop, by about twofold in both wild-type and knockout mice, whereas the most polar radiometabolite was decreased threefold. Furthermore, ketoconazole increased the brain concentrations of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and the radiometabolite [{sup 11}C]dLop by about twofold in knockout mice, and decreased the brain concentrations of the major and most polar radiometabolite in wild-type and knockout mice by 82% and 49%, respectively. In contrast, ketoconazole had no effect on plasma and brain distribution of administered [{sup 11}C]dLop and its radiometabolites in either wild-type or knockout mice, except to increase the low plasma [{sup 11}C]dLop concentration. The least polar radiometabolite of [{sup 11}C]dLop was identified with LC-MS{sup n} as the N-hydroxymethyl analog of [{sup 11}C]dLop and this also behaved as a P-gp substrate. Conclusion: In this study, ketoconazole (50 mg/kg, ip) proved

  10. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  11. Vaccination with an Attenuated Mutant of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Induces Pathogen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Immunity and Protection from Tick-Transmitted Wild-Type Challenge in the Canine Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L McGill

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum tick, E. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. We have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of E. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the Ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in dogs. Here, we extend our previous results, demonstrating that vaccination with the Ech_0660 mutant protects dogs from physiologic, tick-transmitted, secondary challenge with wild-type E. chaffeensis; and describing, for the first time, the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ech_0660 mutant vaccination and wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in the canine host. Both vaccination and infection induced a rise in E. chaffeensis-specific antibody titers and a significant Th1 response in peripheral blood as measured by E. chaffeensis antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Further, we describe for the first time significant IL-17 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from both Ech_0660 mutant vaccinated animals and control animals infected with wild-type E. chaffeensis, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and Th17 cells in the immune response to rickettsial pathogens. Our results are a critical first step towards defining the role of the immune system in vaccine-induced protection from E. chaffeensis infection in an incidental host; and confirm the potential of the attenuated mutant clone, Ech_0660, to be used as a vaccine candidate for protection against tick-transmitted E. chaffeensis infection.

  12. Primary tumor site is a useful predictor of cetuximab efficacy in the third-line or salvage treatment of KRAS wild-type (exon 2 non-mutant) metastatic colorectal cancer: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Hsing; Shao, Yu-Yun; Chen, Ho-Min; Lin, Yu-Lin; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Lai, Mei-Shu; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Yeh, Kun-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC) and right-sided colorectal cancer (RCRC) exhibit different molecular and clinicopathological features. We explored the association between the primary tumor site and cetuximab efficacy in KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC). This study enrolled a cohort of patients, who had received cetuximab treatment after two or more lines of chemotherapy for KRAS wild-type (exon 2 nonmutant) metastatic CRC, from the databases of Taiwan Cancer Registry (2004–2010) and National Health Insurance (2004–2011). Survival data were obtained from the National Death Registry. Time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) and overall survival (OS) after the start of cetuximab treatment were compared between patients with LCRC (splenic flexure to rectum) and RCRC (cecum to hepatic flexure). A total of 969 CRC patients were enrolled. Among them, 765 (78.9 %) and 136 (14.0 %) patients had LCRC and RCRC, respectively. Patients with LCRC, compared to patients with RCRC, had longer TTD (median, 4.59 vs. 2.75 months, P = .0005) and OS (median, 12.62 vs. 8.07 months, P < .0001) after the start of cetuximab treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed a right-sided primary tumor site was an independent predictor of shorter TTD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32, using the LCRC group as a reference, 95 % confidence interval: 1.08–1.61, P = .0072) and OS (adjusted HR = 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.18–1.78, P = .0003). Our findings demonstrate that a left-sided primary tumor site is a useful predictor of improved cetuximab efficacy in the third-line or salvage treatment of KRAS wild-type (exon 2 nonmutant) metastatic CRC

  13. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

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    Giuseppe Manfré

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype.This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability.Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the observed behavioral alterations.In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild

  14. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild deficit in

  15. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C.; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A.; Van der Harst, Johanneke E.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. Objective This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Methods Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. Results In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats

  16. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardas Morkunas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell–cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable.

  17. Heteromeric p97/p97R155C complexes induce dominant negative changes in wild-type and autophagy 9-deficient Dictyostelium strains.

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    Khalid Arhzaouy

    Full Text Available Heterozygous mutations in the human VCP (p97 gene cause autosomal-dominant IBMPFD (inclusion body myopathy with early onset Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia, ALS14 (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with or without frontotemporal dementia and HSP (hereditary spastic paraplegia. Most prevalent is the R155C point mutation. We studied the function of p97 in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum and have generated strains that ectopically express wild-type (p97 or mutant p97 (p97(R155C fused to RFP in AX2 wild-type and autophagy 9 knock-out (ATG9(KO cells. Native gel electrophoresis showed that both p97 and p97(R155C assemble into hexamers. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that endogenous p97 and p97(R155C-RFP form heteromers. The mutant strains displayed changes in cell growth, phototaxis, development, proteasomal activity, ubiquitinylated proteins, and ATG8(LC3 indicating mis-regulation of multiple essential cellular processes. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis revealed an increase of protein aggregates in ATG9(KO/p97(R155C-RFP and ATG9(KO cells. They were positive for ubiquitin in both strains, however, solely immunoreactive for p97 in the ATG9(KO mutant. A major finding is that the expression of p97(R155C-RFP in the ATG9(KO strain partially or fully rescued the pleiotropic phenotype. We also observed dose-dependent effects of p97 on several cellular processes. Based on findings in the single versus the double mutants we propose a novel mode of p97 interaction with the core autophagy protein ATG9 which is based on mutual inhibition.

  18. On the mechanistic differences of benzene-induced leukemogenesis between wild type and p53 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Li, Guang-Xun; Kanno, Jun; Inoue, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Leukemia induction by benzene inhalation was first reported by Le Noire in 1887, described multiple cases of leukemia among Parisian cobblers. However, experimental induction of leukemia by benzene exposure was not succeeded for a hundred years, until Snyder et al. and our group reported it nearly 20 years ago. Nevertheless, the mechanistic background of benzene-induced leukemia was still an enigma until recently a benzene-induced peculiar cell kinetics of the stem/progenitor cells has been elucidated by our study, demonstrated a marked repeated oscillatory decrease in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) cellularity during and after benzene exposure, which epigenetically preceded and developed the leukemia more than a year later. We utilized the BUUV (bromodeoxyuridine + UV exposure) method to study stem/progenitor cell kinetics during and/or after benzene exposure. Using these methods, we were able to measure the labeling rate, cycling fraction of clonogenic progenitor cells, and other cell cycle parameters. The cycling fraction of stem/progenitor cells was found not to turn into an active hematopoiesis but to remain low during benzene inhalation and further we found evidence that the cycling fraction depression may be mediated in part by a slowing of stem/progenitor cell cycling perse by up-regulation of p21. The benzene induced leukemogenicity between mice carrying wild-type p53 and mice lacking p53 seem to differ from one another. In the case of p53 knockout mouse, DNA damage such as weak mutagenicity and or chromosomal damages are retained, and those damages participated in the induction of a consequent activation of proto-oncogenes and the like, which led cells to further neoplastic changes. In contrast, in the case of wild type mice, a dramatic oscillational change in the cell cycle of the stem cell compartment seems to be an important factor for mice carrying the p53 gene. (author)

  19. Proline metabolism in the wild-type and in a salt-tolerant mutant of nicotiana plumbaginifolia studied by (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens; Willem; Li; Verbruggen; Biesemans; Jacobs

    1999-12-01

    To obtain insight into the link between proline (Pro) accumulation and the increase in osmotolerance in higher plants, we investigated the biochemical basis for the NaCl tolerance of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutant (RNa) that accumulates Pro. Pro biosynthesis and catabolism were investigated in both wild-type and mutant lines. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance with [5-(13)C]glutamate (Glu) as the Pro precursor was used to provide insight into the mechanism of Pro accumulation via the Glu pathway. After 24 h under 200 mM NaCl stress in the presence of [5-(13)C]Glu, a significant enrichment in [5-(13)C]Pro was observed compared with non-stress conditions in both the wild type (P2) and the mutant (RNa). Moreover, under the same conditions, [5-(13)C]Pro was clearly synthesized in higher amounts in RNa than in P2. On the other hand, measurements of enzyme activities indicate that neither the biosynthesis via the ornithine pathway, nor the catabolism via the Pro oxidation pathway were affected in the RNa mutant. Finally, the regulatory effect exerted by Pro on its biosynthesis was evaluated. In P2 plantlets, exogenous Pro markedly reduced the conversion of [5-(13)C]Glu into [5-(13)C]Pro, whereas Pro feedback inhibition was not detected in the RNa plantlets. It is proposed that the origin of tolerance in the RNa mutant is due to a mutation leading to a substantial reduction of the feedback inhibition normally exerted in a wild-type (P2) plant by Pro at the level of the Delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase enzyme.

  20. Genetic structure in cultivated and wild carrots (¤Daucus carota¤ L.) revealed by AFLP analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, S.I.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    Genetic variation within and among five Danish populations of wild carrot and five cultivated varieties was investigated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Ten AFLP primer combinations produced 116 polymorphic bands. Based on the marker data an UPGMA-cluster analysis and principal...

  1. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-03

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Insights into the binding specificity of wild type and mutated wheat germ agglutinin towards Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal: a study by in silico mutations and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Ponnusamy; Murugan, Veeramani; Selvin, Jeyasigamani F A; Gromiha, M Michael; Fukui, Kazuhiko; Veluraja, Kasinadar

    2014-08-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant lectin, which specifically recognizes the sugars NeuNAc and GlcNAc. Mutated WGA with enhanced binding specificity can be used as biomarkers for cancer. In silico mutations are performed at the active site of WGA to enhance the binding specificity towards sialylglycans, and molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns are carried out for wild type and mutated WGAs (WGA1, WGA2, and WGA3) in complex with sialylgalactose to examine the change in binding specificity. MD simulations reveal the change in binding specificity of wild type and mutated WGAs towards sialylgalactose and bound conformational flexibility of sialylgalactose. The mutated polar amino acid residues Asn114 (S114N), Lys118 (G118K), and Arg118 (G118R) make direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with sialylgalactose. An analysis of possible hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, total pair wise interaction energy between active site residues and sialylgalactose and MM-PBSA free energy calculation reveals the plausible binding modes and the role of water in stabilizing different binding modes. An interesting observation is that the binding specificity of mutated WGAs (cyborg lectin) towards sialylgalactose is found to be higher in double point mutation (WGA3). One of the substituted residues Arg118 plays a crucial role in sugar binding. Based on the interactions and energy calculations, it is concluded that the order of binding specificity of WGAs towards sialylgalactose is WGA3 > WGA1 > WGA2 > WGA. On comparing with the wild type, double point mutated WGA (WGA3) exhibits increased specificity towards sialylgalactose, and thus, it can be effectively used in targeted drug delivery and as biological cell marker in cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Parallel screening of wild-type and drug-resistant targets for anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors.

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    Kai-Cheng Hsu

    Full Text Available Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye, which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50 values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high

  4. Expression Analysis of cPLA2 Alpha Interacting TIP60 in Diabetic KKAy and Non-Diabetic C57BL Wild-Type Mice: No Impact of Transient and Stable TIP60 Overexpression on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the expression levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2alpha) interacting histone acetyl transferase proteins TIP60alpha and TIP60beta in non-diabetic C57BL wild-type mice and obese type 2 diabetic KKAy model mice. The aim was to test our hypothesis...

  5. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  6. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  7. Occurrence of Edwardsiella tarda in wild European eels Anguilla anguilla from Mediterranean Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Elena; Herraiz, Sonia; Esteve, Consuelo

    2006-11-21

    Pure cultures of Edwarsiella tarda were isolated from body ulcers and internal organs of wild European eels caught in a Mediterranean freshwater coastal lagoon (Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain) over a 1 yr period. Overall, the E. tarda isolation rate from wild eels was 9%, but this increased to 22.8% in diseased individuals. All 22 E. tarda isolates belonged to the 'wild-type' biogroup of the species and were virulent for eels (lethal dose that kills 50% of exposed individuals [LD50 dose]: 10(4.85) to 10(6.83) CFU ind.(-1)), and therefore represented the aetiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease observed in wild European eels. The E. tarda isolates and E. tarda CECT 894T type strain were biochemically and serologically related and resistant to macrolides, antifolates, and glycopeptides, but only the isolates from wild eels were resistant to clindamicyn. This study is the first description of edwardsiellosis in a wild European eel population, and alerts us to the presence of E. tarda in natural wetland environments in Mediterranean Europe.

  8. Differential gene expression in porcine SK6 cells infected with wild-type and SAP domain-mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zixin; Yang, Fan; Cao, Weijun; Zhang, Xiangle; Jin, Ye; Mao, Ruoqing; Du, Xiaoli; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Jianhong; Liu, Xiangtao; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. The viral proteinase L(pro) of FMDV is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the L(pro) SAP domain reduces FMDV pathogenicity in pigs. To determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in SK6 cells infected with FMDV containing L(pro) with either a wild-type or mutated version of the SAP domain. This analysis yielded 1,853 genes that exhibited a ≥ 2-fold change in expression and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR detection of several differentially expressed genes. Many of the differentially expressed genes correlated with antiviral responses corresponded to genes associated with transcription factors, immune regulation, cytokine production, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Alterations in gene expression profiles may be responsible for the variations in pathogenicity observed between the two FMDV variants. Our results provided genes of interest for the further study of antiviral pathways and pathogenic mechanisms related to FMDV L(pro).

  9. Assessment of levels of bacterial contamination of large wild game meat in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; Laroche, Michel; Magras, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The variations in prevalence and levels of pathogens and fecal contamination indicators in large wild game meat were studied to assess their potential impact on consumers. This analysis was based on hazard analysis, data generation and statistical analysis. A total of 2919 meat samples from three species (red deer, roe deer, wild boar) were collected at French game meat traders' facilities using two sampling protocols. Information was gathered on the types of meat cuts (forequarter or haunch; first sampling protocol) or type of retail-ready meat (stewing meat or roasting meat; second protocol), and also on the meat storage conditions (frozen or chilled), country of origin (eight countries) and shooting season (autumn, winter, spring). The samples were analyzed in both protocols for detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli, coagulase+staphylococci and Clostridium perfringens. In addition, detection and enumeration of thermotolerant coliforms and Listeria monocytogenes were performed for samples collected in the first and second protocols, respectively. The levels of bacterial contamination of the raw meat were determined by performing statistical analysis involving probabilistic techniques and Bayesian inference. C. perfringens was found in the highest numbers for the three indicators of microbial quality, hygiene and good handling, and L. monocytogenes in the lowest. Differences in contamination levels between game species and between meats distributed as chilled or frozen products were not significant. These results might be included in quantitative exposure assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  11. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  12. Oxygen effect and influence of the anoxic radiosensitizing agent TAN on the induction of λ-prophage in polA and wild type E.coli strains after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonev, M.N.; Sivriev, I.K.; Kolev, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    The modification effect of both oxygen and radiosensitizing agent TAN on the λ-prophage induction in polA mutant and wild type E.coli cells after γ-irradiation was studied. The oxygen and TAN enhancement ratio concerning the cell sensitivity is more significant in polA mutant cells as compared to that in the wild type ones. The same behaviour has been observed for the oxygen and TAN enhancement ratio for the λ-prophage induction. The TAN effect on the survival and on the λ-induction was smaller than the oxygen effect. The bigger efficiency of oxygen and DNA-radicals are more difficult to repair than those created by an interaction of TAN and DNA-radicals

  13. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) — Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals. PMID:20885846

  14. Effects of temperature on the p53-DNA binding interactions and their dynamical behavior: comparing the wild type to the R248Q mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Barakat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The protein p53 plays an active role in the regulation of cell cycle. In about half of human cancers, the protein is inactivated by mutations located primarily in its DNA-binding domain. Interestingly, a number of these mutations possess temperature-induced DNA-binding characteristics. A striking example is the mutation of Arg248 into glutamine or tryptophan. These mutants are defective for binding to DNA at 310 K although they have been shown to bind specifically to several p53 response elements at sub-physiological temperatures (298-306 K. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This important experimental finding motivated us to examine the effects of temperature on the structure and configuration of R248Q mutant and compare it to the wild type protein. Our aim is to determine how and where structural changes of mutant variants take place due to temperature changes. To answer these questions, we compared the mutant to the wild-type proteins from two different aspects. First, we investigated the systems at the atomistic level through their DNA-binding affinity, hydrogen bond networks and spatial distribution of water molecules. Next, we assessed changes in their long-lived conformational motions at the coarse-grained level through the collective dynamics of their side-chain and backbone atoms separately. CONCLUSIONS: The experimentally observed effect of temperature on the DNA-binding properties of p53 is reproduced. Analysis of atomistic and coarse-grained data reveal that changes in binding are determined by a few key residues and provide a rationale for the mutant-loss of binding at physiological temperatures. The findings can potentially enable a rescue strategy for the mutant structure.

  15. Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population.

  16. Saponin Profile of Wild Asparagus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; López, Sergio; Gil, Juan; Moreno, Roberto; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the saponin profiles from spears of different wild asparagus species in the context of its genetic diversity aside from geographical seed origin. They included Asparagus pseudoscaber Grecescu, Asparagus maritimus (L.) Mill., Asparagus brachiphyllus Turcz., Asparagus prostrates Dumort., and Asparagus officinalis L. The saponin analysis by LC-MS has shown that saponin profile from wild asparagus is similar to that previously described for triguero asparagus from Huétor-Tájar landrace (triguero HT), which had not ever been reported in the edible part of asparagus. All the samples, except A. officinalis, were characterized for having saponins distinct to protodioscin and the total saponin contents were 10-fold higher than those described for commercial hybrids of green asparagus. In particular, A. maritimus from different origins were rich in saponins previously found in triguero HT. These findings supported previous suggestion, based on genetic analysis, about A. maritimus being the origin of triguero HT. Multivariate statistics including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. The results showed that the greatest variance of the tested wild asparagus could be attributed to differences in the concentration of particular saponins and this knowledge could be a tool for identifying similar species. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Wild-type MIC distributions of four fluoroquinolones active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to current critical concentrations and available pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeby, K A; Jureen, P; Giske, C G; Chryssanthou, E; Sturegård, E; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A G; Werngren, J; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S E; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    To describe wild-type distributions of the MIC of fluoroquinolones for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in relation to current critical concentrations used for drug susceptibility testing and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) data. A 96-stick replicator on Middlebrook 7H10 medium was used to define the MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin for 90 consecutive clinical strains and 24 drug-resistant strains. The MICs were compared with routine BACTEC 460 susceptibility results and with MIC determinations in the BACTEC MGIT 960 system in a subset of strains using ofloxacin as a class representative. PK/PD data for each drug were reviewed in relation to the wild-type MIC distribution. The wild-type MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were distributed from 0.125 to 1, 0.25 to 1, 0.032 to 0.5 and 0.125 to 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The MIC data correlated well with the BACTEC 960 MGIT and BACTEC 460 results. PD indices were the most favourable for levofloxacin, followed by moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. We propose S (susceptible)

  18. Proximate content of wild and cultured eel (Anguilla bicolor) in different part of body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, I.; Susilo, E. S.

    2018-02-01

    Proximate content in fish varies depends on intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors include species, sexual maturity, size and body parts. Extrinsic factors include habitat, season and type of food (diet). This study aimed to know the effect of fish body parts (intrinsic factor) on proximate levels in wild and cultured eel (extrinsic). The experimental design used factorial completely randomized design with two factors 2x3. The first factor is the habitat of eel (wild and cultured) and the second factor is the part of the body (head, body and tail) with five replications. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was interaction between fish habitat and body part on moisture, protein, ash and carbohydrate content (P interaction on fat content and energy (P> 0.05). The highest water content (67.02%) was found in head of wild and the lowest one (59.44%) in the tail of wild eel; The highest protein content (18.09%) was found in the body of cultured eel and the lowest one (15.72%) was in the body of wild eel; The highest ash content (3.73%) was the head of wild eel and the lowest (1.32%) was in the body of cultured eel; The highest carbohydrate (3.73%) was found in the head of cultured eel and the lowest one (0.16%) was in the body of cultured. The wild eel had higher fat content and energy than cultured one, while the fat content and energy in body and tail were higher than in head.

  19. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagihara Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS, which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. Methods DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. Results DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20 of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification and 4.7% (4/86 of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification. KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild-type

  20. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mita, Hiroaki; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Fujita, Masahiro; Hosokawa, Masao; Kusano, Masanobu; Sabau, Sorin Vasile; Tatsumi, Haruyuki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Tokino, Takashi; Toyota, Minoru; Aoki, Fumio; Akashi, Hirofumi; Maruyama, Reo; Sasaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Hiromu; Idogawa, Masashi; Kashima, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS), which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20) of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification) and 4.7% (4/86) of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification). KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild-type KRAS resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and

  1. Oral Challenge with Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Induces Distinct Changes in B Cell Subsets in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin R Toapanta; Paula J Bernal; Stephanie Fresnay; Laurence S Magder; Thomas C Darton; Claire Jones; Claire S Waddington; Christoph J Blohmke; Brian Angus; Myron M Levine; Andrew J Pollard; Marcelo B Sztein

    2016-01-01

    A novel human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently established by the Oxford Vaccine Group. In this model, 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of participants developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 6?9 days post-challenge. TD was diagnosed in participants meeting clinical (oral temperature ?38?C for ?12h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. Changes in B cell subpopulations following S. Typhi challenge re...

  2. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p. inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  3. Nrf2 but not autophagy inhibition is associated with the survival of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yuan; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Wen-Xing; Zhong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Icotinib and Gefitinib are two epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have been used to treat NSCLC. While it is well known that mutations of EGFR can affect the sensitivity of NSCLC to the EGFR-TKI, other mechanisms may also be adopted by lung cancer cells to develop resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment. Cancer cells can use multiple adaptive mechanisms such as activation of autophagy and Nrf2 to protect against various stresses and chemotherapeutic drugs. Whether autophagy or Nrf2 activation contributes to the resistance of NSCLC to EGFR-TKI treatment in wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells remains elusive. In the present study, we confirmed that Icotinib and Gefitinib induced apoptosis in EGFR mutant HCC827 but not in EGFR wild-type A549 NSCLC cells. Icotinib and Gefitinib did not induce autophagic flux or inhibit mTOR in A549 cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, did not affect Icotinib- or Gefitinib-induced cell death in A549 cells. In contrast, Brusatol, an Nrf2 inhibitor, significantly suppressed the cell survival of A549 cells. However, Brusatol did not further sensitize A549 cells to EGFR TKI-induced cell death. Results from this study suggest that inhibition of Nrf2 can decrease cell vitality of EGFR wild-type A549 cells independent of autophagy. - Highlights: • Cancer cells use adaptive mechanisms against chemotherapy. • Autophagy is not essential for the drug resistance of lung cancer A549 cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 decreases cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells.

  4. Proline Metabolism in the Wild-Type and in a Salt-Tolerant Mutant of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Studied by 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Nancy H.; Willem, Rudolph; Li, Yan; Verbruggen, Ingrid; Biesemans, Monique; Jacobs, Michel

    1999-01-01

    To obtain insight into the link between proline (Pro) accumulation and the increase in osmotolerance in higher plants, we investigated the biochemical basis for the NaCl tolerance of a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutant (RNa) that accumulates Pro. Pro biosynthesis and catabolism were investigated in both wild-type and mutant lines. 13C-Nuclear magnetic resonance with [5-13C]glutamate (Glu) as the Pro precursor was used to provide insight into the mechanism of Pro accumulation via the Glu pathway. After 24 h under 200 mm NaCl stress in the presence of [5-13C]Glu, a significant enrichment in [5-13C]Pro was observed compared with non-stress conditions in both the wild type (P2) and the mutant (RNa). Moreover, under the same conditions, [5-13C]Pro was clearly synthesized in higher amounts in RNa than in P2. On the other hand, measurements of enzyme activities indicate that neither the biosynthesis via the ornithine pathway, nor the catabolism via the Pro oxidation pathway were affected in the RNa mutant. Finally, the regulatory effect exerted by Pro on its biosynthesis was evaluated. In P2 plantlets, exogenous Pro markedly reduced the conversion of [5-13C]Glu into [5-13C]Pro, whereas Pro feedback inhibition was not detected in the RNa plantlets. It is proposed that the origin of tolerance in the RNa mutant is due to a mutation leading to a substantial reduction of the feedback inhibition normally exerted in a wild-type (P2) plant by Pro at the level of the Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase enzyme. PMID:10594115

  5. Nrf2 but not autophagy inhibition is associated with the survival of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Li, Yuan; Ni, Hong-Min; Ding, Wen-Xing [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Zhong, Hua, E-mail: eddiedong8@hotmail.com [Department of Pulmonary, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Icotinib and Gefitinib are two epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have been used to treat NSCLC. While it is well known that mutations of EGFR can affect the sensitivity of NSCLC to the EGFR-TKI, other mechanisms may also be adopted by lung cancer cells to develop resistance to EGFR-TKI treatment. Cancer cells can use multiple adaptive mechanisms such as activation of autophagy and Nrf2 to protect against various stresses and chemotherapeutic drugs. Whether autophagy or Nrf2 activation contributes to the resistance of NSCLC to EGFR-TKI treatment in wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells remains elusive. In the present study, we confirmed that Icotinib and Gefitinib induced apoptosis in EGFR mutant HCC827 but not in EGFR wild-type A549 NSCLC cells. Icotinib and Gefitinib did not induce autophagic flux or inhibit mTOR in A549 cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, did not affect Icotinib- or Gefitinib-induced cell death in A549 cells. In contrast, Brusatol, an Nrf2 inhibitor, significantly suppressed the cell survival of A549 cells. However, Brusatol did not further sensitize A549 cells to EGFR TKI-induced cell death. Results from this study suggest that inhibition of Nrf2 can decrease cell vitality of EGFR wild-type A549 cells independent of autophagy. - Highlights: • Cancer cells use adaptive mechanisms against chemotherapy. • Autophagy is not essential for the drug resistance of lung cancer A549 cells. • Inhibition of Nrf2 decreases cell survival of lung cancer A549 cells.

  6. High-irradiance responses induced by far-red light in grass seedlings of the wild type or overexpressing phytochrome A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, J.J.; Clough, R.C.; Vierstra, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of phytochrome-mediated high irradiance responses (HIR), previously characterised largely in dicotyledonous plants, was investigated in Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in both wild-type Oryza sativa L. and in transgenic plants overexpressing oat phytochrome A under the control of a 35S promoter. Coleoptile growth was promoted (maize, ryegrass) or inhibited (wild-type rice) by continuous far-red light (FRc). However, at equal fluences, hourly pulses of far-red light (FRp) were equally effective, indicating that the growth responses to FRc were not true HIR. In contrast, in maize and rice, FRc increased anthocyanin content in the coleoptile in a fluence-rate dependent manner. This response was a true HIR as FRp had reduced effects. In maize, anthocyanin levels were significantly higher under FRc than under continuous red light. In rice, overexpression of phytochrome A increased the inhibition of coleoptile growth and the levels of anthocyanin under FRc but not under FRp or under continuous red light. The effect of FRc was fluence-rate dependent. In light-grown rice, overexpression of phytochrome A reduced leaf-sheath length, impaired the response to supplementary far-red light, but did not affect the response to canopy shade-light. In grasses, typical HIR, i.e. fluence-rate dependent responses showing reciprocity failure, can be induced by FRc. Under FRc, overexpressed phytochrome A operates through this action mode in transgenic rice. (author)

  7. Wild type p53 transcriptionally represses the SALL2 transcription factor under genotoxic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farkas

    Full Text Available SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ER (TAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

  8. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  9. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  10. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Type 20 - In Silico Analysis and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of hnRNPA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Baumgarten Krebs

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the upper and lower motor neurons. 5-10% of cases are genetically inherited, including ALS type 20, which is caused by mutations in the hnRNPA1 gene. The goals of this work are to analyze the effects of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs on hnRNPA1 protein function, to model the complete tridimensional structure of the protein using computational methods and to assess structural and functional differences between the wild type and its variants through Molecular Dynamics simulations. nsSNP, PhD-SNP, Polyphen2, SIFT, SNAP, SNPs&GO, SNPeffect and PROVEAN were used to predict the functional effects of nsSNPs. Ab initio modeling of hnRNPA1 was made using Rosetta and refined using KoBaMIN. The structure was validated by PROCHECK, Rampage, ERRAT, Verify3D, ProSA and Qmean. TM-align was used for the structural alignment. FoldIndex, DICHOT, ELM, D2P2, Disopred and DisEMBL were used to predict disordered regions within the protein. Amino acid conservation analysis was assessed by Consurf, and the molecular dynamics simulations were performed using GROMACS. Mutations D314V and D314N were predicted to increase amyloid propensity, and predicted as deleterious by at least three algorithms, while mutation N73S was predicted as neutral by all the algorithms. D314N and D314V occur in a highly conserved amino acid. The Molecular Dynamics results indicate that all mutations increase protein stability when compared to the wild type. Mutants D314N and N319S showed higher overall dimensions and accessible surface when compared to the wild type. The flexibility level of the C-terminal residues of hnRNPA1 is affected by all mutations, which may affect protein function, especially regarding the protein ability to interact with other proteins.

  11. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncaglia Enrica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2 accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Sequences of the Use of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors for Wild-Type KRAS Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesco-Martínez, Maria Carmen; Berry, Scott R; Ko, Yoo-Joung; Mittmann, Nicole; Giotis, Angie; Lien, Kelly; Wong, William W L; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2016-06-01

    Patients with unresectable wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer benefit from fluoropyrimidines (FP), oxaliplatin (O), irinotecan (I), bevacizumab (Bev), and epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI). The most cost-effective regimen remains unclear. A Markov model was constructed to examine the costs and outcomes of three treatment strategies: strategy A (reference strategy): EGFRI monotherapy in third line ([3L]; ie, first-line [1L]: Bev + FOLFIRI [FP + I] or FOLFOX [FP + O]; second line [2L]: FOLFIRI/FOLFOX; 3L: EGFRI); strategy B: EGFRI and I in 3L (ie, 1L: Bev + FOLFIRI/FOLFOX; 2L: FOLFIRI/FOLFOX; 3L: EGFRI + I); and strategy C: EGFRI in 1L (ie, 1L: EGFRI + FOLFIRI/FOLFOX; 2L: Bev + FOLFIRI/FOLFOX; 3L: best supportive care). Efficacy data of the treatments were obtained from the literature. Health system resource use information was derived from chart review and the literature. Using Euro-QOL 5 Dimensions, utilities were obtained by surveying medical oncologists and costs from the Ontario Ministry of Health and the literature. The perspective of the Canadian public health care system was used over a 5-year time horizon with a 5% discount in 2012 Canadian dollars. All three strategies had similar efficacy, but strategy C was most expensive. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for strategies B and C compared with A were 119,623 and 3,176,591, respectively. The model was primarily driven by the acquisition cost of the drugs. Strategy B was most cost effective when the willingness-to-pay threshold was > $130,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Sensitivity analysis showed that strategy C would be cost-effective only when the progression-free survival of EGFRI is better than Bev in 1L with hazard ratio pricing relative to Bev. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Reactive oxygen species and transcript analysis upon excess light treatment in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana vs a photosensitive mutant lacking zeaxanthin and lutein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unavoidable by-products of oxygenic photosynthesis, causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity they are also signalling molecules, priming the acclimatory response to stress stimuli. Results To investigate this role further, we exposed wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the double mutant npq1lut2 to excess light. The mutant does not produce the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin, whose key roles include ROS scavenging and prevention of ROS synthesis. Biochemical analysis revealed that singlet oxygen (1O2) accumulated to higher levels in the mutant while other ROS were unaffected, allowing to define the transcriptomic signature of the acclimatory response mediated by 1O2 which is enhanced by the lack of these xanthophylls species. The group of genes differentially regulated in npq1lut2 is enriched in sequences encoding chloroplast proteins involved in cell protection against the damaging effect of ROS. Among the early fine-tuned components, are proteins involved in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, chlorophyll catabolism, protein import, folding and turnover, synthesis and membrane insertion of photosynthetic subunits. Up to now, the flu mutant was the only biological system adopted to define the regulation of gene expression by 1O2. In this work, we propose the use of mutants accumulating 1O2 by mechanisms different from those activated in flu to better identify ROS signalling. Conclusions We propose that the lack of zeaxanthin and lutein leads to 1O2 accumulation and this represents a signalling pathway in the early stages of stress acclimation, beside the response to ADP/ATP ratio and to the redox state of both plastoquinone pool. Chloroplasts respond to 1O2 accumulation by undergoing a significant change in composition and function towards a fast acclimatory response. The physiological implications of this signalling specificity are discussed. PMID:21481232

  14. Quantitative analysis of wild-type and V600E mutant BRAF proteins in colorectal carcinoma using immunoenrichment and targeted mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hang [Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, and Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122 (China); Hsiao, Yung-Chin [Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Sum-Fu [Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chun; Lin, Yu-Tsun [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsuan [Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Zhao, Hong [Experimental Center of Functional Subjects, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122 (China); Chen, Jinn-Shiun [Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Sun [Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-08-24

    The BRAF V600E mutation is one of the most common mutations implicated in the development of several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), where it is associated with aggressive disease phenotypes and poor outcomes. The status of the BRAF V600E mutation is frequently determined by direct DNA sequencing. However, no previous study has sought to quantify the BRAF V600E protein in cancer specimens. Here, we evaluated immunoenrichment coupled with two MS-based quantitative techniques, namely multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and single ion monitoring conjugated accurate inclusion mass screening (SIM-AIMS), to detect and precisely quantify wild-type (WT) and V600E mutant BRAF proteins in DNA sequence-confirmed CRC tissue specimens. WT and V600E BRAF proteins were immunoprecipitated from a CRC cell line (HT-29), and their representative peptides ({sup 592}IGDFGLATVK{sup 601} and {sup 592}IGDFGLATEK{sup 601}, respectively) were confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis and then quantified by MRM or SIM-AIMS with spiked stable isotope-labeled peptide standards. Both assays worked well for measuring WT BRAF from different amounts of HT-29 cell lysates, but the MRM assay was more sensitive than SIM-AIMS assay for quantifying lower levels of V600E BRAF. In protein extracts (2 mg) from 11 CRC tissue specimens, the MRM assay could measure WT BRAF in all 11 cases (0.32–1.66 ng) and the V600E BRAF in two cases (0.1–0.13 ng; mutant-to-WT ratio, 0.16–0.17). The SIM-AIMS assay could also detect WT and V600E BRAF in CRC specimens, but the measured levels of both targets were lower than those determined by MRM assay. Collectively, this study provides an effective method to precisely quantify WT and V600E BRAF proteins in complex biological samples using immunoenrichment-coupled targeted MS. Since the V600E BRAF protein has emerged as an important therapeutic target for cancer, the developed assay should facilitate future BRAF-related basic and clinical studies

  15. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanović, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Milić, Nenad; Nisavić, Jakov; Petrović, Tamas; Savić, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry.

  16. [Expression of mutation type GJA8 gene and wild type GJA8 gene of a congenital inherited nuclear cataract family in eukaryotic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-qiu; Liu, Ping; Wang, Jian-wen; Liu, Jian-ju

    2010-04-20

    To clone the sequence of mutation type GJA8 gene (mGJA8) and wild type GJA8 gene (wGJA8) of a congenital inherited nuclear cataract family and study their expression in eukaryotic cell lines in vitro. The mGJA8 and wGJA8 were amplified from this family's DNA and healthy people's DNA by PCR respectively. The mGJA8 and wGJA8 were recombined with plasmid pEGFP-N1 respectively. The accuracy of pEGFP-N1-GJA8 was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Finally pEGFP-N1- mGJA8 and pEGFP-N1- wGJA8 and GFP protein were transfected into COS7 cells by lipofectin. The expression of pEGFP-N1-GJA8 and GFP fusion protein were to observe under fluorescence microscope, and to detect by Western-blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The mGJA8 and wGJA8 were cloned successfully. With restricting enzyme digestion analysis and DNA sequencing, recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-mGJA8 and pEGFP-N1-wGJA8 were constructed correctly and their GFP fusions were expressed in transfected COS7 cells. The expression of pEGFP-N1-mGJA8 and pEGFP-N1-wGJA8 fusion protein were observed under fluorescence microscope, and detected by Western-blotting and immunohistochemical staining successfully. The mGJA8 gene and wGJA8 gene are cloned successfully, and pEGFP-N1-mGJA8 and pEGFP-N1-mGJA8 fusion protein can be expressed in COS7 cells, which establish the foundation for further studying the mechanism of this congenital inherited nuclear cataract family.

  17. Component Analysis of Cultivated Ginseng, Red Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng, and Red Wild Ginseng Using HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Ho, Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiment is to provide an differentiation of ginseng, red ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng(CWG, and red wild ginseng(RWG through component analysis using HPLC(High Performance Liquid Chromatography, hereafter HPLC. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside Rg3, ginsenoside Rh2, and ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 of various ginsengs were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. CWG was relatively heat-resistant and showed slow change in color during the process of steaming and drying, compared to cultivated ginseng. 2. Ginsenoside Rg3 was not detected in cultivated ginseng and CWG, whereas it was high in red ginseng and RWG. Ginsenoside Rg3 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 3. Ginsenoside Rh2 appreared during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more increased during steaming and drying of CWG. 4. Ginsenoside Rg1 content was more increased during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was more decreased during steaming and drying of CWG. 5. Ginsenoside Rb1 content was increased about 500% during steaming and drying of cultivated ginseng, whereas it was increased about 30% during steaming and drying of CWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rb1 was more generated in red ginseng than in RWG. 6. Ginsenoside Rg3 content was higher, whereas ginsenoside Rg1 content was lower in 11th RWG than in 9th RWG, indicating that ginsenoside Rg3 content was increased and Rg1 content was decreased as steaming and drying continued to proceed. Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rb1 contents began to be increased, followed by decreased after 9th steaming and drying process. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, red ginseng, CWG, and RWG. And the following studies will be need for making good product using CWG.

  18. Testing projected wild bee distributions in agricultural habitats: predictive power depends on species traits and habitat type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leon; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Bos, Merijn; de Groot, G Arjen; Kleijn, David; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Roberts, Stuart; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C

    2015-10-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) are increasingly used to understand the factors that regulate variation in biodiversity patterns and to help plan conservation strategies. However, these models are rarely validated with independently collected data and it is unclear whether SDM performance is maintained across distinct habitats and for species with different functional traits. Highly mobile species, such as bees, can be particularly challenging to model. Here, we use independent sets of occurrence data collected systematically in several agricultural habitats to test how the predictive performance of SDMs for wild bee species depends on species traits, habitat type, and sampling technique. We used a species distribution modeling approach parametrized for the Netherlands, with presence records from 1990 to 2010 for 193 Dutch wild bees. For each species, we built a Maxent model based on 13 climate and landscape variables. We tested the predictive performance of the SDMs with independent datasets collected from orchards and arable fields across the Netherlands from 2010 to 2013, using transect surveys or pan traps. Model predictive performance depended on species traits and habitat type. Occurrence of bee species specialized in habitat and diet was better predicted than generalist bees. Predictions of habitat suitability were also more precise for habitats that are temporally more stable (orchards) than for habitats that suffer regular alterations (arable), particularly for small, solitary bees. As a conservation tool, SDMs are best suited to modeling rarer, specialist species than more generalist and will work best in long-term stable habitats. The variability of complex, short-term habitats is difficult to capture in such models and historical land use generally has low thematic resolution. To improve SDMs' usefulness, models require explanatory variables and collection data that include detailed landscape characteristics, for example, variability of crops and

  19. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D. G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P. L.; Andrulis, I. L.; Thomassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA...

  20. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  1. Wild-type bone marrow transplant partially reverses neuroinflammation in progranulin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Aloi, Macarena S; Cudaback, Eiron; Josephsen, Samuel R; Rice, Samantha J; Jorstad, Nikolas L; Keene, C Dirk; Montine, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with devastating changes in behavioral performance and social function. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most common causes of inherited FTD due to reduced progranulin expression or activity, including in brain where it is expressed primarily by neurons and microglia. Thus, efforts aimed at enhancing progranulin levels might be a promising therapeutic strategy. Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells are able to engraft in the brain and adopt a microglial phenotype under myeloablative irradiation conditioning. This ability makes BM-derived cells a potential cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Here, we utilized BM cells from Grn(+/+) (wild type or wt) mice labeled with green fluorescence protein for delivery of progranulin to progranulin-deficient (Grn(-/-)) mice. Our results showed that wt bone marrow transplantation (BMT) partially reconstituted progranulin in the periphery and in cerebral cortex of Grn(-/-) mice. We demonstrated a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo and in ex vivo preparations of cerebral cortex of Grn(-/-) mice that was partially to fully reversed 5 months after BMT. Our findings suggest that BMT can be administered as a stem cell-based approach to prevent or to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Wild Type Bone Marrow Transplant Partially Reverses Neuroinflammation in Progranulin-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Aloi, Macarena S.; Cudaback, Eiron; Josephsen, Samuel R.; Rice, Samantha J.; Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with devastating changes in behavioral performance and social function. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most common causes of inherited FTD due to reduced progranulin expression or activity, including in brain where it is expressed primarily by neurons and microglia. Thus, efforts aimed at enhancing progranulin levels might be a promising therapeutic strategy. Bone marrow-derived cells are able to engraft in the brain and adopt a microglial phenotype under myeloablative irradiation conditioning. This ability makes bone marrow (BM)-derived cells a potential cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Here, we utilized BM cells from Grn+/+ (wild type or wt) mice labeled with green fluorescence protein for delivery of progranulin to progranulin deficient (Grn−/−) mice. Our results showed that wt bone marrow transplantation (BMT) partially reconstituted progranulin in the periphery and in cerebral cortex of Grn−/− mice. We demonstrated a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo and in ex vivo preparations of cerebral cortex of Grn−/− mice that was partially to fully reversed five months after BMT. Our findings suggest that BMT can be administered as a stem cell-based approach to prevent or to treat neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25199051

  3. Overexpression of wild-type aspartokinase increases L-lysine production in the thermotolerant methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Oyvind M; Brautaset, Trygve; Degnes, Kristin F; Heggeset, Tonje M B; Balzer, Simone; Flickinger, Michael C; Valla, Svein; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2009-02-01

    Aspartokinase (AK) controls the carbon flow into the aspartate pathway for the biosynthesis of the amino acids l-methionine, l-threonine, l-isoleucine, and l-lysine. We report here the cloning of four genes (asd, encoding aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; dapA, encoding dihydrodipicolinate synthase; dapG, encoding AKI; and yclM, encoding AKIII) of the aspartate pathway in Bacillus methanolicus MGA3. Together with the known AKII gene lysC, dapG and yclM form a set of three AK genes in this organism. Overexpression of dapG, lysC, and yclM increased l-lysine production in wild-type B. methanolicus strain MGA3 2-, 10-, and 60-fold (corresponding to 11 g/liter), respectively, without negatively affecting the specific growth rate. The production levels of l-methionine (less than 0.5 g/liter) and l-threonine (less than 0.1 g/liter) were low in all recombinant strains. The AK proteins were purified, and biochemical analyses demonstrated that they have similar V(max) values (between 47 and 58 micromol/min/mg protein) and K(m) values for l-aspartate (between 1.9 and 5.0 mM). AKI and AKII were allosterically inhibited by meso-diaminopimelate (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 0.1 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 0.3 mM), respectively. AKIII was inhibited by l-threonine (IC(50), 4 mM) and by l-lysine (IC(50), 5 mM), and this enzyme was synergistically inhibited in the presence of both of these amino acids at low concentrations. The correlation between the impact on l-lysine production in vivo and the biochemical properties in vitro of the individual AK proteins is discussed. This is the first example of improving l-lysine production by metabolic engineering of B. methanolicus and also the first documentation of considerably increasing l-lysine production by overexpression of a wild-type AK.

  4. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  5. Abscisic acid negatively regulates elicitor-induced synthesis of capsidiol in wild tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Debayle, Delphine; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2009-07-01

    In the Solanaceae, biotic and abiotic elicitors induce de novo synthesis of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites known as phytoalexins. Because plant hormones play critical roles in the induction of defense-responsive genes, we have explored the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the synthesis of capsidiol, the major wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, using wild-type plants versus nonallelic mutants Npaba2 and Npaba1 that are deficient in ABA synthesis. Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants exhibited a 2-fold higher synthesis of capsidiol than wild-type plants when elicited with either cellulase or arachidonic acid or when infected by Botrytis cinerea. The same trend was observed for the expression of the capsidiol biosynthetic genes 5-epi-aristolochene synthase and 5-epi-aristolochene hydroxylase. Treatment of wild-type plants with fluridone, an inhibitor of the upstream ABA pathway, recapitulated the behavior of Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants, while the application of exogenous ABA reversed the enhanced synthesis of capsidiol in Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants. Concomitant with the production of capsidiol, we observed the induction of ABA 8'-hydroxylase in elicited plants. In wild-type plants, the induction of ABA 8'-hydroxylase coincided with a decrease in ABA content and with the accumulation of ABA catabolic products such as phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, suggesting a negative regulation exerted by ABA on capsidiol synthesis. Collectively, our data indicate that ABA is not required per se for the induction of capsidiol synthesis but is essentially implicated in a stress-response checkpoint to fine-tune the amplification of capsidiol synthesis in challenged plants.

  6. Interactions between the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices and nontransformed tomato roots of either wild-type or AM-defective phenotypes in monoxenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bago, Alberto; Cano, Custodia; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Smith, Sally; Dickson, Sandy

    2006-09-01

    Monoxenic symbioses between the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices and two nontransformed tomato root organ cultures (ROCs) were established. Wild-type tomato ROC from cultivar "RioGrande 76R" was employed as a control for mycorrhizal colonization and compared with its mutant line (rmc), which exhibits a highly reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc) phenotype. Structural features of the two root lines were similar when grown either in soil or under in vitro conditions, indicating that neither monoxenic culturing nor the rmc mutation affected root development or behavior. Colonization by G. intraradices in monoxenic culture of the wild-type line was low (<10%) but supported extensive development of extraradical mycelium, branched absorbing structures, and spores. The reduced colonization of rmc under monoxenic conditions (0.6%) was similar to that observed previously in soil. Extraradical development of runner hyphae was low and proportional to internal colonization. Few spores were produced. These results might suggest that carbon transfer may be modified in the rmc mutant. Our results support the usefulness of monoxenically obtained mycorrhizas for investigation of AM colonization and intraradical symbiotic functioning.

  7. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Bernal, Paula J.; Fresnay, Stephanie; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S.; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2015-01-01

    A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e....

  8. A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Leventon, Julia; Rau, Anna-Lena; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination. We also found that wild bees directly provide benefits to communities to a greater extent than individuals. In the social contexts where they are found, wild bees occupy a central role. Several drivers of change affect bee-human systems, ranging from environmental to political drivers. These are the areas where we recommend making interventions for conserving the bee-human system.

  9. Crystal structures of wild-type and mutated cyclophilin B that causes hyperelastosis cutis in the American quarter horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudko Sergei P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperelastosis cutis is an inherited autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder. Affected horses are characterized by hyperextensible skin, scarring, and severe lesions along the back. The disorder is caused by a mutation in cyclophilin B. Results The crystal structures of both wild-type and mutated (Gly6->Arg horse cyclophilin B are presented. The mutation neither affects the overall fold of the enzyme nor impairs the catalytic site structure. Instead, it locally rearranges the flexible N-terminal end of the polypeptide chain and also makes it more rigid. Conclusions Interactions of the mutated cyclophilin B with a set of endoplasmic reticulum-resident proteins must be affected.

  10. Regulation of the subunit composition of plastidic glutamine synthetase of the wild-type and of the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato by blue/UV-A- or by UV-B-light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The photomorphogenetic aurea mutant of tomato severely deficient in spectrophotometrically active phytochromes was used to study the light-regulation of the single-copy nuclear gene encoding plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS-2; EC 6.1.3.2). The de-etiolation of dark-grown aurea mutant seedling cotyledons showed an obligatory dependency on blue light. A limited red light-responsiveness of etiolated aurea cotyledons is, however, retained as seen by the stimulation of both the GS-2 transcript and protein level in the cotyledons of aurea seedlings during growth in red light. The subunits of the octameric GS-2 enzyme were represented by polypeptides with similar electrophoretic mobilities (polypeptides a) in etiolated wild-type or aurea mutant cotyledons. GS-2 proteins with similar apparent molecular masses were also seen in the cotyledons of red light-grown aurea mutant seedlings. In contrast, GS-2 polypeptides with different apparent molecular masses (polypeptides a and b) were detected in the cotyledons of wild-type seedlings grown in red light. This difference indicates that the (post-translational) modification of tomato GS-2 subunit composition is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome. The illumination of etiolated wild-type or aurea cotyledons with UV-A- or UV-B-light light resulted in an increase in both the GS-2 transcript and protein level. Following illumination of etiolated wild-type seedlings with UV-A-light, the relative proportion of the GS-2 polypeptides a and b was similar than upon irradiation with blue light but different than after exposure to UV-B- or red light. This result suggests the involvement of a blue/ UV-A-light-specific photoreceptor in the regulation of tomato GS-2 subunit composition. (author)

  11. High-throughput functional screening of steroid substrates with wild-type and chimeric P450 enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Philippe; Truan, Gilles; Pompon, Denis

    2014-01-01

    The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation.

  12. Occurrence of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolates in the Wildlife: First Report of OXA-48 in Wild Boars in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachiri, Taous; Bakour, Sofiane; Lalaoui, Rym; Belkebla, Nadia; Allouache, Meriem; Rolain, Jean Marc; Touati, Abdelaziz

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates from wild boars and Barbary macaques in Algeria. Fecal samples were collected from wild boars (n = 168) and Barbary macaques (n = 212), in Bejaia, Algeria, between September 2014 and April 2016. The isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Carbapenem resistance determinants were studied using PCR and sequencing, while clonal relatedness was performed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR was used to investigate certain virulence genes. Three CPE isolates from three different samples (1.8%) recovered from wild boars were identified as Escherichia coli (two isolates) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (one isolate). These isolates were resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, tobramycin, ertapenem, and meropenem. The results of PCR and sequencing analysis showed that all three isolates produced the OXA-48 enzyme. The MLST showed that the two E. coli isolates were assigned to the same sequence type, ST635, and belonged to phylogroup A, whereas K. pneumoniae strain belonged to ST13. The K. pneumoniae strain was positive for multiple virulence factors, whereas no virulence determinants were found in E. coli isolates. This is the first report of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae in wild animals from Algeria and Africa.

  13. Chronic activation of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and loss of Cdkn2a cause mouse glioblastoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Jaime; Jun, Hyun Jung; Lessard, Julie; Ruiz, Rolando; Zhu, Haihao; Donovan, Melissa; Woolfenden, Steve; Boskovitz, Abraham; Raval, Ami; Bronson, Roderick T; Pfannl, Rolf; Whittaker, Charles A; Housman, David E; Charest, Al

    2011-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven unsuccessful. Here, we present a unique mouse model of wild-type EGFR-driven gliomagenesis. We used a combination of somatic conditional overexpression and ligand-mediated chronic activation of EGFR in cooperation with Ink4a/Arf loss in the central nervous system of adult mice to generate tumors with the histopathologic and molecular characteristics of human GBMs. Sustained, ligand-mediated activation of EGFR was necessary for gliomagenesis, functionally substantiating the clinical observation that EGFR-positive GBMs from patients express EGFR ligands. To gain a better understanding of the clinically disappointing EGFR-targeted therapies for GBM, we investigated the molecular responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in this model. Gefitinib treatment of primary GBM cells resulted in a robust apoptotic response, partially conveyed by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling attenuation and accompanied by BIM(EL) expression. In human GBMs, loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN are a common occurrence. Elimination of PTEN expression in GBM cells posttumor formation did not confer resistance to TKI treatment, showing that PTEN status in our model is not predictive. Together, these findings offer important mechanistic insights into the genetic determinants of EGFR gliomagenesis and sensitivity to TKIs and provide a robust discovery platform to better understand the molecular events that are associated with predictive markers of TKI therapy.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  15. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien G Dugan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.

  16. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus from Wild Birds and Mallards Reared for Shooting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Therkildsen, O. R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-01-01

    related with genes from AIV circulating in northern Europe. For the Danish sequences only the PB2 and NS genes differ, so they cluster to more than one cluster in the phylogenetic trees. In spring 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 was detected in 44 cases of wild birds in Denmark. Sequence analysis...

  17. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors-single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal-embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm -1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  19. Efficiency in the reduction of chromium by a wild bacterium in a Batch treatment type using residual water substrate from the municipality of Pasto, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Lorena Guerrero Ceballos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficiency in the reduction of chromium in a Batch treatment type, using municipal residual water substrate inoculated with a wild bacterium. Materials and methods: The reduction percentage of hexavalent chromium of three wild bacteria previously isolated from residual water from the Pasto River was verified at laboratory scale (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Paenibacillus sp.; the isolated that showed the highest percentage of reduction of Cr was selected and was subjected to different treatments. The analysis of results was done using descriptive statistics. Results: B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Paenibacillus sp., presented percentages of reduction of Cr (VI of 82,01%; 80,85% and 79,27%, respectively. It was determined that the third treatment (nonsterile water from the Pasto River with B. thuringiensis presented significant differences with regard to the other (p = 0.0001 α = 0.05, concluding that B. thuringiensis reduces in greater proportion the Cr (VI. The results found in this research are promising in the field of bioremediation of contaminated effluents with Chrome since they may be taken as the basis for implementing strategies of bioremediation on a large scale. Conclusion: The bacteria B. thuringiensis presented high efficiency in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (99.42% when implemented in a treatment at laboratory scale of residual nonsterile water.

  20. Comparative Response of the Hepatic Transcriptomes of Domesticated and Wild Turkey to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 poses a significant risk to poultry, which are highly susceptible to its hepatotoxic effects. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive, whereas wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are more resistant. AFB1 toxicity entails bioactivation by hepatic cytochrome P450s to the electrophilic exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO. Domesticated turkeys lack functional hepatic GST-mediated detoxification of AFBO, and this is largely responsible for the differences in resistance between turkey types. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey livers by AFB1, and to contrast the response of domesticated (susceptible and wild (more resistant birds. Gene expression responses to AFB1 were examined using RNA-sequencing. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatment groups and between turkey types. Expression analysis identified 4621 genes with significant differential expression (DE in AFB1-treated birds compared to controls. Characterization of DE transcripts revealed genes dis-regulated in response to toxic insult with significant association of Phase I and Phase II genes and others important in cellular regulation, modulation of apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Constitutive expression of GSTA3 was significantly higher in wild birds and was significantly higher in AFB1-treated birds when compared to controls for both genetic groups. This pattern was also observed by qRT-PCR in other wild and domesticated turkey strains. Results of this study emphasize the differential response of these genetically distinct birds, and identify genes and pathways that are differentially altered in aflatoxicosis.

  1. Analysis of Serum Proteom after Intravenous Injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee,Lee

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe the changes in the serum proteins after intravenous injection of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture and only the serum was taken. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after carrying out 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of cultivated wild ginseng pharmacopuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 1302, 2205, 3105, 7104, 8006, spots with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1505, 2013, 2403, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6704, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 803, 3205, 5202, 6105, 6106, 7103, 9001, 9003. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1l01 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAPl protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein Ll, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(Cl12gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d(204, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, was increased by more than two-times after the administration of pharmacopuncture. 5. Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with

  2. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic

  3. Transfection of wild type ADVP53 gene into human brain tumor cell lines has a radiosensitizing effect independent of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, L.; Walter, S; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Despite attempts with a variety of therapeutic approaches there has been little impact on the survival of patients with Glioblastoma multiforme, with median survivals reported of approximately 12 months. In this study a replication restricted adenovirus vector is used to transfer the wild type p53 gene into two cell lines derived from a human astrocytoma U87MG or glioblastoma T98G, to determine its ability to act as a radiosensitizer in conjunction with conventional radiotherapy. Methods: An adenovirus vector containing the human wild type p53 (Advp53) gene was used in addition to a control vector containing the β-galactosidase (Advγgal) reporter gene. To achieve cellular incorporation both vectors were incubated with cells for 30 minutes - washed and returned to culture. The successful incorporation of each vector was determined by either a p53 assay using either a western blotting or flow cytometry techniques, or specific staining for β-galactosidase activity. The presence of each vector was assayed until the constructs were eliminated from the cell. To determine the effects of these vectors on cell survival sufficient vector was added to produce a measurable reduction in clonogenic survival and this value was used in subsequent irradiation experiments. To determine the ability of wild type p53 to induce apoptosis the cells were examined from 1 to 5 days after irradiation by H and E staining for the characteristic morphology indicating an apoptotic process. Results: Both the Advp53 and Advβgal vectors were successfully incorporated into each cell line. Expression of each gene was reduced to approximately half by 5 days and virtually eliminated by 15 days after transfection in both lines. At the doses used the wild type Advp53 adenovirus was toxic to both cell lines giving surviving fractions between 39-74%. When this toxicity was taken into account the presence of the Advp53 gene had a radiosensitizing effect in each cell line. To determine the

  4. Symptomatic type 1 protein C deficiency caused by a de novo Ser270Leu mutation in the catalytic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Koefoed, P; Thorsen, S

    2001-01-01

    the intracellular content of mutant and wild-type protein was similar. Northern blot analysis of total mRNA from transfected cells showed no reduction of the mutant protein C mRNA compared with wild-type protein C mRNA. Collectively, these results indicate that the Ser270Leu mutation in the affected family caused......Heterozygosity for a C8524T transition in the protein C gene converting Ser270(TCG) to Leu(TTG) in the protease domain was identified in a family with venous thrombosis. The mutation was associated with parallel reduction in plasma levels of protein C anticoagulant activity and protein C antigen......, which is consistent with a type 1 deficiency. Transient expression of mutant protein C cDNA in human kidney 293 cells and analysis of protein C antigen in culture media and cell lysates showed that the secretion of mutant protein compared with wild-type protein was reduced by at least 97% while...

  5. High-Throughput Functional Screening of Steroid Substrates with Wild-Type and Chimeric P450 Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Urban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation.

  6. Presence of viruses in wild eels Anguilla anguilla L, from the Albufera Lake (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandín, I; Souto, S; Cutrín, J M; López-Vázquez, C; Olveira, J G; Esteve, C; Alcaide, E; Dopazo, C P

    2014-07-01

    A virological analysis was conducted on wild eels from the Albufera Lake (Spain). A total of 179 individuals at different growth stages were collected in two different surveys (2004 and 2008). Presence of anguillid herpesvirus (AngHV-1), aquabirnavirus and betanodavirus was confirmed by PCR procedures in both surveys, although the number of detections was clearly higher in 2008 (83% of the eels analysed resulted positive for virus presence). AngHV-1 was the viral agent most frequently detected, followed by aquabirnaviruses. Betanodaviruses were detected by the first time in wild eels, and although the detections were only made by nested PCR, high percentage of positives were achieved. In addition, in 2008, seven aquabirnaviruses were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial sequences of both genomic segments of aquabirnaviruses indicated that the seven isolates could be typed as WB (genogroup I) on the basis of segment A sequences, but when segment B was used six of them clustered with C1 strain (genogroup V) and one was typed as Ab (genogroup II). These results indicate natural reassortment between different strains of aquabirnaviruses in the eels. Although betanodaviruses were not isolated in cell culture, the analysis of the sequence of the nested PCR product indicated that they clustered with SJNNV genotype. The diversity of viral agents and the high level of viral detections suggest that viral infections may play a more prominent role in the decline of the European eel than initially thought. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The oxidation of alkylaryl sulfides and benzo[b]thiophenes by Escherichia coli cells expressing wild-type and engineered styrene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida CA-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Coulombel, Lydie; Francuski, Djordje; Sharma, Narain D; Boyd, Derek R; Ferrall, Rory Moore O; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2013-06-01

    Nine different sulfur-containing compounds were biotransformed to the corresponding sulfoxides by Escherichia coli Bl21(DE3) cells expressing styrene monooxygenase (SMO) from Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Thioanisole was consumed at 83.3 μmoles min(-1) g cell dry weight(-1) resulting mainly in the formation of R-thioanisole sulfoxide with an enantiomeric excess (ee) value of 45 %. The rate of 2-methyl-, 2-chloro- and 2-bromo-thioanisole consumption was 2-fold lower than that of thioanisole. Surprisingly, the 2-methylthioanisole sulfoxide product had the opposite (S) configuration to that of the other 2-substituted thioanisole derivatives and had a higher ee value (84 %). The rate of oxidation of 4-substituted thioanisoles was higher than the corresponding 2-substituted substrates but the ee values of the products were consistently lower (10-23 %). The rate of benzo[b]thiophene and 2-methylbenzo[b]thiophene sulfoxidation was approximately 10-fold lower than that of thioanisole. The ee value of the benzo[b]thiophene sulfoxide could not be determined as the product racemized rapidly. E. coli cells expressing an engineered SMO (SMOeng R3-11) oxidised 2-substituted thioanisoles between 1.8- and 2.8-fold faster compared to cells expressing the wild-type enzyme. SMOeng R3-11 oxidised benzo[b]thiophene and 2-methylbenzo[b]thiophene 10.1 and 5.6 times faster that the wild-type enzyme. The stereospecificity of the reaction catalysed by SMOeng was unchanged from that of the wild type. Using the X-ray crystal structure of the P. putida S12 SMO, it was evident that the entrance of substrates into the SMO active site is limited by the binding pocket bottleneck formed by the side chains of Val-211 and Asn-46 carboxyamide group.

  8. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  9. Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Spierling, Nastasja G; Schmidt, Sabrina; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2018-03-27

    Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus

  10. Combined use of anti-ErbB monoclonal antibodies and erlotinib enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of wild-type erlotinib-sensitive NSCLC cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavazzoni Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is an established target for anti-cancer treatment in different tumour types. Two different strategies have been explored to inhibit this pivotal molecule in epithelial cancer development: small molecules TKIs and monoclonal antibodies. ErbB/HER-targeting by monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab and trastuzumab or tyrosine-kinase inhibitors as gefitinib or erlotinib has been proven effective in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Results In this study we explored the potential of combining either erlotinib with cetuximab or trastuzumab to improve the efficacy of EGFR targeted therapy in EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines. Erlotinib treatment was observed to increase EGFR and/or HER2 expression at the plasma membrane level only in NSCLC cell lines sensitive to the drug inducing protein stabilization. The combined treatment had marginal effect on cell proliferation but markedly increased antibody-dependent, NK mediated, cytotoxicity in vitro. Moreover, in the Calu-3 xenograft model, the combination significantly inhibited tumour growth when compared with erlotinib and cetuximab alone. Conclusion Our results indicate that erlotinib increases surface expression of EGFR and/or HER2 only in EGFR-TKI sensitive NSCLC cell lines and, in turns, leads to increased susceptibility to ADCC both in vitro and in a xenograft models. The combination of erlotinib with monoclonal antibodies represents a potential strategy to improve the treatment of wild-type EGFR NSCLC patients sensitive to erlotinib.

  11. First stable isotope analysis of Asiatic wild ass tail hair from the Mongolian Gobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Sturm, Martina Burnik; Kaczensky, Petra

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study feeding ecology, water use or movement pattern in contemporary, historic and ancient species. Certain hair and teeth grow continuously, and when sampled longitudinally can provide temporally explicit information on dietary regime and movement pattern. In an initial trial, we analysed a tail sample of an Asiatic wild ass ( Equus hemionus ) from the Mongolian Gobi. We found seasonal variations in H, C and N isotope patterns, likely being the result of temporal variations in available feeds, water supply and possibly physiological status. Thus stable isotope analysis shows promise to study the comparative ecology of the three autochthonous equid species in the Mongolian Gobi.

  12. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Mutant Expressing a Baculovirus Inhibitor of Apoptosis Gene in Place of Latency-Associated Transcript Has a Wild-Type Reactivation Phenotype in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ling; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Mott, Kevin R.; Osorio, Nelson; Naito, Julia; Brick, David J.; Carpenter, Dale; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2005-01-01

    The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is essential for the wild-type herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) high-reactivation phenotype since LAT− mutants have a low-reactivation phenotype. We previously reported that LAT can decrease apoptosis and proposed that this activity is involved in LAT's ability to enhance the HSV-1 reactivation phenotype. The first 20% of the primary 8.3-kb LAT transcript is sufficient for enhancing the reactivation phenotype and for decreasing apoptosis, supporting this proposal. For this study, we constructed an HSV-1 LAT− mutant that expresses the baculovirus antiapoptosis gene product cpIAP under control of the LAT promoter and in place of the LAT region mentioned above. Mice were ocularly infected with this mutant, designated dLAT-cpIAP, and the reactivation phenotype was determined using the trigeminal ganglion explant model. dLAT-cpIAP had a reactivation phenotype similar to that of wild-type virus and significantly higher than that of (i) the LAT− mutant dLAT2903; (ii) dLAT1.5, a control virus containing the same LAT deletion as dLAT-cpIAP, but with no insertion of foreign DNA, thereby controlling for potential readthrough transcription past the cpIAP insert; and (iii) dLAT-EGFP, a control virus identical to dLAT-cpIAP except that it contained the enhanced green fluorescent protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the cpIAP ORF, thereby controlling for expression of a random foreign gene instead of the cpIAP gene. These results show that an antiapoptosis gene with no sequence similarity to LAT can efficiently substitute for the LAT function involved in enhancing the in vitro-induced HSV-1 reactivation phenotype in the mouse. PMID:16160155

  13. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  14. Mouse lysozyme-M knockout mice reveal how the self-determinant hierarchy shapes the T cell repertoire against this circulating self antigen in wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Pratima; Chi, Howard H.; Kim, Hong R.; Clausen, Björn E.; Pederson, Brian; Sercarz, Eli E.; Forster, Irmgard; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied T cell tolerance to defined determinants within ML-M using wild-type (WT; ML-M+/+) and LysMcre (ML-M-/-) C3H (H-2(k)) mice to determine the relative contribution of ML-M-derived epitopes vs those from other self Ags in selection of the ML-M-specific T cell repertoire. ML-M was

  15. A preliminary analysis of quantifying computer security vulnerability data in "the wild"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; McNamara, Sean R.; Goldstein, Adam; Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    A system of computers, networks and software has some level of vulnerability exposure that puts it at risk to criminal hackers. Presently, most vulnerability research uses data from software vendors, and the National Vulnerability Database (NVD). We propose an alternative path forward through grounding our analysis in data from the operational information security community, i.e. vulnerability data from "the wild". In this paper, we propose a vulnerability data parsing algorithm and an in-depth univariate and multivariate analysis of the vulnerability arrival and deletion process (also referred to as the vulnerability birth-death process). We find that vulnerability arrivals are best characterized by the log-normal distribution and vulnerability deletions are best characterized by the exponential distribution. These distributions can serve as prior probabilities for future Bayesian analysis. We also find that over 22% of the deleted vulnerability data have a rate of zero, and that the arrival vulnerability data is always greater than zero. Finally, we quantify and visualize the dependencies between vulnerability arrivals and deletions through a bivariate scatterplot and statistical observations.

  16. Diversity Partitioning of Wild Bee Assemblages (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes and Species Preferences for Three Types of Refuge Habitats in an Agricultural Landscape in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patterns in bee assemblages consisting of 52 core (most abundant species in farmland in the Wielkopolska region of W Poland were analysed. The entomological material was assessed during earlier research in 1978-1993 from 18 plots in three habitat types: shelterbelts, roadsides and forest patches. At the scale of the refuge habitat size analysed here, an increase in area only slightly enhanced bee species richness. The bee assemblage structures of roadsides and forest patches differ significantly, but their indicator species do not form any well-defined ecological groups. In non-linear forest patches, the bee community structure was more homogeneous than on roadsides. These two habitat types differed significantly in their species composition. Nine significant indicator species were found, but they did not share any ecological characteristics. Three factors were found to affect significantly the responses of individual bee species in the agricultural landscape: the degree of isolation of the refuge habitat, the edge ratio, and roadsides as a refuge habitat type. A large part of the regional diversity is due to the heterogeneity of habitats within the landscape. Habitat area has little influence on the diversity of wild bees, at least within the size range analysed here. We concluded from this study that, regardless of the habitat type, the density of bees from the summer phenological period is affected by the number of food plant species. Point forest patches are habitats where summer species from the genus Andrena and the cleptoparasitic genera Nomada and Sphecodes achieve their highest abundances. Roadsides negatively affected abundances of wild bees and there were no characteristic species for this type of habitat. We hypothesised that this might be related to the specific ecological part played by this type of habitat.

  17. Real-time RPA assay for rapid detection and differentiation of wild-type pseudorabies and gE-deleted vaccine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Wang, Jinfeng; Pang, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2018-02-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a dual real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay using exo probes for the detection and differentiation of pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific RPA primers and probes were designed for gB and gE genes of PRV within the conserved region of viral genome. The reaction process can be completed in 20 min at 39 °C. The dual real-time RPA assay performed in the single tube was capable of specific detecting and differentiating of the wild-type PRV and gE-deleted vaccine strains, without cross-reactions with other non-targeted pig viruses. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 10 2 copies for gB and gE genes. The dual real-time RPA demonstrated a 100% diagnostic agreement with the real-time PCR on 4 PRV strains and 37 clinical samples. Through the linear regression analysis, the R 2 value of the real-time RPA and the real-time PCR for gB and gE was 0.983 and 0.992, respectively. The dual real-time RPA assay provides an alternative useful tool for rapid, simple, and reliable detection and differentiation of PRV, especially in remote and rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital Marketing for Russian Market. Case: Wild Taiga

    OpenAIRE

    Khmelevskoy, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is aimed to develop suitable digital marketing strategy for Wild Taiga in order to target the Russian tourists efficiently, using different marketing tools based on integrated marketing communications principle. Effort have been made for practical orientation of this project with a strong theoretical part and analytical thinking. Theoretical framework includes analysis of digital marketing in contexts of tourism as well as Wild Taiga network. In order to discover the efficient ...

  19. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1 + 2 and 2 + 3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, traditional processing methods lower most of the anti-nutritionals and their respective risks. New food composition tables that integrate indigenous knowledge and nutritional content of the semi-wild and wild edibles are recommended. Wild edibles can be considered to improve livelihood security and reduce ...

  1. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity.

  2. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  3. Identification of Potential Wild Herbal as parts of Landscape Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Mentari, Nio

    2017-10-01

    Many landscape plants can grow on their own without cultivated by humans. They are type of plants that can be found anywhere, so they can be categorized as wild plants. The economic value of wild plants are easy to obtain and their maintenance costs are low. Because wild plants not widely known even a just a few of people that aware of their existence, it is necessary to do a study to learn the potential of the wild plants to be used as an element of landscape. This research aims to identify the species that have potential to be used in landscape design, to describe the benefits of the their implementation as a landscape element, and to recommend the wild plants that have functional value and visual. This research used a scoring method based on the functional and visual criteria, and questionnaires were conducted to 50 students of Landscape Architecture IPB who have completed Landscape Plants courses. Based on the research, there are 150 species of wild plants that found in the study site, and 60 of them are recommended as landscape elements. Then all of the species were arranged as a recommendations book so they can be used as alternative landscape plants.

  4. Wild foods (plants and animals in the green famine belt of Ethiopia: Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daie Ferede Guyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA, a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5 % and 9 % of, gross and, net food available from all sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2 = 0.467 was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r = 0.174. Wild vegetables were the most collected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4 % of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6 % reported "reduced source of wild foods" as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2 % than the non-indigenous (34.1 % ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion: From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and

  5. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector

  6. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Construction and biological characterization of artificial recombinants between a wild type flavivirus (Kunjin) and a live chimeric flavivirus vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, Konstantin V; Schwaiger, Julia; Brown, Nathan; Zhang, Zhen-xi; Catalan, John; Mitchell, Frederick S; Ocran, Simeon W; Rumyantsev, Alexander A; Khromykh, Alexander A; Monath, Thomas P; Guirakhoo, Farshad

    2007-09-17

    Although the theoretical concern of genetic recombination has been raised related to the use of live attenuated flavivirus vaccines [Seligman, Gould, Lancet 2004;363:2073-5], it has little foundation [e.g., Monath TP, Kanesa-Thasan N, Guirakhoo F, Pugachev K, Almond J, Lang J, et al. Vaccine 2005;23:2956-8]. To investigate biological effects of recombination between a chimeric yellow fever (YF) 17D/Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine virus (ChimeriVax-JE) and a wild-type flavivirus Kunjin (KUN-cDNA), the prM-E envelope protein genes were swapped between the two viruses, resulting in new YF 17D/KUN(prM-E) and KUN/JE(prM-E) chimeras. The prM-E genes are easily exchangeable between flavivirues, and thus the exchange was expected to yield the most replication-competent chimeras, while other rationally designed recombinants would be more likely to be crippled or non-viable. The new chimeras proved highly attenuated in comparison with the KUN-cDNA parent, as judged by plaque size and growth kinetics in cell culture, low viremia in hamsters, and reduced neurovirulence/neuroinvasiveness in mice. These data provide strong experimental evidence that the potential of recombinants, should they ever emerge, to cause disease or spread (compete in nature with wild-type flaviviruses) would be indeed extremely low.

  8. Structural consistency analysis of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-Ling; Sun, Li-Hua; Liu, Li; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Mei, Qi-Bing; He, Jian-Hua; Yin, Da-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) is potential alternatives for human serum albumin (HSA) which may ease severe shortage of HSA worldwide. In theory, rHSA and HSA are the same. Structure decides function. Therefore, the 3D structural consistency analysis of rHSA and HSA is outmost importance, which is the base of their function consistency. In this paper, the crystal structures of rHSA at resolution limit of 2.22 Å and HSA at 2.30 Å were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with accession codes 4G03 (rHSA) and 4G04 (HSA). The differences between rHSA and HSA were systematically analyzed from the crystallization behavior, diffraction data and three-dimensional (3D) structure. The superimposed contrasted analysis indicated that rHSA and HSA achieved a structural similarity of 99% with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.397 Å for the corresponding overall Cα atoms. In addition, the number of α-helices in the rHSA or HSA molecule was verified to be 30. As a result, rHSA can potentially replace HSA. The study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the clinical and additional applications of rHSA. Meanwhile, it is also a good example for applications of genetic engineering.

  9. Bacteriological and genetic assessment of game meat from Japanese wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Yuka; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu

    2003-01-15

    Bacterial tests were used to assess bacterial contamination of game meat from Japanese wild boars. The bacterial contamination of wild boar meat was less than that of domestic pork, as determined by aerobic plate counts (APC) and coliform counts. None of the meat examined in this study was contaminated by Salmonella or E. coli O-157. To detect adulteration by domestic pig meat or European wild boar meat, 46 samples of game meat sold as Japanese wild boar were examined genetically. A total of 17 samples showed genetic haplotypes of European and Asian domestic pigs in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and 16 samples showed nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase-processed pseudogene (GPIP) genotypes of European domestic pigs. The European GPIP genotypes of these samples were confirmed by PCR-RFLP analysis. These results indicate that some game meat sold as Japanese wild boar is adulterated by cross-breeding between pigs and wild boars or by contamination with meat from domestic pigs or European wild boars.

  10. Genetic analysis of wild apple resources in Shandong province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple (malus domestica Borkh.), which is a widely cultivated, important and economic fruit crop with nutritive and medicinal importance, has emerged as a model horticultural crop in this post-genomic era. Wild apple resources are important and they develop gradually in apple industry and genetic diversity. In this study, two ...

  11. Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2010-02-01

    Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Response to a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2)-shedding event following accidental exposure to WPV2, the Netherlands, April 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duizer, Erwin; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; van der Weijden, Charlie P; Timen, Aura

    2017-05-25

    On 3 April 2017, a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) spill occurred in a Dutch vaccine manufacturing plant. Two fully vaccinated operators with risk of exposure were advised on stringent personal hygiene and were monitored for virus shedding. Poliovirus (WPV2-MEF1) was detected in the stool of one, 4 days after exposure, later also in sewage samples. The operator was isolated at home and followed up until shedding stopped 29 days after exposure. No further transmission was detected. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  13. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  14. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  15. Elemental analysis of vegetables on the market. Comparison with wild plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, J.; Saitoh, Y.; Futatsugawa, S.; Sera, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured concentration of multi elements in vegetables on the market and a wild plant gathered around Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center in Iwate prefecture by means of PIXE. Elemental concentration in vegetables cultivated by spraying mineral-rich waters was also analyzed. As a result, it is found that the mineral-supplying vegetables abundantly contain essential elements for body such as K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in comparison with ordinary ones. With regard to a wild plant, concentration of essential elements such as Ca, Cu and Zn shows no clear difference in comparison with that in commercially available one of the same kind, while that of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb is relatively higher. Moreover, it is suggested that the wild plant has a certain property of concentrating a specific element depending on its growing period. The relation between elemental concentration in the plants and that in their growing environment, such as water and soil, was also examined. It is also suggested that elemental concentration in vegetables reflects elemental constituent not only of the soil but also of the sprayed water as well as of the fertilizer. (author)

  16. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Abscisic Acid Negatively Regulates Elicitor-Induced Synthesis of Capsidiol in Wild Tobacco1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialoundama, Alexis Samba; Heintz, Dimitri; Debayle, Delphine; Rahier, Alain; Camara, Bilal; Bouvier, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In the Solanaceae, biotic and abiotic elicitors induce de novo synthesis of sesquiterpenoid stress metabolites known as phytoalexins. Because plant hormones play critical roles in the induction of defense-responsive genes, we have explored the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on the synthesis of capsidiol, the major wild tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin, using wild-type plants versus nonallelic mutants Npaba2 and Npaba1 that are deficient in ABA synthesis. Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants exhibited a 2-fold higher synthesis of capsidiol than wild-type plants when elicited with either cellulase or arachidonic acid or when infected by Botrytis cinerea. The same trend was observed for the expression of the capsidiol biosynthetic genes 5-epi-aristolochene synthase and 5-epi-aristolochene hydroxylase. Treatment of wild-type plants with fluridone, an inhibitor of the upstream ABA pathway, recapitulated the behavior of Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants, while the application of exogenous ABA reversed the enhanced synthesis of capsidiol in Npaba2 and Npaba1 mutants. Concomitant with the production of capsidiol, we observed the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase in elicited plants. In wild-type plants, the induction of ABA 8′-hydroxylase coincided with a decrease in ABA content and with the accumulation of ABA catabolic products such as phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, suggesting a negative regulation exerted by ABA on capsidiol synthesis. Collectively, our data indicate that ABA is not required per se for the induction of capsidiol synthesis but is essentially implicated in a stress-response checkpoint to fine-tune the amplification of capsidiol synthesis in challenged plants. PMID:19420326

  19. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  20. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  1. The formation and repair of cisplatin-DNA adducts in wild-type and cisplatin-resistant L1210 cells : comparison of immunocytochemical determination with detection in isolated DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, F.A.; Floot, B.G.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.; Schornagel, J.H.; Engelse, L. den; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the formation and repair of cisplatin-DNA adducts in wild-type mouse leukemia L1210/0 cells and in the sublines L1210/2 and L1210/5, which differ in cisplatin sensitivity. In a colony-formation assay these sublines were 9- and 22-fold more resistant compared to L1210/0, respectively.

  2. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts with supercritical carbon dioxide from radiation mutant perilla frutescens(L.) Britton and wild-type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Han Chul; So, Yang Kang; Kim, Jin Baek; Jin, Chang Hyun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yuk, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In previous study, the radiation mutant Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton with a higher anti-inflammatory activity was selected. The extracts were obtained from the mutant and wildtype using a supercritical carbon dioxide technique. This study aimed to compare the antiinflammatory activities between the mutant supercritical extract (MSE) and wild-type supercritical extract (WSE). The contents of isoegomaketone (IK) of MSE and WSE were measured through an HPLC analysis. MSE contained IK contents approximately 7-fold higher than those of WSE. To compare the anti-inflammatory activities of MSE and WSE, the expression levels of the mRNA and protein of pro-inflammatory mediators were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. As a result, MSE inhibited the expression levels of the mRNA and protein of pro-inflammatory mediators, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to a much greater extent than did WSE. Taken together, MSE had more IK contents and higher antiinflammatory activities than WSE. Therefore, MSE is proposed based on its therapeutic potential in the prevention of inflammatory disease.

  3. Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of the Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor System with [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528: Improvements in Image Quantification Using Wild-Type and Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Herance

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using positron emission tomography (PET and the tracer [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528, an analogue of rimonabant, to study the brain cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor system. Wild-type (WT andCB1 knockout (KO animals were imaged at baseline and after pretreatment with blocking doses of rimonabant. Brain uptake in WT animals was higher (50% than in KO animals in baseline conditions. After pretreatment with rimonabant, WT uptake lowered to the level of KO animals. The results of this study support the feasibility of using PET with the radiotracer [11C]JHU75528 to image the brain CB1 receptor system in mice. In addition, this methodology can be used to assess the effect of new drugs in preclinical studies using genetically manipulated animals.

  4. Secrets of Success in a Landscape of Fear: Urban Wild Boar Adjust Risk Perception and Tolerate Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas with a high level of human disturbance, wildlife has to adjust its behavior to deal with the so called “landscape of fear.” This can be studied in risk perception during movement in relation to specific habitat types, whereby individuals trade-off between foraging and disturbance. Due to its high behavioral plasticity and increasing occurrence in urban environments, wild boar (Sus scrofa is an excellent model organism to study adjustment to urbanization. With the help of GPS tracking, space use of 11 wild boar from Berlin's metropolitan region was analyzed: we aimed at understanding how animals adjust space use to deal with the landscape of fear in urban areas compared to rural areas. We compared use vs. availability with help of generalized linear mixed models. First, we studied landscape types selected by rural vs. urban wild boar, second, we analyzed distances of wild boar locations to each of the landscape types. Finally, we mapped the resulting habitat selection probability to predict hotspots of human-wildlife conflicts. A higher tolerance to disturbance in urban wild boar was shown by a one third shorter flight distance and by an increased re-use of areas close to the trap. Urban wild boar had a strong preference for natural landscapes such as swamp areas, green areas and deciduous forests, and areas with high primary productivity, as indicated by high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index values. The areas selected by urban wild boar were often located closely to roads and houses. The spatial distribution maps show that a large area of Berlin would be suitable for urban wild boar but not their rural conspecifics, with the most likely reason being a different perception of anthropogenic disturbance. Wild boar therefore showed considerable behavioral plasticity suitable to adjust to human-dominated environments in a potentially evolutionarily adaptive manner.

  5. Tracking by flow cytometry antigen-specific follicular helper T cells in wild-type animals after protein vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Svetoslav; Fazilleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a valuable technology used in immunology to characterize and enumerate the different cell subpopulations specific for a nonself-antigen in the context of an ongoing immune response. Among them, follicular helper T cells are the cognate regulators of B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Thus, tracking them is of high interest especially in the context of protein vaccination. For this purpose, transgenic antigen-receptor mouse models have been largely used. It is now clear that transgenic models are not always the best means to study the dynamics of the immune response since they can modify the response. In this chapter, we describe how to track endogenous antigen-specific follicular helper T cells by flow cytometry after protein vaccination in nonmodified wild-type animals, which ultimately provides a comprehensive way to enumerate, characterize, and isolate these particular cells in vivo.

  6. Genomic analysis of influenza A virus from captive wild boars in Brazil reveals a human-like H1N2 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Natalha; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio E; Silveira, Simone; Mores, Marcos A Z; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Barcellos, David E S N

    2014-01-10

    Influenza is a viral disease that affects human and several animal species. In Brazil, H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses (IAV) circulate in domestic swine herds. Wild boars are also susceptible to IAV infection but in Brazil until this moment there are no reports of IAV infection in wild boars or in captive wild boars populations. Herein the occurrence of IAV in captive wild boars with the presence of lung consolidation lesions during slaughter was investigated. Lung samples were screened by RT-PCR for IAV detection. IAV positive samples were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRRT-PCR), virus isolation, genomic sequencing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Eleven out of 60 lungs (18.3%) were positive for IAV by RT-PCR and seven out of the eleven were also positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRRT-PCR. Chronic diffuse bronchopneumonia was observed in all samples and IHC analysis was negative for influenza A antigen. Full genes segments of H1N2 IAV were sequenced using Illumina's genome analyzer platform (MiSeq). The genomic analysis revealed that the HA and NA genes clustered with IAVs of the human lineage and the six internal genes were derived from the H1N1pdm09 IAV. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus infection in captive wild boars in Brazil and indicates the need to monitor IAV evolution in Suidae populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mumps Hoshino and Torii vaccine strains were distinguished from circulating wild strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-06-01

    Aseptic meningitis and acute parotitis have been observed after mumps vaccination. Mumps outbreaks have been reported in Japan because of low vaccine coverage, and molecular differentiation is required to determine whether these cases are vaccine associated. RT-nested PCR was performed in the small hydrophobic gene region, and viruses were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 584 nucleotides were amplified. The PCR product of the Hoshino strain was cut into two fragments (313 and 271 nucleotides) by MfeI; that of the Torii strain was digested with EcoT22I, resulting in 332- and 252-nucleotide fragments. Both strains were genotype B and had an XbaI site, resulting in two fragments: 299 and 285 nucleotides. Current circulating wild types were cut only by XbaI or MfeI. However, the MfeI site of the wild types was different from that of the Hoshino strain, resulting in 451- and 133-nucleotide fragments. Using three restriction enzymes, two mumps vaccine strains were distinguished from wild types, and this separation was applied to the identification of vaccine-related adverse events.

  8. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  9. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat.

  10. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shairp

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  11. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  12. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  13. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    Full Text Available Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR, termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques.

  14. Contribution of Plantation Forest on Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea Pollinators Conservation in Mount Slamet, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Widhiono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild bee pollinators (Hymenoptera : Apiade diversity and abundance were studied in three types of plantation forest on Mt. Slamet (Central Java Province, Indonesia. The aims of the research was to know the diversity and abundance of wild bee pollinators and to determine the possibility of plantation forest contribution on wild bees conservation. Sampling has been done at three stands: a pine forest (PF, with Pinus merkusii, an Agathis forest (AF, with Agathis damara and a community forest (CF, with Albizia falctaria. Each habitat was divided into 5 line transect (100 x 5 m and sweep nets were used to collect the wild bee samples. Sampling was done eah month from April to August 2015. The diversity of wild bees was high (12 species in 9 genera; members of the Apidae (7 species were dominant. The most abundant species across the forests were Apis cerana (343 individuals; 25.5% of total, Trigona laeviceps (195 individuals; 14.5%, and Megachille relativa (165 individuals; 12.3%. Measurements of species diversity (H’, species evenness (E, habitat similarity (Ss and species richness indicated that the wild bee species diversity in the region was relatively high (H’ = 1.275 to (H’ = 1.730;(E= 0.870 to (E = 0.93. The result showed that the diversity of wild bees in three different plantation forest habitats on Mt. Slamet were similar and can be concluded that plantation forest types were important for pollinator conservation, and an appropriate future preservation strategy should include of the areas of all plantation forest types.

  15. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...... rat GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with rat GABA(B)2 receptors. The results from this study correlate nicely with the binding data from rat brain. (R)-Homobaclofen was shown to act like (R)-baclofen albeit with 20-fold less potency, and (S)-homobaclofen was inactive on the receptor. The discrepancies...

  16. The Comparison Analysis of the Main Chemical Composition Parameters of Wild Boar Meat and Pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Bodnárné Skobrák

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of wild boar meat from wild boar parks with various habitats and different feeding facilities was analysed. Samples were collected from m. serratus anterior – during the winter hunting period. The protein, the total fat, the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid content were measured and also and those elements which have great importance on human alimentation. The results were compared with other author’s data of the same parameters of pork. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different feeding systems on the ingredients of wild boar meat, and the accidental analogy with the ingredients of pork. There was no difference in protein content. The value of miristic acid (C14:0 in the samples of extensively and intensively fed group was more favourable than that of pork. Pork contains more MUFA (palmitoleic acid – C16:1. The semi-intensively fed wild boar’s meat and pork contained linoleic acid (C18:3 n3 almost on the same level. The greatest difference was detected in the level of arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6. The samples from all wild boar groups contained more of this fatty acid than it was published about domestic pigs. Out of the microelements, the iodine and zinc had higher value in wild boar meat than in pork.

  17. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin to platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type: An ongoing, nonrandomized, multicenter, phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Lund, B

    2010-01-01

    , and head and neck cancer. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of panitumumab in OC based on KRAS mutation status. Methods: Eligibility criteria are confirmed stage I-IV primary epithelial ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with progression either during or within 6 months after end...... to a total of 33 patients. At present, 15 patients have been enrolled. The primary endpoint is to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild- type OC patients treated with PLD supplemented with panitumumab. Translational research is included as a secondary endpoint and tumor tissue...

  18. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  20. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

  1. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop-wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar-wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability.

  2. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  4. Somatic loss of function mutations in neurofibromin 1 and MYC associated factor X genes identified by exome-wide sequencing in a wild-type GIST case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Martin G.; Rink, Lori; Cai, Kathy Q.; Capuzzi, Stephen J.; Hoang, Yen; Chien, Jeremy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Mehren, Margaret von

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10–15 % of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) lack gain of function mutations in the KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) genes. An alternate mechanism of oncogenesis through loss of function of the succinate-dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex has been identified for a subset of these “wild type” GISTs. Paired tumor and normal DNA from an SDH-intact wild-type GIST case was subjected to whole exome sequencing to identify the pathogenic mechanism(s) in this tumor. Selected findings were further investigated in panels of GIST tumors through Sanger DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemical approaches. A hemizygous frameshift mutation (p.His2261Leufs*4), in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene was identified in the patient’s GIST; however, no germline NF1 mutation was found. A somatic frameshift mutation (p.Lys54Argfs*31) in the MYC associated factor X (MAX) gene was also identified. Immunohistochemical analysis for MAX on a large panel of GISTs identified loss of MAX expression in the MAX-mutated GIST and in a subset of mainly KIT-mutated tumors. This study suggests that inactivating NF1 mutations outside the context of neurofibromatosis may be the oncogenic mechanism for a subset of sporadic GIST. In addition, loss of function mutation of the MAX gene was identified for the first time in GIST, and a broader role for MAX in GIST progression was suggested. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1872-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations...

  6. Antibody titers against vaccine and contemporary wild poliovirus type 1 in children immunized with IPV+OPV and young adults immunized with OPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I

    2016-02-02

    In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Wild Boar Impact to the Natural Regeneration of Oak and Acorn Importance in its Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Zeman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of wild boar on the natural regeneration of oak and importance of acorns in the wild boar diet were surveyed. The data were collected near Moravian Krumlov (Czech Republic in three types of oak stands differing in the canopy density: fully-stocked stand (1, open-canopy stand (2 and the forest stand in a conversion to the coppice forest (3. Within each stand 150 m long lines were set out. Seed traps to collect acorn harvest and control plots were installed on these lines. The plots were inspected at weekly intervals. After the end of acorn fall the average amount of fallen acorns was evaluated. The quantity of metabolizable energy in acorns was assessed and daily survival dose of energy for average weight of wild boar was counted. In spring 2014 the number of seedlings was counted at the same plots. Production of acorns per hectare and basic energy needs for one individual wild boar per day were evaluated for each chosen stand type. The found seedling density amounted to 29,600, 32,000 and 14,000 ind./ha in the first, second and third stand under study, respectively. Wild boar is a major consumer of acorns. In the studied area the production of acorns sufficiently supplied the local wild boar population during winter. Necessary amount of acorns remained for the natural regeneration.

  9. Synthesis of a wild-type and three mutant Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-encoding genes by a single-strand approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, D P; Qobose, M D; Corfield, V A

    1991-09-15

    A single-strand approach to gene assembly, based on a modification of an in vitro complementary oligodeoxyribonucleotide template-directed ligation of the desired sequence to a linearized vector [Chen et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 18 (1990) 871-878], is described. The gene coding for the wild-type Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor of 29 amino acid residues [Bode et al., FEBS Lett. 242 (1989) 285-292], as well as three mutant forms of the gene, in which two of the three disulfide bonds have been replaced singly or as a pair, have been synthesized in a single synthesis run with minimal manual intervention. Subsequent to ligation to pUC9 and in vivo gapped duplex repair by Escherichia coli, their sequences have been verified.

  10. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking......We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells...... of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain....

  11. Identification and Analysis of NaHCO3 Stress Responsive Genes in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Roots by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max, and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 14 DEGs showed a high consistency with their expression profiles by RNA-sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to transcription factors and transporters were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress, respectively. Nuclear Factor Y subunit A (NF-YA transcription factors were enriched at 12 h after NaHCO3 stress, and high percentages of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, ethylene-responsive factor (ERF, Trihelix and zinc finger (C2H2, C3H transcription factors were found at both 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress. Genes related to ion transporters such as ABC transporter, aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT, glutamate receptor (GLR, nitrate transporter (NRT / proton dependent oligopeptide (POT family, and S-type anion channel (SLAH were enriched in up-regulated DEGs at 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, implying their roles in maintaining ion homeostasis in soybean roots under alkalinity. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism pathways might participate in soybean response to alkalinity. This study provides a foundation to further investigate the functions of NaHCO3 stress-responsive genes and the molecular basis of soybean tolerance to alkalinity.

  12. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  13. Oral carcinogenesis is not achieved in different carcinogen-treated PAI-1 transgenic and wild-type mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustidis, Dimitris; Nisyrios, Themistoklis; Nkenke, Emeka; Lijnen, Roger; Ragos, Vassilis; Perrea, Despina; Donta, Ismini; Vaena, Apostolia; Yapijakis, Christos; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to assess the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in oral squamous cancer development and progression, two different carcinogen treatment protocols were conducted. Protocol I included mice from a PAI-1 transgenic (Tg) breed (n=56) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts (n=56), divided into one control group and two main experimental groups, treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Protocol II included the same number and types of animals and groups, which were similarly treated with 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in drinking water. Two drugs that affect plasma PAI-1 levels, enalapril and pravastatin, were administered to certain subgroups of animals in both protocols. None of the animals developed macroscopically-visible oral cancer lesions. Eleven animals under Protocol I and 52 animals under Protocol II died. Skin lesions were noted only in DMBA-treated animals (n=9). Almost all animals administered with 4-NQO developed alopecia and lost weight, while two of them developed stomach tumours, and one female mouse developed a large ovarian cyst. Transgenic mice may respond differently when used in well-established carcinogen models and oral carcinogenesis is hard to achieve in these rodents.

  14. Restriction endonuclease analysis of chloroplast DNA in interspecies somatic Hybrids of Petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Cocking, E C; Bovenberg, W A; Kool, A J

    1982-12-01

    Restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern analysis of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of three different interspecific somatic hybrid plants revealed that the cytoplasms of the hybrids contained only cpDNA of P. parodii. The somatic hybrid plants analysed were those between P. parodii (wild type) + P. hybrida (wild type); P. parodii (wild type)+P. inflata (cytoplasmic albino mutant); P. parodii (wild type) + P. parviflora (nuclear albino mutant). The presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in the somatic hybrid of P. parodii + P. inflata is possibly due to the stringent selection used for somatic hybrid production. However, in the case of the two other somatic hybrids P. parodii + P. hybrida and P. parodii + P. parviflora it was not possible to determine whether the presence of only P. parodii chloroplasts in these somatic hybrid plants was due to the nature of the selection schemes used or simply occurred by chance. The relevance of such somatic hybrid material for the study of genomic-cytoplasmic interaction is discussed, as well as the use of restriction endonuclease fragment patterns for the analysis of taxonomic and evolutionary inter-relationships in the genus Petunia.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant of Elvitegravir-resistance HIV-1 integrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Qin

    2015-03-01

    Although Elvitegravir (EVG) is a newly developed antiretrovirals drug to treat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug resistance has already been found in clinic, such as E92Q/N155H and Q148H/G140S. Several structural investigations have already been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. As full length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase is still unsolved, we herein use the crystal structure of the full length prototype foamy virus (PFV) in complex with virus DNA and inhibitor Elvitegravir as a template to construct the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant system of HIV-1 integrase. Molecular dynamic simulations was used to revel the binding mode and the drug resistance of the EVG ligand in E92Q/N155H. Several important interactions were discovered between the mutated residues and the residues in the active site of the E92Q/N155H double mutant pattern, and cross correlation and clustering methods were used for detailed analysis. The results from the MD simulation studies will be used to guide the experimental efforts of developing novel inhibitors against drug-resistant HIV integrase mutants.

  16. Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is known to occur between cultivated and wild populations of numerous plant species. This represents a major mechanism by which a wild population’s genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics could be altered. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assess...

  17. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  18. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  19. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  20. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  1. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.

    2011-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to characterize diversity and asses the genetic structure among 17 accessions of kale landraces, cultivars and wild populations from Europe. The range of average gene diversity in accessions was 0.11–0.27. Several landraces showed higher levels of diversity than the wild...... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...... the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....

  2. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  3. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hao Wang

    Full Text Available It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  4. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  5. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R 0 -value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-15

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-01

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  8. Bioconversion Studies of Methyl Laurate to Dodecanedioic Acid using a Wild-type of Candida tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmalina Rifkah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of dodecanedioic acid (DDDA, a platform chemical used as raw material for various commodities and polymers, has been studied through a biological process. This process was conducted by using a wild-type of Candida tropicalis which can be obtained easily from natural resources. The aim of this research was to study the characteristics of DDDA production from methyl laurate through batch fermentation process. Growth phase was carried out for 20 h, as the beginning of fermentation, then continued to conversion phase for 5 until 6 days. Utilization of methyl laurate and production of DDDA were analysed using gas chromatography, which proved the ability of C. tropicalis in assimilating methyl laurate to convert it become DDDA. The highest value of cells yield (Yx/s and DDDA yield (Yp/s successfully obtained were 0.86 g cells/g methyl laurate and 0.20 g DDDA/g methyl laurate, respectively. This study also showed the possibility of fermentation products accumulation as intermediate, or accumulation of DDDA inside the cells. Thus, this study can be applied as an alternative in addition to the use of mutant microorganism in producing DDDA.

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of aluminum tolerance in tibetan wild and cultivated barleys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Dai

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity is a major limiting factor for plant production in acid soils. Wild barley germplasm is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for crop Al tolerance improvement. The hydroponic-experiments were performed to compare proteomic and transcriptional characteristics of two contrasting Tibetan wild barley genotypes Al- resistant/tolerant XZ16 and Al-sensitive XZ61 as well as Al-resistant cv. Dayton. Results showed that XZ16 had less Al uptake and translocation than XZ61 and Dayton under Al stress. Thirty-five Al-tolerance/resistance-associated proteins were identified and categorized mainly in metabolism, energy, cell growth/division, protein biosynthesis, protein destination/storage, transporter, signal transduction, disease/defense, etc. Among them, 30 were mapped on barley genome, with 16 proteins being exclusively up-regulated by Al stress in XZ16, including 4 proteins (S-adenosylmethionine-synthase 3, ATP synthase beta subunit, triosephosphate isomerase, Bp2A specifically expressed in XZ16 but not Dayton. The findings highlighted the significance of specific-proteins associated with Al tolerance, and verified Tibetan wild barley as a novel genetic resource for Al tolerance.

  10. Syringolin A selectively labels the 20 S proteasome in murine EL4 and wild-type and bortezomib-adapted leukaemic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme; Florea, Bogdan I; Kraus, Marianne; Groll, Michael; Huber, Robert; Bachmann, André S; Dudler, Robert; Driessen, Christoph; Overkleeft, Herman S; Kaiser, Markus

    2009-11-02

    The natural product syringolin A (SylA) is a potent proteasome inhibitor with promising anticancer activities. To further investigate its potential as a lead structure, selectivity profiling with cell lysates was performed. At therapeutic concentrations, a rhodamine-tagged SylA derivative selectively bound to the 20 S proteasome active sites without detectable off-target labelling. Additional profiling with lysates of wild-type and bortezomib-adapted leukaemic cell lines demonstrated the retention of this proteasome target and subsite selectivity as well as potency even in clinically relevant cell lines. Our studies, therefore, propose that further development of SylA might indeed result in an improved small molecule for the treatment of leukaemia.

  11. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  12. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Sistiaga

    Full Text Available Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei. Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  13. New Insights into the Evolution of the Human Diet from Faecal Biomarker Analysis in Wild Chimpanzee and Gorilla Faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistiaga, Ainara; Wrangham, Richard; Rothman, Jessica M; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of early human diets is based on reconstructed biomechanics of hominin jaws, bone and teeth isotopic data, tooth wear patterns, lithic, taphonomic and zooarchaeological data, which do not provide information about the relative amounts of different types of foods that contributed most to early human diets. Faecal biomarkers are proving to be a valuable tool in identifying relative proportions of plant and animal tissues in Palaeolithic diets. A limiting factor in the application of the faecal biomarker approach is the striking absence of data related to the occurrence of faecal biomarkers in non-human primate faeces. In this study we explored the nature and proportions of sterols and stanols excreted by our closest living relatives. This investigation reports the first faecal biomarker data for wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei). Our results suggest that the chemometric analysis of faecal biomarkers is a useful tool for distinguishing between NHP and human faecal matter, and hence, it could provide information for palaeodietary research and early human diets.

  14. Kinetic modeling of batch fermentation for Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant and wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Cox, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    The extent of inhibition of two strains of Clostridium thermocellum by a Populus hydrolysate was investigated. A Monod-based model of wild type (WT) and Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant (PM) strains of the cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum was developed to quantify growth kinetics in standard media and the extent of inhibition to a Populus hydrolysate. The PM was characterized by a higher growth rate (μmax=1.223 vs. 0.571 h(-1)) and less inhibition (KI,gen=0.991 vs. 0.757) in 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate compared to the WT. In 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate inhibition of PM increased slightly (KI,gen=0.888), whereas the WT was strongly inhibited and did not grow in a reproducible manner. Of the individual inhibitors tested, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most inhibitory, followed by galacturonic acid. The PM did not have a greater ability to detoxify the hydrolysate than the WT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling options to manage type 1 wild poliovirus imported into Israel in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkowska, Dominika A; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Grotto, Itamar; Shulman, Lester M; Anis, Emilia; Wassilak, Steven G F; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2015-06-01

    After 25 years without poliomyelitis cases caused by circulating wild poliovirus (WPV) in Israel, sewage sampling detected WPV type 1 (WPV1) in April 2013, despite high vaccination coverage with only inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) since 2005. We used a differential equation-based model to simulate the dynamics of poliovirus transmission and population immunity in Israel due to past exposure to WPV and use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in addition to IPV. We explored the influences of various immunization options to stop imported WPV1 circulation in Israel. We successfully modeled the potential for WPVs to circulate without detected cases in Israel. Maintaining a sequential IPV/OPV schedule instead of switching to an IPV-only schedule in 2005 would have kept population immunity high enough in Israel to prevent WPV1 circulation. The Israeli response to WPV1 detection prevented paralytic cases; a more rapid response might have interrupted transmission more quickly. IPV-based protection alone might not provide sufficient population immunity to prevent poliovirus transmission after an importation. As countries transition to IPV in immunization schedules, they may need to actively manage population immunity and consider continued use of OPV, to avoid the potential circulation of imported live polioviruses before globally coordinated cessation of OPV use. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 137 Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of 137 Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of 137 Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of 137 Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high 137 Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of 137 Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of 137 Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10 0 when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of 137 Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of 137 Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of 137 Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author)

  17. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, V; Outor-Monteiro, D; Mourão, J L; Cone, J W; Lourenço, A L

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit does were fed ad libitum two pelleted diets: a control diet (C) with 15% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis) and a test diet (A) with 36% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis), according to a change-over design. Wild does dry matter (DM) intake per kg live weight (BW) was 55% higher (p  .05) was found when intake was expressed per kg 0.75 BW (ca. 56 g DM) and tended to be higher (p = .07) in D does when expressed per kg 0.67 BW (62 g vs. 55 g DM). Domestic does showed a higher (p digestibility (3; 2; 3; 3 percentage points respectively) than W does. The amount of nutrients and energy digested by D does was lower per kg BW (p  .05) and tended to be higher per kg 0.67 BW (p  .05) the feed intake nor the diet digestibility. This study suggests that W rabbits exhibit a higher intake per kg BW and a lower digestibility than their D counterparts, which results in similar digestible nutrient and energy intake per kg BW powered to 0.75. The nutritive value of dehydrated alfalfa for rabbits, evaluated through intake and digestibility, seems to be equivalent to their base diets (forage plus concentrate). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.