WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild soybean glycine

  1. [Endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean (Glycine soja) varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Shi, Fengyu; Hamid, M Imran; Zhu, Yingbo

    2014-08-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate endophytic bacterial diversity of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to soybean cyst nematode(Heterodera glycines) , for deciphering the interactions of soybean cyst nematode with endophytic bacteria. After screening wild soybean varieties against race 3 of H. glycines, we investigated endophytic bacterial diversity in root tissues of wild soybean varieties with different resistance to H. glycines using 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Endophytic bacteria of wild soybean root belonged to 6 bacterial groups, the clones belonging to group Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the endophyte dominants in wild soybean with 46.8% and 13.6% of total clones, respectively. Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Deincoccus-Thermus and Archaea were less represented. 18.8% of clone sequences were similar to those of uncultured bacteria in the environment. The bacterial diversity was higher in H. glycines-Resistant than -Susceptible wild soybean varieties, and the dominant group was different between H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties. Mesorhizobium tamadayense, Enterobacter ludwigii and Bacillus megaterium were the main bacterial groups in special operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of H. glycines-Resistant wild soybean variety. By 16S rDNA cloning library and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, the diversity of dominant group of endophytic bacteria in root tissues has difference among H. glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible wild soybean varieties.

  2. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  3. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  4. Environmental adaptation in wild soybeans (Glycine soja) across their native geographic range in northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive variation and the forces that shape this diversity in natural populations are long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. The wild soybean (Glycine soja), from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout a dive...

  5. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean. © ISBR, EDP Sciences.

  6. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species.

  7. Population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean (Glycine soja) based on microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Y; Kaga, A; Tomooka, N; Vaughan, D A

    2006-04-01

    The research objectives were to determine aspects of the population dynamics relevant to effective monitoring of gene flow in the soybean crop complex in Japan. Using 20 microsatellite primers, 616 individuals from 77 wild soybean (Glycine soja) populations were analysed. All samples were of small seed size ( 10 km) events among populations, and spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed that populations within a radius of 100 km showed a close genetic relationship to one another. When analysis of graphical ordination was applied to compare the microsatellite variation of wild soybean with that of 53 widely grown Japanese varieties of cultivated soybean (Glycine max), the primary factor of genetic differentiation was based on differences between wild and cultivated soybeans and the secondary factor was geographical differentiation of wild soybean populations. Admixture analysis revealed that 6.8% of individuals appear to show introgression from cultivated soybeans. These results indicated that population genetic structure of Japanese wild soybean is (i) strongly affected by the founder effect due to seed dispersal and inbreeding strategy, (ii) generally well differentiated from cultivated soybean, but (iii) introgression from cultivated soybean occurs. The implications of the results for the release of transgenic soybeans where wild soybeans grow are discussed.

  8. Identificatoin and confirmation of resistance against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in eight wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and use of aphid-resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars has been complicated by the presence of multiple virulent biotypes of the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura). Ultimately, a variety of unique resistance sources may be needed to develop cultivars with a broad spectr...

  9. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  10. Population structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja) in China: implications from microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yinghui; Huang, Hongwen; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja), a native species of East Asia, is the closest wild relative of the cultivated soybean (G. max) and supplies valuable genetic resources for cultivar breeding. Analyses of the genetic variation and population structure of wild soybean are fundamental for effective conservation studies and utilization of this valuable genetic resource. In this study, 40 wild soybean populations from China were genotyped with 20 microsatellites to investigate the natural population structure and genetic diversity. These results were integrated with previous microsatellite analyses for 231 representative individuals from East Asia to investigate the genetic relationships of wild soybeans from China. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 43·92 % of the molecular variance occurred within populations, although relatively low genetic diversity was detected for natural wild soybean populations. Most of the populations exhibited significant effects of a genetic bottleneck. Principal co-ordinate analysis, construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree and Bayesian clustering indicated two main genotypic clusters of wild soybean from China. The wild soybean populations, which are distributed in north-east and south China, separated by the Huang-Huai Valley, displayed similar genotypes, whereas those populations from the Huang-Huai Valley were different. The previously unknown population structure of the natural populations of wild soybean distributed throughout China was determined. Two evolutionarily significant units were defined and further analysed by combining genetic diversity and structure analyses from Chinese populations with representative samples from Eastern Asia. The study suggests that during the glacial period there may have been an expansion route between south-east and north-east China, via the temperate forests in the East China Sea Land Bridge, which resulted in similar genotypes of wild soybean populations from these regions. Genetic

  11. Molecular analysis and physicochemical properties of electrophoretic variants of wild soybean Glycine soja storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takako; Maruyama, Nobuyuki; Kanazawa, Akira; Abe, Jun; Shimamoto, Yoshiya; Hiemori, Miki; Tsuji, Hideaki; Tanisaka, Takatoshi; Utsumi, Shigeru

    2005-05-04

    Cultivated soybeans (Glycine max) are derived from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) and can be crossed with them to produce fertile offspring. The latter exhibit greater genetic variation than the former, suggesting a possibility that wild soybeans contain storage proteins with properties different from and better than those of cultivated soybeans. To identify a wild soybean suitable for breeding a new soybean cultivar, we analyzed seed proteins from 390 lines of wild soybeans by electrophoresis. We found some lines containing electrophoretic variants of glycinin and beta-conglycinin subunits: one line containing a small alpha' subunit of beta-conglycinin and two and five lines containing small A3 and large A4 polypeptides of glycinin, respectively. Beta-Conglycinin and glycinin containing such variant subunits exhibited solubility and emulsifying ability similar to those of the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans. Glycinins containing small A3 and large A4 gave a shoulder derived from the start of denaturation at a temperature 4 degrees C lower than that of glycinin from the predominant types of wild and cultivated soybeans, although their thermal denaturation midpoint temperatures were very similar to each other. Cloning and sequencing of the predominant and variant subunit cDNAs revealed that the small alpha' and the small A3 lacked 24 amino acid residues in the extension region and four amino acid residues in the hypervariable region, respectively, and that the large A4 did not have an insert corresponding to the difference in the electrophoretic mobility but Arg279 and Gln305 were replaced by glutamine and histidine, respectively, in the hypervariable region. These suggest that small differences even in the hypervariable region can affect the thermal stability, as well as the electrophoretic mobilities, of the proteins.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of seven soybean mosaic viruses (SMV), isolated from wild soybeans (Glycine soja) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Wu, Mian; Ma, Fang-Fang; Chen, Jian-Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a devastating plant virus classified in the family Potyviridae, and known to infect cultivated soybeans (Glycine max). In this study, seven new SMVs were isolated from wild soybean samples and analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. An updated SMV phylogeny was built with the seven new and 83 known SMV genomic sequences. Results showed that three northeastern SMV isolates were distributed in clade III and IV, while four southern SMVs were grouped together in clade II and all contained a recombinant BCMV fragment (~900 bp) in the upstream part of the genome. This work revealed that wild soybeans in China also act as important SMV hosts and play a role in the transmission and diversity of SMVs.

  13. Identification of a major QTL allele from wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) for increasing alkaline salt tolerance in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, D D; Lal, S K; Xu, D H

    2010-07-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories, sodic (alkaline) and saline. Our previous studies showed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 (Glycine soja) from the Kinki area of Japan was tolerant to NaCl salt, and the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for NaCl salt tolerance was located on soybean linkage group N (chromosome 3). Further investigation revealed that the wild soybean accession JWS156-1 also had a higher tolerance to alkaline salt stress. In the present study, an F(6) recombinant inbred line mapping population (n = 112) and an F(2) population (n = 149) derived from crosses between a cultivated soybean cultivar Jackson and JWS156-1 were used to identify QTL for alkaline salt tolerance in soybean. Evaluation of soybean alkaline salt tolerance was carried out based on salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) after treatment with 180 mM NaHCO(3) for about 3 weeks under greenhouse conditions. In both populations, a significant QTL for alkaline salt tolerance was detected on the molecular linkage group D2 (chromosome 17), which accounted for 50.2 and 13.0% of the total variation for STR in the F(6) and the F(2) populations, respectively. The wild soybean contributed to the tolerance allele in the progenies. Our results suggest that QTL for alkaline salt tolerance is different from the QTL for NaCl salt tolerance found previously in this wild soybean genotype. The DNA markers closely associated with the QTLs might be useful for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both alkaline and saline stresses.

  14. A genome-wide association study of seed composition traits in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Changbao; Chen, Charles Y; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-01-05

    Cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is a major agricultural crop that provides a crucial source of edible protein and oil. Decreased amounts of saturated palmitic acid and increased amounts of unsaturated oleic acid in soybean oil are considered optimal for human cardiovascular health and therefore there has considerable interest by breeders in discovering genes affecting the relative concentrations of these fatty acids. Using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach with nearly 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we investigated the genetic basis of protein, oil and all five fatty acid levels in seeds from a sample of 570 wild soybeans (Glycine soja), the progenitor of domesticated soybean, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these seed composition traits. We discovered 29 SNPs located on ten different chromosomes that are significantly associated with the seven seed composition traits in our wild soybean sample. Eight SNPs co-localized with QTLs previously uncovered in linkage or association mapping studies conducted with cultivated soybean samples, while the remaining SNPs appeared to be in novel locations. Twenty-four of the SNPs significantly associated with fatty acid variation, with the majority located on chromosomes 14 (6 SNPs) and seven (8 SNPs). Two SNPs were common for two or more fatty acids, suggesting loci with pleiotropic effects. We also identified some candidate genes that are involved in fatty acid metabolism and regulation. For each of the seven traits, most of the SNPs produced differences between the average phenotypic values of the two homozygotes of about one-half standard deviation and contributed over 3% of their total variability. This is the first GWA study conducted on seed composition traits solely in wild soybean populations, and a number of QTLs were found that have not been previously discovered. Some of these may be useful to breeders who select for increased protein/oil content or altered fatty acid ratios

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Li, Chunying; Davis, Eric L; Wang, Jinshe; Griffin, Joshua D; Kofsky, Janice; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5), a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30) were identified, with 10 SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL) rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines HG Type 2.5.7 in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most destructive soybean pest worldwide. Host plant resistance is the most environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of mitigating SCN damage to soybeans. However, overuse of the resistant soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivars from limited genetic resources has resulted in SCN race shifts in many soybean-growing areas. Thus, exploration of novel sources of SCN resistance and dissection of the genetic basis are urgently needed. In this study, we screened 235 wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. accessions to identify genotypes resistant to SCN HG Type 2.5.7 (race 5, a less investigated type but is prevalent in the southeastern US. We also dissected the genetic basis of SCN resistance using a genome-wide association study with SNPs genotyped by SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip. In total, 43 resistant accessions (female index < 30 were identified, with ten SNPs being significantly associated with SCN HG 2.5.7 resistance in this wild species. Furthermore, four significant SNPs were localized to linked regions of the known quantitative trait locus (QTL rhg1 on chromosome 18. The other four SNPs on chromosome 18 and two SNPs on chromosome 19 are novel. Genes encoding disease resistance-related proteins with a leucine-rich region, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK on chromosome 18, and a MYB transcription factor on chromosome 19 were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes will benefit future marker-assisted breeding and dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the soybean-SCN interaction.

  17. Global transcriptome profiling of wild soybean (Glycine soja) roots under NaHCO3 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Bai, Xi; Lv, De-Kang; Guo, Dianjing; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua

    2010-07-26

    Plant roots are the primary site of perception and injury for saline-alkaline stress. The current knowledge of saline-alkaline stress transcriptome is mostly focused on saline (NaCl) stress and only limited information on alkaline (NaHCO3) stress is available. Using Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip, we conducted transcriptional profiling on Glycine soja roots subjected to 50 mmol/L NaHCO3 treatment. In a total of 7088 probe sets, 3307 were up-regulated and 5720 were down-regulated at various time points. The number of significantly stress regulated genes increased dramatically after 3 h stress treatment and peaked at 6 h. GO enrichment test revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in signal transduction, energy, transcription, secondary metabolism, transporter, disease and defence response. We also detected 11 microRNAs regulated by NaHCO3 stress. This is the first comprehensive wild soybean root transcriptome analysis under alkaline stress. These analyses have identified an inventory of genes with altered expression regulated by alkaline stress. The data extend the current understanding of wild soybean alkali stress response by providing a set of robustly selected, differentially expressed genes for further investigation.

  18. Mapping novel aphid resistance QTL from wild soybean, Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Bales, Carmille; Gu, Cuihua; DiFonzo, Chris; Li, Ming; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry; Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Dechun

    2017-09-01

    Two novel QTLs conferring aphid resistance were mapped and validated on soybean chromosomes 8 and 16, respectively. Closely linked markers were developed to assist breeding for aphid resistance. Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a highly destructive pest for soybean production. E08934, a soybean advanced breeding line derived from the wild soybean Glycine soja 85-32, has shown strong resistance to aphids. To dissect the genetic basis of aphid resistance in E08934, a mapping population (070020) consisting of 140 F3-derived lines was developed by crossing E08934 with an aphid-susceptible line E00003. This mapping population was evaluated for aphid resistance in a greenhouse trial in 2010 and three field trials in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The broad-sense heritability across the field trials was 0.84. In the mapping population 070020, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected as significantly associated with aphid resistance, and designated as Rag6 and Rag3c, respectively. Rag6 was mapped to a 10.5 centiMorgan (cM) interval between markers MSUSNP08-2 and Satt209 on chromosome 8, explaining 19.5-46.4% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c was located at a 7.5 cM interval between markers MSUSNP16-10 and Sat_370 on chromosome 16, explaining 12.5-22.9% of the phenotypic variance in different trials. Rag3c had less resistance effect than Rag6 across all the trials. Furthermore, Rag6 and Rag3c were confirmed in two validation populations with different genetic backgrounds. No significant interaction was detected between Rag6 and Rag3c in either the mapping population or the validation populations. Both Rag6 and Rag3c were indicated as conferring antibiosis resistance to aphids by a no-choice test. The new aphid-resistance gene(s) derived from the wild germplasm G. soja 85-32 are valuable in improving soybeans for aphid resistance.

  19. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  20. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hidetoshi; Shimada, Hiroshi; Horak, Michael J; Ahmad, Aqeel; Baltazar, Baltazar M; Perez, Tim; McPherson, Marc A; Stojšin, Duška; Shimono, Ayako; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc.) is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA) in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2%) caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%) was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  1. Environmental versus geographical effects on genomic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja) across its native range in northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Larry J; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Song, Qijian; Mujacic, Ibro; Luo, Yan; Chen, Charles Y; Li, Changbao; Kjemtrup, Susanne; Song, Bao-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A fundamental goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how various evolutionary factors interact to affect the population structure of diverse species, especially those of ecological and/or agricultural importance such as wild soybean (Glycine soja). G. soja, from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout diverse habitats in East Asia (Russia, Japan, Korea, and China). Here, we utilize over 39,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 99 ecotypes of wild soybean sampled across their native geographic range in northeast Asia, to understand population structure and the relative contribution of environment versus geography to population differentiation in this species. A STRUCTURE analysis identified four genetic groups that largely corresponded to the geographic regions of central China, northern China, Korea, and Japan, with high levels of admixture between genetic groups. A canonical correlation and redundancy analysis showed that environmental factors contributed 23.6% to population differentiation, much more than that for geographic factors (6.6%). Precipitation variables largely explained divergence of the groups along longitudinal axes, whereas temperature variables contributed more to latitudinal divergence. This study provides a foundation for further understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in this ecologically and agriculturally important species.

  2. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  3. Allelic differentiation of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K J; Takahata, Y; Kono, Y; Kaizuma, N

    2008-08-01

    Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) has several polymorphic types, which are controlled by co-dominant multiple alleles at a single locus. Of these types, Tia and Tib are predominant types, and there are nine differences in amino acids between Tia and Tib. Recently, an intermediate transitional type (Tibi5) between them was detected. However, other transitional types have not been detected despite surveys of many cultivated and wild soybeans. One of the reasons why other transitional variants have not been found is inferred to be due to the difficulty of the detection of SKTI protein variants by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To detect novel variants of SKTI, nucleotide sequence analysis in addition to PAGE was carried out. Four new variants were found from many Japanese wild soybeans. Of these variants, three (designated as Tiaa1, Tiaa2, Tiab1) were detected through gene sequence analysis on wild soybeans having the same electrophoretic mobility as Tia, and one (Tig) was detected through PAGE. The Tig variant showed a slightly lower electrophoretic mobility than Tic. The nucleotide sequences of Tig were identical to those of Tib except for one T-->C transitional mutation at position +340. The sequences of Tiaa1 and Tiaa2 genes were identical to those of Tia with the exception of a G-->A mutation at position +376 and a T-->C mutation at +404, respectively. The sequence of Tiab1 differed from Tia by three nucleotides: C-->A at position +331, T-->C at +459 and A-->G at +484. Of the three nucleotide changes, two were common to Tiab1, Tibi5 and Tib, suggesting that Tiab1 is an intermediate transitional type between Tia and Tib. Our results suggest that Tib type has been differentiated through a series of mutations from Tia before the domestication of cultivated soybean.

  4. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  5. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  6. Environmental Association Analyses Identify Candidates for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Glycine soja, the Wild Progenitor of Cultivated Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Justin E; Kono, Thomas J Y; Stupar, Robert M; Kantar, Michael B; Morrell, Peter L

    2016-04-07

    Natural populations across a species range demonstrate population structure owing to neutral processes such as localized origins of mutations and migration limitations. Selection also acts on a subset of loci, contributing to local adaptation. An understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation to local environmental conditions is a fundamental goal in basic biological research. When applied to crop wild relatives, this same research provides the opportunity to identify adaptive genetic variation that may be used to breed for crops better adapted to novel or changing environments. The present study explores an ex situ conservation collection, the USDA germplasm collection, genotyped at 32,416 SNPs to identify population structure and test for associations with bioclimatic and biophysical variables in Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of Glycine max (soybean). Candidate loci were detected that putatively contribute to adaptation to abiotic stresses. The identification of potentially adaptive variants in this ex situ collection may permit a more targeted use of germplasm collections. Copyright © 2016 Anderson et al.

  7. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  8. Role of physiological mechanisms and EPSPS gene expression in glyphosate resistance in wild soybeans (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Tao, Bo; Qiu, Lijuan; Jin, Longguo; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    The physiological mechanisms underlying glyphosate resistance in wild soybean germplasm and relevant EPSPS gene expression were evaluated. These germplasms were selected by gradually increasing glyphosate selection pressure started from 2010. As indicated by a whole-plant dose response bioassay, ZYD-254 plants were resistant to glyphosate at concentrations of 1230gaeha(-1), but the susceptible plants (ZYD-16) were unable to survive in the presence of 300gaeha(-1) glyphosate. The ED50 values of resistant germplasm were approximately 8.8 times of the susceptible germplasm. Chlorophyll content was significantly decreased in ZYD-16 plants in comparison with ZYD-254 plants. ZYD-16 plants accumulated 10.1 times more shikimate in leaves at 5days after glyphosate treatment at 1230gaeha(-1) than ZYD-254 did. GST activity differed between ZYD-254 and ZYD-16 in three tissues. It was highest in leaves. There were no significant differences in EPSPS1 or EPSPS3 expression between two germplasms before exposure to glyphosate treatment. After glyphosate treatment, there was a 2- to 4-fold increase in EPSPS1 mRNA levels in ZYD-254, but there was no change in EPSPS3 mRNA levels in ZYD-254 or ZYD-16. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide association study of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) HG type 2.5.7 (race 1) resistance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Thus far, most of the commercial SCN-resistant soybean cultivars have been developed from very limited resistant germplasm resources. Overuse of these limited resistant sources has resulted in SCN race ...

  10. Environmental and Historical Determinants of Patterns of Genetic Differentiation in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shui-Lian; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Li, De-Zhu; Yi, Ting-Shuang

    2016-03-08

    Wild soybean, the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, inhabits a wide distribution range across the mainland of East Asia and the Japanese archipelago. A multidisciplinary approach combining analyses of population genetics based on 20 nuclear microsatellites and one plastid locus were applied to reveal the genetic variation of wild soybean, and the contributions of geographical, environmental factors and historic climatic change on its patterns of genetic differentiation. High genetic diversity and significant genetic differentiation were revealed in wild soybean. Wild soybean was inferred to be limited to southern and central China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and experienced large-scale post-LGM range expansion into northern East Asia. A substantial northward range shift has been predicted to occur by the 2080s. A stronger effect of isolation by environment (IBE) versus isolation by geographical distance (IBD) was found for genetic differentiation in wild soybean, which suggested that environmental factors were responsible for the adaptive eco-geographical differentiation. This study indicated that IBE and historical climatic change together shaped patterns of genetic variation and differentiation of wild soybean. Different conservation measures should be implemented on different populations according to their adaptive potential to future changes in climate and human-induced environmental changes.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure: Implications for Conservation of Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc Based on Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellite Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingshuang Yi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC and north China (NC, and the other including northeastern China (NEC, Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC and southwestern China (SWC. Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure: implications for conservation of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) based on nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuilian; Wang, Yunsheng; Volis, Sergei; Li, Dezhu; Yi, Tingshuang

    2012-10-03

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) is the most important germplasm resource for soybean breeding, and is currently subject to habitat loss, fragmentation and population decline. In order to develop successful conservation strategies, a total of 604 wild soybean accessions from 43 locations sampled across its range in China, Japan and Korea were analyzed using 20 nuclear (nSSRs) and five chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) to reveal its genetic diversity and population structure. Relatively high nSSR diversity was found in wild soybean compared with other self-pollinated species, and the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River (MDRY) was revealed to have the highest genetic diversity. However, cpSSRs suggested that Korea is a center of diversity. High genetic differentiation and low gene flow among populations were detected, which is consistent with the predominant self-pollination of wild soybean. Two main clusters were revealed by MCMC structure reconstruction and phylogenetic dendrogram, one formed by a group of populations from northwestern China (NWC) and north China (NC), and the other including northeastern China (NEC), Japan, Korea, MDRY, south China (SC) and southwestern China (SWC). Contrib analyses showed that southwestern China makes the greatest contribution to the total diversity and allelic richness, and is worthy of being given conservation priority.

  13. Distribution and diversity of rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Fan, Miaochun; Zhang, Dehui; Yang, Ruiping; Zhang, Feilong; Xu, Lin; Wei, Xiuli; Shen, Yaoyao; Wei, Gehong

    2014-09-01

    A total of 155 nodule isolates that originated from seven sites in Northwest China were characterized by PCR-RFLP of the 16S rRNA gene and sequence analysis of multiple core genes (16S rRNA, recA, atpD, and glnII) in order to investigate the diversity and biogeography of Glycine soja-nodulating rhizobia. Among the isolates, 80 were Ensifer fredii, 19 were Ensifer morelense, 49 were Rhizobium radiobacter, and 7 were putative novel Rhizobium species. The phylogenies of E. fredii and E. morelense isolates in a concatenate tree (assembly of all housekeeping genes) were generally consistent with those in individual gene trees. However, incongruence was found in the phylogenies of the different genes of Rhizobium isolates, indicating that lateral transfer or recombination possibly occurred in these gene loci. Despite their species identity, all the isolates in this study formed a single lineage related to E. fredii in nodAand nifH gene phylogenies, which also indicated that the symbiotic genes were laterally transferred between different species. Biogeographic patterns were found at the species and strain genomic type levels, as revealed by BOXA1R fingerprinting, demonstrating that the evolution of rhizobial populations in different geographic locations was related to soil types, altitude and spatial effects. This study is the first to report that E. morelense, R. radiobacter, and Rhizobium sp. are microsymbionts of G. soja, as well as showing that the diversity of G. soja rhizobia is enhanced and new rhizobia have evolved in Northwest China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja) Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Sun, Mingzhe; Jia, Bowei; Chen, Chao; Qin, Zhiwei; Yang, Kejun; Shen, Yang; Meiping, Zhang; Mingyang, Cong; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  15. A 14-3-3 Family Protein from Wild Soybean (Glycine Soja Regulates ABA Sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Sun

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the 14-3-3 family proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. By conducting genome-wide analysis, researchers have identified the soybean 14-3-3 family proteins; however, until now, there is still no direct genetic evidence showing the involvement of soybean 14-3-3s in ABA responses. Hence, in this study, based on the latest Glycine max genome on Phytozome v10.3, we initially analyzed the evolutionary relationship, genome organization, gene structure and duplication, and three-dimensional structure of soybean 14-3-3 family proteins systematically. Our results suggested that soybean 14-3-3 family was highly evolutionary conserved and possessed segmental duplication in evolution. Then, based on our previous functional characterization of a Glycine soja 14-3-3 protein GsGF14o in drought stress responses, we further investigated the expression characteristics of GsGF14o in detail, and demonstrated its positive roles in ABA sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses in Glycine soja seedlings and GUS activity assays in PGsGF14O:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed that GsGF14o expression was moderately and rapidly induced by ABA treatment. As expected, GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis augmented the ABA inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth, promoted the ABA induced stomata closure, and up-regulated the expression levels of ABA induced genes. Moreover, through yeast two hybrid analyses, we further demonstrated that GsGF14o physically interacted with the AREB/ABF transcription factors in yeast cells. Taken together, results presented in this study strongly suggested that GsGF14o played an important role in regulation of ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

  16. Integration of the draft sequence and physical map as a framework for genomic research in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is a model for the legume research community due to its importance as a crop, a well populated genetic map, and the availability of a genome sequence. Even though a whole genome shotgun sequence and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries are available, a high-resolution chromosome-b...

  17. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  18. Physiological mechanisms for high salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) from Yellow River Delta, China: photosynthesis, osmotic regulation, ion flux and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Kun; Shao, Hongbo; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-01-01

    Glycine soja (BB52) is a wild soybean cultivar grown in coastal saline land in Yellow River Delta, China. In order to reveal the physiological mechanisms adapting to salinity, we examined photosynthesis, ion flux, antioxidant system and water status in Glycine soja under NaCl treatments, taking a cultivated soybean, ZH13, as control. Upon NaCl exposure, higher relative water content and water potential were maintained in the leaf of BB52 than ZH13, which might depend on the more accumulation of osmotic substances such as glycinebetaine and proline. Compared with ZH13, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and contents of ascorbate, glutathione and phenolics were enhanced to a higher level in BB52 leaf under NaCl stress, which could mitigate the salt-induced oxidative damage in BB52. Consistently, lipid peroxidation indicated by malondialdehyde content was lower in BB52 leaf. Photosynthetic rate (Pn) was decreased by NaCl stress in BB52 and ZH13, and the decrease was greater in ZH13. The decreased Pn in BB52 was mainly due to stomatal limitation. The inhibited activation of rubisco enzyme in ZH13 due to the decrease of rubisco activase content became an important limiting factor of Pn, when NaCl concentration increased to 200 mM. Rubisco activase in BB52 was not affected by NaCl stress. Less negative impact in BB52 derived from lower contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the tissues, and non-invasive micro-test technique revealed that BB52 roots had higher ability to extrude Na(+) and Cl(-). Wild soybean is a valuable genetic resource, and our study may provide a reference for molecular biologist to improve the salt tolerance of cultivated soybean in face of farmland salinity.

  19. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  20. Comparison of saponin composition and content in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) before and after germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Panneerselvam; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Takahashi, Yuya; Hongo, Yuji; Singh, Ram J; Lee, Jeong Dong; Chung, Gyuhwa

    2014-01-01

    Eight wild soybean accessions with different saponin phenotypes were used to examine saponin composition and relative saponin quantity in various tissues of mature seeds and two-week-old seedlings by LC-PDA/MS/MS. Saponin composition and content were varied according to tissues and accessions. The average total saponin concentration in 1 g mature dry seeds of wild soybean was 16.08 ± 3.13 μmol. In two-week-old seedlings, produced from 1 g mature seeds, it was 27.94 ± 6.52 μmol. Group A saponins were highly concentrated in seed hypocotyl (4.04 ± 0.71 μmol). High concentration of DDMP saponins (7.37 ± 5.22 μmol) and Sg-6 saponins (2.19 ± 0.59 μmol) was found in cotyledonary leaf. In seedlings, the amounts of group A and Sg-6 saponins reduced 2.3- and 1.3-folds, respectively, while DDMP + B + E saponins increased 2.5-fold than those of mature seeds. Our findings show that the group A and Sg-6 saponins in mature seeds were degraded and/or translocated by germination whereas DDMP saponins were newly synthesized.

  1. Nitrate Reductases from Wild-Type and nr(1)-Mutant Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) Leaves : I. Purification, Kinetics, and Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, L; Nelson, R S; Harper, J E

    1985-05-01

    NADH:nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1) and NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.2) were purified from wild-type soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., cv Williams) and nr(1)-mutant soybean plants. Purification included Blue Sepharose- and hydroxylapatite-column chromatography using acetone powders from fully expanded unifoliolate leaves as the enzyme source.Two forms of constitutive nitrate reductase were sequentially eluted with NADPH and NADH from Blue Sepharose loaded with extract from wild-type plants grown on urea as sole nitrogen source. The form eluted with NADPH was designated c(1)NR, and the form eluted with NADH was designated c(2)NR. Nitrate-grown nr(1) mutant soybean plants yielded a NADH:nitrate reductase (designated iNR) when Blue Sepharose columns were eluted with NADH; NADPH failed to elute any NR form from Blue Sepharose loaded with this extract. Both c(1)NR and c(2)NR had similar pH optima of 6.5, sedimentation behavior (s(20,w) of 5.5-6.0), and electrophoretic mobility. However, c(1)NR was more active with NADPH than with NADH, while c(2)NR preferred NADH as electron donor. Apparent Michaelis constants for nitrate were 5 millimolar (c(1)NR) and 0.19 millimolar (c(2)NR). The iNR from the mutant had a pH optimum of 7.5, s(20,w) of 7.6, and was less mobile on polyacrylamide gels than c(1)NR and c(2)NR. The iNR preferred NADH over NADPH and had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.13 millimolar for nitrate.Thus, wild-type soybean contains two forms of constitutive nitrate reductase, both differing in their physical properties from nitrate reductases common in higher plants. The inducible nitrate reductase form present in soybeans, however, appears to be similar to most substrateinduced nitrate reductases found in higher plants.

  2. [Study of genetic diversity and spatial structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) population from the Ekaterinovka in the south of Primorskii krai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Nedoluzhko, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-03-01

    Data are presented on the genetic diversity and spatial structure of the natural wild soybean population from the neighborhood of the settlement of Ekaterinovka in Primorskii krai and on the relationship between the genetic structure of this population and its spatial organization. These data are discussed in comparison with the results of studies of wild soybean populations in the Far East region of the Russian Federation and China. Recommendations are given concerning the collection of genetic wild soybean resources.

  3. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  5. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  6. The Utilization of Soybean Wild Relatives: How Can It Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. & Zucc.) is the progenitor of soybean and is native to China, Taiwan, Japan, eastern Russia and the Korean peninsula. Research has repeatedly demonstrated that wild soybean is more genetically diverse than the cultivated soybean. There are 26 perennial Glycine species tha...

  7. Mind your elders: wild soybean’s contribution to soybean aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, biotype 4 soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) is the most virulent SBA biotype. Overcoming the most aphid resistant genes, SBA biotype 4 has become the greatest challenge in utilizing plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Soybean’s wild ancestor Glycine soja (Sie...

  8. [Study of interaction of wild soybean subpopulations (Glycine soja) in the valley of the Tsukanovka river in the south of Far East of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A V; Martynov, V V; Dorokhov, D B

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of the genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic populations of G. soja gives significant information about formation of different populations, and allows developing measures for preservation of unique natural gene bank of wild soybean, the species closely related to cultivated soybean. In this study, ISSR markers were used to carry out a comparative analysis of genetic structure of natural and anthropogenic subpopulations of G. soja for studying possible mutual influence of subpopulations of anthropogenic and natural phytocenosis on the formation of their genetic diversity and to study genetic structure of natural subpopulations of wild soybean in the contact places between the two types ofcenoses. As a result, the characteristics that describe the genetic diversity of studied populations have been identified and the important role of an interaction between subpopulations of different phytocenoses on formation of the spatial genetic structure of population in the valley of Tsukanovka river has been demonstrated.

  9. Genetic diversity of nodulating and non-nodulating rhizobia associated with wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) in different ecoregions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li Juan; Wang, Hai Qing; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin; Tian, Chang Fu

    2011-06-01

    A total of 99 bacterial isolates that originated from root nodules of Glycine soja were characterized with restriction analyses of amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacers (ITS), and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA, rpoB, atpD, recA and nodC genes. When tested for nodulation of G. soja, 72 of the isolates were effective symbionts, and these belonged to five species: Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and Sinorhizobium fredii. All of these, except some B. yuanmingense strains, also formed effective nodules on the domesticated soybean Glycine max. The remaining 27 isolates did not nodulate either host, but were identified as Rhizobium. Phylogeny nodC in the G. soja symbionts suggested that this symbiosis gene was mainly maintained by vertical gene transfer. Different nodC sublineages and rrs-ITS clusters reflected the geographic origins of isolates in this study. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  11. Screening Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) lines for morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23 Screening Soybean (Glycine mtLr: (L) Merril) lines for morphological resistance to the southern green stink bug,. Nezara viridu!a (L) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Table 1. Summary of the A NOVA table for the selected soybean morphological characteristics. (a) Season1 {97a). Plant. Abaxial height trichome density.

  12. Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean ( Glycine max ) as a versatile biocatalyst for organic synthesis. ... Most of the obtained alcohols have commercial value as cosmetic fragrances. Although, the enzymes present in soybean (reductase/lipase) has not been defined, the reaction is an important route for the preparation of pure alcohols and carboxylic ...

  13. Soybean performance ( Glycine max (L) Merr ) on tropical soils with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean performance ( Glycine max (L) Merr ) on tropical soils with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization. ... Abstract. Pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of soil types, nitrogen and phosphorus application on the yield, and nodulation and nutrient uptake of soybean grown on tropical soils. Results showed that ...

  14. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the transformation efficiency and proof the capability of whisker supersonic (WSS) method as an alternative option for soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) transformation. We compared soybean transformation efficiency obtained by WSS-mediated with that of particle bombardment ...

  15. Newly identified resistance to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in soybean plant introduction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-plant resistance is potentially efficacious in managing the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura), a major invasive pest in northern soybean-production regions of North America. However, development of aphid-resistant soybean has been complicated by the presence of virulent SA biotypes,...

  16. Development of Heterodera glycines on Soybean Damaged by Soybean Looper and Stem Canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, J S; Layton, M B; Boethel, D J; McGawley, E C; Snow, J P; Berggren, G T

    1989-01-01

    Short-term greenhouse studies with soybean (Glycine max cv. Bragg) were used to examine interactions between the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and two other common pests of soybean, the stem canker fungus (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora) and the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), a lepidopterous defoliator. Numbers of cyst nematode juveniles in roots and numbers of cysts in soil and roots were reduced on plants with stem cankers. Defoliation by soybean looper larvae had the opposite effect; defoliation levels of 22 and 64% caused stepwise increases in numbers of juveniles and cysts in both roots and soil, whereas numbers of females in roots decreased. In two experiments, stem canker length was reduced 40 and 45% when root systems were colonized by the soybean cyst nematode. The absence of significant interactions among these pests indicates that the effects of soybean cyst nematode, stem canker, and soybean looper on plant growth and each other primarily were additive.

  17. Intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean ( Glycine Max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments to investigate intercrop performance of different varieties of soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merril) in a cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) based cropping system within the derived savannah zone were conducted at Nsukka Utisol in Southeast Nigeria ecological. Two varieties of cassava and six varieties of ...

  18. Metabolic Profiles Reveal Changes in Wild and Cultivated Soybean Seedling Leaves under Salt Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    Full Text Available Clarification of the metabolic mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in plants will allow further optimization of crop breeding and cultivation to obtain high yields in saline-alkali land. Here, we characterized 68 differential metabolites of cultivated soybean (Glycine max and wild soybean (Glycine soja under neutral-salt and alkali-salt stresses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS-based metabolomics, to reveal the physiological and molecular differences in salt tolerance. According to comparisons of growth parameters under the two kinds of salt stresses, the level of inhibition in wild soybean was lower than in cultivated soybean, especially under alkali-salt stress. Moreover, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of phenylalanine, asparagine, citraconic acid, citramalic acid, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under neutral-salt stress, and higher amounts of palmitic acid, lignoceric acid, glucose, citric acid and α-ketoglutaric acid under alkali-salt stress, than cultivated soybean. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of wild soybean to salt tolerance was mainly based on the synthesis of organic and amino acids, and the more active tricarboxylic acid cycle under neutral-salt stress. In addition, the metabolite profiling analysis suggested that the energy generation from β-oxidation, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle plays important roles under alkali-salt stress. Our results extend the understanding of mechanisms involved in wild soybean salt tolerance and provide an important reference for increasing yields and developing salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  19. A comprehensive analysis of the Cupin gene family in soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Wang

    Full Text Available Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were phylogenetically clustered into ten distinct subgroups among which the gene structures were highly conserved. Eighteen pairs (52.2% of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially retained in duplicated regions of the soybean genome. The distributions of GmCupin genes implied that long segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the GmCupin gene family. According to the RNA-seq data analysis, most of the Gmcupins were differentially expressed in tissue-specific expression pattern and the expression of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the Gmcupins have been retained by substantial subfunctionalization during soybean evolutionary processes. Selective analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in cultivated and wild soybeans revealed sixteen Gmcupins had selected site(s, with all SNPs in Gmcupin10.3 and Gmcupin07.2 genes were selected sites, which implied these genes may have undergone strong selection effects during soybean domestication. Taken together, our results contribute to the functional characterization of Gmcupin genes in soybean.

  20. A comprehensive analysis of the Cupin gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yali; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max) incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were phylogenetically clustered into ten distinct subgroups among which the gene structures were highly conserved. Eighteen pairs (52.2%) of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially retained in duplicated regions of the soybean genome. The distributions of GmCupin genes implied that long segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the GmCupin gene family. According to the RNA-seq data analysis, most of the Gmcupins were differentially expressed in tissue-specific expression pattern and the expression of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the Gmcupins have been retained by substantial subfunctionalization during soybean evolutionary processes. Selective analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cultivated and wild soybeans revealed sixteen Gmcupins had selected site(s), with all SNPs in Gmcupin10.3 and Gmcupin07.2 genes were selected sites, which implied these genes may have undergone strong selection effects during soybean domestication. Taken together, our results contribute to the functional characterization of Gmcupin genes in soybean.

  1. The transcriptomic changes of Huipizhi Heidou (Glycine max), a nematode-resistant black soybean during Heterodera glycines race 3 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Jung, Ki-Hong; Chen, Lijie; Xuan, Yuanhu; Duan, Yuxi

    2017-11-14

    Glycine max (soybean) is an extremely important crop, representing a major source of oil and protein for human beings. Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode, SCN) infection severely reduces soybean production; therefore, protecting soybean from SCN has become an issue for breeders. Black soybean has exhibited a different grade of resistance to SCN. However, the underlying mechanism of Huipizhi Heidou resistance against SCN remains elusive. The Huipizhi Heidou (ZDD2315) and race 3 of Heterodera glycines were chosen to study the mechanism of resistance via examination of transcriptomic changes. After 5, 10, and 15days of SCN infection, whole roots were sampled for RNA extraction, and uninfected samples were simultaneously collected as a control. 740, 1413, and 4925 genes were isolated by padj (p-value adjusted)soybean and cyst-nematode interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. QTL associated with horizontal resistance to soybean cyst nematode in Glycine soja PI464925B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Shawn M J; Shelp, Barry J; Anderson, Terry R; Welacky, Tom W; Rajcan, Istvan

    2007-02-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe; SCN) is the primary disease responsible for yield loss of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Resistant cultivars are an effective management tool; however, the sources currently available have common resistant genes. Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc., the wild ancestor of domesticated soybean, represents a diverse germplasm pool with known SCN resistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the genetic variation and inheritance of SCN resistance in a G. max ('S08-80') x G. soja (PI464925B) F (4:5) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population; and (2) identify and evaluate quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SCN resistance. Transgressive segregation for resistance was observed, although neither parent was resistant to the Chatham and Ruthven SCN isolates. Broad sense heritability was 0.81 for the Ruthven and 0.91 for the Chatham isolate. Root dry weight was a significant covariate that influenced cyst counts. One RIL [female index (FI) = 5.2 +/- 1.11] was identified as resistant to the Chatham isolate (FI soja, were identified on linkage groups I, K, and O, and individually explained 8, 7 and 5% (LOD = 2.1-2.7) of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. Significant epistatic interactions were found between pairs of SSR markers that individually may or may not have been associated with SCN resistance, which explained between 10 and 15% of the total phenotypic variation. Best-fit regression models explained 21 and 31% of the total phenotypic variation in the RIL population to the Chatham and Ruthven isolates, respectively. The results of this study help to improve the understanding of the genetic control of SCN resistance in soybean caused by minor genes resulting in horizontal resistance. The incorporation of the novel resistance QTL from G. soja could increase the durability of SCN-resistance in soybean cultivars, especially if major gene resistance breaks down.

  3. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  4. Infestation ratings database for soybean aphid on early-maturity wild soybean lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura; SA) is a major invasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in northern production regions of North America. Although insecticides are currently the main method for controlling this pest, SA-resistant cultivars are being developed to sustainably manage ...

  5. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Grene

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants.

  6. A Global Analysis of the Polygalacturonase Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase is one of the pectin hydrolytic enzymes involved in various developmental and physiological processes such as seed germination, organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, and xylem cell formation. To date, no systematic analysis of polygalacturonase incorporating genome organization, gene structure, and expression profiling has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82. In this study, we identified 112 GmPG genes from the soybean Wm82.a2v1 genome. These genes were classified into three groups, group I (105 genes, group II (5 genes, and group III (2 genes. Fifty-four pairs of duplicate paralogous genes were preferentially identified from duplicated regions of the soybean genome, which implied that long segmental duplications significantly contributed to the expansion of the GmPG gene family. Moreover, GmPG transcripts were analyzed in various tissues using RNA-seq data. The results showed the differential expression of 64 GmPGs in the tissue and partially redundant expression of some duplicate genes, while others showed functional diversity. These findings suggested that the GmPGs were retained by substantial subfunctionalization during the soybean evolutionary processes. Finally, evolutionary analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in wild and cultivated soybeans revealed that 107 GmPGs had selected site(s, which indicated that these genes may have undergone strong selection during soybean domestication. Among them, one non-synonymous SNP of GmPG031 affected floral development during selection, which was consistent with the results of RNA-seq and evolutionary analyses. Thus, our results contribute to the functional characterization of GmPG genes in soybean.

  7. Genetic variants in root architecture-related genes in a Glycine soja accession, a potential resource to improve cultivated soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Song, Li; Qiu, Dan; Maldonado Dos Santos, Joao V; Chai, Chenglin; Joshi, Trupti; Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Vuong, Tri D; Murphy, Mackensie; Krampis, Konstantinos; Tucker, Dominic M; Biyashev, Ruslan; Dorrance, Anne E; Maroof, M A Saghai; Xu, Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-02-25

    Root system architecture is important for water acquisition and nutrient acquisition for all crops. In soybean breeding programs, wild soybean alleles have been used successfully to enhance yield and seed composition traits, but have never been investigated to improve root system architecture. Therefore, in this study, high-density single-feature polymorphic markers and simple sequence repeats were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing root system architecture in an inter-specific soybean mapping population developed from a cross between Glycine max and Glycine soja. Wild and cultivated soybean both contributed alleles towards significant additive large effect QTLs on chromosome 6 and 7 for a longer total root length and root distribution, respectively. Epistatic effect QTLs were also identified for taproot length, average diameter, and root distribution. These root traits will influence the water and nutrient uptake in soybean. Two cell division-related genes (D type cyclin and auxin efflux carrier protein) with insertion/deletion variations might contribute to the shorter root phenotypes observed in G. soja compared with cultivated soybean. Based on the location of the QTLs and sequence information from a second G. soja accession, three genes (slow anion channel associated 1 like, Auxin responsive NEDD8-activating complex and peroxidase), each with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism mutation were identified, which may also contribute to changes in root architecture in the cultivated soybean. In addition, Apoptosis inhibitor 5-like on chromosome 7 and slow anion channel associated 1-like on chromosome 15 had epistatic interactions for taproot length QTLs in soybean. Rare alleles from a G. soja accession are expected to enhance our understanding of the genetic components involved in root architecture traits, and could be combined to improve root system and drought adaptation in soybean.

  8. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  9. Chemical and Mechanical Control of Soybean (Glycin max L. Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate effects of the various concentrations of two herbicides of the trifluralin and Imazethapyr and weeding on weeds control, yield and yield components of soybean (Glycin max L., an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agriculture Land of Ghravolhaji Village in Kallale district of Golestan province in 2014. Treatments consisted of planting soybean under weeding, without weeding and application of trifluralin and Imazethapyr as 100% trifluralin, 75% trifluralin + 25% Imazethapyr, 50% trifluralin + 50% Imazethapyr, 25% trifluralin + 75% Imazethapyr, 100% pursuit, 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin, 25% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin, 100% Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin and 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin. density of each weed, their total density and inhibition percentage were measured. Results showed that the effect of chemical weed control on all traits measured, except seed number per pot, 1000 seed weight, content of chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll, were significant. The highest leaf area, plant height, number of pods per plant, aerial plant dry weight, seed number per plant and seed weight per plant were observed in the treatment of the 100% Imazethapyr (238.67 cm2, weeding (57.69 cm, both treatments of weeding (33.10 and 25% Imazethapyr +100% trifluralin (28.3, both treatment of weeding (163.92 g and 100%  Imazethapyr (163.70 g, weeding (67.10 seed per plant, both treatment of weeding and 100%  Imazethapyr + 50% trifluralin (10.27 seed per plant respectively. The highest seed yield was obtained from weeding treatment (2383 kg/h. Based on the results, the highest content of protein and chlorophyll b in soybean were obtained from weeding treatment. The highest inhibition percentage of weeds was found in the additional treatment of 50% Imazethapyr + 100% trifluralin (75.19 and 100% Imazethapyr + 25% trifluralin (72.86. The lowest and highest total phenols content and

  10. Differential expression of a WRKY gene between wild and cultivated soybeans correlates to seed size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongzhe; Li, Wei; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yan; Gao, Huihui; Liu, Miao; Chen, Qingshan; Lai, Yongcai; He, Chaoying

    2017-05-17

    Soybean (Glycine max) probably originated from the wild soybean (Glycine soja). Glycine max has a significantly larger seed size, but the underlying genomic changes are largely unknown. Candidate regulatory genes were preliminarily proposed by data co-localizing RNA sequencing with the quantitative loci (QTLs) for seed size. The soybean gene locus SoyWRKY15a and its orthologous genes from G. max (GmWRKY15a) and G. soja (GsWRKY15a) were analyzed in detail. The coding sequences were nearly identical between the two orthologs, but GmWRKY15a was significantly more highly expressed than GsWRKY15a. Four haplotypes (H1-H4) were found and they varied in the size of a CT-core microsatellite locus in the 5'-untranslated region of this gene. H1 (with six CT-repeats) was the only allelic version found in G. max, while H3 (with five CT-repeats) was the dominant G. soja allele. Differential expression of this gene in soybean pods was correlated with CT-repeat variation, and manipulation of the CT copy number altered the reporter gene expression, suggesting a regulatory role for the simple sequence repeats. Seed weight of wild soybeans harboring H1 was significantly greater than that of soybeans having haplotypes H2, H3, or H4, and seed weight was correlated with gene expression, suggesting the influence of GsWRKY15a in controlling seed size. However, the seed size might be refractory to increased SoyWRKY15a expression in cultivated soybeans. The evolutionary significance of SoyWRKY15a variation in soybean seed domestication is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Ethylene response pathway modulates attractiveness of plant roots to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanfeng; You, Jia; Li, Chunjie; Williamson, Valerie M.; Wang, Congli

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes respond to root exudates to locate their host roots. In our studies second stage juveniles of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), quickly migrated to soybean roots in Pluronic F-127 gel. Roots of soybean and non-host Arabidopsis treated with the ethylene (ET)-synthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) were more attractive to SCN than untreated roots, and significantly more nematodes penetrated into roots. Moreover, Arabidopsis ET insensitive mutants (ein2, ein2-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, ein5-1, and ein6) were more attractive than wild-type plants. Conversely, the constitutive triple-response mutant ctr1-1, was less attractive to SCN. While ET receptor gain-of-function mutant ein4-1 attracted more SCN than the wild-type, there were no significant differences in attractiveness between another gain-of-function ET receptor mutant, etr1-3, or the loss-of-function mutants etr1-7 and ers1-3 and the wild type. Expression of the reporter construct EBS: β-glucuronidase (GUS) was detected in Arabidopsis root tips as early as 6 h post infection, indicating that ET signaling was activated in Arabidopsis early by SCN infection. These results suggest that an active ET signaling pathway reduces root attractiveness to SCN in a way similar to that reported for root-knot nematodes, but opposite to that suggested for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. PMID:28112257

  12. Nutrient Management practices for enhancing Soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available percent protein and 19 percent oil in the seeds. The magnitude of soybean yield losses due to nutrient deficiency also varies among the nutrients. Deficiencies of N, P, Fe, B and S nutrients may cause yield losses up to 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % and 16-30 %, respectively, in soybean depending on soil fertility, climate and plant factors. Soil salinity is one of the major limiting factors of soybean production in semiarid regions, and chloride salinity has a more depressive effect on yield than sulphate salinity. The goal of nutrient management is to maximize soybean productivity while minimizing environmental consequences. Balanced and timely nutrient management practices applied for soybean contributes to sustainable growth of yield and quality, influences plant health and reduces environmental risks. Balanced nutrition with mineral fertilizers can assist in integrated pest management to reduce damage from infestations of pests and diseases and save inputs required to control them. Balanced fertilization generates higher profits for the farmers, not necessarily through reduced inputs. The role of education and extension in delivering the upto-date knowledge on nutrient management is crucial, challenging, and continuous. La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimientode la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del

  13. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qiu

    Full Text Available Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou and a wild line (Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3 high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49 were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4 over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  14. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jie; Wang, Yu; Wu, Sanling; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Chu-Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Li, Zefeng; Yan, Chenghai; Wang, Weidi; Wang, Ziqiang; Shu, Qingyao; Xie, Jiahua; Lee, Suk-Ha; Fan, Longjiang

    2014-01-01

    Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou) and a wild line (Lanxi 1) collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1) no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2) besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3) high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49) were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4) over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  15. Physiological responses of three soybean species (Glycine soja, G. gracilis, and G. max cv. Melrose) to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoran; Song, Jinhui; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Di; Zhang, Shuling; Liu, Jianfeng

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism for salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja) can help researchers improve that trait in cultivated soybean lines. We analyzed the effects of excess NaCl on the growth, physiology, and ion distribution in three soybean species: wild G. soja (W8), semi-wild G. gracilis (SW18), and the cultivated salt-sensitive G. max (cv. Melrose). These comparisons revealed that, under salt stress, shoot and root lengths and biomass (either shoot or root dry weights) were significantly higher for the W8 genotype than for the other two. Most of the morphological parameters for roots from the W8 plants were also increased, including total length, specific root length, and surface area. However, the average root diameter for W8 was significantly lower than that of either SW18 or 'Melrose' soybeans. In response to salinity, photosynthesis was suppressed to a greater extent in 'Melrose' than in W8. The relatively higher tolerance shown by W8 plants was also associated with lower levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and relative electrical conductivity, but higher activities by superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, as well as more free proline and glycine betaine. In addition, the W8 plants contained less Na + and Cl - , but more K + , and they had a higher K + /Na + ratio in their leaves and roots when compared with either SW18 or 'Melrose' plants. Therefore, the W8 genotype performs better in terms of seedling growth, photosynthetic characteristics, and physiological indexes. These findings provide guidance for developing new soybean cultivars with improved tolerance to salt stress. Our data also contribute to the knowledge base for plant salt tolerance as a tool for increasing the yields of other crops in high-salinity soils.

  16. Economic Injury Levels for Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the Soybean Aphid Tolerant KS4202 Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi-Werle, Lia; Baldin, Edson L L; Fischer, Hillary D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Hunt, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive species from Asia that has been the major economic insect pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, since 2000. While use of soybeans expressing antibiosis and antixenosis is a well-studied strategy to manage this pest, aphid-tolerant soybeans remain underexplored. This study examined the relationship between cumulative aphid-days (CAD) and yield loss in the tolerant soybean KS4202 during two growing seasons to determine the economic injury levels (EILs) for soybean aphids on KS4202. Soybean aphid infestations were initiated during the soybean reproductive stages. A range of CAD treatments (3,000-45,000 CADs) were applied during the growing seasons. Aphid populations reached 45,000 CAD in 2011 and 38,000 CAD in 2013 in plots that were not treated with insecticides. It was estimated that the population doubling time was 9.4 d. In infested plots, soybean yield was reduced by 1.4-13.3%, equivalent to a 3.1% yield loss for every 10,000 CAD. Overall, most CAD treatments did not affect yield parameters, although CAD > 39,000 caused a significant reduction in most yield parameters. The EILs calculated for KS4202 ranged from 526 to 2,050 aphids/plant, which were approximately 2.5-fold higher when compared to EILs previously calculated for susceptible soybean. The adoption of soybean aphid tolerant soybean with higher EILs may help mitigate treatment delay problems by lengthening the treatment lead-time and possibly reduce the number of insecticide applications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the diversity of the soybean germplasm base could introduce new genes affecting agronomic traits. In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple ...

  18. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  19. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Cupin Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yali; Sun, Genlou; Zhang, Wenming; Qiu, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cupin superfamily of proteins, including germin and germin-like proteins (GLPs) from higher plants, is known to play crucial roles in plant development and defense. To date, no systematic analysis has been conducted in soybean (Glycine max) incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression compendium. In this study, 69 putative Cupin genes were identified from the whole-genome of soybean, which were non-randomly distributed on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. These Gmcupin proteins were ...

  20. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... time, cost and transformation efficiency. Consequently, the recovery of fertile soybean plants has proved to be more difficult and reports on successful genetic transformation remain scarce, and spontaneous rather than routine. Therefore, there is a great need to develop new efficient technique for soybean ...

  1. Genetic variability in soybean ( Glycine max L.) for low soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the genetic variability of soybean genotypes under low soil phosphorus (P) conditions provides an understanding of the genetic potential of the genotypes to improve the crop for low P tolerance. The study was designed objectively to estimate the extent of genetic variability of soybean genotypes for low P ...

  2. Genetic diversity of rhg1 and Rhg4 loci in wild soybeans resistant to soybean cyst nematode race 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C P; Wang, Y J; Zhao, H K; Zhang, L; Wang, Y M; Liu, X D; Zhong, X F; Dong, Y S

    2016-06-10

    Over-utilization of germplasms that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) in soybean breeding programs can lead to genetic vulnerability in resistant cultivars. Resistant wild soybean (Glycine soja) is considered an invaluable gene source for increasing the genetic diversity of SCN resistance. In this study, we genotyped 23 G. soja accessions that are resistant to SCN race 3 for polymorphisms in the resistance genes, rhg1, Rhg4, and SHMT, and investigated their genetic relationship with eight Glycine max resistant cultivars. We identified 89 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 11 DNA insertion-deletions (InDels), of which 70 SNPs and 8 InDels were found in rhg1, 9 SNPs were found in Rhg4, and 10 SNPs and 3 InDels were found in SHMT. Nucleotide diversity was π = 0.00238 and θ = 0.00235, and haplotype diversity was 1.000. A phylogenetic tree comprising four clusters was constructed using sequence variations of the 23 G. soja and 8 G. max resistant accessions. Five G. soja accessions in subcluster A2, and four G. soja accessions in cluster B were genetically distant from G. max genotypes. Eight resistance-associated SNPs in the three resistance genes formed nine haplotypes in total. G. soja resistant accessions had different haplotypes (H2, H4, H5, H6, H7, and H8) compared with those of G. max (H1, H3, and H9). These results provide vital information on the use of wild soybeans for broadening the genetic base of SCN resistance.

  3. Quality and yield response of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merrill) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and yield response of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) to drought stress in sub–humid environment. Çigdem Demirtas, Senih Yazgan, Burak Nazmi Candogan, Mehmet Sincik, Hakan Büyükcangaz, Abdurrahim Tanju Göksoy ...

  4. The whole genome sequence assembly of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only two aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is an extreme special...

  5. Archaeological Soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Sasaki, Yuka; Chen, Xuexiang

    2011-01-01

    The recently acquired archaeological record for soybean from Japan, China and Korea is shedding light on the context in which this important economic plant became associated with people and was domesticated. This paper examines archaeological (charred) soybean seed size variation to determine what insight can be gained from a comprehensive comparison of 949 specimens from 22 sites. Seed length alone appears to represent seed size change through time, although the length×width×thickness product has the potential to provide better size change resolution. A widespread early association of small seeded soybean is as old as 9000–8600 cal BP in northern China and 7000 cal BP in Japan. Direct AMS radiocarbon dates on charred soybean seeds indicate selection resulted in large seed sizes in Japan by 5000 cal BP (Middle Jomon) and in Korea by 3000 cal BP (Early Mumun). Soybean seeds recovered in China from the Shang through Han periods are similar in length to the large Korean and Japanese specimens, but the overall size of the large Middle and Late Jomon, Early Mumun through Three Kingdom seeds is significantly larger than any of the Chinese specimens. The archaeological record appears to disconfirm the hypothesis of a single domestication of soybean and supports the view informed by recent phyologenetic research that soybean was domesticated in several locations in East Asia. PMID:22073186

  6. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural. University using 40 simple .... PCR analysis. PCR was carried out in a 20 µl volume that contained template DNA. (50 - 100 ng), 1×PCR buffer (including MgCl2), 0.2 mmol dNTPs,. 0.2 µmol SSR primers and ...

  7. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  8. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  9. Nodulin gene expression during soybean (Glycine max) nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloudemans, T.; Vries, de S.; Bussink, H.J.; Malik, N.S.A.; Franssen, H.; Louwerse, J.; Bisseling, T.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro translation products of total RNA isolated from soybean nodules at successive stages of nodule development were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In that way the occurrence of over 20 mRNAs specifically transcribed from nodulin genes was detected. The nodulin genes could be

  10. Genetic Variability in Soybean (Glycine max L.) for Low Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abush Tesfaye

    1Jimma Research Center, P.O.Box 192, Jimma, Ethiopia, 2Jomo Kenyatta University of and Technology,. Department of Horticulture ... Assessment of the genetic variability of soybean genotypes under low soil phosphorus (P) .... coefficient of variations, broad sense heritability, genetic advance were analyzed using. Genes ...

  11. Screening Soybean ( Glycine max (L) Merril) lines for morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out during the first and second seasonsofl997 at Namnlonge Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute {NAAR I) to determine whether there were some soybean varieties in the NAARI germplasm which were resistant to the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula and to establish the basis ...

  12. Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaiyun; Chen, Ming; Chen, Xueping; Xu, Zhaoshi; Guan, Shan; Li, Lian-Cheng; Li, Aili; Guo, Jiaming; Mao, Long; Ma, Youzhi

    2008-01-01

    Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2/ERF domain were identified from 63,676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean Gene Index database. The phylogeny, gene structures, and putative conserved motifs in soybean ERF proteins were analysed, and compared with those of Arabidopsis and rice. The members of the soybean ERF family were divided into 12 subgroups, similar to the case for Arabidopsis. AP2/ERF domains were conserved among soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice. Outside the AP2/ERF domain, many soybean-specific conserved motifs were detected. Expression analysis showed that nine unigenes belonging to six ERF family subgroups were induced by both biotic/abiotic stresses and hormone treatment, suggesting that they were involved in cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress-responsive signalling pathways. Overexpression of two full-length genes from two different subgroups enhanced the tolerances to drought, salt stresses, and/or pathogen infection of the tobacco plants. These results will be useful for elucidating ERF gene-associated stress response signalling pathways in soybean.

  13. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  14. QTL affecting fitness of hybrids between wild and cultivated soybeans in experimental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yosuke; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Yano, Hiroshi; Takada, Yoshitake; Kato, Shin; Vaughan, Duncan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fitness of hybrids between wild soybean (Glycine soja) and cultivated soybean (Glycine max). Seed dormancy and seed number, both of which are important for fitness, were evaluated by testing artificial hybrids of G. soja × G. max in a multiple-site field trial. Generally, the fitness of the F1 hybrids and hybrid derivatives from self-pollination was lower than that of G. soja due to loss of seed dormancy, whereas the fitness of hybrid derivatives with higher proportions of G. soja genetic background was comparable with that of G. soja. These differences were genetically dissected into QTL for each population. Three QTLs for seed dormancy and one QTL for total seed number were detected in the F2 progenies of two diverse cross combinations. At those four QTLs, the G. max alleles reduced seed number and severely reduced seed survival during the winter, suggesting that major genes acquired during soybean adaptation to cultivation have a selective disadvantage in natural habitats. In progenies with a higher proportion of G. soja genetic background, the genetic effects of the G. max alleles were not expressed as phenotypes because the G. soja alleles were dominant over the G. max alleles. Considering the highly inbreeding nature of these species, most hybrid derivatives would disappear quickly in early self-pollinating generations in natural habitats because of the low fitness of plants carrying G. max alleles.

  15. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  16. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from glycine soja 85-32

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2001. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management of aphids. Two novel aphid-resistant loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from the Glycine soja accession 85-32, were previously detected in a 1...

  17. Chemical and mechanical weed control in soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Jonas Felix

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the possibility of chemical and mechanical weed control strategies in soybean. Soybean field experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014 in Southern Germany. Five treatments including common herbicide mixtures and four mechanical weed control treatments, implementing a harrow and a hoe, were tested at different locations. In the herbicide experiments two treatments were applied by PRE emergence herbicides (metribuzin, clomazone, dimethenamid and metribuzin, flufenacet, clomazone and another two treatments were sprayed with a combination of PRE + POST emergence herbicides (metribuzin, flufenacet, thifensulfuron and pendimethalin, thifensulfuron, bentazone, cycloxydim. Furthermore, a POST herbicide treatment was implemented (thifensulfuron, bentazone, thifensulfuron and fluazifop-P-butyl. In the mechanical weed control experiments, treatments were: three times hoeing, PRE emergence harrowing plus three times hoeing, hoeing and harrowing in rotation or three times harrowing. In both experiments an untreated control was included. A 90% weed control efficacy and 23% yield increase was observed in the POST herbicide treatment. PRE + POST treatments resulted in 92% to 99% weed control efficiency and 15% yield increase compared to the untreated control. In the mechanical weed control experiments the combination of PRE emergence harrowing and POST emergence hoeing resulted in 82% weed control efficiency and 34% higher yield compared to the untreated control. Less weed control efficiency (72% was observed in the harrow treatment, leading to 20% higher yield compared to the control. The suitability of both strategies for implementation in “Integrated Weed Management” has been investigated.

  18. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  19. Diversifying selection on flavanone 3-hydroxylase and isoflavone synthase genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cheng

    Full Text Available Soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS and flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H are two key enzymes catalyzing the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and flavonoids, both of which play diverse roles in stress responses. However, little is known about the evolutionary pattern of these genes in cultivated soybean and its wild progenitors. Herein, we investigated the nucleotide polymorphisms in Isoflavone synthase (IFS1, IFS2 and Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H2 genes from 33 soybean accessions, including 17 cultivars (Glycine max and 16 their wild progenitors (Glycine soja. Our data showed that the target genes shared the levels of nucleotide polymorphism with three reference genes involved in plant-microbe interactions, but possessed a much higher nucleotide polymorphism than other reference genes. Moreover, no significant genetic differentiation was found between cultivated soybean and its wild relatives in three target genes, despite of considering bottleneck and founder effect during domestication. These results indicate that IFS and F3H genes could have experienced gene introgressions or diversifying selection events during domestication process. Especially, F3H2 gene appears to evolve under positive selection and enjoy a faster evolutionary rate than IFS1 and IFS2 genes.

  20. Chromosome segment detection for seed size and shape traits using an improved population of wild soybean chromosome segment substitution lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Wubin; He, Qingyuan; Xiang, Shihua; Tian, Dong; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2017-10-01

    Size and shape of soybean seeds are closely related to seed yield and market value. Annual wild soybeans have the potential to improve cultivated soybeans, but their inferior seed characteristics should be excluded. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/segments of seed size and shape traits in annual wild soybean, its chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from NN1138-2 (recurrent parent, Glycine max) and N24852 (donor parent, Glycine soja) and then modified 2 iterations (coded SojaCSSLP3) were improved further to contain more lines (diagonal segments) and less heterozygous and missing portions. The new population (SojaCSSLP4) composed of 195 CSSLs was evaluated under four environments, and 11, 13, 7, 15 and 14 QTLs/segments were detected for seed length (SL), seed width (SW), seed roundness (SR), seed perimeter (SP) and seed cross section area (SA), respectively, with all 60 wild allele effects negative. Among them, 16 QTLs/segments were shared by 2-5 traits, respectively, but 0-3 segments for each of the 5 traits were independent. The non-shared Satt274 and shared Satt305, Satt540 and Satt239 were major segments, along with other segments composed of two different but related sets of genetic systems for SR and the other 4 traits, respectively. Compared with the literature, 7 SL, 5 SW and 2 SR QTLs/segments were also detected in cultivated soybeans; allele distinction took place between cultivated and wild soybeans, and also among cultivated parents. The present mapping is understood as macro-segment mapping, the segments may be further dissected into smaller segments as well as corresponding QTLs/genes.

  1. Genomic differences between cultivated soybean, G. max and its wild relative G. soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Trupti; Valliyodan, Babu; Wu, Jeng-Hung; Lee, Suk-Ha; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2013-01-01

    Glycine max is an economically important crop and many different varieties of soybean exist around the world. The first draft sequences and gene models of G. max (domesticated soybean) as well as G. soja (wild soybean), both became available in 2010. This opened the door for comprehensive comparative genomics studies between the two varieties. We have further analysed the sequences and identified the 425 genes that are unique to G. max and unavailable in G. soja. We further studied the genes with significant number of non-synonymous SNPs in their upstream regions. 12 genes involved in seed development, 3 in oil and 6 in protein concentration are unique to G. max. A significant number of unique genes are seen to overlap with the QTL regions of the three traits including seed, oil and protein. We have also developed a graphical chromosome visualizer as part of the Soybean Knowledge Base (SoyKB) tools for molecular breeding, which was used in the analysis and visualization of overlapping QTL regions for multiple traits with the deletions and SNPs in G. soja. The comparisons between genome sequences of G. max and G. soja show significant differences between the genomic compositions of the two. The differences also highlight the phenotypic differences between the two in terms of seed development, oil and protein traits. These significant results have been integrated into the SoyKB resource and are publicly available for users to browse at http://soykb.org/GSoja.

  2. A Technique for Evaluating Heterodera glycines Development in Susceptible and Resistant Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbrendt, J M; Lewis, S A; Shipe, E R

    1992-03-01

    A technique was developed to evaluate Heterodera glycines development in susceptible and resistant soybean. Roots of 3-day-old soybean were exposed to infective juveniles of H. glyci.nes in sand for 8 hours followed by washing and transfer to hydroponic culture. The cotyledons and apical meristem were removed and plants were maintained under constant light, which resulted in a dwarfed plant system. After 15 or 20 days at 27 C, nematodes were rated for development. Emerged males were sieved from the culture water and females were counted directly from the roots. Nematodes remaining in the roots were rated for development after staining and clearing the tissues. The proportion of nematodes at each stage of development and the frequency of completed molts for each stage were calculated from these data. This technique showed that resistance to H. glycines was stage related and did not affect males and females equally in all resistant hosts. The resistance of plant introduction PI 209332 primarily affected development of third and fourth-stage juveniles; 'Pickett' mainly affected second and third-stage juveniles, whereas PI 89772 affected all stages. Male development was markedly affected in PI 89772 and 'Pickett' but not in PI 209332.

  3. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  4. Modeling landscape-scale pathogen spillover between domesticated and wild hosts: Asian soybean rust and kudzu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiszewski, Anna M; Umbanhowar, James; Mitchell, Charles E

    2010-03-01

    Many emerging pathogens infect both domesticated and wild host species, creating the potential for pathogen transmission between domesticated and wild populations. This common situation raises the question of whether managing negative impacts of disease on a focal host population (whether domesticated, endangered, or pest) requires management of only the domesticated host, only the wild host, or both. To evaluate the roles of domesticated and wild hosts in the dynamics of shared pathogens, we developed a spatially implicit model of a pathogen transmitted by airborne spores between two host species restricted to two different landscape patch types. As well as exploring the general dynamics and implications of the model, we fully parameterized our model for Asian soybean rust, a multihost infectious disease that emerged in the United States in 2004. The rust fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi infects many legume species, including soybeans (Glycine max) and the nonnative invasive species kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata). Our model predicts that epidemics are driven by the host species that is more abundant in the landscape. In managed landscapes, this will generally be the domesticated host. However, many pathogens overwinter on a wild host, which acts as the source of initial inoculum at the start of the growing season. Our model predicts that very low local densities of infected wild hosts, surviving in landscape patches separate from the domesticated host, are sufficient to initiate epidemics in the domesticated host, such that managing epidemics by reducing wild host local density may not be feasible. In contrast, managing to reduce pathogen infection of a domesticated host can reduce disease impacts on wild host populations.

  5. NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR ENHANCING SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID A. HELLAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La soya (Glycine max L., es el cultivo de legumbres más importante en el mundo. La magnitud de las pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soya debido a deficiencias varía dependiendo de los nutrientes. Las deficiencias de N, P, Fe, B y S pueden causar pérdidas en rendimiento de hasta 10 %, 29-45 %, 22-90 %, 100 % y 16-30 %, respectivamente, en la soya dependiendo de la fertilidad del suelo, clima y factores intrínsecos a las plantas. La textura de los suelos utilizados en el cultivo de soya varía entre arenosa y arcillosa. La salinidad del suelo es uno de los mayores factores limitantes en la producción del cultivo en regiones semiáridas, y la salinidad por cloro tiene un mayor efecto en la disminución del rendimiento que la salinidad por sulfatos. Los granos de soya son una gran fuente de energía que contienen 40 % de proteína y 19 % de aceite. El éxito del manejo de nutrientes es maximizar la productividad del cultivo mientras se minimizan los impactos ambientales. Las prácticas de manejo de nutrientes balan- ceadas y reguladas en el tiempo contribuyen a un crecimiento sostenido del rendimiento y la calidad, influencian la salud de las plantas y reducen los riesgos ambientales. Una nutrición balanceada con fertilizantes minerales puede ayudar en el manejo integrado de plagas para reducir los daños causados por las infestaciones de pestes y enfermedades y reducir los insumos requeridos para su control. Una fertilización balanceada genera mayores ganancias para los agricultores, no necesariamente por reducción de los insumos. El papel de la educación y la extensión en la difusión del conocimiento actual sobre manejo de nutrientes es crucial, desafiante y continuo.

  6. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  7. THE EFFECT OF SOME RHIZOBACTERIAN STRAINS ON SOLUBLE PROTEINS CONTENT IN SOYBEANS (GLYCINE MAX L. MERR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stefan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Now it is an accepted fact that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can increase the productivity of several crops. The main objective of the present study was to find if there are any differences in protein content in the seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. MERR.. Using spectrophotometric methods for analyzing the protein contents and electrophoretic methods for qualitative analysis it was observed that no major modifications occur in protein spectrum. Looking at the quantitative side there was a small improvement in protein quantity.

  8. Effect of methanol spraying on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirakhori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the application of methanol on yield and yield components of soybean (Glycine max L., var. L 17 in field conditions, experiments were conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Research from Faculty of Agricultural of Islamic Azad University Karaj, Iran, during 2008. Sprayed aqueous solutions were zero (control, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35% (v/v methanol by there times during growth season of soybean with 15 days intervals on shoot of soybean. In this study soybean grain yield, biomass HI, 1000 grain weigh, height plants, number of branch, diameter of stem, number of pod on plant, number of hollow pod were measured. Results of the experiment indicated that there are significant differences (p>0.05 between sprayed of solution methanol on all parameters. Results also showed the effect of aqueous solution 14, 21 and 28% (v/v methanol on measured parameters was greater than other treatments. Foliar application of 14% and 21%, (v/v methanol increased leaf area index, crop growth rate, pod growth rate, leaf area duration, pod yield, seed yield, weight of 1000 kernel, mature pods per plants. The lowest grain yield obtained in control plots and 35% (v/v methanol treatments.

  9. Genome-scale identification of MLO domain-containing genes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Zhao, Jinming; Du, Caifu; Xiang, Yang; Cao, Jinxuan; Qin, Xinrong

    2012-01-01

    In plants, powdery-mildew-resistance locus o (Mlo) genes encode proteins that are calmodulin-binding proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. However, systematic characterization of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has not been yet reported. In this study, we identified MLO domain-contained members in soybean and examined their expression under phytohormone treatment and abiotic stress conditions. A total of 20 soybean Mlo genes were identified (GmMlo1-20), which are distributed on 13 chromosomes, and display diverse exon-intron structures. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Mlo family can be classified into four subfamilies. Sequence comparison was used to reveal the conserved calmodulin-binding domain (CaMBD) in GmMLO proteins. The expression of GmMlo genes was influenced by various phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses, suggesting that these Mlo genes have various roles in the response of soybean to environmental stimuli. Promoter sequence analysis revealed an overabundance of stress and/or phytohormone-related cis-elements in GmMlo genes. These data provide important clues for elucidating the functions of genes of the Mlo gene family.

  10. Comparative analysis of soybean genotype resistance to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne species via resistance gene analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, P M H; Arêdes, F A S; Ferreira, A; Ferreira, M F S

    2016-09-02

    Nematodes are important pests of soybean throughout the world and cause high yield losses. As a control strategy, the identification of resistance genes is an important aim of breeding studies. Plants possess resistance genes (R), which are responsible for the recognition of pathogens and activation of the defense system. R genes and resistance gene analogs (RGAs) possess conserved domains, from which nucleotide-binding site is the most common. Using degenerate primers originating from these domains, it is possible to identify and isolate sequences of R and RGA genes. In this study, soybean genotypes resistant to the nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. enterolobii were compared by the use of RGAs and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Forty-six soybean genotypes were studied, including plant introductions (PIs), commercial crops, and source of resistance genotypes. Thirteen combinations of RGA primers and different SSRs linked to QTLs were used to confirm resistance to soybean cyst nematodes (SCN). Fragments associated with resistance to the studied nematodes were amplified in the source of resistance and PI genotypes. RGA markers were efficient at distinguishing groups of genotypes that were resistant and susceptible to Meloidogyne spp and SCN. Combinations of specific primers were identified through their ability to amplify nucleotide sequences from possible resistance candidate genes. SSR markers contributed to the analysis of SCN race specificity, showing that the QTLs identified by these markers are distinct from those identified by RGA markers.

  11. Transient Nod factor-dependent gene expression in the nodulation-competent zone of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satomi; Reid, Dugald E; Lorenc, Michał T; Stiller, Jiri; Edwards, David; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2012-10-01

    All lateral organ development in plants, such as nodulation in legumes, requires the temporal and spatial regulation of genes and gene networks. A total mRNA profiling approach using RNA-seq to target the specific soybean (Glycine max) root tissues responding to compatible rhizobia [i.e. the Zone Of Nodulation (ZON)] revealed a large number of novel, often transient, mRNA changes occurring during the early stages of nodulation. Focusing on the ZON enabled us to discard the majority of root tissues and their developmentally diverse gene transcripts, thereby highlighting the lowly and transiently expressed nodulation-specific genes. It also enabled us to concentrate on a precise moment in early nodule development at each sampling time. We focused on discovering genes regulated specifically by the Bradyrhizobium-produced Nod factor signal, by inoculating roots with either a competent wild-type or incompetent mutant (nodC(-) ) strain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Collectively, 2915 genes were identified as being differentially expressed, including many known soybean nodulation genes. A number of unknown nodulation gene candidates and soybean orthologues of nodulation genes previously reported in other legume species were also identified. The differential expression of several candidates was confirmed and further characterized via inoculation time-course studies and qRT-PCR. The expression of many genes, including an endo-1,4-β-glucanase, a cytochrome P450 and a TIR-LRR-NBS receptor kinase, was transient, peaking quickly during the initiation of nodule ontogeny. Additional genes were found to be down-regulated. Significantly, a set of differentially regulated genes acting in the gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis pathway was discovered, suggesting a novel role of GAs in nodulation. © 2012 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Soybean Glycine Max L Merill Promiscuity Reaction To Indigenous Bradyrhizobia inoculation In Some Ghanaian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanuel Y. Klogo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For many tropical countries particularly in Africa Biological Nitrogen Fixation BNF continues to be the most promising alternative or supplement to the use of chemical Nitrogen fertilizers for sustainable Agriculture. In contrast to cowpea that nodulate profusely in tropical soilswith the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia nodulation and nitrogen fixation in the American-type soybean in similar environments has largely depended on inoculating bradyrhizobia into the soil. The development of the Tropical Glycine Cross TGx soybean varieties by IITA has made it possible for these promiscuous varieties to nodulate with the naturally occurring strains belonging to the cowpea Bradyrhizobiumspp. The Most Probable Number MPN technique was used to determine the bradyrhizobial population in these soils. Eighty four Bradyrhizobium isolates obtained from randomly selected nodules on soybean were assessed for effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Three of the most effective isolates were used in inoculation studies carried out in the greenhouse atthe University of Ghana-Legonon three promiscuous soybean varieties Anidaso TGx 813-6D TGx 1903-8F and TGx 1448-2E and a non- promiscuous genotype Davis in three Ghanaian soil series Toje Chromic cambisols Chichiwere Dystricfluvisol and Bekwai Ferric acrisols. There were tremendous inoculation responses in these soils for both the promiscuous and non-promiscuous cultivars with even the promiscuous ones responding better to inoculation than the non-promiscuous Davis. Inoculation gave rise to significant increases in nodule number nodule dry weight shoot dry weight and total nitrogen accumulation compared to the uninoculated control even intheChichiwere soil series which harboured the highestpopulation of indigenous bradyrhizobia suggesting that the populations of the naturally occurring bradyrhizobia in these soils were either not highly competitive or sufficient for optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation. For

  13. Glycine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    various aspects of the theoretical evaluation of the properties of energy deposition associated with the collision of fast ions with glycine and its zwitterions, including differences due to molecular conformation and orientation with respect to the ion beam direction as well as due to the effect...... of surrounding water molecules and the state of target aggregation.    Quantum mechanical calculations, which yield the dipole oscillator strength distribution of glycine are reported. The ease with which energy is absorbed from a fast ion, described by the mean excitation energy and stopping power of glycine...

  14. Ecological aspects study of replacement intercropping patterns of Soybean (Glycine max L. and Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goudarz Ahmadvand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.

  15. Introgression of a quantitative trait locus for yield from Glycine soja into commercial soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concibido, V C; La Vallee, B; McLaird, P; Pineda, N; Meyer, J; Hummel, L; Yang, J; Wu, K; Delannay, X

    2003-02-01

    The value of exotic germplasm in broadening the genetic base of most crops has been demonstrated many times. However, the difficulties involved in working with exotic germplasm have limited their utility in plant breeding. Unwanted linkages often thwart the successful incorporation of beneficial exotic genes into commercial lines. Thus, the use of exotics in traditional breeding makes the process of crop improvement a tedious, time-consuming and expensive endeavor. The availability of molecular markers makes it possible to isolate specific genomic regions and transfer them into commercial varieties with minimal linkage drag. We found a yield-enhancing quantitative trait locus (QTL) from Glycine soja (Siebold and Zucc.) by evaluating a population of 265 BC(2) individuals from a cross between HS-1 and PI 407305. The yield QTL was located on linkage group B2(U26) of the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genetic linkage map. In a 2-year, multi-location study, individuals carrying the PI 407305 haplotype at the QTL locus demonstrated a 9.4% yield advantage over individuals that did not contain the exotic haplotype. When tested in a more uniform "HS-1-like" background in two locations, we observed an 8% yield advantage for lines that carry the PI 407305 haplotype. We further assessed the QTL effect in various elite soybean genetic backgrounds. The yield effect was consistently observed in only two of six genetic backgrounds. Individuals carrying the PI 407305 haplotype at the QTL locus had a 9% yield advantage in yield trials across locations. Despite the limited adaptability of this yield-QTL across genetic backgrounds, this study demonstrates the potential of exotic germplasm for yield enhancement in soybean.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (<0.4 M, improved the gelation of flours.

  17. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  18. Reduced Fitness of Virulent Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes May Influence the Longevity of Resistance Genes in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, Adam J.; McCarville, Michael T.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of insect resistance in crops require insect resistance management plans that may include a refuge to limit the spread of virulence to this resistance. However, without a loss of fitness associated with virulence, a refuge may not prevent virulence from becoming fixed within a population of parthenogenetically reproducing insects like aphids. Aphid-resistance in soybeans (i.e., Rag genes) prevent outbreaks of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), yet four biotypes defined by their capacity to survive on aphid-resistant soybeans (e.g., biotype-2 survives on Rag1 soybean) are found in North America. Although fitness costs are reported for biotype-3 on aphid susceptible and Rag1 soybean, it is not clear if virulence to aphid resistance in general is associated with a decrease in fitness on aphid susceptible soybeans. In laboratory assays, we measured fitness costs for biotype 2, 3 and 4 on an aphid-susceptible soybean cultivar. In addition, we also observed negative cross-resistance for biotype-2 on Rag3, and biotype-3 on Rag1 soybean. We utilized a simple deterministic, single-locus, four compartment genetic model to account for the impact of these findings on the frequency of virulence alleles. When a refuge of aphid susceptible was included within this model, fitness costs and negative cross-resistance delayed the increase of virulence alleles when virulence was inherited recessively or additively. If virulence were inherited additively, fitness costs decreased the frequency of virulence. Combined, these results suggest that a refuge may prevent virulent A. glycines biotypes from overcoming Rag genes if this aphid-resistance were used commercially in North America. PMID:26372106

  19. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent-Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Okhumode H

    2017-04-02

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)-one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean ( Glycine max ) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg -1 d -1 ) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants ( Glycine max ) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment.

  20. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhumode H. Yakubu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1 was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d, to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants (Glycine max based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs before discharge into the environment.

  1. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mishra G, Kumar N, Giri K, Pandey S, Kumar R. 2014. Effect of fungicides and bioagents on number of microorganisms in soil and yield of soybean (Glycine max. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 45-48. In field experiments, the effect of selected fungicides and bioagents on number of soil microorganisms and yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merill was investigated. The results showed that some of the crop protections preparations applied in the experiment (as seed dressing increased the populations of the examined microorganisms after the harvest of crops. Maximum counts of bacteria were recorded with Thiomethaxam at 3 g kg-1 while Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1 showed the highest population of fungi, Actinomycetes, B. japonicum, PSB and Pseudomonas. The highest straw and grain yields of 3241.6 and 1439.4 kg ha-1, respectively, were recorded with Pseudomonas at 3 g kg-1.

  2. The Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria on Soybean (Glycine max. L.) Plants Grown under Insoluble Phosphate Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Rotaru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the comparative efficacy of two phosphorus solubilizing rhizobacteria namely Burkholderia cepacia B36 and Enterobacter radicincitans D5/23T combined with insoluble phosphates in soybean (Glycine max. L.). Inoculated plants were grown in sand culture under controlled greenhouse conditions. All the inoculated treatments showed better plant growth and nutrient uptake when compared to uninoculated control. The inoculation with B. cepacia performed better than w...

  3. Reduction in the level of intracellular myo-inositol in cultured soybean (Glycine max) cells inhibits cell division.

    OpenAIRE

    Biffen, M; Hanke, D E

    1990-01-01

    Although myo-inositol is included in media for the successful growth of plant tissues, the actual requirement of most tissues, including soybean (Glycine max) callus in suspension culture, for myo-inositol has not been demonstrated. We have made use of deoxyglucose to reduce intracellular levels of myo-inositol. Deoxyglucose is phosphorylated to deoxyglucose 6-phosphate, which inhibits L-myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase, an important enzyme in the synthesis of myo-inositol. Addition of deoxy...

  4. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max)

    OpenAIRE

    Yakubu, Okhumode H.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Difference...

  5. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world’s most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars, as well as...

  6. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N-2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, YB; Stulen, [No Value; van Keulen, H; Kuiper, PJC

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N-2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  7. Effect of N fertilizer top-dressing at various reproductive stages on growth, N2 fixation and yield of three soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gan, Y.B.; Stulen, I.; Kuiper, P.J.C.; Keulen, van H.

    2003-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is one of the most important food and cash crops in China and a key protein source for the farmers in northern China. Previous experiments in both the field and greenhouse have shown that N2 fixation alone cannot meet the N requirement for maximizing soybean yield,

  8. Factors underlying genotypic differences in the induction of photosynthesis in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, Mochamad Arief; Tanaka, Yu; Nomoto, Yuko; Iwahashi, Yu; Nakashima, Keiichiro; Fukuda, Yasuko; Long, Stephen P; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Crop leaves are subject to continually changing light levels in the field. Photosynthetic efficiency of a crop canopy and productivity will depend significantly on how quickly a leaf can acclimate to a change. One measure of speed of response is the rate of photosynthesis increase toward its steady state on transition from low to high light. This rate was measured for seven genotypes of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. After 10 min of illumination, cultivar 'UA4805' (UA) had achieved a leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn ) of 23.2 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) , close to its steady-state rate, while the slowest cultivar 'Tachinagaha' (Tc) had only reached 13.0 μmol · m(-2)  · s(-1) and was still many minutes from obtaining steady state. This difference was further investigated by examining induction at a range of carbon dioxide concentrations. Applying a biochemical model of limitations to photosynthesis to the responses of Pn to intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ), it was found that the speed of apparent in vivo activation of ribulose-1:5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was responsible for this difference. Sequence analysis of the Rubisco activase gene revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that could relate to this difference. The results show a potential route for selection of cultivars with increased photosynthetic efficiency in fluctuating light. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of Hypergravity and Phytohormones on Isoflavonoid Accumulation in Soybean ( Glycine max. L.) Callus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Peter J.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Musgrave, Mary E.; McKeon-Bennett, Michelle; Moane, Siobhán

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential interaction between gravity and growth hormones on isoflavonoid accumulation. Soybean callus ( Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. `Acme') was grown in the dark for 16 days at 22 °C in a growth medium supplemented with four different combinations of phytohormones and subjected to 4- g and 8- g forces simulated in a centrifuge and 1- g in an adjacent stationary control. Isoflavonoid aglycones and their glycoside concentrations (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) were determined in the resulting tissues. Although gravity had no significant impact on callus growth, increasing gravity reduced isoflavonoid accumulation in three out of the four phytohormone-supplemented culture media. The ratio of the auxin naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to the cytokinin benzylaminopurine (BAP) was found to have profound effect on both callus growth and isoflavonoid accumulation. The cytokinin BAP promoted callus tissue growth, but reduced callus isoflavonoid suggesting the isoflavonoid accumulation was not keeping pace with the cell growth in the elevated concentration of BAP. On the other hand, NAA had little or no effect on callus growth, but greatly enhanced isoflavonoid accumulation. Interactive effects of gravity and hormone on isoflavonoid accumulation were evident and its implication to the mechanism by which gravity exerts the effect on plant secondary metabolites is discussed.

  10. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  11. Comparative phytochemical profiling of different soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes using GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem S. Alghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the proximate, phenolic and flavonoids contents and phytochemicals present in seeds of twenty four soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr genotypes to explore their nutritional and medicinal values. Crude protein composition ranged between 35.63 and 43.13% in Argentinian and USA (Clark genotypes, respectively. Total phenolic content varied from 1.15 to 1.77 mg GAE/g, whereas flavonoids varied from 0.68 to 2.13 mg QE/g. The GC–MS analysis resulted identification of 88 compounds categorized into aldehydes (5, ketones (13, alcohols (5, carboxylic acids (7, esters (13, alkanes (2, heterocyclic compounds (19, phenolic compound (9, sugar moiety (7 ether (4 and amide (3, one Alkene and one fatty acid ester. Indonesian genotypes (Ijen and Indo-1 had the highest phenolic compounds than others genotype having antioxidant activities, while the Australian genotype contains the maximum in esters compounds. The major phytocompounds identified in majority of genotypes were Phenol, 2,6-dimethoxy-, 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,5-Dimethoxyacetophenone, 1,2-cyclopentanedione and Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester. The presence of phytochemicals with strong pharmacological actions like antimicrobial and antioxidants activities could be considered as sources of quality raw materials for food and pharmaceutical industries. This study further set a platform for isolating and understanding the characteristics of each compound for it pharmacological properties.

  12. Determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Han; Jeong, Sung Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Park, Semin; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Dong Won; Chung, Jong Il; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Jin, Jong Sung; Shin, Sung Chul

    2013-09-01

    Soybean sprouts (Kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in East Asia. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. In order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (Glycine max Merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Tryptophan and eight phenolic compounds (daidzin, genistin, malonyldaidzin, malonylgenistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein and coumestrol) were determined from healthy and inoculated sprouts. Total identified phenolic content was 40.02 ± 0.03 mg kg⁻¹, 99.4% of which was isoflavones. The monitoring suggested that de novo induced glycitein appeared to act as a phytoalexin in the defence mechanism of the soybean sprouts against C. gloeosporioides, and constitutively formed seven phenolic components that functioned as phytoanticipins in the diseased soybean sprouts. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Evaluation of Probiotic Diversity from Soybean (Glycine max) Seeds and Sprouts Using Illumina-Based Sequencing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yali; Zhang, Miaomiao; Deng, Zujun; Cao, Lixiang

    2017-07-24

    There is increasing interest in the use of plant probiotics as environmental-friendly and healthy biofertilizers. The study aimed at selecting for novel probiotic candidates of soybean (Glycine max). The bacteriome and mycobiome of soybean sprouts and seeds were analyzed by Illumina-based sequencing. Seeds contained more diverse bacteria than those in sprouts. The seeds contained similar fungal diversity with sprouts. Total 15 bacterial OTUs and 4 fungal OTUs were detected in seeds and sprouts simultaneously, suggesting that the sprouts contained bacterial and fungal taxa transmitted from seeds. The Halothiobacillus was the most dominant bacterial genus observed and coexisted in seeds and sprouts. The OTUs belonged to Ascomycota were the most dominant fungal taxa observed in seeds and sprouts. Halothiobacillus was firstly identified as endophytic probiotics of soybean. The results suggested that sprouts might contain diverse plant probiotics of mature plants and Illumina-based sequencing can be used to screen for probiotic candidates.

  14. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek)

    OpenAIRE

    Landete, José María; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, S.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Rivas, Blanca de las; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Informa UK Ltd. Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as >green soybeans>, showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increa...

  15. Effect of Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean (Glycine max) genotypes in gray terrace soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Faridul; Bhuiyan, M A H; Alam, Sadia Sabrina; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Kim, Pil Joo; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Soybean plants require high amounts of nitrogen, which are mainly obtained from biological nitrogen fixation. A field experiment was conducted by soybean (Glycine max) genotypes, growing two varieties (Shohag and BARI Soybean6) and two advanced lines (MTD10 and BGM02026) of soybean with or without Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 inoculation. Soybean plants of all genotypes inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 produced greater nodule numbers, nodule weight, shoot and root biomass, and plant height than non-inoculated plants. Similarly, inoculated plants showed enhanced activity of nitrogenase (NA) enzyme, contributing to higher nitrogen fixation and assimilation, compared to non-inoculated soybean plants in both years. Plants inoculated with Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 also showed higher pod, stover, and seed yield than non-inoculated plants. Therefore, Rhizobium sp. BARIRGm901 established an effective symbiotic relationship with a range of soybean genotypes and thus increased the nodulation, growth, and yield of soybean grown in gray terrace soils in Bangladesh.

  16. Interaksi Galur × Lingkungan, Potensi Hasil Dan Stabilitas Hasil Galur Harapan Kedelai {Glycine Max (L.) Merr.} Hitam* [Genotype × Environment Interactions, Yield Potential and Stability of Black Soybean {Glycine Max (L.) Merr.} Promising Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Adie, M. Muchlish; Krisnawati, Ayda; Susanto, GWA

    2013-01-01

    Recent demand of black soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.} seed has been rising for industrial raw material. A total of five promising lines of black soybean (9837/K-D-8-185, 9837/K-D-3-185-195, W/9837-D-6-220, 9837/K-D-3-185-82 and 9837/W-D-5-211) were evaluated for the potential yield at 18 soybean production centrals in West Java, East Java, Bali and West Nusa Tenggara, from 2004 until 2006..Variety of Cikuray (black soybean), Wilis (famous variety with high yield) and Burangrang (large seed ...

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Tang, Yao; Xiao, Yao; Wan, Sen

    2012-08-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation.

  18. Implementing an evolutionary framework for understanding genetic relationships of phenotypically defined insect biotypes in the invasive soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jacob A; Michel, Andy P

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution of pest insects in response to the introduction of resistant cultivars is well documented and commonly results in virulent (i.e., capable of feeding upon resistant cultivars) insect populations being labeled as distinct biotypes. Phenotypically defined, biotypes frequently remain evolutionarily indistinct, resulting in ineffective application of virulence control measures and shorter durability of resistant cultivars. Here, we utilize an evolutionary framework to discern the genetic relationship between biotypes of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines, Matsumura). The soybean aphid is invasive in North America and is among the most destructive pests of commercial soybean on the continent. Attempts to breed host-plant-resistant soybean have been hampered by the emergence of virulent aphid biotypes that are unaffected by the plant's resistance mechanism(s). Comparative population genetic analysis of virulent and avirulent (i.e., unable to feed on resistant cultivars) biotypes found populations to be genetically indistinguishable across biotype and geographic distance, with high rates of interpopulation immigration and admixture. The lack of genetic distinction between biotypes coupled with elevated genotypic diversity within all populations suggested virulence has a nongenetic-based or includes a gene complex that is widely distributed throughout soybean aphid populations, which undergo regular dispersal and unimpeded sexual recombination. PMID:24187586

  19. Vermiculite's strong buffer capacity renders it unsuitable for studies of acidity on soybean (Glycine max L.) nodulation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-11-14

    Vermiculite is the most common soil-free growing substrate used for plants in horticultural and scientific studies due to its high water holding capacity. However, some studies are not suitable to be conducted in it. The described experiments aimed to test the suitability of vermiculite to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and growth of soybean (Glycine max L.). Two different nutrient solutions (Broughton & Dilworth, and modified Herridge nutrient solutions) with or without MES buffer addition were used to irrigate soybean grown on vermiculite growth substrates. The pH of nutrient solutions was adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.0 prior its use. The nodulation and vegetative growth of soybean plants were assessed at 3 and 4 weeks after inoculation. The unsuitability of presumably inert vermiculite as a physical plant growth substrate for studying the effects of acidity on soybean nodulation and plant growth was illustrated. Nodulation and growth of soybean grown in vermiculite were not affected by irrigation with pH-adjusted nutrient solution either at pH 4.0 or 7.0. This was reasonably caused by the ability of vermiculite to neutralise (buffer) the pH of the supplied nutrient solution (pH 2.0-7.0). Due to its buffering capacity, vermiculite cannot be used as growth support to study the effect of acidity on nodulation and plant growth.

  20. Soybean Yield and Heterodera glycines Responses to Liquid Swine Manure in Nematode Suppressive Soil and Conducive Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yong; Chen, Senyu; Vetsch, Jeffery; Randall, Gyles

    2013-03-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a major factor limiting soybean yield. Experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the effects of liquid swine manure and chemical fertilizer PK on soybean and corn yields, and on SCN population in an SCN-suppressive field (S-Site) and an SCN-conducive field (C-Site) in Minnesota. The experiment was a split-plot design with crop sequences as main plots and fertilizer treatments as subplots. The 2-yr crop sequences were Sus-Sus, Res-Sus, and Corn-Sus, where Sus was SCN-susceptible soybean, and Res was SCN-resistant soybean. The fertilizer treatments were manure, PK, and a nonfertilizer as control. Manure did not reduce SCN egg population density but resulted in 31% lower SCN second-stage juvenile (J2) population density at the S-Site at 45 d after planting (DAP) in 2009. Manure also reduced spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus spp.) population density by 52% compared with PK and nonfertilizer treatments at S-Site at 45 DAP in 2009. The crop sequence of Corn-Sus and Res-Sus reduced the SCN egg and J2 but increased spiral nematode population density at both sites. An increase of 1.4 Mg/ha and 0.5 Mg/ha in yield of susceptible soybean was observed in manure and PK treatments, respectively, at the C-Site in 2009. Corn yield was 2.8 Mg/ha and 5.0 Mg/ha greater when treated with manure than nonfertilizer at the S-Site and C-Site, respectively. This study suggests that soil fertility management may be a useful strategy to alleviate the SCN damage to soybean.

  1. Laboratory testing and molecular analysis of the resistance of wild and cultivated soybeans to cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying a superior soybean variety with high defoliator resistance is important to avoid yield loss. Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner is one of the major defoliators of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the effect of H. armigera larvae on ED059, a wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc., and three cultivated soybean varieties: Tianlong 2, PI 535807, and PI 533604, in choice and no-choice assays. The percentage of ED059 leaflets consumed by H. armigera was lower than that of the three cultivated soybeans. Larvae that fed on ED059 exhibited low weight gain and high mortality rate. Waldbauer nutritional indices suggested that ED059 reduced the growth, consumption, and frass production of H. armigera larvae. Larvae that fed on ED059 showed lower efficiency of conversion of ingested and of digested food than those that fed on Tianlong 2 and PI 533604. However, they showed statistically similar consumption index and approximate digestibility compared with those fed on the three cultivated soybeans. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that 24 h after insect attack, ED059 had higher transcript levels of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor 3, Cysteine proteinase inhibitor 2, and Nerolidol synthase 1 but a lower transcript level of Pathogenesis-related protein 1 than Tianlong 2. The gene expression results were consistent with the presence of higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA and transcript levels of the JA biosynthesis enzyme allene oxide cyclase 3 in ED059 than in Tianlong 2. Our findings indicate that ED059 is a superior soybean line with strong insect resistance that may be mediated via the JA pathway.

  2. The Effects of Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizobacteria on Soybean (Glycine max. L. Plants Grown under Insoluble Phosphate Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rotaru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the comparative efficacy of two phosphorus solubilizing rhizobacteria namely Burkholderia cepacia B36 and Enterobacter radicincitans D5/23T combined with insoluble phosphates in soybean (Glycine max. L.. Inoculated plants were grown in sand culture under controlled greenhouse conditions. All the inoculated treatments showed better plant growth and nutrient uptake when compared to uninoculated control. The inoculation with B. cepacia performed better than with E. radicincitans. Phosphorus concentrations in shoots and roots did not change significantly at the early stage of plant growth. However, the bacterial inoculation had better stimulatory effect on phosphorus uptake by soybean fertilized with insoluble phosphates, in particular in treatment with combined application of both bacteria strains.

  3. Soybean (Glycine max) SWEET gene family: insights through comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Prince, Silvas; Nicander, Bjorn; Zhao, Mingzhe; Sonah, Humira; Song, Li; Lin, Li; Chaudhary, Juhi; Liu, Yang; Joshi, Trupti; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-07-11

    SWEET (MtN3_saliva) domain proteins, a recently identified group of efflux transporters, play an indispensable role in sugar efflux, phloem loading, plant-pathogen interaction and reproductive tissue development. The SWEET gene family is predominantly studied in Arabidopsis and members of the family are being investigated in rice. To date, no transcriptome or genomics analysis of soybean SWEET genes has been reported. In the present investigation, we explored the evolutionary aspect of the SWEET gene family in diverse plant species including primitive single cell algae to angiosperms with a major emphasis on Glycine max. Evolutionary features showed expansion and duplication of the SWEET gene family in land plants. Homology searches with BLAST tools and Hidden Markov Model-directed sequence alignments identified 52 SWEET genes that were mapped to 15 chromosomes in the soybean genome as tandem duplication events. Soybean SWEET (GmSWEET) genes showed a wide range of expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages. Analysis of public transcriptome data and expression profiling using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that a majority of the GmSWEET genes were confined to reproductive tissue development. Several natural genetic variants (non-synonymous SNPs, premature stop codons and haplotype) were identified in the GmSWEET genes using whole genome re-sequencing data analysis of 106 soybean genotypes. A significant association was observed between SNP-haplogroup and seed sucrose content in three gene clusters on chromosome 6. Present investigation utilized comparative genomics, transcriptome profiling and whole genome re-sequencing approaches and provided a systematic description of soybean SWEET genes and identified putative candidates with probable roles in the reproductive tissue development. Gene expression profiling at different developmental stages and genomic variation data will aid as an important resource for the soybean research

  4. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  5. Soybean (Glycine max L.) Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin incre...

  6. Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut

  7. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  8. Evaluation of replacement intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. under weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bagheri Shirvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate intercropping of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. JK with sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L. with weed interference, an experiment was performed in randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications at a field located 10 km of Shirvan during year of 2011. The treatments were included 75% soybean: 25%sweet basil, 50%soybean: 50% sweet basil, 25% soybean: 75% sweet basil, 75% soybean: 25% borage, 50% soybean: 50% borage and 25% soybean: 75% borage under weed infestation, in addition sole cropping of plants under weed control and weed interference. Intercropped plants had more success in reduction of weed density and biomass compared to monoculture. Soybean50: sweet basil50, reduced the weed density by 47.95% and 52.9%, and reduced the weed biomass by 68.91% and 61.87% more than sweet basil and soybean pure stand, respectively. Investigation of dry matter accumulation showed that increasing of plant proportion in intercropping caused increasing of plant dry matter. The height of soybean and borage was increased in intercropping and weed interference, while the highest height of sweet basil was observed in monoculture at second harvest. Biological and economical yield of soybean in intercropping with sweet basil was higher than intercropping with borage. The highest harvest index was related to 50:50 soybean: sweet basil ratio. In this ratio, the harvest index increased 4.9% compared to soybean monoculture. Yield of sweet basil and borage decreased with increasing of soybean rows in intercropping. Based on area-time equivalent ratio, soybean 75% with sweet basil and borage 25% (based on borage seed yield had 3% and 4% advantage compared to monoculture.

  9. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  10. Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of some storage containers on the deterioration of soybean seeds. Results indicate that polythene bag and metal tin were better storage containers than the bamboo bin and clay pot. Soybean stored in polythene bag and metal tin maintained 58.7 – 86.0% germination means ...

  11. Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Pei; Weber, Jonas Felix; Gerhards, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress.

  12. Development of a highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Zhihui; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Tzitzikas, E.; Ma, Zhengqiang; Visser, R.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    A highly efficient, repetitive system of organogenesis was developed in soybean. Seeds of soybean cv. White hilum pretreated with TDZ formed multiple bud tissue(s) (MBT) at the cotyledonary nodes. MBT initiation occurred only if the axillary buds were not removed from the cotyledonary node. The best

  13. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  14. Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Abdelmigid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors, was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR. Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

  15. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  16. Confidence interval estimation for an empirical model quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, we address uncertainty analysis for a model, presented in a companion paper, quantifying the effect of soil moisture and plant development on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) leaf conductance. To achieve this we present several methods for confidence interval estimation. Estimation ...

  17. Fumonisins and fungi in dry soybeans (Glycine Max L.) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Laura P; Savi, Geovana D; Santos, Karolina; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-06-01

    This survey reports the occurrence of fumonisins (FBs) and fungi in dry soybeans sold for human consumption. The variation levels were 138-1495 µg kg(-1) and 178-552 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and FB2, respectively. In addition, potentially toxigenic fungi as Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were isolated in the samples. These can be considered as indicator-toxin and can produce considerable amounts of mycotoxins. Despite FB presence in the soybeans for human consumption, there is no legal regulation. Therefore, it is important to emphasise the need for frequent monitoring of these contaminants in soybeans.

  18. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O3]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O3] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O3] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  19. Effect of mycorrhizae, Thiobacillus and sulfur nutrition on the chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Merr. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavian, S R; Pirdashti, H; Ramzanpour, M R; Andarkhor, A A; Shahsavari, A

    2008-03-15

    A field experiment carried out in a calcareous soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate effectiveness of biofertilizers, mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) and Thiobacillus sp. inoculation individually or in combination on seed yield, oil, protein and some elements (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) concentration in two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars. The applied treatments were different fertilizers with 6 levels (including: NP (control, 12 kg N ha(-1) as urea, 46 kg P2O5 ha(-1) as triple super phosphate); NPK (NP + 75 kg K2O ha(-1) as potassium sulphate); NPKS [NPK+ S (100 kg S ha(-1))]; NPKST (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus bacteria); NPKM (NPK + Seed inoculation with mycorrhizae fungi) and NPKSTM (NPKS + seed inoculation with Thiobacillus and mycorrhizae) and two cultivars (JK and 032). Before planting, soybean seeds were inoculated by Bradyrhizobium japonicum in all treatments. Results showed that combined inoculation of biofertilizers increased yield, however the highest yield was observed in treatment NPKST. Increasing oil content (percentage) was more pronounced in treatments NPKM, while most protein content (percentage) increasing was observed in NPKS and NPKM. Fe and Zn concentrations were unaffected significantly by fertilizer treatments, but NPKSTM showed significantly higher value of seed's Mn concentration compared to treatments NP and NPK. Although no significant difference was observed in terms ofP concentration of 032 line among fertilizer treatments, JK cultivar and NPKSTM caused a significant increasing in P concentration compared to NP, NPKS and NPKM. Present results suggested that applying biofertilizers i.e., mycorrhizae and Thiobacillus increased soybean yield compared to control (NP). Overall, this study demonstrated that soybean seed yield and its chemical composition could be affected by biofertilizer inoculation.

  20. Systemic uptake of /sup 14/C - metalaxyl in soybean (Glycine max (L. ) Merril)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radioisotopos); Campacci, C.A. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Secao de Fungicidas)

    1982-06-01

    The uptake and translocation of metalaxyl in soybean was studied using /sup 14/C-labelled metalaxyl. The fungicide is absorbed by roots of soybean seedlings and moves into all aboveground tissues. The accumulation of metalaxyl in tissue was enhanced by increasing the exposure time. /sup 14/C-metalaxyl accounted for 41 to 78% of the radiocarbon in the plant; two degradation products were detected by thin-layer chromatography.

  1. Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oleosomes from soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Wei, Daijing; Hauck, Catherine; Murphy, Patricia A

    2008-03-12

    Oleosomes, with their unique structural proteins, the oleosins, are known to be useful in cosmetics and other emulsion applications. A procedure to fractionate intact oleosomes to produce soybean oil without the use of organic solvents was investigated. Process parameters, enzyme treatment, filtration, cell lysis, and centrifugation, were studied. Successive extractions of the residue, eliminating the filtration step, pressurization, or ultrasonication of soybean flour prior to enzyme treatment and enzyme treatment on the residue, were the key steps. A mixture of Multifect Pectinase FE, Cellulase A, and Multifect CX 13L in equal proportion gave 36.42-63.23% of the total soybean oil from oleosomes, respectively, for 45 and 180 s of blending time, compared to the conventional method with lower yields (34.24 and 28.65%, respectively, for 45 and 180 s of blending time). Three successive extractions of the residue increased the oil yield to a maximum of 84.65% of the total soybean oil recovered in intact oleosomes. The percentage of lipid in the supernatant fraction decreased to a minimum value of 0.33% with the use of the enzymes at a 3% dosage. The results are considered to be useful for developing large-scale and efficient extraction of oleosomes from soybean.

  2. Population Structure and Domestication Revealed by High-Depth Resequencing of Korean Cultivated and Wild Soybean Genomes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions. PMID:24271940

  3. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties of Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordje Malenčić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The contents and antioxidant ability of various classes of phenolic compounds present in the seeds of twenty soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total phenolics, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically, after extraction of seeds with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, the flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. The highest contents of total phenolics were found in Serbian cultivar 1511 and Chinese cultivar LN92-7369, which also displayed the highest total antioxidant activity. Conversely, genotypes poor in phenolics also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity. The results suggested that besides protein and oil contents, the phenolic contents should be also considered as an important characteristic feature of soybean seeds, and as a potential selection criterion for antioxidant activity in soybean.

  4. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malencić, Djordje; Popović, Milan; Miladinović, Jegor

    2007-03-21

    The contents and antioxidant ability of various classes of phenolic compounds present in the seeds of twenty soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total phenolics, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically, after extraction of seeds with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, the flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity of aqueous acetone extracts was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The highest contents of total phenolics were found in Serbian cultivar 1511 and Chinese cultivar LN92-7369, which also displayed the highest total antioxidant activity. Conversely, genotypes poor in phenolics also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity. The results suggested that besides protein and oil contents, the phenolic contents should be also considered as an important characteristic feature of soybean seeds, and as a potential selection criterion for antioxidant activity in soybean.

  5. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy Keino

    Full Text Available Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete, negative control (distilled water, complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg and sulphur (S and with, micro-nutrients boron (B, molybdenum (Mo, manganese (Mn, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05 lower shoot dry weights (SDWs than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  6. Nutrients Limiting Soybean (glycine max l) Growth in Acrisols and Ferralsols of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keino, Ludy; Baijukya, Frederick; Ng'etich, Wilson; Otinga, Abigael N; Okalebo, John R; Njoroge, Ruth; Mukalama, John

    2015-01-01

    Low soybean yields in western Kenya have been attributed to low soil fertility despite much work done on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) nutrition leading to suspicion of other nutrient limitations. To investigate this, a nutrient omission trial was set up in the greenhouse at the University of Eldoret-Kenya to diagnose the nutrients limiting soybean production in Acrisols from Masaba central and Butere sub-Counties, and Ferralsols from Kakamega (Shikhulu and Khwisero sub-locations) and Butula sub-Counties and to assess the effect of liming on soil pH and soybean growth. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with ten treatments viz; positive control (complete), negative control (distilled water), complete with lime, complete with N, minus macronutrients P, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and sulphur (S) and with, micro-nutrients boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) omitted. Visual deficiency symptoms observed included interveinal leaf yellowing in Mg omission and N addition and dark green leaves in P omission. Nutrients omission resulted in their significantly low concentration in plant tissues than the complete treatment. Significantly (P≤ 0.05) lower shoot dry weights (SDWs) than the complete treatment were obtained in different treatments; omission of K and Mg in Masaba and Shikhulu, Mg in Khwisero, K in Butere and, P, Mg and K in Butula. Nitrogen significantly improved SDWs in soils from Kakamega and Butula. Liming significantly raised soil pH by 9, 13 and 11% from 4.65, 4.91 and 4.99 in soils from Masaba, Butere and Butula respectively and soybean SDWs in soils from Butere. The results show that, poor soybean growth was due to K, Mg and P limitation and low pH in some soils. The results also signify necessity of application of small quantities of N for initial soybean use.

  7. Historical gains in soybean (Glycine max Merr.) seed yield are driven by linear increases in light interception, energy conversion, and partitioning efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Robert P; Skoneczka, Jeffrey A; Cary, Troy R; Diers, Brian W; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is the world's most widely grown leguminous crop and an important source of protein and oil for food and feed. Soybean yields have increased substantially throughout the past century, with yield gains widely attributed to genetic advances and improved cultivars as well as advances in farming technology and practice. Yet, the physiological mechanisms underlying the historical improvements in soybean yield have not been studied rigorously. In this 2-year experiment, 24 soybean cultivars released between 1923 and 2007 were grown in field trials. Physiological improvements in the efficiencies by which soybean canopies intercepted light (εi), converted light energy into biomass (εc), and partitioned biomass into seed (εp) were examined. Seed yield increased by 26.5kg ha(-1) year(-1), and the increase in seed yield was driven by improvements in all three efficiencies. Although the time to canopy closure did not change in historical soybean cultivars, extended growing seasons and decreased lodging in more modern lines drove improvements in εi. Greater biomass production per unit of absorbed light resulted in improvements in εc. Over 84 years of breeding, soybean seed biomass increased at a rate greater than total aboveground biomass, resulting in an increase in εp. A better understanding of the physiological basis for yield gains will help to identify targets for soybean improvement in the future. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Changes in the physiological activity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. under the influence of exogenous growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nowak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year pot experiment (2008–2009 conducted at the Vegetation Hall, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, we investigated the influence of exogenous growth regulators, i.e. indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and their mixture, on the activity of gas exchange and selected physiological features of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.. The experimental factors included the following Polish soybean cultivars: ‘Aldana’, ‘Progres’ and ‘Jutro’. During plant growth, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, and substomatal CO2 concentration (ci were determined. Two soybean cultivars, i.e. ‘Jutro’ and ‘Progres’, showed a significant increase in the intensity of assimilation and transpiration after using all kinds of growth regulators as compared with the control plants. It was found that the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using a mixture of growth regulators (IBA + BAP, was characterized by the significantly highest CO2 assimilation (A and transpiration (E as well as the highest stomatal conductance (gs. The ‘Aldana’ cultivar, on the other hand, responded by a significant reduction in the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and subsomatal CO2 concentration. The spraying of the plants with exogenous growth regulators had a significant influence on the increase in the number of stomata and stomatal pore length, mostly on the lower epidermis of the lamina. It was also found that plants from the ‘Jutro’ and ‘Aldana’ cultivars sprayed with IBA and IBA + BAP were characterized by the highest yield, as compared with the control plants. In the case of the ‘Jutro’ cultivar, after using the growth regulators, a positive correlation was observed between the assimilation and transpiration rates and the length of stomata, which in consequence produced increased yields.

  9. Whole-genome sequencing and intensive analysis of the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Sunghoon; Van, Kyujung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Choi, Ik-Young; Kim, Dae-Soo; Lee, Yong-Seok; Park, Daeui; Ma, Jianxin; Kim, Woo-Yeon; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Kil Hyun; Shin, Jin Hee; Jang, Young Eun; Kim, Kyung Do; Liu, Wei Xian; Chaisan, Tanapon; Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jackson, Scott A; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2010-12-21

    The genome of soybean (Glycine max), a commercially important crop, has recently been sequenced and is one of six crop species to have been sequenced. Here we report the genome sequence of G. soja, the undomesticated ancestor of G. max (in particular, G. soja var. IT182932). The 48.8-Gb Illumina Genome Analyzer (Illumina-GA) short DNA reads were aligned to the G. max reference genome and a consensus was determined for G. soja. This consensus sequence spanned 915.4 Mb, representing a coverage of 97.65% of the G. max published genome sequence and an average mapping depth of 43-fold. The nucleotide sequence of the G. soja genome, which contains 2.5 Mb of substituted bases and 406 kb of small insertions/deletions relative to G. max, is ∼0.31% different from that of G. max. In addition to the mapped 915.4-Mb consensus sequence, 32.4 Mb of large deletions and 8.3 Mb of novel sequence contigs in the G. soja genome were also detected. Nucleotide variants of G. soja versus G. max confirmed by Roche Genome Sequencer FLX sequencing showed a 99.99% concordance in single-nucleotide polymorphism and a 98.82% agreement in insertion/deletion calls on Illumina-GA reads. Data presented in this study suggest that the G. soja/G. max complex may be at least 0.27 million y old, appearing before the relatively recent event of domestication (6,000∼9,000 y ago). This suggests that soybean domestication is complicated and that more in-depth study of population genetics is needed. In any case, genome comparison of domesticated and undomesticated forms of soybean can facilitate its improvement.

  10. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  11. Wind tunnel and field assessment of pollen dispersal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) soybean has never been cultivated commercially in Japan, it is essential to set up the isolation distance required to prevent out-crossing between GM and conventional soybean in preparation for any future possibility of pollen transfer. The airborne soybean pollen was sampled using some Durham pollen samplers located in the range of 20 m from the field edge. In addition, the dispersal distance was assessed in a wind tunnel under constant air flow and then it was compared with the anticipated distances based on the pollen diameter. In the field, the maximum pollen density per day observed was 1.235 grains cm(-2) day(-1) at three observation points within 2.5 m from the field and inside the field the mean density did not reach the rate of 1 grain cm(-2 )day(-1) during 19 flowering days. The results of the wind tunnel experiment also showed that the plants had almost no airborne release of pollen and the dispersal distance was shorter than theoretical value due to clustered dispersal. This study showed little airborne pollen in and around the soybean field and the dispersal is restricted to a small area. Therefore, wind-mediated pollination appears to be negligible.

  12. Environmental assessment of organic soybean (Glycine max.) imported from China to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Yu-Hui, Qiao; Halberg, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Growing global trade with organic products has increased the demand for environmental impact assessments during both production and transport. Environmental hotspots of organic soybeans produced in China and imported to Denmark were identified in a case study using a life cycle assessment approach...

  13. Soybean (Glycine max L. Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin increased NKS 51-T8 yield by 23% in 2010 while in 2011 the yield of HBK 5025 was increased 14% over the unsprayed check. No yield response was noted with pyraclostrobin on any soybean cultivar. Only prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to either NKS 51-T8 or DP5335 in 2010 resulted in a net increase in dollars per hectare over the unsprayed check of the respective cultivar. In 2011, under extremely dry conditions, all fungicides with the exception of prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to HBK 5025 resulted in a net decrease in returns over the unsprayed check.

  14. Effect of cadmium on soybean ( Glycine max L) growth and nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , an experiment was performed in sand culture using Hoagland nutrient solution. At the time of sowing, different cadmium level that is 0, 4, 8 and 16 mg kg-1 sand was created using Cd (NO3)2. Soybean shoots and root lengths shoot and root ...

  15. Polymorphism of DNA sequences of cryptochrome genes is not associated with the photoperiodic flowering of wild soybean along a latitudinal cline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Nobuchika; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    Both cultivated soybean and its wild relative Glycine soja exhibit strong photoperiodic sensitivity at different latitudes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the blue light-absorbing cryptochrome gene, CRY1a, is involved in the photoperiodic flowering of soybeans. However, no sequence variation was found in the cDNA among cultivars at different latitudinal clines. In the present study, we examined whether positive selection due to polymorphisms in the cryptochrome genes of G. soja occurs. Partial DNA sequences, mainly exons, of cryptochrome genes CRY1a-1d and CRY2a-2c were analyzed for 18 accessions in the Japanese archipelago. The neutral evolutionary pattern of the polymorphisms for all cryptochrome genes except for CRY1a was summarized using Tajima's D test and low nucleotide diversity was shown for all genes. Although CRY1a did not show neutral evolution, balancing selection was recognized in the intron while not in the exon. No geographical pattern of polymorphisms was observed in the cryptochrome genes. These results reject the possibility of cryptochrome genes being involved in the photoperiodic flowering of wild soybeans along a latitudinal cline.

  16. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  17. Effects of different boiling time of soybean ( Glycine max (L) merril ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed diet T4 had the highest MWG (2.40g); SGR (0.63% day-1); PER (1.76) and conversely the lowest FCR (0.41). While fish fed diet T1 had the lowest MWG (0.32g) SGR (0.14% day-1); PER (0.25) and highest FCR (2.39). Therefore fish fed raw soybean had the lowest growth and least utilized the diet. Keywords: boiling ...

  18. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels.

  19. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  20. Selecting soybean resistant to the cyst nematode Heterodera glycines using simple sequence repeat (microssatellite) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, S M C G; Hamawaki, O T; Oliveira, A P; Hamawaki, C D L; Hamawaki, R L; Takahashi, L M

    2016-03-11

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.

  1. Biochemical Responses of Two Soybean (Glycine max Varieties to Aluminum Stress in Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Davarpanah Moghadam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most widespread form of metal toxicity to plants in soil acids, initially causing inhibition of root elongation and blocks absorption of water and nutrients. According to this fact that soybean has been widely used in industry, this study investigated the effects of aluminum toxicity on biochemical factors in two varieties of Williams and Katoul of soybean plant. The study was carried out in a randomized design with aluminium (0, 200, 500, 700 µM treatments and four replications in hydroponic culture. Results of biochemical tests showed that aluminum reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and reduced sugars in both cultivars of soybean. The proline content decreased with increasing aluminum in var. williams, but at var. katoul increased. It seems that G. max var. katoul suffers less than var. Williams. As regards, proline accumulation under Al stress to be generally higher in G. max var. katoul; hence, these results suggest that var. katoul is more resistant than var. Williams.

  2. Ciclo de vida de Heterodera glycines raça 9 em soja no Estado do Maranhão Life cycle of the Heterodera glycines race 9 on soybean in Maranhão State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pereira Cunha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O nematóide de cisto da soja, Heterodera glycines, causa consideráveis reduções de produtividade à cultura da soja. Ocorrem 11 raças do NCS no Brasil e, no Maranhão, há registro somente da raça 9. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer o ciclo de vida de uma população de H. glycines raça 9, em soja, sob condições de clima tropical. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação telada, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Soja, em Balsas, Maranhão. As médias de temperaturas neste período foram de 28,7 °C no solo e 31,7 °C no ar e a média da umidade relativa do ar foi de 49,8 %. Plântulas de soja BRS Sambaíba foram transplantadas para vasos contendo solo areno-argiloso infestado com 4000 ovos de H. glycines raça 9. Foram avaliados os números de fêmeas e de cistos por sistema radicular aos 17, 20, 23, 26, 29 e 32 dias após a infestação. O número médio de fêmeas por sistema radicular de soja aumentou significativamente entre o 17º e o 29º dia após a infestação do solo, diminuindo no 32º dia, quando começaram a surgir os primeiros cistos. Nas condições testadas, H. glycines raça 9 completou o ciclo de vida em 29 dias após a infestação do solo. Desta forma, é possível a ocorrência de 3 a 4 gerações do nematóide durante o ciclo da soja em Balsas, Maranhão.The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines causes great yield losses to soybean in Brazil. There are 11 races occurring in Brazil and, in the Maranhão State, only the race 9 was reported. The objective of this work was to establish the life cycle of a H. glycines race 9 population, on soybean, under tropical weather conditions. The experiment was carried out on a wired greenhouse at Embrapa Soybean - Balsas Experimental Station, Maranhão, Brazil. The average temperature was 28,7 ºC in the soil and 31,7 ºC in the air, and the relative humidity of the air was 49,8 %. Seedlings of soybean cultivar BRS Sambaíba were transferred to pots containing

  3. Whole-genome gene expression profiling revealed genes and pathways potentially involved in regulating interactions of soybean with cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinrong; Vuong, Tri; Jiao, Yongqing; Joshi, Trupti; Zhang, Hongxin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-03-04

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most devastating pathogen of soybean. Many gene expression profiling studies have been conducted to investigate the responses of soybean to the infection by this pathogen using primarily the first-generation soybean genome array that covered approximately 37,500 soybean transcripts. However, no study has been reported yet using the second-generation Affymetrix soybean whole-genome transcript array (Soybean WT array) that represents approximately 66,000 predicted soybean transcripts. In the present work, the gene expression profiles of two soybean plant introductions (PIs) PI 437654 and PI 567516C (both resistant to multiple SCN HG Types) and cultivar Magellan (susceptible to SCN) were compared in the presence or absence of the SCN inoculum at 3 and 8 days post-inoculation using the Soybean WT array. Data analysis revealed that the two resistant soybean lines showed distinctive gene expression profiles from each other and from Magellan not only in response to the SCN inoculation, but also in the absence of SCN. Overall, 1,413 genes and many pathways were revealed to be differentially regulated. Among them, 297 genes were constitutively regulated in the two resistant lines (compared with Magellan) and 1,146 genes were responsive to the SCN inoculation in the three lines, with 30 genes regulated both constitutively and by SCN. In addition to the findings similar to those in the published work, many genes involved in ethylene, protein degradation, and phenylpropanoid pathways were also revealed differentially regulated in the present study. GC-rich elements (e.g., GCATGC) were found over-represented in the promoter regions of certain groups of genes. These have not been observed before, and could be new defense-responsive regulatory elements. Different soybean lines showed different gene expression profiles in the presence and absence of the SCN inoculum. Both inducible and constitutive gene expression

  4. Hydrothermal treatments in the development of isoflavone aglycones in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes C. Carrão-Panizzi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to enhance the development of isoflavone aglycones in soybean. Grains of two soybean cultivars, BR 36 and IAS 5, 115 and 278 mg/100g of total isoflavone, respectively, were treated hydrothermalyl at 45, 60 and 85° C for 5, 30 and 60 minutes. Pre-treatments of grains at 60° C for 60 minutes allowed a considerable increase of the isoflavone aglycones. Non-treated grains of BR 36 and IAS 5 showed 1.2 mg/100g of genistein, after hydrothermal treatments,which increased to 12 and 53 mg/100g, in each variety, respectively. At higher temperature (85 ° C there was a decrease of the aglycones due to inactivation of beta-glycosidases. Malonyl compounds were also reduced at higher temperatures. In processing functional soybean foods, hydrothermal treatments of the soybean grains, as well as high isoflavone content soybean cultivars will enhance development of aglycone forms.Estudos foram conduzidos para aumentar isoflavonas agliconas (compostos mais biodisponíveis e mais efetivos na prevenção de doenças crônicas em grãos de soja. Pré-tratamentos hidrotérmicos dos grãos foram conduzidos a 45, 60 e 85 ºC por 5, 30, e 60 minutos. Duas cultivares de soja BR 36 e IAS 5 (115, e 278 mg/100g de isoflavonas totais, respectivamente, foram usadas nos experimentos. Pré-tratamentos dos grãos a 60 ºC por 60 minutos permitiram um considerável aumento das isoflavonas agliconas. Grãos não tratados de BR 36 e IAS 5 apresentaram 1,2 mg/100g de genisteína. Depois dos tratamentos hidrotérmicos, este composto aumentou para 12 e 53 mg/100g, em cada variedade, respectivamente. Em altas temperatures (85 ºC houve diminuição das agliconas devido a inativação das enzimas beta-glicosidases. Os compostos malonil (térmicamente instáveis, também foram reduzidos sob altas temperaturas. No processamento de alimentos funcionais de soja, pré-tratamentos hidrotérmicos dos grãos, bem como a utilização de cultivares com alto teor de

  5. Identification and mapping of resistance genes to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, G A F; Alves, D P; Oliveira, J C; Brommonschenke, S H

    2016-08-05

    The goal of this study was to study resistance inheritance in the soybean (Glycine max L.) accession PI 594767-A to the Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolate PPUFV02, and map the resistance gene(s) identified using microsatellite markers. Crosses between PI 594767-A and the susceptible cultivar 'Conquista' gave rise to the segregating subpopulations 26C-2 and 26C-5, which in the F2 generation were evaluated for their reactions to PPUFV02. In addition, analyses with microsatellite markers linked to the Rpp1-Rpp5 loci were also performed. The segregation pattern obtained in 26C-2 revealed that resistance was governed by a recessive gene; a 1:2:1 segregation pattern was observed in 26C-5, indicating control by a gene with partial dominance. This variability may have been caused because environmental conditions, particularly temperature, when 26C-5 was assessed were unfavorable for pathogen development, allowing the phenotypic expression of heterozygous alleles in PI 594767-A. A resistance gene was located in the soybean linkage group G, in the genomic region between Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 that contains the Rpp1 locus. Resistance in PI 594767-A is probably conferred by a new Rpp1 gene allele, because this accession has a haplotype for Sct_187r2 and Sat_064, which differs from haplotypes of accessions that also contain resistance alleles that map the Rpp1 locus. The use of Sct_187r2 and Sat_064 will facilitate the introgression of the resistance allele from PI 594767-A and its pyramiding with other resistance genes into genotypes with superior agronomic characteristics, in order to obtain cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to P. pachyrhizi.

  6. Elicited soybean (Glycine max L.) extract improves regulatory T cell activity in high fat-fructose diet mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atho'illah, Mochammad Fitri; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by the central distribution of abdominal fat, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. A high-fat diet can lead to overnutrition and directly trigger inflammation in adipose tissue. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential negative regulators of inflammation. Soybean (Glycine max L.) has a variety of beneficial health. It contains isoflavones, particularly daidzein and genistein which can be transformed using microbial and physical stimuli to enhance bioactivity. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of elicited soybean extract (ESE) on Treg activity in high fat-fructose (HFFD) mice. Twenty-eight female Balb/C mice were divided into seven groups: normal diet (ND) only, ND + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, HFFD only, HFFD + Simvastatin 2.8 mg/kg, HFFD + ESE 78 mg/kg BW, HFFD + ESE 104 mg/kg BW, and HFFD + ESE 130 mg/kg BW. The high fat-fructose diet was given over a period of 20 weeks, and ESE was administered orally per day after 20 weeks for four weeks. At week 24, the animals were sacrificed and the spleen was collected. Tregs were labeled as CD4+CD25+CD62L+ and the relative Treg number was measured using flow cytometry. The HFFD treatment significantly decreased Treg number (p < 0.05) compared to a normal diet. The ESE treatment in HFFD mice could improve Treg numbers compared to HFFD mice. Our results suggest that ESE has potential to be used as a supplement to suppress chronic inflammation via increased Treg number.

  7. Transpiration response of 'slow-wilting' and commercial soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotypes to three aquaporin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Walid; Sinclair, Thomas R

    2010-03-01

    The slow-wilting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotype, PI 416937, exhibits a limiting leaf hydraulic conductance for transpiration rate (TR) under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD). This genotype has a constant TR at VPD greater than 2 kPa, which may be responsible for its drought tolerance as a result of soil water conservation. However, the exact source of the hydraulic limitation between symplastic and apoplastic water flow in the leaf under high VPD conditions are not known for PI 416937. A comparison was made in the TR response to aquaporin (AQP) inhibitors between PI 416937 and N01-11136, a commercial genotype that has a linear TR response to VPD in the 1-3.5 kPa range. Three AQP inhibitors were tested: cycloheximide (CHX, a de novo synthesis inhibitor), HgCl(2), and AgNO(3). Dose-response curves for the decrease in TR following exposure to each inhibitor were developed. Decreases in TR of N01-11136 following treatment with inhibitors were up to 60% for CHX, 82% for HgCl(2), and 42% for AgNO(3). These results indicate that the symplastic pathway terminating in the guard cells of these soybean leaves may be at least as important as the apoplastic pathway for water flow in the leaf under high VPD. While the decrease in TR for PI 416937 was similar to that of N01-11136 following exposure to CHX and HgCl(2), TR of PI 416937 was insensitive to AgNO(3) exposure. These results indicate the possibility of a lack of a Ag-sensitive leaf AQP population in the slow-wilting line, PI 416937, and the presence of such a population in the commercial line, N01-11136.

  8. Salt Stess On Soybean Glycine Max L Merr Improving Salt Stress Tolerance Through Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Suryaman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seeds rapidly deteriorate or loss of viability and vigor especially in stress conditions including by saline. This study was aimed to obtain the best seed viability and vigor of soybean treated by seed priming under salt stress. This study used a randomized completely block design with factorial pattern. First factor was the saline stress of NaCl concentration C which consisted of three levels c0 0 0.5 c1 c2 1.Second factor was the treatment of seed priming P that consisted of 4 levels p0 hydropriming p1 osmopriming p2 matripriming p3 vitamin priming. The experiment was repeated three times. Data collected consisted of germination capacity germination rate hypocotyl and epicotyl length the weight of seedling and the electrical conductivity. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by Duncans multiple range test at 5 percent. The results showed that osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming improved total germination and germination rate of soybean seeds under salinity stress while seed priming with hydropriming caused significantly the reduction of germination total and germination rate in salinity stress of 1 percent. Increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent caused a reduction in hypocotyl and epicotyl length different with osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming that produced hypocotyl and epicotyl longer than hydropriming. In all seed primings increased salinity stress from 0 to 1 percent lowered the weight of seedlings and most drastic reduction of seedling weight occurred in seeds treated with hydropriming. Among seed priming treatments osmopriming matripriming and vitamin priming were more able to reduce membrane leakage compared to hydropriming as indicated by lower electrical conductivity rates contributing the increase in tolerance to salt stress and high in seed viability and vigor.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Roots Inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strain CPAC 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Adalgisa R; Rodrigues, Elisete P; Batista, Jesiane Ss; Gomes, Douglas F; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-01-01

    This research intended to analyze the expression pattern of proteins in roots of the Brazilian soybean cultivar Conquista when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum CPAC 15, a strain broadly used in commercial inoculants in Brazil. At ten days after bacterial inoculation, whole-cell proteins were extracted from roots and separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis. Comparative analysis revealed significant changes in the intensity of 37 spots due to the inoculation (17 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated proteins), identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-TOF. Identified proteins were associated with COG functional categories of information storage and processing, cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and also in the "poorly characterized" and "not in COG" categories. Among the up-regulated proteins, we identified sucrose synthase (nodulin-100), β-tubulin, rubisco activase, glutathione-S-transferase, a putative heat-shock 70-kDa protein, pyridine nucleotide-disulphideoxidoreductase and a putative transposase. Proteomic analysis allowed for the identification of some putative symbiotic functions and confirmed the main biological processes triggered in the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with soybean.

  10. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  11. Large Homogeneous Genome Regions (Isochores in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Lynn Woody

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of plant genomes, while slowly being characterized and defined, is still composed primarily of regions of undefined function. Many eukaryotic genomes contain isochore regions, mosaics of homogeneous GC content that can abruptly change from one neighboring isochore to the next. Isochores are broken into families which are characterized by their GC levels. We identified 4,339 compositionally distinct domains and 331 of these were identified as Long Homogeneous Genome Regions (LHGRs. We assigned these to four families based on finite mixture models of GC content. We then characterized each family with respect to exon length, gene content, and transposeable elements. The LHGR pattern of soybeans is unique in that while the majority of the genes within LHGRs are found within a single LHGR family with a narrow GC-range (Family B, that family is not the highest in GC content as seen in vertebrates and invertebrates. Instead Family B has a mean GC content of 35%. The range of GC content for all LHGRs is 16-59% GC which is a larger range than what is typical of vertebrates. This is the first study in which LHGRs have been identified in soybeans and the functions of the genes within the LHGRs have been analyzed.

  12. A Comparison of transgenic and wild type soybean seeds: analysis of transcriptome profiles using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambirth, Kevin C; Whaley, Adam M; Blakley, Ivory C; Schlueter, Jessica A; Bost, Kenneth L; Loraine, Ann E; Piller, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) has been bred for thousands of years to produce seeds rich in protein for human and animal consumption, making them an appealing bioreactor for producing valuable recombinant proteins at high levels. However, the effects of expressing recombinant protein at high levels on bean physiology are not well understood. To address this, we investigated whether gene expression within transgenic soybean seed tissue is altered when large amounts of recombinant proteins are being produced and stored exclusively in the seeds. We used RNA-Seq to survey gene expression in three transgenic soybean lines expressing recombinant protein at levels representing up to 1.61 % of total protein in seed tissues. The three lines included: ST77, expressing human thyroglobulin protein (hTG), ST111, expressing human myelin basic protein (hMBP), and 764, expressing a mutant, nontoxic form of a staphylococcal subunit vaccine protein (mSEB). All lines selected for analysis were homozygous and contained a single copy of the transgene. Each transgenic soybean seed was screened for transgene presence and recombinant protein expression via PCR and western blotting.  Whole seed mRNA was extracted and cDNA libraries constructed for Illumina sequencing.  Following alignment to the soybean reference genome, differential gene expression analysis was conducted using edgeR and cufflinks.  Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes was carried out using the gene ontology analysis tool AgriGO. The transcriptomes of nine seeds from each transgenic line were sequenced and compared with wild type seeds. Native soybean gene expression was significantly altered in line 764 (mSEB) with more than 3000 genes being upregulated or downregulated. ST77 (hTG) and ST111 (hMBP) had significantly less differences with 52 and 307 differentially expressed genes respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis found that the upregulated genes in the 764 line were annotated with functions

  13. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  14. Demand and supply of N in seed production of soybean (Glycine max) at different N fertilization levels after flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Sato, Takashi; Oikawa, Shimpei; Hirose, Tadaki

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has been suggested as a determinant of seed production especially in species with high seed N content. Assuming that seed yield was determined as the balance between N demand and supply for seed production, we studied the effect of N fertilization after flowering on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yield. Seed N concentration was nearly constant irrespective of N fertilization, indicating that seed production was proportional to the amount of N available for seed growth. N demand for seed production was analyzed as the product of seed number, the rate of N filling in individual seeds, and the length of the reproductive period. N fertilization increased seed number and the reproductive period, but did not influence the N filling rate. Seed number was positively correlated with dry mass productivity after flowering. Three N sources were distinguished: mineral N uptake, symbiotic N(2) fixation and N remobilization from vegetative body. N fertilization increased N uptake and N remobilization, but lowered N(2) fixation. We concluded that N availability in the reproductive period determined seed yield directly through increasing N supply for seed growth and indirectly through increasing seed N demand with enhanced plant dry mass productivity.

  15. Characterization of an Acidic Chitinase from Seeds of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr Tainan No. 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Min; Chen, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chiang, Chui-Liang; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″-triacetylchitotrioside (4-MU-GlcNAc3) as a substrate, an acidic chitinase was purified from seeds of black soybean (Glycine max Tainan no. 3) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and three successive steps of column chromatography. The purified chitinase was a monomeric enzyme with molecular mass of 20.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.34. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides with chain length from 3 to 5 (GlcNAcn, n = 3-5), and pNp-GlcNAc4 was the most degradable substrate. Using pNp-GlcNAc4 as a substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.0; kinetic parameters Km and kcat were 245 µM and 10.31 min−1, respectively. This enzyme also showed activity toward CM-chitin-RBV, a polymer form of chitin, and N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides, an oligomer form of chitin. The smallest oligomer substrate was an N-acetylglucosamine tetramer. These results suggested that this enzyme was an endo-splitting chitinase with short substrate cleavage activity and useful for biotechnological applications, in particular for the production of N-acetyl chitooligosaccharides. PMID:25437446

  16. Genetic analysis of soybean resistance to Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoli Fronza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genetic control of soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS, a 5 x 5 diallel with the F2 generation, without the reciprocals, was carried out in a greenhouse. The following parents were used: Forrest, MG/BR-46 (Conquista, IAC-4, FT-Cristalina, and FT-Estrela. The first two cultivars are more resistant to SDS than IAC-4, which is considered to be moderately resistant to SDS, and the last two cultivars are highly susceptible. The fungus was inoculated with three colonized sorghum grains placed at the bottom of the holes with two soybean seeds. Single plants were evaluated between 14 and 37 days after emergency based on foliar severity symptoms (1-5 of SDS. The disease incidence and a disease index were also calculated for each plot (clay pots with five plants each. The analysis for severity and disease index was performed only with the data of the 37th day after emergence. Additive and dominant genetic effects were detected by Jinks-Hayman's analysis, but the dominant genetic effects were higher. The genetic parameters estimated indicated that the average degree of dominance showed the presence of overdominance; at least three loci or genic blocks that exhibited dominance were responsible for the genetic control of SDS resistance; the estimates of narrow-sense heritabilities were moderate (0.48 to 0.62, but in the broad-sense they were higher (0.90 to 0.95, thus reinforcing the presence of dominance effects; and the resistance to SDS was controlled mostly by dominant alleles. Five microsatellite markers (Satt163, Satt309, Satt354, Satt371 and Satt570, reported as linked to five QRLs of the SDS, were used to genotype the parents and showed the possibility of occurrence of multiallelism in those loci, but this evidence did not invalidate the fitting of the data to the Jinks-Hayman's model.

  17. Soybean (Glycine max L.) N-Turnover Effects on Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    A lysimeter N-experiment was carried out over a period of three years (1986-1988) in Hungary on a slightly calcareous Ramann sandy-loam brown forest soil. In a trial without seed inoculation, the effect of N-fertiliser was studied on yield and N-uptake and the mineral (NO3+ NO2 ) N-content of 0-90 cm soil-layer of soybean. On the given soil with regulated optimal water supply the highest quantity of 200 kg/ha N-dose seemed to give alredy over-fertilization and lowered in its tendency the grain and pod yield. About one third of the dry matter production without roots and foliage at harvest was given by the grain yield, which ranged between 1.8-5.4 t/ha, depending on the treatment applied and on years. The N-content was accumulated chiefly in the grain, its concentration exceeded about 7-10 times the N-content of roots and stalk. The half of the total N-uptake, on an average 102-256 kg/ha, was built in the grain. The highest N-yield = 631 kg/ha was achieved in 1988 by 150 kg/ha N-fertilization per year. In the first years the N-uptake of the plants agreed with the total supply (mineral reserve of soil + given in the form of fertilizer + precipitation N), while in the 3th year a double amount was recorded. The mineral reserve of N in the soil did not decrease at the end of the trial. Presumably, the soil of soybean in monoculture lost gradually its "Rhisobium japonicum sterility", the biological N-fixation increased with the time. In the first years without seed inoculation however, soybean may be in need of N-fertilization. Key Words: soybean, nitrogen, sustainable agriculture Introduction Soya is an important crop and is now grown all over the world (Márton et al. 1998, Márton et al. 1998, Kádár and Márton 1999, Márton and Kádár 1999, Márton and Kádár 1998). This crop originated in the Far East and has been grown in China for more than four thousand years. It has for long been regarded as one of the five sacred grains with rice, wheat, barley and millet

  18. Transcript profiling reveals expression differences in wild-type and glabrous soybean lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromvik Martina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichome hairs affect diverse agronomic characters such as seed weight and yield, prevent insect damage and reduce loss of water but their molecular control has not been extensively studied in soybean. Several detailed models for trichome development have been proposed for Arabidopsis thaliana, but their applicability to important crops such as cotton and soybean is not fully known. Results Two high throughput transcript sequencing methods, Digital Gene Expression (DGE Tag Profiling and RNA-Seq, were used to compare the transcriptional profiles in wild-type (cv. Clark standard, CS and a mutant (cv. Clark glabrous, i.e., trichomeless or hairless, CG soybean isoline that carries the dominant P1 allele. DGE data and RNA-Seq data were mapped to the cDNAs (Glyma models predicted from the reference soybean genome, Williams 82. Extending the model length by 250 bp at both ends resulted in significantly more matches of authentic DGE tags indicating that many of the predicted gene models are prematurely truncated at the 5' and 3' UTRs. The genome-wide comparative study of the transcript profiles of the wild-type versus mutant line revealed a number of differentially expressed genes. One highly-expressed gene, Glyma04g35130, in wild-type soybean was of interest as it has high homology to the cotton gene GhRDL1 gene that has been identified as being involved in cotton fiber initiation and is a member of the BURP protein family. Sequence comparison of Glyma04g35130 among Williams 82 with our sequences derived from CS and CG isolines revealed various SNPs and indels including addition of one nucleotide C in the CG and insertion of ~60 bp in the third exon of CS that causes a frameshift mutation and premature truncation of peptides in both lines as compared to Williams 82. Conclusion Although not a candidate for the P1 locus, a BURP family member (Glyma04g35130 from soybean has been shown to be abundantly expressed in the CS line and very

  19. Deficiency in the amino aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by GmAMADH2, the homologue of rice Os2AP, enhances 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in soybeans (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikit, Siwaret; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Wanchana, Samart; Uyen, Tran T; Huong, Nguyen T T; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2011-01-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the volatile compound that provides the 'popcorn-like' aroma in a large variety of cereal and food products, is widely found in nature. Deficiency in amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was previously shown to be the likely cause of 2AP biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the validity of this mechanism was investigated in soybeans (Glycine max L.). An assay of AMADH activity in soybeans revealed that the aromatic soybean, which contains 2AP, also lacked AMADH enzyme activity. Two genes, GmAMADH1 and GmAMADH2, which are homologous to the rice Os2AP gene that encodes AMADH, were characterized. The transcription level of GmAMADH2 was lower in aromatic varieties than in nonaromatic varieties, whereas the expression of GmAMADH1 did not differ. A double nucleotide (TT) deletion was found in exon 10 of GmAMADH2 in all aromatic varieties. This variation caused a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. Suppression of GmAMADH2 by introduction of a GmAMADH2-RNAi construct into the calli of the two nonaromatic wild-type varieties inhibited the synthesis of AMADH and induced the biosynthesis of 2AP. These results suggest that deficiency in the GmAMADH2 product, AMADH, plays a similar role in soybean as in rice, which is to promote 2AP biosynthesis. This phenomenon might be a conserved mechanism among plant species. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Silicon addition to soybean (Glycine max L.) plants alleviate zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ma Blanca; Echevarria, Virginia; Gonzalo, Ma José; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2016-11-01

    It is well established the beneficial role of silicon (Si) in alleviating abiotic stress. However, it remains poorly understood the mechanisms of the Si-mediated protection against metal deficiency, especially the zinc (Zn) one. Recently, it has been proposed that Si may act by an interaction with this biometal in the root apoplast contributing to its movement through the plant, as in the case of Fe deficiency. In the present work, the effect of initial or continuous Si doses in soybean Zn deficient plants has been studied. For that purpose, plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) under Zn limiting conditions. SPAD index in leaves, several growth parameters, mineral content in the whole plant and the formation of Zn pools in roots were determined. An initial addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution led to an enhancement of plants growth, Zn and Si content in leaves, and a higher storage of Zn in the root apoplast. The results suggest that this treatment enhanced Zn accumulation on roots and its movement to shoots when needed, mitigating Zn deficiency symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungi and bacteria inventory on soybean (Glycine max (L.) merill) planting media applied by local microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhsan, Ni'matuljannah; Vionita

    2017-02-01

    An experiment aimed to determine the effect of application of several types of local microorganisms (MOL) and the number of doses to the development of fungi and bacteria on soybean planting media, have been conducted in Samarinda for 3 (three) months. Factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design and repeated three times, was used in this experiment. The first factor was the type of MOL consisted of cow dung (m1), snails (m2), banana peel (m3) and bamboo roots (m4), and the second factor was the dose MOL zero mL (d0), 100 mL (d1), 200 mL (d2), 300 mL (d3), 400 mL (d4) analyzed with Anova and Least Significance Difference (LSD) at 5%. Fungi and bacteria contained in the local microorganisms (cow dung, snails, banana peel and bamboo root) are: fungus Aspergillus sp, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp., cellulotic and lignolitic bacteria. An increase in the type and amount of fungus is happened for some genus. The dominant bacteria in the planting medium is a gram-negative bacteria. Cow dung seemed the best source at the dosages level of 400 ml.

  2. Evaluation of Selected Soybean Genotypes (GLYCINE MAX L. by Physiological Responses during Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora KRIVOSUDSKA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the experiments were monitored the following varieties: Impala (South African Republic, Maverick (USA, Rankoshi No.1h (Japan and their reactions to the water supply at the beginning of the growth stage R1 and R2 blooming in an interaction with the Nitrazon inoculation of the seeds before a sowing. Mentioned genetic resources were provided for our research purposes by the Plant Production Research Center PRRC Piesany, Gene Bank of the Slovak Republic. Seeding of the particular soy genotypes was made into the containers whilst 50% of seed corn from each genotype was before the sowing inoculated by the usage of Nitrazon inoculant (supplier: Agrokomp, spol. s.r.o., Modra. Water stress was secured by an irrigation interruption for a 7-day period in the mentioned growth stage. This stress had a negative impact on the relative water content in RWC plants, proline content, osmotic potential, SPAD, stress index as well as an amount of nodules on the roots by the all monitored varieties. According to an evaluation of the mentioned indicators more significant proline accumulation was confirmed by the genotype Maverick especially by the variant exposed to water deficit 3,25 micro mol g 1 FW according to the calculations on 100 percent RWC without the inoculant Nitrazon use and inoculating variant 2.99 micro mol g 1 FW according to calculations on 100 percent RWC. Variety MAVERICK had got the best reaction to water stress and even more noticeable resistance to the stress was monitored in the variant with Nitrazon application in the foregoing seed treatment of soybean seeds. The opposite response to the inoculation was monitored by IMPALA genotype when RWC had dropped to 41.77% in the comparison with the variant without inoculation where RWC had dropped to 61.86%.

  3. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Phansak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca. 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating. A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%, and for oil in 25 (52%, of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg–1 and R2 values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed.

  4. Host range of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, was first described in 1903 from leaves of Glycine max subsp. soja, or wild soybean, in Japan. Since that time, there have been numerous reports of the pathogen on various leguminous species around the world, first in Asia, followed by Aust...

  5. Photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain ORS285 Is Capable of Forming Nitrogen-Fixing Root Nodules on Soybeans (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Eric; Xu, Lei; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gargani, Daniel; Gully, Djamel

    2013-01-01

    The ability of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium strains ORS285 and ORS278 to nodulate soybeans was investigated. While the nod gene-deficient ORS278 strain induced bumps only on soybean roots, the nod gene-containing ORS285 strain formed nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, symbiotic efficiencies differed drastically depending on both the soybean genotype used and the culture conditions tested. PMID:23354704

  6. Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes.

  7. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  8. Evaluation of constitutive iron reductase (AtFRO2 expression on mineral accumulation and distribution in soybean (Glycine max. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wilton Vasconcelos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an important micronutrient in human and plant nutrition. Adequate iron nutrition during crop production is central for assuring appropriate iron concentrations in the harvestable organs, for human food or animal feed. The whole-plant movement of iron involves several processes, including the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron at several locations throughout the plant, prior to transmembrane trafficking of ferrous iron. In this study, soybean plants that constitutively expressed the AtFRO2 iron reductase gene were analyzed for leaf iron reductase activity, as well as the effect of this transgene's expression on root, leaf, pod wall, and seed mineral concentrations. High Fe supply, in combination with the constitutive expression of AtFRO2, resulted in significantly higher concentrations of different minerals in roots (K, P, Zn, Ca, Ni, Mg and Mo, pod walls (Fe, K, P, Cu and Ni, leaves (Fe, P, Cu, Ca, Ni and Mg and seeds (Fe, Zn, Cu and Ni. Leaf and pod wall iron concentrations increased as much as 500% in transgenic plants, while seed iron concentrations only increased by 10%, suggesting that factors other than leaf and pod wall reductase activity were limiting the translocation of iron to seeds. Protoplasts isolated from transgenic leaves had three-fold higher reductase activity than controls. Expression levels of the iron storage protein, ferritin, were higher in the transgenic leaves than in wild-type, suggesting that the excess iron may be stored as ferritin in the leaves and therefore unavailable for phloem loading and delivery to the seeds. Also, citrate and malate levels in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type, suggesting that organic acid production could be related to the increased accumulation of minerals in roots, leaves and pod walls, but not in the seeds. All together, these results suggest a more ubiquitous role for the iron reductase in whole-plant mineral accumulation and

  9. Efeito da temperatura do solo na infectividade e reprodução det Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em cultivares de soja Effect of soil temperature on infectivity and reprodution of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A infectividade e a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Heterodera glycines, em cultivar suscetível e resistente de soja, diferiram, de acordo com a temperatura do solo. A 28ºC o número de massas de ovos, total de ovos, de fêmeas e a porcentagem de sucesso de parasitismo dos juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 em cada cultivar (suscetível e resistentes de soja infestada com M. javanica foram, significativamente maiores, comparados com as demais temperaturas (32º C, 26º C, 24º C e 20º C. Entretanto, a soma de juvenis do terceiro e quarto estádios (J3 e J4 foi maior em todas as cultivares, quando a temperatura submetida às plantas inoculadas com M. javanica foi de 20º C comparada com as demais temperaturas. A capacidade reprodutiva da fêmea (ovos por fêmea de M. javanica foi sempre maior na cultivar suscetível em cada temperatura testada, porém, significativamente maior na cultivar suscetível colocada a 32º C comparada com as demais temperaturas. Nas relações H. glycines e soja, as temperaturas testadas proporcionaram valores semelhantes para a população total (fêmeas e cistos na cultivar resistente. Na cultivar suscetível, a temperatura de 28º C aumentou significativamente o número de fêmeas, total de fêmeas e cistos e a porcentagem de parasitismo de J2 de H. glycines, comparada com todas as demais temperaturas.The infectivity and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars differs according to soil temperatures. At 28ºC the egg-mass number, total eggs, and females, and percentage of parasitism success of second stage juveniles (J2 in each cultivar (susceptible and resistants of infested soybean with M. javanica were significantly greater when compared to other temperatures (32º C, 26º C, 24º C and 20º C. However, the sum of third and fourth juvenile stages (J3 and J4 was greater in all cultivars when M. javanica inoculated plants were submitted to

  10. Mapping QTLs for 100-seed weight in an interspecific soybean cross of Williams 82 (Glycine max) x PI 366121 (Glycine soja)

    Science.gov (United States)

    100-seed weight is a critical component for soybean quality and yield. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 100-seed weight using 169 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross of Williams 82 x PI 366121. The parental lines and RILs were g...

  11. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-04-16

    Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes.

  12. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  13. High level transgenic expression of soybean (Glycine max GmERF and Gmubi gene promoters isolated by a novel promoter analysis pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Michelle L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although numerous factors can influence gene expression, promoters are perhaps the most important component of the regulatory control process. Promoter regions are often defined as a region upstream of the transcriptional start. They contain regulatory elements that interact with regulatory proteins to modulate gene expression. Most genes possess their own unique promoter and large numbers of promoters are therefore available for study. Unfortunately, relatively few promoters have been isolated and characterized; particularly from soybean (Glycine max. Results In this research, a bioinformatics approach was first performed to identify members of the Gmubi (G.max ubiquitin and the GmERF (G. max Ethylene Response Factor gene families of soybean. Ten Gmubi and ten GmERF promoters from selected genes were cloned upstream of the gfp gene and successfully characterized using rapid validation tools developed for both transient and stable expression. Quantification of promoter strength using transient expression in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus cotyledonary tissue and stable expression in soybean hairy roots showed that the intensity of gfp gene expression was mostly conserved across the two expression systems. Seven of the ten Gmubi promoters yielded from 2- to 7-fold higher expression than a standard CaMV35S promoter while four of the ten GmERF promoters showed from 1.5- to 2.2-times higher GFP levels compared to the CaMV35S promoter. Quantification of GFP expression in stably-transformed hairy roots of soybean was variable among roots derived from different transformation events but consistent among secondary roots, derived from the same primary transformation events. Molecular analysis of hairy root events revealed a direct relationship between copy number and expression intensity; higher copy number events displayed higher GFP expression. Conclusion In this study, we present expression intensity data on 20 novel soybean promoters

  14. Cooking methods affect phytochemical composition and anti-obesity potential of soybean (Glycine max seeds in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerile Ypolyte Woumbo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at investigating the effects of three domestic cooking methods (roasting, sprouting and boiling on phytochemical contents (phenolic content, flavonoid, fibre, and anti-obesity (weight loss, hypoglycemic effect, serum lipids potential of soybean seeds in obese male rats. Ten different forms were implemented, combining hulled/unhulled and raw/cooked soybean seeds using a basal and a hypercaloric diet as controls. Unhulled Roasted Soybean (URS exhibited the highest phenolic content and a greater antioxidant activity by the FRAP assay than BHT at certain concentrations. Hulled boiled Soybean (HBS showed the highest flavonoid content while Hulled Germinated Soybean (HGS presented the lowest fibre content (P < 0.05. Unhulled Boiled Soybean (UBS induced the best reduction in food intake while Unhulled Soybean Extract (USE exhibited the greatest slimming effect. HBS exhibited the best cholesterol lowering ability; URS and Unhulled germinated Soybean (UGS respectively induced the highest increase in HDL cholesterol levels and reduction in triglyceride levels. UBS demonstrated the highest ability to lower LDL cholesterol. UGS exhibited the highest ability to lower the postprandial blood glucose. Culinary treatments affect phytochemical content and anti-obesity potential of soybean seeds.

  15. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  16. Manganese (Mn) stress toward hyperaccumulators plants combination (HPC) using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition on soybean (Glycine max) seedling stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Tania Sylviana; Zahroh, Tata Taqiyyatuz; Merindasya, Mirza; Masfaridah, Ririn; Hartanti, Dyah Ayu Sri; Arum, Sekar; Nurhatika, Sri; Muhibuddin, Anton; Surtiningsih, Tini; Arifiyanto, Achmad

    2017-06-01

    Heavy metals were a metal bracket which had a specific gravity greater than 5 g / cm3. Manganese was one of them because it has a specific gravity of 7.4 g / cm3. Together with widespread cases of soil contamination caused by heavy metals as well as increased development of the science of breeding ground rapidly, then the alternative rehabilitation techniques were relatively cheap and effective it needs to be developed and even some cases of contaminated management soil using a combination of plants with microorganisms to be more effective. Thus it was necessary to develop research on plants that were able to accumulate heavy metals and other toxic materials, such as Mn so that the land becomes safe for health and the environment. Based on above reason this research aimed to see the influence of hyperaccumulators combination of plants using Jatropha curcas and lamtoro gung (L. leucocephala) in mychorrizal addition to stressed by manganese (Mn) on soybean (Glycine max). Observations of growth, chlorophyll content and heavy metals analysis performed on nine treatments (P1-P9) and one control (P0). The results showed a combination of hyperaccumulators under mychorrizal helped overcome the stress of manganese (Mn) in the leaves of soybean (G. max). It gave an influence on the number of leaves and chlorophyll content of soybean (G. max), but no effect performed on the height and the roots of soybean (G. max). The use of plants in small amounts hyperaccumulators (P1;1 jatropha and 1 lamtoro) was sufficient to cope with stress of Mn in the leaves of soybean (G. max).

  17. Assessment of land suitability and the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in four basins of Golestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Kamkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Geographical Information System (GIS-based plan was used to assess the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in Golestan province, one of the most important agricultural production regions of Iran. For this purpose, all needed raster layers, including climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC layers, were provided by interpolation, surface analysis and other related techniques in GIS. Overlaid layers were used to judge the capacity of agricultural lands to rotate a canola–soybean system in the study area, which included four important basins. Based on defined scenarios and pre-determined ecological requirements of the two studied crops, five suitability classes were detected and mapped. Our results indicate that just 11.82% of total lands are very suitable to rotate soybean after canola while most agricultural lands in the study area fell into the moderate and low suitability classes. The consistency of results adopted from final overlaid maps with real statistics in the study region show that GIS as a systemic approach can play a vital role in saving time and reducing research costs. These results could help policy makers to design proper cropping patterns, particularly rotation systems.

  18. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the PIN auxin transporter gene family in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqin; Chai, Chenglin; Valliyodan, Babu; Maupin, Christine; Annen, Brad; Nguyen, Henry T

    2015-11-16

    The plant phytohormone auxin controls many aspects of plant growth and development, which largely depends on its uneven distribution in plant tissues. Transmembrane proteins of the PIN family are auxin efflux facilitators. They play a key role in polar auxin transport and are associated with auxin asymmetrical distribution in plants. PIN genes have been characterized in several plant species, while comprehensive analysis of this gene family in soybean has not been reported yet. In this study, twenty-three members of the PIN gene family were identified in the soybean genome through homology searches. Analysis of chromosome distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the soybean PIN genes indicated nine pairs of duplicated genes and a legume specific subfamily. Organ/tissue expression patterns and promoter activity assays of the soybean PINs suggested redundant functions for most duplicated genes and complementary and tissue-specific functions during development for non-duplicated genes. The soybean PIN genes were differentially regulated by various abiotic stresses and phytohormone stimuli, implying crosstalk between auxin and abiotic stress signaling pathways. This was further supported by the altered auxin distribution under these conditions as revealed by DR5::GUS transgenic soybean hairy root. Our data indicates that GmPIN9, a legume-specific PIN gene, which was responsive to several abiotic stresses, might play a role in auxin re-distribution in soybean root under abiotic stress conditions. This study provided the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean PIN gene family. Information on phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, protein profiles and expression profiles of the soybean PIN genes in different tissues and under various abiotic stress treatments helps to identity candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes and/or environmental stress conditions. Our study advances our understanding of plant responses to abiotic stresses

  19. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Li, Yong; Li, Jie; Dai, Cui-hong; Wang, Xi; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Yang, Liang; Zhu, Yan-ming

    2006-02-22

    Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109) leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443-DT084445). The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants.

  20. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Hua

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. Results As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109 leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443~DT084445. Conclusion The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available soybean Glycine max Glycine_max_L.png Glycine_max_NL.png Glycine_max_S.png Glycine_max..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa (mucuna deeringiana and soybean (glycine max Características físico-químicas e propriedades funcionais de vitabosa(Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Chaparro Acuña

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical characteristics and functional properties of vitabosa flour (Mucuna deeringiana and soybean flour (Glycine max were determined. Oil absorption capacity was higher in vitabosa. Water absorption capacity was higher in soy and it was affected by the change in the ionic strength of the medium. Emulsifying Activity (EA decreased with increasing concentration of flour, while Emulsifying Stability (ES showed an increased. EA and ES of flours have more ionic strength in the range between 0.0 and 0.4 M, but it is reduced afterwards with the higher concentration of NaCl. Foaming stability varied with the concentration of flour solution reaching maximum values of 39 and 33% for vitabosa and soybean, respectively at 10% flour concentration.Vitabosa had the best foaming capacity (56% to 0.6 M compared with soybeans (47% to 0.4 M. Maximum capacity of gelation was observed in vitabosa at 10% flour concentration. Increases in ionic strength of the flour solution, at low salt concentrations (Varias características físico-químicas e funcionais para farinha de vitabosa (Mucuna deeringiana e soja (Glycine max foram avaliadas. A vitabosa apresentou maior capacidade de absorção de óleo enquanto a soja mostrou maior capacidade de absorção de água, sendo esta última altamente dependente das mudanças na força iônica do meio. A Atividade Emulsificante (AE diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de farinha, enquanto que a estabilidade de emulsão (ES aumentou. Tanto para a farinha de vitabosa quanto a de soja, os valores de AE e ES incrementaram no intervalo 0,0-0,4 M. Com relação à estabilidade da espuma, esta propriedade variou com a concentração da farinha, atingindo valores máximos de 39% (vitabosa e 33% (soja para uma concentração de 10%. A farinha de vitabosa teve a melhor capacidade espumante (56% para 0,6 M em comparação com a de soja (47% a 0,4 M. A maior capacidade de gelificação foi observada em farinha de vitabosa para

  3. Identification of large variation in the photosynthetic induction response among 37 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes that is not correlated with steady-state photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleh, M A; Tanaka, Y; Kim, S Y; Huber, S C; Sakoda, K; Shiraiwa, T

    2017-03-01

    Irradiance continuously fluctuates during the day in the field. The speed of the induction response of photosynthesis in high light affects the cumulative carbon gain of the plant and could impact growth and yield. The photosynthetic induction response and its relationship with the photosynthetic capacity under steady-state conditions (P max) were evaluated in 37 diverse soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes. The induction response of leaf photosynthesis showed large variation among the soybean genotypes. After 5 min illumination with strong light, genotype NAM23 had the highest leaf photosynthetic rate of 33.8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1, while genotype NAM12 showed the lowest rate at 4.7 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Cumulative CO2 fixation (CCF) during the first 5 min of high light exposure ranged from 5.5 mmol CO2 m-2 for NAM23 to 0.81 mmol CO2 m-2 for NAM12. The difference in the induction response among genotypes was consistent throughout the growth season. However, there was no significant correlation between CCF and P max among genotypes suggesting that different mechanisms regulate P max and the induction response. The observed variation in the induction response was mainly attributed to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activation, but soybean lines differing in the induction response did not differ in the leaf content of Rubisco activase α- and β-proteins. Future studies will be focused on identifying molecular determinants of the photosynthetic induction response and determining whether this trait could be an important breeding target to achieve improved growth of soybeans in the field.

  4. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  5. Effects of light quality on pod elongation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Seiya; Ario, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Andressa Camila Seiko; Tomita, Yuki; Murayama, Naoki; Taniguchi, Takatoshi; Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-06-03

    Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods. On the other hand, the elongation of cowpea pods treated with red light markedly promoted during the light period. These results suggested that the difference in the pod set sites between soybean and cowpea might account for the difference in their red light responses for pod growth.

  6. Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans (Glycine max L.) MON 87708 and MON 87708 × MON 89788 Are Compositionally Equivalent to Conventional Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary; Bickel, Anna; Mannion, Rhonda; Bell, Erin; Harrigan, George G

    2017-09-13

    Herbicide-tolerant crops can expand both tools for and timing of weed control strategies. MON 87708 soybean has been developed through genetic modification and confers tolerance to the dicamba herbicide. As part of the safety assessment conducted for new genetically modified (GM) crop varieties, a compositional assessment of MON 87708 was performed. Levels of key soybean nutrients and anti-nutrients in harvested MON 87708 were compared to levels of those components in a closely related non-GM variety as well as to levels measured in other conventional soybean varieties. From this analysis, MON 87708 was shown to be compositionally equivalent to its comparator. A similar analysis conducted for a stacked trait product produced by conventional breeding, MON 87708 × MON 89788, which confers tolerance to both dicamba and glyphosate herbicides, reached the same conclusion. These results are consistent with other results that demonstrate no compositional impact of genetic modification, except in those cases where an impact was an intended outcome.

  7. Composition of grain, forage, and processed fractions from second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean, MON 89788, is equivalent to that of conventional soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundry, Denise R; Ridley, William P; Meyer, Jiaying J; Riordan, Susan G; Nemeth, Margaret A; Trujillo, William A; Breeze, Matthew L; Sorbet, Roy

    2008-06-25

    Developments in biotechnology and molecular-assisted breeding have led to the development of a second-generation glyphosate-tolerant soybean product, MON 89788. The MON 89788 event was produced by direct transformation of a cp4 epsps (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) gene cassette derived from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4 into an elite soybean germplasm known for its superior agronomic characteristics and high yielding property. The purpose of this work was to assess whether the nutrient and antinutrient levels in seed and forage tissues of MON 89788 are comparable to those in the conventional soybean variety, A3244, which has background genetics similar to MON 89788 but does not contain the cp4 epsps gene cassette. Additional conventional soybean varieties currently in the marketplace were also included in the analysis to establish a range of natural variability for each analyte, where the range of variability is defined by a 99% tolerance interval for that particular analyte. Compositional analyses were conducted on forage, seed and four processed fractions from soybeans grown in ten sites across both the United States and Argentina during the 2004-2005 growing seasons. Forage samples were analyzed for levels of proximates (ash, fat, moisture, and protein) and fiber. Seed samples were analyzed for proximates, fiber, antinutrients, and vitamin E. Defatted, toasted (DT) meal was analyzed for proximates, fiber, amino acids, and antinutrients. Refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil was analyzed for fatty acids and vitamin E. Protein isolate was analyzed for amino acids and moisture. Crude Lecithin was analyzed for phosphatides. Results of the comparisons indicate that MON 89788 is compositionally and nutritionally equivalent to conventional soybean varieties currently in commerce.

  8. Detection of novel QTLs for foxglove aphid resistance in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach), is a Hemipteran insect that infected a wide variety of plants worldwide and caused serious yield losses in crops. The objective of this study was to identify the putative QTL for foxglove aphid resistance in wild soybean, PI 366121, (Glycine soja Sieb...

  9. Soybean lines evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four wild and domestic soybean (Glycine max and G. soja) lines were evaluated for resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in growth chamber tests with a day length of 16 hours and temperature held constant at 28 C. Several entries for which reactions to reniform nematode w...

  10. Composição química e conteúdo de ferro solúvel em soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] Chemical composition and soluble iron content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Tamie Paiva Yamada

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A soja é um grão que possui um dos maiores teores de proteína e ferro entre os alimentos de origem vegetal e teve a sua utilização muito aumentada nos últimos anos, principalmente por lactentes que têm problemas de intolerância ao leite de vaca em todo mundo. Em razão da sua grande quantidade de ferro, a soja tem sido investigada quanto à sua capacidade de recuperação de indivíduos anêmicos. No passado, a investigação baseou-se somente na sua quantidade de ferro total, não considerando as frações solúveis (mais biodisponíveis das insolúveis (que são mais dificilmente absorvidas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho realizar análises químicas em quatro cultivares de soja Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 E IAC 15-2, bem como os seus respectivos conteúdos de ferro solúvel. Os teores de proteína nos grãos, que foram em média de 34,46%, foram estatisticamente iguais; o de lipídeos foi maior para a cultivar IAC PL-1, com 20,07% (PSoybean is a grain which possesses one of the highest contents of protein and iron among the foods of plant origin and had its use greatly increased in the latest years, in the eastern countries mainly by lactents who have problems of intolerance to bovine's milk. Due to its great concentration of iron, soybean has been investigated as to its capacity of recovering anemic individuals. In the past, the investigation was based only on its concentration of total iron, not taking into account the soluble fractions (greater bioavailability from the insoluble (which are less bioavailable. This work was designed to accomplish chemical analyses on four soybean cultivars Glycine max (L. Merrill (IAC PL-1; IAC 22; IAC 8-2 and IAC 15-2, as well as their respective contents of soluble iron. Protein contents in the grains, that were on average 34,46% were statistically similar; oil content was greater for the cultivar IAC PL-1, with 20,07% (P<0,01, the same cultivar which presented the lower

  11. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangjun; Xu, Hongliang; Xiao, Shuyang; Qin, Yajuan; Li, Yaxuan; Yan, Yueming; Hu, Yingkao

    2013-10-03

    WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have different evolutionary rates

  12. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. Results We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. Conclusions In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have

  14. EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE ON NODULE PRIMORDIA OF SOYBEAN (Glycine max Merrill IN ACID SOILS IN RHIZOTRON EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiyo Hadi Waluyo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To clarify whether P had a direct or indirect effect on the nodulation  process of soybean grown in acid soils from Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia, a series of rhizotron experiments, with special attention given to formation of nodule primordia, was conducted at Laboratory of  Microbiology, Wageningen University in 1998-2000. It was shown that Ca and P were essential nutrients for root growth, nodule formation, and growth of soybean in the acid soils (Oxisols. Ca increased root growth, number of nodule primordia, nodules, and growth of the soybean plant. This positive effect of Ca was increased considerably by the application of P. Ca and P have a synergistic effect on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of soybean in acid soils. Ca is important for the establishment of nodules, whilst P is essential for the development and function of the formed nodules. P increased number of nodule primordia, thus it also has an important role in the initiation of nodule formation. From this study, it can be concluded that Ca and P are the most limiting nutrients for BNF of soybean in the acid soils of Sitiung, West Sumatra, Indonesia.

  15. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  16. Establishment of in vitro soybean aphids, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a tool to facilitate studies of aphid symbionts, plant-insect interactions and insecticide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunadi, Andika; Bansal, Raman; Finer, John J; Michel, Andy

    2017-06-01

    Studies on plant-insect interactions of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Matsumura), can be influenced by environmental fluctuations, status of the host plant and variability in microbial populations. Maintenance of aphids on in vitro-grown plants minimizes environmental fluctuations, provides uniform host materials and permits the selective elimination of aphid-associated microbes for more standardized controls in aphid research. Aphids were reared on sterile, in vitro-grown soybean seedlings germinated on plant tissue culture media amended with a mixture of antimicrobials. For initiation and maintenance of in vitro aphid colonies, single aphids were inoculated onto single in vitro seedlings. After three rounds of transfer of 'clean' aphids to fresh in vitro seedlings, contamination was no longer observed, and aphids performed equally well when compared with those reared on detached leaves. The addition of the insecticides thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole to the culture medium confirmed uptake and caused significant mortality to the in vitro aphids. The use of the antimicrobial mixture removed the associated bacteria Arsenophonus but retained Buchnera and Wolbachia within the in vitro aphids. The in vitro aphid system is a novel and highly useful tool to understand insecticidal efficacy and expand our knowledge of tritrophic interactions among plants, insects and symbionts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  18. Resistance to Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in transgenic soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar IAS5 expressing a modified Cry1Ac endotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryos of the commercial soybean (Glycine max cultivar IAS5 were co-transformed using particle bombardment with a synthetic form of the Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin crystal protein gene cry1Ac, the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene gusA and the hygromycin resistance gene hpt. Hygromycin-resistant tissues were proliferated individually to give rise to nine sets of clones corresponding to independent transformation events. The co-bombardment resulted in a co-transformation efficiency of 44%. Many histodifferentiated embryos and 30 well-developed plants were obtained. Twenty of these plants flowered and fourteen set seeds. The integration and expression of the cry1Ac, gusA and hpt transgenes into the genomes of a sample of transformed embryos and all T0, T1, T2 and T3 plants were confirmed by Gus activity, PCR, Southern and western blot, and ELISA techniques. Two T0 plants out of the seven co-transformed plants produced seeds and were analyzed for patterns of integration and inheritance until the T3 generation. Bioassays indicated that the transgenic plants were highly toxic to the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis, thus offering a potential for effective insect resistance in soybean.

  19. Efeito do metribuzin sobre a fotossíntese e a tolerância em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill Effects of metribuzin on photosynthesis and tolerance of soybean (Glycine max (L. merill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes doses de metribuzin na taxa fotossintética líquida e na tolerância de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merill, 'Uberaba' e 'Alvorada ', foi conduzido um experimento, em casa de vegetação, no Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau (CEPEC, Ilhéus, BA. Não se constataram diferenças significativas para o efeito das varie dades e para a inter ação variedades x doses, para todos os da dos analisados. Os valores médios da taxa fotossintética líquida foram 22,92; 19,87 e 18,20 mg CO2.dm-2.h-1, para as variedades 'Uberaba ' e 'Alvorada ' submetida s as doses de 0,0; 0,4 e 0,8 kg i.a. ha-1 de metri buzin, respectivamente. O efeito do metri buzin sobre a taxa fotossintética liquida foi evidenciado somente nas plant as submetidas a dose de 0,8 kg i.a. ha-1. O herbi cida não influenciou a abertura estomátic a nem a taxa transpiratória. Com o aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorreu redução no peso médio da matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e da área foliar media das plantas de soja. Destes da dos analisados, verificou-se que o herbicida em menor dose causou mais redução no peso da matéria seca da raiz do que da parte aérea. Doses subletais do metribuzin causaram efeito estimulante na matéria seca relativa da parte aérea, da raiz e da área foliar, nas plantas da variedade 'Uberaba'. Na determinação da inibição de 50 (I50 dos valores acima, verificou se que o metribuzin exerceu maior efeito fitotóxico nas raízes das plantas da variedade 'Alvorada', mostrando ter esta variedade menor capacidade para metabolizar o metribuzin em compostos não-fitotóxicos do que a 'Uberaba'.The effects of different doses of metribuzin on net photosynthetic rates and tolerance of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, 'Alvorada' e Uberaba' pla nta was studiet in glasshouse conditions at Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau (CE-PEC, Ilhéus, BA. No significant differences were observed either among the varieties or the

  20. SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DO SOLO: SOJA [Glycine max (L.] CONSORCIADA COM Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L.] INTERCROPPED WITH Brachiaria decumbens (STAPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel da Silva Barros

    2011-01-01

    vagem, número de grãos por planta, massa de 1.000 grãos e produtividade; e 2 B. decumbens: composição química das plantas, além do acúmulo de matéria seca, em cinco épocas de amostragens. Os sistemas de manejo do solo influenciaram o estande de plantas e a concentração de P, Cu, Fe e Zn, na soja, além do S, na Brachiaria decumbens. O sistema plantio direto apresentou maior produtividade de grãos e produção de fitomassa de B. decumbens, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Rio Largo (AL.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Plantio direto; integração lavoura-pecuária; cultivo mínimo.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems on the soybean yield components intercropped or not with

  1. Metabolism variation and better storability of dark- versus light-coloured soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Qin, Wen-Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Deng, Jun-Cai; Iqbal, Nasir; Liu, Wei-Guo; Du, Jun-Bo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2017-05-15

    The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and β-glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolomic Profiling of Soybeans (Glycine Max L.) Reveals Importance of Sugar and Nitogen Metabolisms under Drought and Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean, an important legume crop, is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially drought and heat stress. At molecular levels, reduced yields due to drought and heat stress can be seen in the alterations of metabolic homeostasis of vegetative tissues. A global metabolomics approach can b...

  3. Complexation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin with 11S protein fractions of soybean (Glycine max) and sesame (Sesamum indicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, S N; Prakash, V

    2009-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) comprises 50% of the whey component of bovine milk. Protein-protein interactions between bovine beta-Lg and 11S protein fractions of soybean and sesame were investigated by turbidity, solubility behaviour and by evaluation of functional properties in the mixed systems. In this work, the aggregation behaviour of soybean and the whey protein (beta-Lg) showed the formation of soluble complexes. Turbidity and solubility studies showed that the proteins interacted at temperatures between 60 and 90+/-5 degrees C. Heating a mixture of beta-Lg and 11S proteins of soybean at higher temperatures formed soluble complexes with beta-Lg. It also reduced the self aggregation behaviour, especially that of 11S protein fraction of soybean. This reduced the precipitation of soybean proteins at higher temperature. The complex formed was resolved by gel filtration using high-performance liquid chromatography. Upon heating beta-Lg at neutral pH, native dimer starts to dissociate into monomers leading to the exposure of previously buried hydrophobic amino acids and the free thiol group. The soluble complex is formed by the exposed thiol groups. But interaction of beta-Lg with sesame 11S protein fractions did not form any soluble complexes. The mechanism of interaction indicates that hydrophobic interactions were preferred over disulfide linkages at the high salt concentrations of the buffer used. During thermal treatment the molecules are unfolded, leading to an exposure of the hydrophobic groups that further enhance the protein-protein interactions that are entropically driven hydrophobic interactions.

  4. Stability of soybean aphid resistance in soybean across different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is the most important insect pest posing a threat to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grain production in the United States. Soybean cultivars with resistance are currently being deployed to aid in management of the pest. Temperature has been reported to ...

  5. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg

  6. Introgression of null allele of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor through marker-assisted backcross breeding in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranna, Shivakumar; Verma, Khushbu; Talukdar, Akshay; Lal, Sanjay Kumar; Kumar, Anil; Mukherjee, Keya

    2016-07-12

    Presence of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) in soybean seeds necessitates pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour for its inactivation before using it in food and feed products. The heat treatment not only enhances processing costs of the soy-based foods and feeds but also affects seed-protein quality and solubility. Genetic elimination of KTI is an important and effective approach. Therefore, molecular marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) approach was adopted for genetic elimination of KTI from two popular soybean genotypes, DS9712 and DS9814. PI542044, an exotic germplasm line was used as donor of the kti allele which inhibits functional KTI peptide production. Foreground selection for the kti allele was performed with three closely linked SSR markers while background selection was done with 93 polymorphic SSR markers. Plants in the BC1F1 generation were found to recover 70.4-87.63 % and 60.26-73.78 % of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) of DS9712 and DS9814, respectively. Similarly, selected plants in the BC2F1 generation had 93.01-98.92 % and 83.3-91.67 % recovery of their respective RPGs. Recombinant selection was performed so as to identify plants with minimal linkage drag. Biochemical analysis of the seeds of the selected plants (ktikti) confirmed absence of KTI peptides in the seeds. Phenotypically, the selected plants were comparable to the respective recurrent parent in yield and other traits. MABB approach helped in speedy development of 6 KTI free breeding lines of soybean. Such lines will be suitable for the farmers and the soybean industries to use in production of soy-based foods and feeds without pre-heat treatment of the soy-flour. It would contribute towards wider acceptability of soy-based foods and feeds.

  7. Seed-borne fungi of soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr) in the guinea savannah agroecology of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Oladimeji; Balogun Olusegun S.; Fawole Oluyemisi B.; Fabiyi Oluwatoyin A.; Hussein Aliyu T.; Kassoum Kassoum O.

    2016-01-01

    Seed health testing of fifteen soybean cultivars obtained from five locations in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecology of Nigeria was carried out using two main seed health testing methods described by the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA); the standard blotter and two variants of agar plate incubation method (Potato Dextrose Agar and Czapeck Dox Agar plate methods) to determine the seed infection by fungi. Seed component plating was also carried out...

  8. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of using Quail Litter Biochar on Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. Production Efecto del uso de Biocarbón de Lecho de Codorniz en la Producción de Soya (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawadchai Suppadit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochars can be used as soil amendments for improving soil properties and crop yield. The objective of this research was to study the plant growth, yield, yield components, and seed quality, including nutrients and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Hg, in the soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merr. and soil. The experiment was conducted from September 2010 to January 2011 in a greenhouse located in the Dan Khun Thot District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The research comprised six treatments with four replicates in a completely randomized design. Quail litter biochar (QLB at rates of 0, 24.6, 49.2, 73.8, 98.4 and 123 g per pot mixture were provided to soybean cv. Chiang Mai 60. The results showed that QLB could be used as a soil fertility improvement and amendment for soybean production with an optimum rate of 98.4 g per pot mixture, which gave the best performance in terms of the number of nodes, height, DM accumulation, total yield, and seed quality. After the experiment, the nutrient contents in the soil increased as the QLB content increased, but the heavy metal residues in the leaves and seeds did not change. However, QLB at levels higher than 98.4 g per pot mixture is not advisable because QLB is alkaline in nature, which may affect soil pH.El biocarbón puede usarse como enmienda para mejorar las propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento del cultivo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue el estudio del crecimiento de la planta, rendimiento y sus características, así como la calidad de semilla, incluyéndose el estudio de nutrientes y metales pesados (Pb, Cd y Hg en la planta de soya (Glycine max L. Merr. y el suelo. La experimentación se realizó en condiciones de invernadero en el distrito de Dan Khun Thot, provincia de Nakhon Ratchasima, Tailandia, entre septiembre del 2010 y enero del 2011. La investigación constó de seis tratamientos con cuatro repeticiones en un diseño completamente al azar. Se administró biocarbón de lecho de

  10. Compositional variability in conventional and glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Glycine max L.) varieties grown in different regions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Berman, Kristina H; Breeze, Matthew L; Nemeth, Margaret A; Oliveira, Wladecir S; Braga, Daniella P V; Berger, Geraldo U; Harrigan, George G

    2011-11-09

    The compositions of a diverse range of commercially available conventional and genetically modified (GM; glyphosate-tolerant) soybean varieties from maturity groups 8 and 5, respectively, grown in the northern and southern soybean regions of Brazil during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 growing seasons were compared. Compositional analyses included measurement of essential macro- and micronutrients, antinutrients, and selected secondary metabolites in harvested seed as well as measurement of proximates in both forage and harvested seed. Statistical comparisons utilized a mixed analysis of variance model to evaluate the relative contributions of growing season, soybean growing region, production site, phenotype (GM or conventional), and variety. The study highlighted extensive variability in the overall data set particularly for components such as fatty acids, vitamin E, and isoflavones. There were few differences between the GM and non-GM populations, and most of the variability in the data set could be attributed to regional and variety differences. Overall, the results were consistent with the expanding literature on the lack of any meaningful impact of transgene insertion on crop composition.

  11. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  12. The essence of NAC gene family to the cultivation of drought-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Reem M; Ali, Mohammed; Feng, Xing; Li, Xia

    2017-02-28

    The NAC gene family is notable due to its large size, as well as its relevance in crop cultivation - particularly in terms of enhancing stress tolerance of plants. These plant-specific proteins contain NAC domain(s) that are named after Petunia NAM and Arabidopsis ATAF1/2 and CUC2 transcription factors based on the consensus sequence they have. Despite the knowledge available regarding NAC protein function, an extensive study on the possible use of GmNACs in developing soybean cultivars with superior drought tolerance is yet to be done. In response to this, our study was carried out, mainly through means of phylogenetic analysis (rice and Arabidopsis NAC genes served as seeding sequences). Through this, 139 GmNAC genes were identified and later grouped into 17 clusters. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was carried out on drought-stressed and unstressed leaf tissues of both sensitive (B217 and H228) and tolerant (Jindou 74 and 78) cultivars. This was done to analyze the gene expression of 28 dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes. Upon completing the analysis, it was found that GmNAC gene expression is actually dependent on genotype. Eight of the 28 selected genes (GmNAC004, GmNAC021, GmNAC065, GmNAC066, GmNAC073, GmNAC082, GmNAC083 and GmNAC087) were discovered to have high expression levels in the drought-resistant soybean varieties tested. This holds true for both extreme and standard drought conditions. Alternatively, the drought-sensitive cultivars exhibited lower GmNAC expression levels in comparison to their tolerant counterparts. The study allowed for the identification of eight GmNAC genes that could be focused upon in future attempts to develop superior soybean varieties, particularly in terms of drought resistance. This study revealed that there were more dehydration-responsive GmNAC genes as (GmNAC004, GmNAC005, GmNAC020 and GmNAC021) in addition to what were reported in earlier inquiries. It is important to note though, that discovering such

  13. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Mousavi; P Sabeti; N Bagherani

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass wee...

  14. Tolerância do tamanho da semente de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr. ao metribuzin Tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L. merr. seeds of different sizes to metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferreira da Silva

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi instalado em casa-de-vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de três tamanhos de sementes de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr., cv. UFV-1 classificadas nas peneiras de 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64 x 3/4", a diferentes doses de metribuzin (4-amino-6-tertbutil-3-(metiltio-as-triazina-5(4H ona . As doses de 0, 300, 600, 900 e 1.200g do i.a./ha foram aplicadas nos materiais do solo de Ponta Nova-MG classificado como franco-argilo-arenoso, e as doses de 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 e 600g do i.a./ha em areia lavada. Nos materiais de solo de Ponte Nova, a inibição de 50% do crescimento (I50 das plantas de soja correspondeu à aplicação de 600, 1050 e 1150 g/ha de metribuzin, enquanto em areia lavada os I-,,, foram de 150, 210 e 265g/ha de metribuzin para as sementes retidas nas peneiras 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64" x 3/4", respectivamente. O aumento do tamanho da semente aumentou a toleráncia da soja ao metribuzin.The tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merr. seeds of three different sizes to the herbicide metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert-butil-3-(metiltio-astriazina-5(4Hona was examined in greenhouse. Seeds were separated on 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x x 3/4" and 15/64" x 3/4" sieves. Herbicide doses equivalent to 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1.200g a.i./ha were applied to a sandy loam Ponte Nova (M.G. soil and 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 to 600g a.i./ha to washed sand. The growth of seeds of size 10, 13 and 15 were 50% inhibited (I50 at levels of 600, 1050 and 1150g of metribuzin in the soil and 150, 210 and 265g/ha in the sand. Thus larger seeds showed greater tolerance.

  15. Effect of silicon addition on soybean (Glycine max) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants grown under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, María José; Lucena, Juan J; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    Silicon is considered an essential element in several crops enhancing growth and alleviating different biotic and abiotic stresses. In this work, the role of Si in the alleviation of iron deficiency symptoms and in the Fe distribution in iron deficient plants has been studied. Thus, soybean and cucumber plants grown in hydroponic culture under iron limiting conditions were treated with different Si doses (0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mM). The use of a strong chelating agent such as HBED avoided Fe co-precipitation in the nutrient solution and allowed for the first time the analysis of Si effect in iron nutrition without the interference of the iron rhizospheric precipitation. SPAD index, plant growth parameters and mineral content in plant organs were determined. For soybean, the addition of 0.5 mM of Si to the nutrient solution without iron, initially or continuously during the experiment, prevented the chlorophyll degradation, slowed down the growth decrease due to the iron deficiency and maintained the Fe content in leaves. In cucumber, Si addition delayed the decrease of stem dry weight, stem length, node number and iron content in stems and roots independently of the dose, but no-effect was observed in chlorosis symptoms alleviation in leaves. The observed response to Si addition in iron deficiency was plant-specific, probably related with the different Fe efficiency strategies developed by these two species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. ANALYSIS AND EXPRESSION OF AL-TOLERANT GENES FROM SOYBEAN [Glycine max (L. Merryl] ON FORAGE CROPS AND Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available n order to analyze and to study expressions of the Al-tolerant genes, we have examined five clone genes that were isolated from soybean cv. Lumut. Soybean cv. Lumut and Slamet, Centrocema pubescens, Pennisetum purpureum and Escherichia coli were selected for futher analysis. Based on the DNA sequencing, searching enzyme restriction sites and searching DNA homology with the genebank database; the clones encoding: (1 Catalase (gmali12, that function as an antioxidant, (2 Proliferating cell nuclear antigen like protein/PCNALP (gmali15, that involved as one of transcriptional regulator in the eucaryotic cell cycle, (3 Growth hormone (gmali22, this gene may play a role on stimulation of cell growth/development, (4 Amine oxidase (gmAO, genebank accession number AF313622, a gene that function as amine oxidation and/or antioxidant, and (5 Aminoacyl peptidase (gmAP, genebank accession number AF091304, a serine protease gene. Expressions of the clone genes either on forage crops or Escherichia coli indicated that all of the clones are basic genes, but its expression increased with aluminium induction (Al-induced genes and involved in detoxification to Al stress. From this research, we also found similar responses between oxidative stress and Al stress to gene responses.

  17. Evaluation of Clethodim Herbicide Efficiency in Comparison to other Graminicides for Weedy Grasses Control in Soybean (Glycin max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mousavi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Lorestan, Kermanshah and Golestan provinces in 2006 to separately evaluation of Clethodim herbicide for weedy grass control in soybean. All experiments were designed as randomized complete blocks with four replicates. Treatments included: clethodim at 0.6, 0.8, 1, and 1.2 L/ha; cycloxydim at 3 L/ha; Haloxyfop-R-methyl at 0.75 L/ha; Quizalofop-P-ethyl at 2 L/ha; and weeding control. In Lorestan postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed biomass by 74%. In Kermanshah, postemergence application of clethodim at 1.2 L/ha reduced grass weed density by 78%. In Golestan, post emergence application of clethodim at 1, and 1.2 L/ha reduced barnyarad grass density 75% and 80% respectively. Accordingly, use of clethodim for grass weed control in soybean, because of high-performance and lower consumption in comparison with some common herbicides is recommended.

  18. Molecular footprints of domestication and improvement in soybean revealed by whole genome re-sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying-hui; Zhao, Shan-cen; Ma, Jian-xin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re......-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed.RESULTS:A total of 5,102,244 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 707,969 insertion/deletions were identified. Among the SNPs detected, 25.5% were not described previously. We found...... that artificial selection during domestication led to more pronounced reduction in the genetic diversity of soybean than the switch from landraces to elite cultivars. Only a small proportion (2.99%) of the whole genomic regions appear to be affected by artificial selection for preferred agricultural traits...

  19. Does competition between soybeans and Wild Poinsettia with low-level resistance or susceptibility to glyphosate affect physiology and secondary metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Rosa Ulguim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wild Poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla L. has elevated potential to reduce the soybean yield and is a difficult to control plant due to herbicide resistance. The objectives of this study were to determine the changes in the photosynthetic physiological parameters, secondary metabolite levels, cellular damage, and antioxidant system activity in soybean plants and Wild Poinsettia biotypes with a low level of resistance or susceptibility to glyphosate in competition with soybeans. Two replacement series experiments were conducted in a greenhouse under competition between soybeans and the low-level resistant biotype (experiment I or susceptible biotype (experiment II. The treatments consisted of different proportions of soybean plants and Wild Poinsettia [100:0 (pure stand of soybean, 50:50, and 0:100 (pure stand of Wild Poinsettia] and different evaluation periods (the 2013/14 and 2014/15 growing seasons. The following parameters were analyzed: the chlorophyll, carotenoid (CRT, total phenol, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and lipid peroxidation levels and the catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzyme activity. Generally, competition between the soybeans and the Wild Poinsettia biotypes did not alter the photosynthetic parameters or the photosynthetic pigment levels of the crop. For the weed biotypes, competition with the soybeans negatively affected photosynthesis. Greater losses of chlorophylls and CRTs were observed for the susceptible biotype when in competition with soybeans, whereas the opposite trend was observed for the biotype with a low level of resistance. No cellular damage or alterations in antioxidant system enzyme activity was observed, which indicated a lack of oxidative stress.

  20. Isolation and Cloning of cDNA of Gene Encoding for Metallothionein Type 2 from Soybean [Glycine max (L. (Merrill] cv. Slamet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTUT WIDYASTUTI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metallothionein has an important role in the detoxification of metal ions. It has a low molecular weight and contains cysteine-rich residue. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA of gene encoding for metallothionein from soybean [Glycine max (L. (Merrill] cv Slamet (GmMt2. We had successfully isolated total RNA by reverse transcription and synthesized total cDNA from total RNA as template. cDNA of GmMt2 had been isolated from total cDNA by PCR. It was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy plasmid, and the recombinant plasmids were introduced into Escherichia coli strain DH5α. Sequence analysis by using T7 and SP6 primers showed that the length of PCR-isolated fragment is 257 bp containing 246 bp completed sequence of Mt2 cDNA encoding for 81 amino acids. Enzyme restriction analysis showed that GmMt2 does not contain any restriction sites found in the multi cloning sites of pGEM-T easy. Nucleotide and amino acid alignment analysis using BLAST program showed that GmMt2 is similar with completed cDNA of AtMt2A from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the motifs of Cys sequence of GmMT2 are Cys-Cys, Cys-X-Cys, and Cys-X-X-Cys.

  1. Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril] em diferentes densidades Performance of genotypes of early-cycle vegetable soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton César de O. Charlo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se avaliar o desempenho de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L. Merril], em diferentes densidades, foi instalado um ensaio, em área experimental do Setor de Olericultura e Plantas Aromático-Medicinais, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal, nas dependências da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de parcelas subdivididas, adotando-se nas parcelas os genótipos e nas subparcelas as densidades, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída por quatro linhas de 4,5m de plantio, com densidades de 20, 10 e 7 plantas por metro e 0,60m nas entrelinhas, sendo consideradas para avaliação 20 plantas por parcela, das duas linhas centrais. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células, contendo substrato Plantmax Hortaliças®. O transplantio ocorreu dez dias após a semeadura, em solo devidamente preparado, conforme recomendações para a cultura. A colheita foi realizada quando os legumes estavam em estádio reprodutivo R6. Avaliaram-se os genótipos JLM010 e CNPSOI quanto às características: número médio de legumes por planta, número médio de sementes por legume, massa fresca de 100 sementes e produtividade estimada de grãos imaturos. Com base nos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o genótipo JLM010 é o mais recomendado e deve ser plantado na densidade de 7 plantas por metro.With the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector of Vegetable Crops and Aromatic Medicinal Plants, belonging to the Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus-SP. The experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing

  2. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  3. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  4. Fast neutron induced structural rearrangements at a soybean NAP1 locus result in gnarled trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) gnarled trichome mutant, exhibiting stunted trichomes compared to wild-type, was identified in a fast neutron mutant population. Genetic mapping using whole genome sequence-based bulked segregant analysis identified a 26.6 megabase interval on chromosome 20 that ...

  5. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  6. Effect of inoculation and time of application of microbes on growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Muslikah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of inorganic fertilizers continuously can result in hardening of soil, narrowing of soil pores, thus the roots will have difficulty in penetrating soil. Biological properties of soil that decreases could lead to disruption of microorganism activity, so that the decomposition of organic matter of soil become obstructedand soil fertility decline. Therefore, it is advisable to use an alternative to application of microbes, i.e. Rhizobium and effective microorganisms 4 (EM4 that will enhance the availability of nutrients for plants. This study was aimed to determine the effect of inoculation and time of application of the microbes on the growth and yield of soybean. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse located 500 m above sea level. The design used for the experiment was a completely randomized design with three replications. Observations of non-destructive and destructive data were analyzed by analysis of variance (F test at 5% level and continued with LSD at 5% level. The results showed significant effect treatments applied on the growth and yield components. Treatment i6 (EM4 applied at 1 week after planting was the best treatment, as shown by the increased number of pods by 95.94%,  dry weight of pods by 38.25%, total dry matter, seed by 24.61%, and 68.40% weight of 100 seeds.

  7. Redox markers for drought-induced nodule senescence, a process occurring after drought-induced senescence of the lowest leaves in soybean (Glycine max)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Belén; Shaw, Daniel; Cooper, James William; Karpinska, Barbara; Quain, Marian Dorcas; Makgopa, Eugene Matome; Kunert, Karl; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Water is an increasingly scarce resource that limits crop productivity in many parts of the world, and the frequency and severity of drought are predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Improving tolerance to drought stress is therefore important for maximizing future crop yields. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of drought on soybean (Glycine max) leaves and nodules in order to define phenotypic markers and changes in cellular redox state that characterize the stress response in different organs, and to characterize the relationships between leaf and nodule senescence during drought. Methods Leaf and crown nodule metabolite pools were measured together with leaf and soil water contents, and leaf chlorophyll, total protein contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence quenching parameters in nodulated soybeans that were grown under either well-watered conditions or deprived of water for up to 21 d. Key Results Ureides, ascorbate, protein, chlorophyll and the ratios of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv′) to maximal chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fm′) fell to levels below detection in the oldest leaves after 21 d of drought. While these drought-induced responses were not observed in the youngest leaf ranks, the Fv′/Fm′ ratios, pyridine nucleotide levels and the reduction state of the ascorbate pool were lower in all leaf ranks after 21 d of drought. In contrast to leaves, total nodule protein, pyridine nucleotides, ureides, ascorbate and glutathione contents increased as a result of the drought treatment. However, the nodule ascorbate pool was significantly less reduced as a result of drought. Higher levels of transcripts encoding two peroxiredoxins were detected in nodules exposed to drought stress but senescence-associated transcripts and other mRNAs encoding redox-related proteins were similar under both conditions. Conclusions While the physiological impact of the drought was perceived throughout the

  8. Fine mapping of the soybean aphid-resistance genes Rag6 and Rag3c from Glycine soja 85-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichen; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wen, Zixiang; Gu, Cuihua; An, Yong-Qiang Charles; Bales, Carmille; DiFonzo, Chris; Song, Qijian; Wang, Dechun

    2017-12-01

    Rag6 and Rag3c were delimited to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 and a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Structural variants in the exons of candidate genes were identified. The soybean aphid, an invasive species, has significantly threatened soybean production in North America since 2000. Host-plant resistance is known as an ideal management strategy for aphids. Two novel aphid-resistance loci, Rag6 and Rag3c, from Glycine soja 85-32, were previously detected in a 10.5-cM interval on chromosome 8 and a 7.5-cM interval on chromosome 16, respectively. Defining the exact genomic position of these two genes is critical for improving the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance and for identification of the functional genes. To pinpoint the locations of Rag6 and Rag3c, four populations segregating for Rag6 and Rag3c were used to fine map these two genes. The availability of the Illumina Infinium SoySNP50K/8K iSelect BeadChip, combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers discovered through the whole-genome re-sequencing of E12901, facilitated the fine mapping process. Rag6 was refined to a 49-kb interval on chromosome 8 with four candidate genes, including three clustered nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes and an amine oxidase encoding gene. Rag3c was refined to a 150-kb interval on chromosome 16 with 11 candidate genes, two of which are a LRR gene and a lipase gene. Moreover, by sequencing the whole-genome exome-capture of the resistant source (E12901), structural variants were identified in the exons of the candidate genes of Rag6 and Rag3c. The closely linked SNP markers and the candidate gene information presented in this study will be significant resources for integrating Rag6 and Rag3c into elite cultivars and for future functional genetics studies.

  9. The effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield, yield components and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroomandan, P; Khoramivafa, M; Haghi, Y; Ebrahimi, A

    2009-02-15

    Effects of nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density on yield and oil and protein content of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) are not well understood, because nitrogen starter fertilizer and plant density has been tested separately. Two years field experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of these factors on yield, yield components, oil and protein content in 2006 and 2007 in Kermanshah, Iran. The experiment was conducted on soybean (var. Williams) as a split-plot based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Nitrogen starter fertilizer treatments were arranged in three rates (0, 40, 80 kg ha(-1)) as main plots and plant density as sub plots arranged with three levels (15, 30, 45 plant m(-2)). Based on similarity treatments and experimental designs, the results of analysis of combined variance and mean comparisons showed significant (528.4 kg ha(-1) yield increase as density increased from 30 to 45 plant m(-2) and nitrogen starter fertilizer increased from 0 to 40 kg ha(-1) in two years. Analysis of correlation showed a positive significant correlation between yield and number of seed per plant (r = 0.724), number of pods and yield (r = 0.463), thousand seed weight and yield (r = 0.437). A linear regression was found between yield and number of seed per plant, number of pods and thousand seed weight (yield = 37.58 + 0.73x1-0.14x2 + 0.7x3; r2 = 0.56); p < 0.01). Seed protein was unaffected by plant densities, but nitrogen application changed it. Dissimilarly, oil content has a diverse respond to treatments. This experiment showed density of 45 plant m(-2) and application of nitrogen starter fertilizer 40 kg ha(-1) are optimum and increase grain yield under condition of our experiment. We suggest to conduct some experiments for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for understanding of linear relationship for number of pod for levels of nitrogen starter and quadratic relationship for number of seed for levels of density.

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling linolenic acid concentration in PI483463 (Glycine soja).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bo-Keun; Kim, Hyun-Jee; Velusamy, Vijayanand; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T; Shannon, J Grover; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2014-07-01

    The QTLs controlling alpha-linolenic acid concentration from wild soybean were mapped on nine soybean chromosomes with various phenotypic variations. New QTLs for alpha-linolenic acid were detected in wild soybean. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid desired in human and animal diets. Some wild soybean (Glycine soja) genotypes are high in ALA. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling ALA concentration in a wild soybean accession, PI483463. In total, 188 recombinant inbred lines of F5:6, F5:7, and F5:8 generations derived from a cross of wild soybean PI483463 (~15 % ALA) and cultivar Hutcheson (~9 % ALA) were planted in four environments. Harvested seeds were used to measure fatty acid concentration. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers of the universal soybean linkage panel (USLP 1.0) and simple sequence repeat markers were used for molecular genotyping. Nine putative QTLs were identified that controlled ALA concentration by model-based composite interval mapping and mapped to different soybean chromosomes. The QTLs detected in four environments explained 2.4-7.9 % of the total phenotypic variation (PV). Five QTLs, qALA5_3, qALA6_1, qALA14_1, qALA15_1, and qALA17_1, located on chromosomes 5, 6, 14, 15, and 17 were identified by model-based composite interval mapping and composite interval mapping in two individual environments. Among them, qALA6_1 showed the highest contribution to the PV with 10.0-10.2 % in two environments. The total detected QTLs for additive and epistatic effects explained 52.4 % of the PV for ALA concentration. These findings will provide useful information for understanding genetic structure and marker-assisted breeding programs to increase ALA concentration in seeds derived from wild soybean PI483463.

  11. Chemopreventive effect of raw and cooked lentils (Lens culinaris L) and soybeans (Glycine max) against azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Takruri, Hamed R; Shomaf, Maha S; Bustanji, Yasser K

    2009-05-01

    Although lentils (Lens culinaris L) contain several bioactive compounds that have been linked to the prevention of cancer, the in vivo chemopreventive ability of lentils against chemically induced colorectal cancer has not been examined. Our present study examined the hypothesis that lentils could suppress the early carcinogenesis in vivo by virtue of their bioactive micro- and macroconstituents and that culinary thermal treatment could affect their chemopreventive potential. To accomplish this goal, we used raw whole lentils (RWL), raw split lentils (RSL), cooked whole lentils (CWL), and cooked split lentils (CSL). Raw soybeans (RSB; Glycine max) were used for the purpose of comparison with a well-studied chemopreventive agent. Sixty weanling Fischer 344 male rats, 4 to 5 weeks of age, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (10 rats/group): the control group (C) received AIN-93G diet, and treatment leguminous groups of RWL, CWL, RSL, CSL, and RSB received the treatment diets containing AIN-93G+5% of the above-mentioned legumes. After acclimatization for 1 week (at 5th to 6th week of age), all animals were put on the control and treatment diets separately for 5 weeks (from 6th to 11th week of age). At the end of the 5th week of feeding (end of 11th week of age), all rats received 2 subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane carcinogen at 15 mg/kg rat body weight per dose once a week for 2 consecutive weeks. After 17 weeks of the last azoxymethane injection (from 12th to 29th week of age), all rats were euthanized. Chemopreventive ability was assessed using colonic aberrant crypt foci and activity of hepatic glutathione-S-transferases. Significant reductions (P lentils might be protective against colon carcinogenesis and that hydrothermal treatment resulted in an improvement in the chemopreventive potential for the whole lentils.

  12. Host specificity of Aphelinus species collected from soybean aphid in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is native to Asia where it is an occasional pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Aphis glycines was found during 2000 in North America and since then has spread throughout much of the area where soybean is grown. In Asia, A. glycines ...

  13. Domestication footprints anchor genomic regions of agronomic importance in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingpeng; Zhao, Xue; Liu, Dongyuan; Li, Yinghui; Lightfoot, David A; Yang, Zhijiang; Zhao, Lin; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhikun; Huang, Long; Zhang, Zhiwu; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Present-day soybeans consist of elite cultivars and landraces (Glycine max, fully domesticated (FD)), annual wild type (Glycine soja, nondomesticated (ND)), and semi-wild type (semi-domesticated (SD)). FD soybean originated in China, although the details of its domestication history remain obscure. More than 500 diverse soybean accessions were sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) to address fundamental questions regarding soybean domestication. In total, 64,141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) > 0.05 were found among the 512 tested accessions. The results indicated that the SD group is not a hybrid between the FD and ND groups. The initial domestication region was pinpointed to central China (demarcated by the Great Wall to the north and the Qinling Mountains to the south). A total of 800 highly differentiated genetic regions and > 140 selective sweeps were identified, and these were three- and twofold more likely, respectively, to encompass a known quantitative trait locus (QTL) than the rest of the soybean genome. Forty-three potential quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs; including 15 distinct traits) were identified by genome-wide association mapping. The results of the present study should be beneficial for soybean improvement and provide insight into the genetic architecture of traits of agronomic importance. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. FUNGICIDES EFFICIENCY TO SOYBEAN SEEDS TREATMENT EFICIÊNCIA DE FUNGICIDAS PARA O TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE SOJA (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Antônio Siqueira de Azevedo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This study was carried out at Escola de Agronomia - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia - GO, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the following fungicides to soybean seeds treatment: 1 thiabendazole + thiram (17 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 2 benomyl + thiram (g.a.i./100kg; 3 difenoconazole (5,0 g.a.i./100kg; 4 difenoconazole + thiram (5,0 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 5 difenoconazole + captan (5,0 + 90 g.a.i./100kg; 6 carbendazin + thiram (30 + 70 g.a.i./100kg; 7 control. All fungicides reduced Fusarium semitectum and Colletotríchum truncatum incidence. Benomyl + thiram presented the highest efficiency in the control of these patogens. Difenoconazole didn’t present reasonable results, but difenoconazole + thiram was similar to thiabenazole + thiram. In field conditions, there was a meaningful increase in plant population as well as in productivity due to the fungicides treatment. Difenoconazole + thiram and carbendazin + thiram treatments provided higher stand at 12, 18 and 26 days after planting.

    KEY-WORDS: Fusarium semitectum; Colletotrichun truncatum; chemical control.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de fungicidas para o tratamento de sementes de soja, foram conduzidos ensaios em laboratório e no campo (Escola de Agronomia - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia - GO, testando os seguintes tratamentos: 1 thiabendazole + thiram (17 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 2 benomyl + thiram (30 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 3 difenoconazole (5,0 g i.a./100 kg; 4 difenoconazole + thiram (5,0 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 5 difenoconazole + captan (5,0 + 90 g i.a./100 kg; 6 carbendazin + thiram (30 + 70 g i.a./100 kg; 7 testemunha. Todos os fungicidas reduziram a incidência de Fusarium semitectum e Colletotrichum

  15. EFEITO DO ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, COMO INDUTOR DE RESISTÊNCIA SISTÊMICA EM SOJA (Glycine max cv. FTCRISTALINA, SOBRE Heterodera glycines EFFECT OF ACIBENZOLAR-S-METHYL (BENZOTHIADIAZOLE, AS A SOYBEAN SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE INDUCTOR, ON Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Martini

    2007-09-01

    ="justify">The systemic acquired resistance is an important self defense mechanism of plants against diseases and it can occur naturally or be induced with chemical products. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzothiadiazole on the induction of resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, at Escola de Agronomia, Universidade Federal de Goias, in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 6 replications. Inoculum consisted of race 4 of H. glycines naturally infested soil, from Chapadão do Céu county. The soybean cv. FT-Cristalina was used for all experiment. Treatments were as follows: 1 control; 2 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l foliar spray; 3 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.30 g/l foliar spray; 4 acibenzolar-S-methyl 0.15 g/l soil drench; 5 acibenzolar-Smethyl 0.30 g/l soil drench. Treatments were applied 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after sowing. At the end of the crop cycle, evaluations were made on number of H. glycines females on roots, number of cysts per 100 cm3 of soil, and number of eggs per cyst. Significatly differences were not observed between treatments although fewer females occurred when the product was applied as a soil drench and, when it was applied as a soil drench at the higher concentration, on viable cysts in soil.

    KEY-WORDS: Systemic acquired resistance; benzothiadiazole; soybean cyst nematode.

  16. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy....

  17. Environmental Stability of Seed Carbohydrate Profiles in Soybeans Containing Different Alleles of the Raffinose Synthase 2 (RS2) Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Kristin D; Wiebold, William J

    2016-02-10

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is important for the high protein meal used for livestock feed formulations. Carbohydrates contribute positively or negatively to the potential metabolizable energy in soybean meal. The positive carbohydrate present in soybean meal consists primarily of sucrose, whereas the negative carbohydrate components are the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), raffinose and stachyose. Increasing sucrose and decreasing raffinose and stachyose are critical targets to improve soybean. In three recently characterized lines, variant alleles of the soybean raffinose synthase 2 (RS2) gene were associated with increased sucrose and decreased RFOs. The objective of this research was to compare the environmental stability of seed carbohydrates in soybean lines containing wild-type or variant alleles of RS2 utilizing a field location study and a date of planting study. The results define the carbohydrate variation in distinct regional and temporal environments using soybean lines with different alleles of the RS2 gene.

  18. Sequence and expression variations suggest an adaptive role for the DA1-like gene family in the evolution of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gu, Yongzhe; He, Lingli; Chen, Qingshan; He, Chaoying

    2015-05-15

    The DA1 gene family is plant-specific and Arabidopsis DA1 regulates seed and organ size, but the functions in soybeans are unknown. The cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is believed to be domesticated from the annual wild soybeans (Glycine soja). To evaluate whether DA1-like genes were involved in the evolution of soybeans, we compared variation at both sequence and expression levels of DA1-like genes from G. max (GmaDA1) and G. soja (GsoDA1). Sequence identities were extremely high between the orthologous pairs between soybeans, while the paralogous copies in a soybean species showed a relatively high divergence. Moreover, the expression variation of DA1-like paralogous genes in soybean was much greater than the orthologous gene pairs between the wild and cultivated soybeans during development and challenging abiotic stresses such as salinity. We further found that overexpressing GsoDA1 genes did not affect seed size. Nevertheless, overexpressing them reduced transgenic Arabidopsis seed germination sensitivity to salt stress. Moreover, most of these genes could improve salt tolerance of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants, corroborated by a detection of expression variation of several key genes in the salt-tolerance pathways. Our work suggested that expression diversification of DA1-like genes is functionally associated with adaptive radiation of soybeans, reinforcing that the plant-specific DA1 gene family might have contributed to the successful adaption to complex environments and radiation of the plants.

  19. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN...

  20. Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to Soybean Rust in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, is a severe foliar disease of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] that occurs throughout most soybean producing regions of the world. Soybean rust may be managed with fungicides, but the utilization of soybean cultivars that are resistant to the path...

  1. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in the five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance in...

  2. Herbivore defense responses and associated herbivore defense mechanism as revealed by comparing a resistant wild soybean with a susceptible cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms against herbivores to help them adapt to the environment. Understanding the defense mechanisms in plants can help us control insects in a more effective manner. In this study, we found that compared with Tianlong 2 (a cultivated soybean with insect susceptibility, ED059 (a wild soybean line with insect resistance contains sharper pubescence tips, as well as lower transcript levels of wound-induced protein kinase (WIPK and salicylic acid-induced protein kinase (SIPK, which are important mitogen-activated protein kinases involved in early defense response to herbivores. The observed lower transcript levels of WIPK and SIPK induced higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA, JA biosynthesis enzymes (AOC3 and some secondary metabolites in ED059. Functional analysis of the KTI1 gene via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that it plays an important role in herbivore defense in ED059. We further investigated the molecular response of third-instar Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner larvae to Tianlong 2 and ED059. We found apoptotic cells only in the midguts of larvae that fed on ED059. Compared with larvae reared on the susceptible cultivar Tianlong 2, transcript levels of catalase (CAT and glutathione S-transferase (GST were up-regulated, whereas those of CAR, CHSB, and TRY were down-regulated in larvae that fed on the highly resistant variety ED059. We propose that these differences underlie the different herbivore defense responses of ED059 and Tianlong 2.

  3. Effects of Boron foliar-fertilization on irrigated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mississippi River Valley Delta of the midsouth, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated soybeans in the Mississippi Delta have been reported to with increased seed yields when fertilized with a boron (B). Furrow irrigated soybean cultivars were foliar fertilized with a B solution at growth stages R3 and/or R5. No consistent trends in yield or seed weight were noted. No phy...

  4. Nitrogen rhizodeposition from soybean (Glycine max) and its impact on nutrient budgets in two contrasting environments of the Guinean savannah zone of Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laberge, G.; Franke, A. C.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) rhizodeposition by grain legumes such as soybean is potentially a large but neglected source of N in cropping systems of Sub-Saharan Africa. Field studies were conducted to measure soybean N rhizodeposition in two environments of the Guinean savannah of Nigeria using 15N leaf labelli...

  5. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-07-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants. Wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, and seed coat development; these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN gene family encodes essential transport proteins in cell-to-cell auxin transport, but little research on soybean PIN genes (GmPIN genes) has been done, especially with respect to the evolution and differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPIN genes from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPIN protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPIN genes have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPIN genes arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPIN genes retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPIN genes experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPIN genes were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPIN genes.

  6. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch aDid you mean: nd cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species

  7. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  8. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhauser, Thomas; Wackermann, Olga; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Scibilia, Joseph; Perono-Garoffo, Lorenza; Utsumi, Shigeru; Poulsen, Lars K; Vieths, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Soybean is considered an important allergenic food, but published data on soybean allergens are controversial. We sought to identify relevant soybean allergens and correlate the IgE-binding pattern to clinical characteristics in European patients with confirmed soy allergy. IgE-reactive proteins were identified from a soybean cDNA expression library, purified from natural soybean source, or expressed in Escherichia coli. The IgE reactivity in 30 sera from subjects with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled soybean challenge (n = 25) or a convincing history of anaphylaxis to soy (n = 5) was analyzed by ELISA or CAP-FEIA. All subunits of Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) were IgE-reactive: 53% (16/30) of the study subjects had specific IgE to at least 1 major storage protein, 43% (13/30) to Gly m 5 , and 36% (11/30) to Gly m 6. Gly m 5 was IgE-reactive in 5 of 5 and Gly m 6 in 3 of 5 children. IgE-binding to Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 was found in 86% (6/7) subjects with anaphylaxis to soy and in 55% (6/11) of subjects with moderate but only 33% (4/12) of subjects with mild soy-related symptoms. The odds ratio (P allergens Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 is potentially indicative for severe allergic reactions to soy.

  9. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent

    2016-05-18

    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  10. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for saline tolerance located on linkage group N (chromosome 3) around the SSR markers Satt255 and Sat_091; other minor QTLs were also reported. In the case of sodic tolerance, most studies focused on iron deficiency caused by a high soil pH, and several QTLs associated with iron deficiency were identified. A wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) accession with high sodic tolerance was recently identified, and a significant QTL for sodic tolerance was detected on linkage group D2 (chromosome 17). These studies demonstrated that saline and sodic tolerances were controlled by different genes in soybean. DNA markers closely associated with these QTLs can be used for marker-assisted selection to pyramid tolerance genes in soybean for both saline and sodic stresses.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  12. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  13. A Novel Pathogenesis-Related Class 10 Protein Gly m 4l, Increases Resistance upon Phytophthora sojae Infection in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wu, Junjiang; Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Qun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae (P. sojae), is a destructive disease in many soybean planting regions worldwide. In a previous study, an expressed sequence tag (EST) homolog of the major allergen Pru ar 1 in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) was identified up-regulated in the highly resistant soybean 'Suinong 10' infected with P. sojae. Here, the full length of the EST was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). It showed the highest homology of 53.46% with Gly m 4 after comparison with the eight soybean allergen families reported and was named Gly m 4-like (Gly m 4l, GenBank accession no. HQ913577.1). The cDNA full length of Gly m 4l was 707 bp containing a 474 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 157 amino acids. Sequence analysis suggests that Gly m 4l contains a conserved 'P-loop' (phosphate-binding loop) motif at residues 47-55 aa and a Bet v 1 domain at residues 87-120 aa. The transcript abundance of Gly m 4l was significantly induced by P. sojae, salicylic acid (SA), NaCl, and also responded to methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and ethylene (ET). The recombinant Gly m 4l protein showed RNase activity and displayed directly antimicrobial activity that inhibited hyphal growth and reduced zoospore release in P. sojae. Further analyses showed that the RNase activity of the recombinant protein to degrading tRNA was significantly affected in the presence of zeatin. Over-expression of Gly m 4l in susceptible 'Dongnong 50' soybean showed enhanced resistance to P. sojae. These results indicated that Gly m 4l protein played an important role in the defense of soybean against P. sojae infection.

  14. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Mingming; Zhao, Yue; Lv, Chunmei; Li, Dongmei; Yang, Zhijiang; Huang, Long; Teng, Weili; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Soybean white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) W. Phillips), is currently considered to be the second most important cause of soybean yield loss due to disease. Research is needed to identify SWM-resistant germplasm and gain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of SWM resistance in soybean. Stem pigmentation after treatment with oxaloacetic acid is an effective indicator of resistance to SWM. A total of 128 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistant to SWM) and 'Hefeng 25' (susceptible) and 330 diverse soybean cultivars were screened for the soluble pigment concentration of their stems, which were treated with oxalic acid. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying soluble pigment concentration were detected by linkage mapping of the RILs. Three hundred and thirty soybean cultivars were sequenced using the whole-genome encompassing approach and 25 179 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the fine mapping of SWM resistance genes by genome-wide association studies. Three out of five SNP markers representing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and a single locus on chromosome 13 (Gm13) were significantly associated with the soluble pigment content of stems. Three more SNPs that represented three minor QTLs for the soluble pigment content of stems were identified on another three chromosomes by association mapping. A major locus with the largest effect on Gm13 was found both by linkage and association mapping. Four potential candidate genes involved in disease response or the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were identified at the locus near the significant SNPs (<60 kbp). The beneficial allele and candidate genes should be useful in soybean breeding for improving resistance to SWM. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....

  16. Supressividade dos nematóides Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines em soja por adição de lodo de esgoto ao solo Supressiveness of nematodes Meloydogine javanica e Heterodera glycines in soybean by sewage sludge incorporated in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2005-08-01

    soilborne plant pathogens and resistance to foliar diseases. However, it may influence negatively the biological and chemical balance in the soil, due to the presence of considerable amounts of available N, soluble salts and heavy metals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge incorporation to the soil and the suppressiveness induction of nematodes (Meloydogine javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L.. Experiments were performed in laboratory and in a greenhouse using collected soil in an experimental area of the Embrapa Meio Ambiente, Jaguariúna, SP. This area received successive applications of sewage sludge, originary from the sewage treatment of Barueri and Franca, in São Paulo State, Brazil, during five years (1998-2002. In relation to the suppressiveness induction of nematodes, the sludge did not affect significantly the development of H. glycines in the soil, but reduced the M. javanica reproduction, in the soybean root.

  17. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  18. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study is the first field based experiment that uses IR heaters to study the effects of a regionally defined heat wave on soybean physiology and productivity. The heating technology was successful and all of the heat waves were maintained at the target temperature for the three day duration of t...

  19. Functional studies of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed LEA proteins GmPM6, GmPM11, and GmPM30 by CD and FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The protein and mRNA levels of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes may be linked to osmotic stresses. Here, we characterized three soybean hydrophilic LEA proteins – GmPM11 (LEA I), GmPM6 (LEA II), and GmPM30 (LEA III) – by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  1. Allelopathic effects on the germination of soybean seeds (Glycine max L.Merrill/ Efeitos alelopáticos sobre a germinação de sementes de soja (Glycine max L.Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Teixeira Fortes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to study the effect of natural substances found in root exsudates of other crops on the gemination of soybean seeds. Two experiments were accomplished. For the first experiment wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum, cale (Triticum sp., corn (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, and black oat (Avena strigosa, that were placed to germinate, in paper rolls, in BOD at 25°C. These seeds were discarded and the papers were reused for germination of soybean seeds, using as solution-test root exsudates, and as control distilled water to humidify the paper. For the second experiment, aqueous extract of above-ground part of black oat (Avena strigosa was used to humidify the paper where the soy seeds were placed to germinate, in BOD at 25oC. Allelopatic effects alelopáticos of the root exsudates were verified on the percentage of germination of the soybean seeds, but it was not verified effect on the time and medium speed of germination. It was observed negative interference of black oat extract on the time and medium speed of soybean seeds germination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito de substâncias naturais encontrados em exsudados radiculares de outras culturas, sobre a geminação da soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos: no primeiro, sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum, triticale (Triticum sp., milho (Zea mays, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa, e aveia preta (Avena strigosa, foram colocadas para germinar, em rolos de papel, em BOD a 25°C. Estas sementes foram descartadas e os papéis reutilizados para germinação de sementes de soja, utilizando como solução-teste exsudados radiculares, e como controle apenas água destilada para umedecer os papéis. Para o segundo experimento, foi utilizado extrato aquoso da parte área de aveia preta (Avena strigosa, como umidificante do papel, onde posteriormente as sementes de soja foram colocadas para germinar, em BOD a 25oC. Constataram-se efeitos alelopáticos dos exudados

  2. The interactive effects of glycine, total sulfur amino acids, and lysine supplementation to corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance and serum uric acid and urea concentrations in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2009-07-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of Gly, TSAA, and Lys in corn-soybean meal diets on growth performance of broilers. All experiments were conducted with female Ross x Ross 308 or 708 broilers in brooder batteries from 0 to 18 d posthatching. Treatments had 5 to 8 replications with 5 or 6 broilers per replicate pen. Diets in all experiments were fed without or with Gly (2.32% total Gly + Ser). All diets contained 0.25% l-Lys.HCl except in experiment 1, where no crystalline Lys was added. In experiment 1, the total dietary Lys level was 1.26% with TSAA:Lys of 0.72 and 0.76. Increasing TSAA:Lys increased (P urea N concentrations. Also, increasing TSAA:Lys linearly and quadratically (P < 0.02) increased ADG, ADFI, and G:F. In experiment 4, broilers were fed 2 levels of total dietary Lys (1.26 and 1.35%), 3 levels of TSAA:Lys (0.72, 0.76, and 0.80), and without or with Gly supplementation up to a total of 2.32% Gly + Ser. Glycine addition increased ADG (P < 0.02) and G:F (P < 0.01). The increase in G:F with Gly was not the same for all TSAA:Lys (Gly x TSAA:Lys, P < 0.07). Increasing Lys increased (P < 0.01 to 0.10) ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Glycine addition increased ADG and ADFI more in broilers fed 1.35% Lys than in those fed 1.26% Lys (Lys x Gly, P < 0.09). Glycine addition increased SUA in broilers fed 1.26% Lys but decreased SUA in broilers fed 1.35% Lys (P < 0.01). Glycine addition decreased SUA in broilers fed the TSAA:Lys of 0.80 but not at the other TSAA:Lys (P < 0.08). These data indicate that Gly increased G:F and decreased SUA in diets with 1.35% Lys and excess TSAA.

  3. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Song, Qijian; Shi, Ainong; Li, Song; Zhang, Mengchen; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs) IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2) in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  5. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  6. Twenty year results on application of induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) breeding at Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai Quang Vinh; Phan Phai; Ngo Phuong Thinh; Tran Dinh Dong; Tran Thuy Oanh [Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    Research on application of the induced mutation method combined with crossing in soybean breeding for 20 years (1980-2000) plays an important role in research work at AGI, (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam). 23 soybean varieties and hybrid lines (including 6 local cultivars, 14 selected and introduced varieties, 3 hybrid lines) were treated with Roentgen ray irradiation, Gamma Ray {sup 60}Co with doses 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20 krad, and with chemical mutagens: EI, NMU, DNMU, DES, EMS, DEU with various concentrations 0.008, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08%. As the results, we obtained the important conclusions about the rule of induced mutation process in soybean in the natural conditions of Vietnam. 8 mutant varieties [1 National varieties (DT84) and 6 regional production varieties (DT83, DT90, DT94, DT95, DT99, AK06 (DT-55))]. Several promising varieties were selected and released for farmers to produce in the large areas that occupied 50-90% percentage of soybean cultivated areas in Vietnam. These varieties have high-yield 1.5-3.5 tons/ha, short growth duration 75-100 days, tolerance to cold and hot temperature and can be planted in 3 crops per year (Winter, Spring and Summer season) over 35-40 thousands ha/year. At present, the mutagens are being used for defect-orientated repair of some promising hybrid lines, in order to contribute new good varieties to soybean production in Vietnam. (author)

  7. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] germplasm panel from maturity groups IV and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qin

    Full Text Available Phytophthora sojae, an oomycete pathogen of soybean, causes stem and root rot, resulting in annual economic loss up to $2 billion worldwide. Varieties with P. sojae resistance are environmental friendly to effectively reduce disease damages. In order to improve the resistance of P. sojae and broaden the genetic diversity in Southern soybean cultivars and germplasm in the U.S., we established a P. sojae resistance gene pool that has high genetic diversity, and explored genomic regions underlying the host resistance to P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25. A soybean germplasm panel from maturity groups (MGs IV and V including 189 accessions originated from 10 countries were used in this study. The panel had a high genetic diversity compared to the 6,749 accessions from MGs IV and V in USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection. Based on disease evaluation dataset of these accessions inoculated with P. sojae races 1, 3, 7, 17 and 25, which are publically available, five accessions in this panel were resistant to all races. Genome-wide association analysis identified a total of 32 significant SNPs, which were clustered in resistance-associated genomic regions, among those, ss715619920 was only 3kb away from the gene Glyma.14g087500, a subtilisin protease. Gene expression analysis showed that the gene was down-regulated more than 4 fold (log2 fold > 2.2 in response to P. sojae infection. The identified molecular markers and genomic regions that are associated with the disease resistance in this gene pool will greatly assist the U.S. Southern soybean breeders in developing elite varieties with broad genetic background and P. sojae resistance.

  8. Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sa Vo Phan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV from Glycine soja (wild soybean, named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean and Pisum sativum (pea as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species.

  9. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta ao metribuzin aplicado em diferentes doses Response of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars to rates of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, foi realizado um experimento a campo, na re gião da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento das cultivares de soja BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná e Planalto em relação ao metribuzin aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0, 490 e 980 g/ha. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram estimados através de avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, contagem da população de plantas, determinações do peso seco da parte aérea e do número de grãos e obtenção do rendimento de grãos. Para a maioria das variáveis em estudo, constatou-se que ocorreram reduções proporcionais aos acréscimos das doses do herbicida. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostraram que houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos de doses, tendo as cultivares Bragg e Davis demonstrado o menor efeito fito-tóxico, enquanto BR1 foi a que apresentou maior grau de injúria. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos alcançado pelas cultivares, foi constatado que Bragg comportou-se como altamente tolerante; BR1 e Davis como moderadamente tolerantes; IAS5 como intermediária e Paraná, Planalto e IAS4 como moderadamente suscetíveis.A field experiment was conducted during the 1978/79 growing season at the Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response soybean cultivars BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná, and Planalto to metribuzin applied in pre-emergence at rates of 0, 490 and 980 g/ha. The effects of the treatments were evaluated through visual rating of phytotoxicity, counting of soybean population, and determinations of dry weight of soybean stems, number of grains per unit area and grain yield. For most of the variables measured there were reductions proportional to increasing rates of metribuzin appl ied. Results of visual evaluation of soybean injury showed statistical differences among rates of the herbicide, being Bragg and

  11. Evaluation of the use of waste of soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) combined with wood waste in making briquet; Avaliacao da utilizacao de residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira de confeccao de briquetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Anami, Marcelo Hidemassa; Scherpinski, Neusa Idick [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], Emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@gmail.com, mhanami@gmail.com, neusascherpinski@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The agricultural industry produces a large amount of which use biomass is an alternative energy economically viable through the compression portion of ligno-cellulose as raw material to replace the wood with an equivalent product, by briquetting. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility of manufacturing fuel briquettes made from soybean residues combined with waste wood. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electromechanics of UTFPR campus Medianeira PR. For this analysis, we assessed the content of moisture, ash, fixed carbon content of porosity and higher calorific value. From the results we can conclude that the manufacture of briquettes from lignocellulosic raw materials is an extremely viable energy flashlight for the region of the Bacia do Rio Parana III. (author)

  12. Influence of initial seed moisture and temperature conditions during germination and emergence on seedling survival and yields of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Markowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.

  13. Potential for phytoextraction of copper, lead, and zinc by rice (Oryza sativa L.), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaharu; Ae, Noriharu

    2009-03-15

    Phytoextraction by hyperaccumulators has been proposed for decreasing toxic-metal concentrations of contaminated soils. However, hyperaccumulators have several shortcomings to introduce these species into Asian Monsoon's agricultural fields contaminated with low to moderate toxic-metals. To evaluate the phytoextraction potential, maize (Gold Dent), soybean (Enrei and Suzuyutaka), and rice (Nipponbare and Milyang 23) were pot-grown under aerobic soil conditions for 60d on the Andosol or Fluvisol with low to moderate copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) contamination. After 2 months cultivation, the Gold Dent maize and Milyang 23 rice shoots took up 20.2-29.5% and 18.5-20.2% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Cu, 10.0-37.3% and 8.5-34.3% of the DTPA-extractable Cu, and 2.4-6.5% and 2.1-5.9% of the total Cu, respectively, in the two soils. Suzuyutaka soybean shoot took up 23.0-29.4% of the 0.1molL(-1) HCl-extractable Zn, 35.1-52.6% of the DTPA-extractable Zn, and 3.8-5.3% of the total Zn in the two soils. Therefore, there is a great potential for Cu phytoextraction by the Gold Dent maize and the Milyang 23 rice and for Zn phytoextraction by the Suzuyutaka soybean from paddy soils with low to moderate contamination under aerobic soil conditions.

  14. Functional marker development of miR1511-InDel and allelic diversity within the genus Glycine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Nang Myint Phyu Sin; Luo, Zhong-Qin; Jin, Long-Guo; Nadon, Brian; Wang, Ke-Jing; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2015-06-18

    Single-stranded non-protein coding small RNAs, 18-25 nucleotides in length, are ubiquitous throughout plants genomes and are involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several types of DNA markers have been reported for the detection of genetic diversity or sequence variation in soybean, one of the most important legume crops in worldwide for seed protein and oil content. Recently, with the available of public genomic databases, there has been a shift from the labor-intensive development of PCR-based markers to sequence-based genotyping and the development of functional markers within genes, often coupled with the use of RNA information. But thus far miRNA-based markers have been only developed in rice and tobacco. Here we report the first functional molecular miRNA marker, miR1511-InDel, in soybean for a specific single copy locus used to assess genetic variation in domesticated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.). We genotyped a total of 1,669 accessions of domesticated soybean (G. max) and its wild progenitor G. soja which are native throughout the China and parts of Korea, Japan and Russia. The results indicate that the miR1511 locus is distributed in cultivated soybean and has three alleles in annual wild soybean. Based on this result, we proposed that miR-InDel marker technology can be used to assess genetic variation. The inclusion of geo-reference data with miR1511-InDel marker data corroborated that accessions from the Yellow River basin (Huanghuai) exhibited high genetic diversity which provides more molecular evidence for gene diversity in annual wild soybean and domestication of soybean. These results provide evidence for the use of RNA marker, miRNA1511-InDel, as a soybean-specific functional maker for the study of genetic diversity, genotyping of germplasm and evolution studies. This is also the first report of functional marker developed from soybean miRNA located within the functional region of

  15. SCREENING SOYBEAN GENOTYPES FOR PROMISCUOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted ...

  16. Ação do Agrostemin sobre a altura e o número de folhas de plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8 Effects of Agrostemmin on number of leaves and height of soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.H. Fernandes

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por finalidade avaliar o efeito de um estimulante vegetal, o Agrostemin, sobre a altura e o número de folhas das plantas de soja (Glycine max L. MERRILL cv. IAC-8. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação. Foram estudados seis tratamentos, correspondentes as seguintes dosagens, épocas e formas de aplicação: testemunha (T1; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes (T2; 0,125g Agrostemin/100g semente e pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemin/l00g sementes e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T4; pulverização foliar à 333 ppm (T5 e pulverização foliar à 500 ppm (T6. Realizaram-se três coletas de plantas, com intervalo de 14 dias. O experimento foi em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando-se duas análises de variância com desdobramento em efeitos de regressão. Através dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o Agrostemin quando aplicado via semente (T2 ou via foliar à 500 ppm (T6, aumentou a altura e o número de folhas. Ao aplicar o produto via semente mais via foliar à 500 ppm (T4, estas medidas diminuiram.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Agrostemmin (plant stimulant on height and number of leaves of soybean plants (Glycine max L Merril cv. IAC-8. Six treatments were studied: check (T1; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed (T2; 0,125g Agrostemmin/100 seed and foliar spraying 333 ppm (T3; 0,125g Agrostemmin/l00g seed and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T4; foliar spraying 333 ppm (T5 and foliar spraying 500 ppm (T6. Three samplings were made at 14 day intervals. The experimental layout was completely randomized, using two variance, testing regression effects. Agrostemmin applied to the seed (T2 or sprayed on the leaves at the rate of 500 ppm (T6 increased height and number of leaves of soybean, whereas the combination of Agrostemmin applied to the seeds and sprayed at 500 ppm (T4 decreased those values.

  17. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions

  18. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  19. Emisiones de óxido nitroso en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]: efecto de la inoculación y de la fertilización nitrógenada Nitrous oxide emission during a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] culture: inoculation and nitrogen fertilization effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Ciampitti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El óxido nitroso absorbe radiación infrarroja contribuyendo al efecto invernadero; este gas es producido principalmente en el suelo, mediante los procesos de nitrificación y denitrificación. En un estudio a campo, sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización y la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], sobre las emisiones de óxido nitroso. Los gases se extrajeron de cilindros de PVC y la lectura se realizó con cromatografía gaseosa. Las emisiones presentaron valores crecientes desde la siembra hacia madurez fisiológica del cultivo, para todos los tratamientos; este comportamiento fue concomitante con la evolución presentada por la humedad edáfica. La fertilización nitrogenada aumentó significativamente (PNitrous oxide gas absorbs infrared radiation contributing to the greenhouse effect; this gas is produced mainly in soil, by means of the processes of nitrification and denitrification. In a field study at the FAUBA on a typic Argiudol, we evaluated the effect of fertilization and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum during a soybean culture [Glycine max (L. Merrill], on nitrous oxide emisión. Gases were sampled with PVC cylinders and were read with gaseous chromatography. Emissions presented increasing values from seeding towards physiological maturity for all treatments; this behavior was similar to the evolution presented by nitrate level and soil moisture. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased (P<0.05 nitrous oxide emissions and inoculation only had a significant effect with the highest level of fertilization (P=0.09. Plots fertilized at highest dose and inoculated gave the greatest nitrous oxide emissions. The variable that better explains the emissions is the nitrate level (r² = 0.1899; P=0.0231.

  20. 7 CFR 810.1601 - Definition of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of soybeans. 810.1601 Section 810.1601... GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Terms Defined § 810.1601 Definition of soybeans. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole or broken soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) that will not pass...

  1. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Biotic Production Potential and Climate Regulation Potential. A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean (Glycine max in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Piastrellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the impact potential of land use on biotic production and climate regulation in the agricultural phase of a product, taking into account the varied soil and crop management. Land occupation and transformation impacts of soybean production in Argentina for different agricultural systems are evaluated. The results indicate that the magnitude of occupation and transformation impacts is considerably reduced by implementing no-tillage instead of conventional tillage. Nevertheless, the methodologies adopted are unable to show any of the expected differences between rainfed or irrigation systems, crop sequences and delays in seed-planting, due to failures in the specific characterization factors. On the other hand, an uncertainty is demonstrated by the results associated with the choice of regeneration time corresponding to the different ecoregions over which soybean cultivation extends across the country. One of the recommendations that comes to the fore is to consider in the characterization factors increments in the soil organic carbon stock and in the mineralization rates, associated with the presence of the preceding crop and the greater availability of water in the soil of irrigated systems.

  2. Elicited soybean (Glycine max) extract effect on improving levels of Ter-119+Cd59+ in a mouse model fed a high fat-fructose diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Yunita Diyah; Widyarti, Sri; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    People who have unbalanced lifestyles and habits such as consuming high fat and sugar foods, as well as the lack of physical activity, have an increased risk of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The condition of obesity occurs due to an excess of nutrients which leads to low-grade inflammation. Inflammation induced by obesity causes unstable bone marrow homeostasis which is associated with proliferation and differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs). This study aimed to observe the erythroid progenitor (TER-119) and complement regulator (CD59) on bone marrow cells in mouse models fed a high fat-fructose diet (HFFD). This research was conducted by modeling obese mice using high fat and fructose food for 20 weeks, and then treating them with elicited soybean extract (ESE) for four weeks with several doses: low dose (78 mg/kgBB), moderate dose (104 mg/kgBB) and high dose (130 mg/kgBB). Cell TER119+CD59+ expression decreased in the HFFD group compared to the normal group. In the low, moderate and high dose group, TER119+CD59+ expression significantly increased compared to the HFFD group. These results demonstrate that soybean elicited extract can improve the hematopoietic system by increasing TER119+CD59+ expression in a high fat and fructose diet mouse model.

  3. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT ON EMERGENCE OF SOYBEANS SEEDS (Glycine max L. (Merril EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO QUÍMICO DE SEMENTES DE SOJA (Glycine Max L. (Merril SOBRE SUA EMERGÊNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valácia Lemes da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to test the effect of different fungicides on emergence and productivity of soybeans, were used chemical products captan, dichlofluanide and thiram at different dosages. The experiment was made in the experimental fields of Agronomy School-UFG, using variety EMGOPA 301 with high level of infection by fungi (Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata, Phomopsis sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium semitectum. The results indicated that all fungicides used at different dosages were efficient in levels statistically significant relatively to testimony. Among the fungicides was not observed the same fact, the best results attained with crescent dosages of the products utilized.

    Com o objetivo de testar o efeito de diferentes fungicidas na emergência e produtividade da soja, os produtos químicos captan, dichlofluanid e thiram foram utilizados em diferentes dosagens. O experimento foi desenvolvido nos campos experimentais da Escola de Agronomia/UFG, utilizando a variedade EMGOPA 301 com alto nível de infecção pelos fungos Colletotrichum dematium var. truncata, Phomopsis sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus flavus e Fusarium semitectum. Os resultados indicaram que todos os fungicidas, utilizados nas diferentes dosagens, foram eficientes em níveis estatisticamente significativos em relação à testemunha. Fato idêntico não ocorreu entre os tratamentos com fungicidas. Os melhores resultados foram auferidos quando utilizou-se as maiores concentrações dos produtos químicos.

  4. Natural Hosts and Disease Cycle of Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Heon Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In surveys of weed occurrence undertaken from 2006 to 2007, near to the Daegu experimental fields of the National Institute of Crop Science, plants belonging to 31 families, 74 genera and 96 species were found. For the investigation of the natural or alternative hosts of Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV, 495 plant samples belonging to 26 families 84 species were subjected to RT-PCR. SYMMV was detected only from legume plants such as Glycine soja, Vigna angularis var. nipponensis, Trifolium repens, and Lespedeza cuneata. Among legume plants tested, more than a third of G. soja (wild soybean contained SYMMV, indicating that the wild soybean played an important role as a reservoir of SYMMV. Wild soybeans may be infected with SYMMV as early as mid-July. Considering the results of early infection and the high infection rate of seed and seed transmission of SYMMV in G. soja, wild soybeans may have played an important role in the completion of disease cycle of the virus.

  5. Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the discovery of the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) as a devastating insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in the United States, host resistance was recognized as an important management option. However, the identification of soybean aphid isolates exhibiting strong virulenc...

  6. The Effect of Vermicompost and Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Grain Yield and some Physiological Characteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Water Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jahangiri nia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Moisture limitation is considered as one of the important limiting factors in soybean growth. Drought stress affects different aspects of soybean growth through making anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes (Tarumingkeng & Coto, 2003. Under dry tension condition, there will be a disturbance in transmitting nutrients, but some useful soil fungi such as mycorrhiza improve production of crops under stress through forming colonies in the root and boosting water and nutrient absorption (Al-Karaki et al., 2004. Using vermicompost in sustainable agriculture strengthens support and activities of beneficial soil microorganisms (such as mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in order to provide nutrients required by plants like nitrogen, phosphorus and soluble potassium as well as improving the growth and performance of the crops (Arancon et al., 2004. Materials and methods In order to investigate the effects of vermicompost and mycorrhiza fertilizers on grain yield and some physiological characteristics of soybean under water stress condition an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Khorramabad during 2013. The field experiment was carried out based on a randomized complete blocks design arranged in split-plot with four replications. The experiment treatments including irrigation in three levels (after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from pan class A pan, nutrient management in six levels (non-use of vermicompost and mycorhiza fertilizer, inoculated with mycorrhiza fertilizer, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost, consumption of 5 and 10 t.ha-1 vermicompost with mycorrhiza were respectively as the main plots and sub. In current study, RWC, LAI, SPAD were measured during 59 days after planting at the beginning of podding of the control treatment. The temperature of plant leaves were measured by the thermometer (model TM-958 LUTRON infrared Thermometers. To analyze the growth of

  7. NADPH oxidase is involved in regulation of gene expression and ROS overproduction in soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings exposed to cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagna Chmielowska-Bąk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium-induced oxidative burst is partially mediated by NADPH oxidase. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the role of NADPH oxidase in soybeans’ response to short-term cadmium stress. The application of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI, affected expression of two Cd-inducible genes, encoding DOF1 and MYBZ2 transcription factors. This effect was observed after 3 h of treatment. Interestingly, Cd-dependent increases in NADPH oxidase activity occurred only after a period of time ranging from 6 and 24 h of stress. Stimulation of the enzyme correlated in time with a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Further analysis revealed that pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity during 24 h of Cd stress does not affect Cd uptake, seedling growth, or the level of lipid peroxidation. The role of NADPH oxidase in the response of soybean seedlings to short-term Cd exposure is discussed.

  8. Occurrence of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Wild Hosts in Nonmanaged Woodlands and Soybean Fields in North Carolina and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, A J; Schoof, S C; Bickerton, M; Kamminga, K L; Jenrette, J C; Malone, S; Abney, M A; Herbert, D A; Reisig, D; Kuhar, T P; Walgenbach, J F

    2015-08-01

    Nonmanaged plants occurring along forest edges and in suburban settings were sampled for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA) over the course of three growing seasons. Commercial soybeans (Glycine max), an attractive cultivated host, were also sampled in 2014 in NC and in VA from 2010-2014. Very few H. halys were found on nonmanaged plants or soybean fields in the coastal plain region of either state, but substantial populations were recorded in the piedmont and mountain regions. From 2011 to 2013, H. halys comprised from 51 to 97% of all stink bug species observed on nonmanaged plants in the piedmont and mountain regions. In VA, the distribution expanded from detection in 12 counties in 2010 to 53 counties in 2014, with economically damaging levels occurring in the piedmont region. During these studies, H. halys were observed to complete one and a partial second generation per year in western NC and southwestern VA, similar to that previously observed in regions farther north. Several plants were identified as preferred hosts, with tree of heaven, catalpa, yellowwood, paulownia, cherry, walnut, redbud, and grape having consistently high numbers of H. halys. Knowing that these plants are preferred by H. halys during certain stages of the insects' development will aid in the search for H. halys in new areas, as well as serve as one predictor of the likelihood of a certain area to attract and sustain large H. halys populations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. No choice but to find resistance to soybean aphid biotype 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] utilizes its natural defenses to limit soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) injury, reducing insecticide reliance. Specific genes called Rag or Resistance to Aphis glycines are unfavorable to SBA and may suppress their development and...

  10. Newly developed conventional soybean JTN-5110 has resistance to multiple pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, combined yield losses in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] caused by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) and fungal diseases: stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis), Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS; caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines), and ...

  11. Carboidratos das fibras de cotilédones e proteínas de produtos derivados de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril Carbohydrates from cotyledon fibers and proteins of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Fátima Seibel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibras alimentares obtidas de cotilédones de soja original (FAO e micronizada (FAM foram fracionadas e avaliadas quanto a polissacarídeos e monossacarídeos constituintes. O componente majoritário foi a hemicelulose, totalizando 59% em FAO e 51% na FAM, a pectina representou em média 14% e a celulose 8,5%. As duas amostras de fibras apresentaram 17 mg.g-1 de ácidos urônicos e a mesma composição de monossacarídeos, sendo galactose, glicose e arabinose/ramnose os principais componentes. As proteínas de concentrado protéico, farinha desengordurada e fibras alimentares (FAO e FAM foram avaliadas quanto à solubilidade em diferentes solventes (NaCl, água, etanol e NaOH e quanto ao peso molecular. A farinha desengordurada de soja teve a maior parte das proteínas passível de extração com solução salina, e o concentrado protéico e as fibras de cotilédones com solução alcalina. A fração protéica que não foi extraída com nenhum dos quatro solventes utilizados permaneceu no resíduo, o maior percentual estava no concentrado, seguido pela fibra alimentar micronizada e a farinha, já a menor quantidade estava na fibra alimentar original. A eletroforese das proteínas dos quatro ingredientes alimentares mostrou as subunidades que constituem as frações β-conglicinina e glicinina. Bandas com peso molecular próximo aos 30 kDa foram reveladas nas proteínas extraídas das fibras de cotilédones de soja, sendo provavelmente glicoproteínas de parede celular, ricas em hidroxiprolina.Dietary fibers from soybean cotyledons classified as original (ODF and milled (MDF were fractionated and evaluated as to fractions and monosaccharide composition. The major constituent was hemicellulose, 59% in ODF and 51% MDF, pectin was in average 14% and cellulose, 8.5%. Both samples had 17 mg.g-1 uronic acids and the same composition in monosaccharides: galactose, glucose and arabinose/rhamnose, after hydrolysis. Protein fractions extracted from

  12. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta a diferentes épocas de aplicação do metribuzin Behaviour of soybean (Glycine max (L.( Merrill cultivars in response to different application times of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi conduzido em área da Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de sete cultivares de soja em resposta a épocas de aplicação do herbicida metribuzin. As cultivares foram submetidas ás épocas de aplicação em pré-semeadura incorporada ao solo (PSI, pré-emergência (PRÉ e pós -emergência (PÓS, tendo sido utilizada a dose de 490 g/ha de metribuzin. Para avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, constatou-se que o tratamento em PSI foi o que ocasionou maior efeito fitotóxico, enquanto que os em PRE e POS apresentaram menor grau de injúria. Com relação a população de plantas as cultivares Planalto, Paraná e IAS5 demonstraram diferenciação na população para as épocas de aplicação testadas, sendo que as demais cultivares não apresentaram variações para este parâmetro. O número de grãos foi o principal componente responsável pelas diferenças verificadas no rendimento de grãos. Para as médias de rendimento de grãos obtidas, constatou-se ter havido significância para o efeito épocas de aplicação, tendo os tratamentos aplicados em PRE e PSI, sido inferiores em 10 e 21%, respectivamente, ao utilizado em PÓS, que alcançou 2.300 kg/ha.In order to evaluate the behaviour of seven soybean cultivars in response to application times of the herbicide metribuzin, an experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, located in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1978/1979 growing season. The cultivars were tested under three application times pre-sowing soil incorporated (PSI, pre-emergence (PRÉ and postemergence (POS, using 490 g/ha of metribuzin. For visual evaluation of plant toxic ity it was observed that the treatment in PSI caused the greate st phyto toxic effect, while the treatments in PRE and PÓS showed the lowest level of damage. For

  13. Controle das plantas daninhas em cultura de soja (Glycine Max L. Merril com misturas de herbicidas Soybean weed control with mixtures of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo, onde as principais plantas daninhas eram representadas por duas gramíneas e seis ervas de folhas largas, foi comparada a ação de misturas de trifluralin, pendimethalin, dinitramine e alachlor com metribuzin e de alachlor com linuron, no seu controle. Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de alachlor a 2,00 kg/ha e metribuzin a 0,35 kg/ha, e desses mesmos herbicidas a 3,00 kg/ha e 0,50 kg/ha, feitas no tanque, aplicadas em pré-emergência, seguidas da mistura de trifluralin a 1,00 kg/ha, aplicado em pré-plantio incorporado, com metribuzin a 0,50 kg/ha, aplicado em pré-emergência, foram as mais eficientes. Acanthospermum australe foi a planta daninha de mais difícil controle. Somente a mistura de tanque de alachlor a 2,00 kg/ha e linuron a 0,75 kg/ha foi eficiente no seu controle. As misturas de pendimenthalin a 1,30 kg/ha e de dinitramine a 0,50 kg/ha, ambos com metribuzin a 0,50 kg/ha, retardaram o crescimento inicial da soja, porém sem prejudicar o stand e a produção. Os demais tratamentos também não foram prejudiciais à produção dessa leguminosa.Different mixtures of metribuzin with trifluralin, prendimetalin, dinitramine or alachlor were compared in order to evaluate weed control efficiency on soybean crop. Tank mixtures of 2,00 Kg/ha of alachlor and 0.35 Kg/ha of metribuzin, or 3,00 Kg/ha of alachlor and 0,50 Kg/ha of metribuzin, and 1,00 Kg/ha of trifluralin and 0,50 Kg/ha of metribuzin were the most efficient in controlling grasses and dicotyledons. Acanthospermum au strale was the most difficult weed to be controled. Only alachlor at 2,00 Kg/ha plus linuron at 0,75 Kg/ha gave satisfactory results. The mixtures of pendimethalin at 1,30 K/ha or dinitramine at 0,50 Kg/ha plus metribuzin at 0,50 Kg/ha were fitotoxic at the initial growth stage of soybeans, but did not affect stand or yield. The other mixtures did not show any fitotoxicity and did not affect stand or yield either.

  14. Genotype X environment interactions and stability of soybean for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the world's leading source of oil and protein. It has the highest protein content of all food crops and is second only to groundnut in terms of oil content among food legumes. Study on genotype x enviroment interaction (GE) and stability of twenty soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] genotypes ...

  15. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  16. Feeding behavior of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotype 2 on soybean PI 243540, the source of Rag2 resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is an effective means of controlling populations of this introduced pest species in the U.S. Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes identified in soybean germplasm have been incorporated into commercial cultivars, but differenti...

  17. Effect of Organic Growth Stimulants and Magnetic Water on Oil Harvest Index and Protein Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L. at Different Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tousi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of organic growth stimulant and harvest time of soybean cultivar Williams on oil harvest index and protein yield, factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 15 treatment and three replications of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht in 2012-2013 year. The experiment Treatments were including Kadostim (50.00, Aminol forte (20.00, organic manure (cow,10 ton.ha-1, magnetic water (20 lit.m-2 plus the control (no spray and three harvest time 1. the first harvest when seed pods in main stem had 25-20% moisture, 2. the second harvest when in pods maturity (yellowing of more than 95% of pods and seeds per pod in the main stem had 15-14% moisture, 3. the third harvest when the main stem had less than 14% moisture. Results showed that significant differences exist between the spray application and harvest time in oil harvest index and protein yields. spray application with kadostim had the maximum oil harvest index (8.7% and biological yield (5933 kg.ha-1. Mean comparison of the interaction showed that spray application of kadostim at the second harvest produced highest grain yield (2853 kg.ha-1, oil yield (664 kg.ha-1 and protein yield (1019 kg.ha-1. The results of this experiment, it seems that Kadostim and organic manure spray application at the second harvest to help increase production, and a step towards reducing environmental pollution and sustainable agriculture is.

  18. Rhizobitoxine-induced Chlorosis Occurs in Coincidence with Methionine Deficiency in Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shin; Sugawara, Masayuki; Yuhashi, Ken-Ichi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhizobitoxine, produced by the legume symbiont Bradyrhizobium elkanii, inhibits cystathionine-β-lyase (EC 4·4·1·8) in methionine biosynthesis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC) in ethylene biosynthesis. Rhizobitoxine production by B. elkanii enhances nodulation of host legumes via the inhibition of ethylene synthesis, but causes foliar chlorosis in susceptible soybeans, though how it does so remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the physiological basis of rhizobitoxine-induced chlorosis in soybeans. Methods Wild-type B. elkanii and a rhizobitoxine-deficient mutant were inoculated in Glycine max ‘Lee’. Thirty days after inoculation, the upper parts of soybean shoots were analysed for amino acid contents. Chlorotic soybeans inoculated with wild-type B. elkanii were treated with methionine and ACC to assess the effects of the chemicals on the chlorosis. Key Results Chlorotic upper shoots of soybeans inoculated with wild-type B. elkanii had a lower methionine content and higher accumulation of the methionine precursors than those with the rhizobitoxine-deficient mutant. In addition, the foliar chlorosis was alleviated by the application of methionine. Conclusions Rhizobitoxine-induced chlorosis occurs in coincidence with methionine deficiency as a result of cystathione-β-lyase inhibition during methionine biosynthesis. PMID:17525098

  19. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  20. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  2. Qualidade da aplicação aérea líquida com uma aeronave agrícola experimental na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L. Liquid aerial pesticide application quality with an experimental agricultural aircraft in soybean crop (Glycine Max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton F. dos Reis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços da tecnologia de aplicação aérea de agroquímicos têm-se dado na direção de redução do volume de calda, o que pode ocasionar má distribuição e consequente deposição irregular. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da aplicação de calda de pulverização em aplicação aérea, na cultura da soja (Glycine Max L.. Para a aplicação, foi utilizada uma aeronave agrícola experimental, aplicando um volume de calda de 20 L ha-1 . Para a determinação dos volumes depositados nas folhas do terço superior, médio e inferior das plantas de soja, foi utilizado corante alimentício azul brilhante adicionado à calda de pulverização. Estas folhas foram lavadas, e o volume determinado por espectrofotometria. Para a obtenção do espectro de gotas, foram utilizados alvos artificiais constituídos por papel hidrossensível, distribuídos no terço superior e médio das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância de fator único, considerando as diferentes posições na planta, e cartas de controle foram feitas a partir dos limites inferior e superior de controle. A aplicação aérea de calda de pulverização na cultura da soja apresentou menores valores de diâmetro da mediana volumétrica, amplitude relativa e cobertura no terço médio em relação ao terço superior da cultura da soja. Houve menor deposição da calda de pulverização no terço inferior. Os indicadores de cobertura da calda de pulverização demonstraram que a aplicação aérea com a aeronave agrícola experimental avaliada não se encontra sob controle estatístico de processo, ou seja, fora do padrão de qualidade.Advances in aerial pesticide application technology of chemicals have been given in the direction of reducing the syrup volume, which can cause poor distribution and consequent irregular deposition. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the syrup spray on aerial application in soybean crop (Glycine Max

  3. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  4. Genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease | Kiryowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow.) causes the most damage of all the pathogens known to attack soybean (Glycine max. Merril). A study was conducted in Uganda to estimate the magnitude of genetic parameters controlling soybean rust resistance and to estimate narrow sense heritability of the resistance.

  5. Screening soybean genotypes for promiscuous symbiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current low soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) yields in Sub-Saharan Africa can be alleviated by developing promiscuous genotypes. The research trend in Africa is towards developing promiscuous varieties for less labour and high yields in soybean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at Makerere ...

  6. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.Merril] Potassium leaching test for the evaluation of soybean seed vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.F.S. Dias

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial, condutividade elétrica e determinação do grau de umidade. Além destes foram conduzidos estudos de lixiviação de potássio utilizando-se amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. A quantidade de potássio lixiviado foi avaliada em fotômetro de chama após 60, 90, 120 e 150 minutos de embebição a 30ºC. As avaliações feitas aos 60, 90 e 120 minutos mostraram-se adequadas para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor, constituindo-se em um método simples e rápido para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes.This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of providing rapid indications on the physiological quality of seeds through the potassium leaching test. Four lots of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds, cultivars IAC-8 and IAC-15 were submitted to germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seed moisture tests. In addition, studies on potassium leaching were conducted with samples of selected non damaged seeds and with pure seeds. The amount of leached potassium was evaluated in a flame photometer after a 60, 90, 120 and 150 minute imbibition at 30°C. The evaluations after 60, 90 and 120 minutes were suitable for the identification of lots with different levels of vigour, thus proving to be a simple and rapid method for seed vigour evaluation.

  7. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  8. Comparative study of phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids compositional profiles in black seed-coated soybeans (Glycine Max (L.) Merrill) depending on pickling period in brewed vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Oh, Jin-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2017-07-18

    Pickled soybeans or vinegar beans have long been used as a folk remedy and also a supplemental nutritional source in Korea. In general the pickling process in vinegar improves the digestibility of soybeans as well as increases the availability of various (non-)nutrients in soybeans. However, detailed information about the changes in functional substances such as (poly)phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and fatty acids (FAs) in soybeans during the pickling process is quite limited. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the changes in the selected phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and FAs in soybeans as a function of the pickling time. The sum of the total phenolics in both the pickled soybeans and the pickling solutions increased by as much as 47% after pickling. Naringenin, vanillin, and catechin were the major phenolics observed in the pickled soybeans and pickling solutions. The total vitamin E content in the pickled soybeans decreased by 23% after pickling, although no vitamin E molecules were found in the pickling solution. γ-Tocopherol was abundant in the untreated soybeans, but decreased by ~29% after pickling. Both the total and major FA contents varied by less than 1% during the pickling period. In this study, a 10-20 day pickling period may be considered suitable in terms of retention of functional substances in the pickled soybeans, such as selected phenolics, vitamin E, and FAs. Our findings provide basic information and insight into the production of functional compounds in soybeans upon immersing in brewed vinegar, and also may be helpful toward improving the health-functionality of soybean-based foods in the food industry. Graphical abstract How to change bioactive compounds during the pickling process?

  9. Influência de abelhas africanizadas na concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207 = Influence of africanized honeybees on sugar concentration in the nectar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill em áreas com ou sem a presença de abelhas Apis mellifera L. Foi utilizada a variedade Coodetec 207 em quatro tratamentos: área de 24 m2 coberta com colônia de abelhas africanizadas em seu interior; área semicoberta com livre acesso para insetos visitantes; área livre e área coberta sem abelhas. As flores foram coletadas durante três dias, a cada 2h. e a concentração dos açúcares totais por flor foi determinada por espectrofotometria. A área coberta com abelha apresentou maior concentração de açúcares totais em relação à área coberta sem abelhas e livre, contudo, aconcentração de açúcares totais na área livre não diferiu da concentração observada na área coberta sem abelhas. Houve redução na concentração média de sacarose na área livre, diferindo das concentrações nas demais áreas. A concentração média de glicose não diferiu entre os tratamentos, enquanto que a de frutose não apresentou diferença entre as áreas cobertas com abelhas, semicoberta e livre. A variedade Coodetec 207 da soja apresentou maior concentração total de açúcares e de frutose nas áreas cobertas com abelhas. Contudo, a presença de Apis mellifera não interferiu nesta concentração de açúcares no néctar das flores de soja desta variedade.This research was carried out to evaluate the sugar concentration in soybean nectar in areas with Africanized honeybee colonies. The var. Coodetec 207 was used in four treatments: 24 m2 covered area with Africanized honeybee colony inside, semi-covered area for free insect visitation, uncovered area, and covered area without insect visitation. Flowers were harvested for three days at two-hour intervals, and the total sugar concentration per flower was determined by spectrophotometry. The covered area with Africanized honeybee colony presented higher sugar concentration than the covered area

  10. Pollen from Glycine species survive cryogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, R K; Hymowitz, T

    2003-01-01

    Pollen of 12 genotypes of the annual soybean and its wild perennial relatives were stored without pre-desiccation at low temperatures (-20 C and -196 C) and tested for their viability in vitro. The influence of cryopreserved pollen on pod set and seed production was also investigated. Cryopreserved pollen of all the genotypes showed germination in vitro. Pollen of annual soybean stored at -20 C retained their viability for 4 months, however, pollen of its wild perennial relatives at same storage conditions failed to germinate in vitro. Flowers pollinated with cryopreserved pollen had similar pod set and number of seeds/pod as those pollinated with fresh pollen. Results of this study suggest that cryopreservation of pollen can be used successfully for soybean breeding, and also offers the possibility of conserving the haploid gene pool of soybean and wild perennial species in a cryobank facility.

  11. OCCURRENCE OF SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (Heterodera glvcines IN VIANÓPOLIS AND IN RIO VERDE (GO OCORRÊNCIA DO NEMATÓIDE DE CISTO DA SOJA (Heterodera glycines NOS MUNICÍPIOS DE VIANÓPOLIS E RIO VERDE (GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmarcos de Carvalho Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines was found in Goiás State in Chapadão do Céu in 1991-1992. Until 1996-1997, this nematode had spread all over six towns of Goiás State. Samples of soil were collected in Vianópolis and Rio Verde in 1997-1998. Samples from Vianópolis were collected in seed production fields and analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of Escola de Agronomia — Universidade Federal de Goiás. Samples collected in Rio Verde were analised in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of ESUCRV - FESURV where the race 3 of H. glycines was identified. Up to now there are eight towns in Goiás State with H. glycines occurrence.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max; Heterodera glycines.

    O nematóide de cisto da soja (Heterodera glycines foi encontrado no Estado de Goiás, em Chapadão do Céu, em 1991-1992. Até 1996-1997, este nematóide encontrava-se espalhado por seis cidades do Estado de Goiás. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em Vianópolis e Rio Verde, em 1997-1998. As amostras de Vianópolis foram coletadas em campos de produção de sementes e

  12. Respons Pertumbuhan Dan Produksi Beberapa Varietas Kedelai Hitam (Glycine Max L.) Berdasarkan Ukuran Biji

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Lumbantobing, Esra Lumbantobing; Kardhinata, Emmy Harso; Rosmayati, Rosmayati

    2013-01-01

    Growth Respons and Production of Black Soybean Varieties (Glycine max L.) based on Seed Size.Use of yellow soybeans increases as the limited supply of black soybeans. Farmers to plant turnyellow soybean seed in higher production and larger in size than black soybean seed generally small.Size seed effect toward the utilization of soybean. The large seed size tends to be use as industrial rawmaterials while the size of small seeds use as a seed plant back. The aim of this research is toselectio...

  13. Evaluation of genetic variation among Brazilian soybean cultivars through genome resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado dos Santos, João Vitor; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Khan, Saad M; Liu, Yang; Wang, Juexin; Vuong, Tri D; de Oliveira, Marcelo Fernandes; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T; Abdelnoor, Ricardo Vilela

    2016-02-13

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is one of the most important legumes cultivated worldwide, and Brazil is one of the main producers of this crop. Since the sequencing of its reference genome, interest in structural and allelic variations of cultivated and wild soybean germplasm has grown. To investigate the genetics of the Brazilian soybean germplasm, we selected soybean cultivars based on the year of commercialization, geographical region and maturity group and resequenced their genomes. We resequenced the genomes of 28 Brazilian soybean cultivars with an average genome coverage of 14.8X. A total of 5,835,185 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,329,844 InDels were identified across the 20 soybean chromosomes, with 541,762 SNPs, 98,922 InDels and 1,093 CNVs that were exclusive to the 28 Brazilian cultivars. In addition, 668 allelic variations of 327 genes were shared among all of the Brazilian cultivars, including genes related to DNA-dependent transcription-elongation, photosynthesis, ATP synthesis-coupled electron transport, cellular respiration, and precursors of metabolite generation and energy. A very homogeneous structure was also observed for the Brazilian soybean germplasm, and we observed 41 regions putatively influenced by positive selection. Finally, we detected 3,880 regions with copy-number variations (CNVs) that could help to explain the divergence among the accessions evaluated. The large number of allelic and structural variations identified in this study can be used in marker-assisted selection programs to detect unique SNPs for cultivar fingerprinting. The results presented here suggest that despite the diversification of modern Brazilian cultivars, the soybean germplasm remains very narrow because of the large number of genome regions that exhibit low diversity. These results emphasize the need to introduce new alleles to increase the genetic diversity of the Brazilian germplasm.

  14. Modeling distribution and abundance of soybean aphid in soybean fields using measurements from the surrounding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlai, C A; Sikkema, S; Hallett, R H; Newman, J; Schaafsma, A W

    2010-02-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a severe pest of soybean in central North America. Outbreaks of the aphid in Ontario are often spotty in distribution, with some geographical areas affected severely and others with few or no aphid populations occurring in soybean for the duration of the season. A. glycines spend summers on soybean and overwinter on buckthorn, a shrub that is widespread in southern Ontario and is commonly found in agricultural hedgerows and at the margins of woodlots. A. glycines likely use both short distance migratory flights from buckthorn and longer distance dispersal flights in the search for acceptable summer hosts. This study aims to model colonization of soybean fields by A. glycines engaged in early-season migration from overwintering hosts. Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to rank numerous competing linear and probit models using field parameters to predict aphid presence, colonization, and density. The variable that best modeled aphid density in soybean fields in the early season was the ratio of buckthorn density to field area, although dramatic differences in relationships between the parameters were observed between study years. This study has important applications in predicting areas that are at elevated risk of developing economically damaging populations of soybean aphid and which may act as sources for further infestation.

  15. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yu Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM, the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  16. Organ-Specific Differential NMR-Based Metabonomic Analysis of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Fruit Reveals the Metabolic Shifts and Potential Protection Mechanisms Involved in Field Mold Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jun-Cai; Yang, Cai-Qiong; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-Yu; Liu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged, continuous rainfall is the main climatic characteristic of autumn in Southwest China, and it has been found to cause mildew outbreaks in pre-harvest soybean fields. Low temperature and humidity (LTH) stress during soybean maturation in the field promotes pre-harvest mildew, resulting in damage to different organs of soybean fruits to different extents, but relatively little information on the resistance mechanisms in these fruits is available. Therefore, to understand the metabolic responses of soybean fruits to field mold (FM), the metabonomic variations induced by LTH were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR), and the primary metabolites from the pod, seed coat and cotyledon of pre-harvest soybean were quantified. Analysis of FM-damaged soybean germplasms with different degrees of resistance to FM showed that extracts were dominated by 66 primary metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids and sugars. Each tissue had a characteristic metabolic profile, indicating that the metabolism of proline in the cotyledon, lysine in the seed coat, and sulfur in the pod play important roles in FM resistance. The primary-secondary metabolism interface and its potential contribution to FM resistance was investigated by targeted analyses of secondary metabolites. Both the seed coat and the pod have distinct but nonexclusive metabolic responses to FM, and these are functionally integrated into FM resistance mechanisms.

  17. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  18. Silencing of Soybean Raffinose Synthase Gene Reduced Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides and Increased True Metabolizable Energy of Poultry Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F. Valentine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2, to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed. Raffinose is a trisaccharide that is indigestible to humans and monogastric animals, and as monogastric animals are the largest consumers of soy products, reducing raffinose would improve the nutritional quality of soybean. An RNAi construct targeting RS2 was designed, cloned, and transformed to the soybean genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Resulting plants were analyzed for the presence and number of copies of the transgene by PCR and Southern blot. The efficiency of mRNA silencing was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. Total raffinose content was determined by HPLC analysis. Transgenic plant lines were recovered that exhibited dramatically reduced levels of raffinose in mature seed, and these lines were further analyzed for other phenotypes such as development and yield. Additionally, a precision-fed rooster assay was conducted to measure the true metabolizable energy (TME in full-fat soybean meal made from the wild-type or transgenic low-raffinose soybean lines. Transgenic low-raffinose soy had a measured TME of 2,703 kcal/kg, an increase as compared with 2,411 kcal/kg for wild-type. As low digestible energy is a major limiting factor in the percent of soybean meal that can be used in poultry diets, these results may substantiate the use of higher concentrations of low-raffinose, full-fat soy in formulated livestock diets.

  19. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance towards Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max, referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant towards bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae, insect infestation (Myzus persicae and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions.

  20. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  1. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora stem and root rot disease, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This disease induces serious limitations on soybean production, with yield l...

  2. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for Herbicide Tolerance AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered... of soybean (Glycine max) designated as event MON 87708, which has been genetically engineered for...

  3. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: A review and perspective for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major q...

  4. A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of a universal soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cytogenetic map that associates classical genetic linkage groups, molecular linkage groups and a sequence-based physical map with the karyotype has been impeded due to the soybean chromosomes themselves, which are tiny and morphological...

  5. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes ...

  6. Soybean response to nitrogen fertilizer under water deficit conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the effect of water deficit and nitrogen fertilizer application on growth indices, yield and yield component of three soybean (Glycine Max L. Merr) genotypes a split plot factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications was carried out. Soybean genotypes (Williams, K1410 ...

  7. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi; Deyholos, Michael K; Chen, Qin; Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-09-21

    Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the Allergic Risk of Genetically Modified Soybean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Sang-Ha; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Park, Hae-Sim; Ryu, Sang-Ryeol; Lee, Bou-Oung

    2006-01-01

    .... In order to assess whether genetic modification increases the allergenic risk of soybeans, the allergenicity and IgE-reactive components of wild-type and GM soybean extracts were compared in allergic...

  9. Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

  10. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  11. Disease resistance through impairment of α-SNAP–NSF interaction and vesicular trafficking by soybean Rhg1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Adam M.; Smith, John M.; Song, Junqi; McMinn, Patrick H.; Teillet, Alice; August, Benjamin K.

    2016-01-01

    α-SNAP [soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor) attachment protein] and NSF proteins are conserved across eukaryotes and sustain cellular vesicle trafficking by mediating disassembly and reuse of SNARE protein complexes, which facilitate fusion of vesicles to target membranes. However, certain haplotypes of the Rhg1 (resistance to Heterodera glycines 1) locus of soybean possess multiple repeat copies of an α-SNAP gene (Glyma.18G022500) that encodes atypical amino acids at a highly conserved functional site. These Rhg1 loci mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN; H. glycines), the most economically damaging pathogen of soybeans worldwide. Rhg1 is widely used in agriculture, but the mechanisms of Rhg1 disease resistance have remained unclear. In the present study, we found that the resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAP is defective in interaction with NSF. Elevated in planta expression of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs depleted the abundance of SNARE-recycling 20S complexes, disrupted vesicle trafficking, induced elevated abundance of NSF, and caused cytotoxicity. Soybean, due to ancient genome duplication events, carries other loci that encode canonical (wild-type) α-SNAPs. Expression of these α-SNAPs counteracted the cytotoxicity of resistance-type Rhg1 α-SNAPs. For successful growth and reproduction, SCN dramatically reprograms a set of plant root cells and must sustain this sedentary feeding site for 2–4 weeks. Immunoblots and electron microscopy immunolocalization revealed that resistance-type α-SNAPs specifically hyperaccumulate relative to wild-type α-SNAPs at the nematode feeding site, promoting the demise of this biotrophic interface. The paradigm of disease resistance through a dysfunctional variant of an essential gene may be applicable to other plant–pathogen interactions. PMID:27821740

  12. The natural plant stress elicitor cis-jasmone causes cultivar-dependent reduction in growth of the stink bug, Euschistus heros and associated changes in flavonoid concentrations in soybean, Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, José P; Ueda, Tatiana E; Janegitz, Tatiani; Vieira, Simone S; Salvador, Mariana C; de Oliveira, Maria C N; Zingaretti, Sonia M; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that the plant stress related elicitor cis-jasmone (cJ) provides protection in soybean pods against the seed-sucking stink bug pest, Euschistus heros, the growth of E. heros on cJ-treated pods was investigated using three soybean cultivars differing in insect susceptibility, i.e. BRS 134 (susceptible), IAC 100 (resistant) and Dowling (resistant). E. heros showed reduced weight gain when fed cJ-treated Dowling, whereas no effect on weight gain was observed when fed other treated cultivars. Using analysis of variance, a three factor (cultivar x treatment x time) interaction was observed with concentrations of the flavonoid glycosides daidzin and genistin, and their corresponding aglycones, daidzein and genistein. There were increases in genistein and genistin concentrations in cJ-treated Dowling at 144 and 120 h post treatment, respectively. Higher concentrations of malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin in Dowling, compared to BRS 134 and IAC 100, were observed independently of time, the highest concentrations being observed in cJ-treated seeds. Levels of glycitin and malonylglycitin were higher in BRS 134 and IAC 100 compared to Dowling. Canonical variate analysis indicated daidzein (in the first two canonical variates) and genistein (in the first only) as important discriminatory variables. These results suggest that cJ treatment leads to an increase in the levels of potentially defensive isoflavonoids in immature soybean seeds, but the negative effect upon E. heros performance is cultivar-dependent. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of nano-TiO2 particles on the bioaccumulation of Cd in soybean plants (Glycine max): A possible mechanism for the removal of Cd from the contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2016-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a highly efficient technique for the elimination of trace elements from contaminated soils through the shoots and roots of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) on Cd uptake by soybean plants. The objective of the present research was to examine the potential to improve the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of nano-TiO2 particles. The results showed that an addition of Cd to the soil significantly decreased plant growth and the biomass, pigment and protein contents. Increases in the proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) indicate that Cd toxicity stresses the plants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to determine variations in functional groups due to the Cd taken up into the shoot and root tissues of plants. An application of nano-TiO2 particles restricts Cd toxicity by increasing the photosynthetic rate and growth parameters of the plants. The uptake of Cd was also increased from 128.5 to 507.6 μg/plant with an increase in the nano-TiO2 concentration from 100 to 300 mg/kg in the soil. The application of nano-TiO2 significantly enhanced Cd uptake in the plants. The results of this study thus demonstrate that an application of nano-TiO2 can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in soybean plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential Overwintering Locations of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Colonizing Soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Michael S; Hogg, David B

    2015-04-01

    Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, depend on long-distance, wind-aided dispersal to complete their life cycle. Despite our general understanding of soybean aphid biology, little is explicitly known about dispersal of soybean aphids between winter and summer hosts in North America. This study compared genotypic diversity of soybean aphids sampled from several overwintering locations in the Midwest and soybean fields in Ohio and Wisconsin to test the hypothesis that these overwintering locations are sources of the soybean colonists. In addition, air parcel trajectory analyses were used to demonstrate the potential for long-distance dispersal events to occur to or from these overwintering locations. Results suggest that soybean aphids from overwintering locations along the Illinois-Iowa border and northern Indiana-Ohio are potential colonists of soybean in Ohio and Wisconsin, but that Ohio is also colonized by soybean aphids from other unknown overwintering locations. Soybean aphids in Ohio and Wisconsin exhibit a small degree of population structure that is not associated with the locations of soybean fields in which they occur, but that may be related to specific overwintering environments, multiple introductions to North America, or spatial variation in aphid phenology. There may be a limited range of suitable habitat for soybean aphid overwintering, in which case management of soybean aphids may be more effective at their overwintering sites. Further research efforts should focus on discovering more overwintering locations of soybean aphid in North America, and the relative impact of short- and long-distance dispersal events on soybean aphid population dynamics. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. "Candidatus phytoplasma costaricanum" a new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease in soybean in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phytoplasma associated with a newly emerging disease, soybean stunt (SoyST), in soybean (Glycine max) was found in 2002 in a soybean plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. The same or very closely related phytoplasma also infected sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with purple vein syndrome ...

  16. Development of rigorous fatty acid near-infrared spectroscopy quantitation methods in support of soybean oil improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seed of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) is a valuable source of high quality edible oil and protein. Despite dramatic breeding gains over the past 80 years, soybean seed oil continues to be oxidatively unstable. Until recently, the majority of soybean oil underwent partial chemical hydrogenation. ...

  17. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an... release of Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the...-2323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to Asia...

  18. Quantification of Fusarium virguliforme in soybean roots of partially resistant and susceptible genotypes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome, caused by Fusarium virguliforme (syn. Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines), was first reported in 1971, in Arkansas. Since then, the fungus has spread to the northern United States, causing significant soybean yield losses. Soybean resistance to F. virguliforme is consider...

  19. RNAseq reveals weed-induced PIF3-like as a candidate target to manipulate weed stress response in soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, David P; Hansen, Stephanie A; Moriles-Miller, Janet P; Pierik, Ronald|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/254842836; Yan, Changhui; Clay, David E; Scheffler, Brian; Clay, Sharon A

    Weeds reduce yield in soybeans (Glycine max) through incompletely defined mechanisms. The effects of weeds on the soybean transcriptome were evaluated in field conditions during four separate growing seasons. RNASeq data were collected from six biological samples of soybeans growing with or without

  20. Mapeamento de semeaduras de soja (Glycine max (L.Merr. mediante dados MODIS/Terra E TM/Landsat 5: um comparativo Mapping of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. culture by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5: a comparative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens A. C. Lamparelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar mapeamentos de semeadura da cultura da soja na região oeste do Paraná, realizados com imagens MODIS/Terra e TM/Landsat 5. Primeiramente, construiu-se máscara de referência, considerando seis imagens TM ao longo do ciclo da cultura, utilizando-se dos algoritmos Paralelepípedo e MaxVer com posterior análise visual. As imagens MODIS foram classificadas com o algorítimo Paralelepípedo, em quatro passagens referentes ao pico vegetativo. O desempenho das classificações foi avaliado por meio de Matrizes de Erros, calculadas pela análise de 100 pontos amostrais (soja ou não-soja, aleatoriamente distribuídos em cada um dos oito municípios da área de estudo. Os principais resultados mostraram que a Exatidão Global (EG e o Índice Kappa (IK, que variaram entre 0,55 e 0,80, em ambos os sensores, são considerados bons a muito bons. Quando EG e IK dos sensores TM e MODIS foram comparados, não se encontrou diferença significativa. O mapeamento da soja utilizando o sensor MODIS produziu 70% de confiabilidade sob o ponto de vista do usuário. A principal conclusão é a viabilidade de mapear a soja pelo sensor MODIS com as vantagens de que as imagens MODIS têm melhor resolução temporal e são disponibilizadas gratuitamente na Internet.The objective of this work was to compare the soybean crop mapping in the western of Parana State by MODIS/Terra and TM/Landsat 5 images. Firstly, it was generated a soybean crop mask using six TM images covering the crop season, which was used as a reference. The images were submitted to Parallelepiped and Maximum Likelihood digital classification algorithms, followed by visual inspection. Four MODIS images, covering the vegetative peak, were classified using the Parallelepiped method. The quality assessment of MODIS and TM classification was carried out through an Error Matrix, considering 100 sample points between soybean or not soybean, randomly allocated in each of

  1. Physical, chemical and sensorial effects of gamma irradiation and cooking on soybean cultivars (Glycine max) with and without lipoxygenase;Efeitos da irradiacao gama e da coccao sobre aspectos fisicos, quimicos e sensoriais de cultivares de soja (Glycine max) com e sem lipoxigenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaro, Luciana Marino e

    2009-07-01

    The soybean is a vegetable with high nutritional value, mainly due to its high protein content. Among the culture of grains, the soy beam is the most important in Brazil, what represents a greater incentive for the consumption of this food. However, a great claim of occidental consumer is its characteristic odor and flavor, known as beany flavor, which is provided by the action of lipoxygenase enzyme. The catalytic action exerted by this type of isoenzyme on polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic and linoleic acid of the soy grains, is one of the main factors responsible for the appearance of the carbonyl compounds, which cause the unpleasant flavor in grains. To enhance the organoleptic characteristics of soybeans, researchers have developed new cultivars, without the presence of lipoxygenase. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical, chemical and sensorial differences between the two soy cultivar, with and without lipoxygenases (cultivars BRS 232 and BRS 257, of EMBRAPA, respectively) and to analyze the possible changes promoted by different radiation doses (0, 4 and 8 kGy) in raw and cooked soybean grains. The physical analyses were: time of cooking and hydration of the grains. The chemical analyses were: centesimal composition, protein digestibility, anti nutritional factors, isoflavone content and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS). The sensory aspects were determined by sensorial analysis performed by applying analytical methods of differentiation for selection of panelists, and descriptive method to determine the quality of the soybean. At the end, factorial statistical analysis was performed 3x2x2 (irradiation doses X cultivars x treatment) for analysis, comparison and discussion of the obtained results. The results showed differences in physical analyses with the irradiation and between the two cultivars. Besides, the cultivars presented differences in the centesimal composition, digestibility fenolic content, isoflavone content and trypsin

  2. A novel Glycine soja homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) I gene, Gshdz4, positively regulates bicarbonate tolerance and responds to osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Yang; DuanMu, Huizi; Chen, Chao; Duan, Xiangbo; Zhu, Pinghui; Chen, Ranran; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yanming; Ding, Xiaodong

    2016-08-24

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja) is a highly adaptive plant species which can grow well in saline-alkaline soils. In soybean genome, there exist about 140 HD-Zip (Homeodomain-leucine Zipper) genes. HD-Zip transcription factor family is one of the largest plant specific superfamilies and plays important roles in response to abiotic stresses. Although HD-Zip transcription factors have been broadly reported to be involved in plant resistance to abiotic stresses like salt and drought, their roles in response to bicarbonate stress is largely unknown. From our previous transcriptome profile analysis of wild soybean treated by 50 mM NaHCO3, we identified an HD-Zip gene (Gshdz4) which showed high response to the alkaline stress. Our result of qRT-PCR showed that the expression of Gshdz4 was induced by alkaline stress (NaHCO3) in both leaves and roots of wild soybean. Overexpression of Gshdz4 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to NaHCO3 and KHCO3 during the process of plant growth and development. However, the growths of transgenic and WT plants were not significantly different on the medium with high pH adjusted by KOH, implicating Gshdz4 is only responsible for resisting HCO3 (-) but not high pH. The transgenic plants had less MDA contents but higher POD activities and chlorophyll contents than the WT plants. Moreover, the transcript levels of stress-related genes, such as NADP-ME, H (+) -Ppase, RD29B and KIN1 were increased with greater extent in the transgenic plants than the wild plants. On the contrary, Gshdz4 overexpression lines were much sensitive to osmotic stress at seed germination and stocking stages compared to the wild plants. We revealed that the important and special roles of Gshdz4 in enhancing bicarbonate tolerance and responding to osmotic stress. It is the first time to elucidate these novel functions of HD-ZIP transcription factors. All the evidences broaden our understanding of functions of HD-Zip family and provide clues for uncovering the

  3. Potentials toward genetic engineering of drought-tolerant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2012-12-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops in legume family. Soybean and soybean-based products are also considered as popular food for human and animal husbandry. With its high oil content, soybean has become a potential resource for the production of renewable fuel. However, soybean is considered one of the most drought-sensitive crops, with approximately 40% reduction of the yield in the worst years. Recent research progresses in elucidation of biochemical, morphological and physiological responses as well as molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to drought stress in model plants have provided a solid foundation for translational genomics of soybean toward drought tolerance. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in development of drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by gene transfer.

  4. Soybean proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zahed; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Soybean, the world's most widely grown seed legume, is an important global source of vegetable oil and protein. Though, complete draft genome sequence of soybean is now available, but functional genomics studies remain in their infancy, as this agricultural legume species exhibits genetic constrains like genome duplications and self-incompatibilities. The techniques of proteomics provide much powerful tool for functional analysis of soybean. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize all significant contributions in the field of soybean proteomics. Special emphasis is given to subcellular proteomics in response to abiotic stresses for better understanding molecular basis of acquisition of stress tolerance mechanism. Detailed protocols of protein extraction, solubilization, fractionation of subcellular organelle, and proteins identification are explained for soybean proteomics. All this information would not only enrich us in understanding the plants response to environmental stressors but would also enable us to design genetically engineered stress tolerant soybean.

  5. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L.) merrill) submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L.) merrill) plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Neto, P. J.; LOPES, N.F.; Oliva, M. A.; Silva, J.F.; Ferreira, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. ) Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba'), cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1). O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784...

  6. Improving the nutritional status of malnourished children using soybean products in Rwanda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mugo, C; Niyibituronsa, M; Kyallo, F; Gaidashova, S

    2014-01-01

    ...). The contribution of soybean (Glycine max L), which is an important source of high quality and inexpensive protein and oil, to improvement of nutritional status of malnourished children is unclear...

  7. Seed priming and sulfur effects on soybean cell membrane stability and yield in saline soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bejandi, Teymur Khandan; Sedghi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Raouf Seyed; Namvar, Ali; Molaei, Peyman

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effects of seed priming and sulfur application on cell membrane characteristics, seedling emergence, chlorophyll content and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max) in saline soil...

  8. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to ...

  9. Influence of photoperiod and air temperature on the growth, flowering and maturation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill Influência do fotoperíodo e da temperatura do ar no crescimento, floração e maturação da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.S. Câmara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to evaluate the effect of short (12 hours and long (13 and 14 hours photoperiods and air temperature regimes (winter and summer growing seasons on soybean behaviour, greenhouse experiments were installed at the Federal University of Viçosa, Brasil, from June 1984 to December 1985. In each experiment, under a completely randomized design with 12 treatments (soybean cultivars and eight replicates: duration of vegetative period from emergency to stage R1 or flowering (DVP, in days; plant height (PH, m; number of nodes per plant at stage R1 (NNP; and duration of soybean cycle from emergency to stage R7 or physiological maturity point (DC, days, were evaluated. The results permit to conclude that: the vegetative period from emergency to flowering and the juvenile period are significantly affected by the photoperiod and temperature differences; shorter photoperiods or higher temperatures anticipate flowering; longer photoperiods under the same temperature regime or higher temperature under the same photoperiod regime result in higher plants.Experimentos em casa-de-vegetacão visando estudar o comportamento de cultivares de soja perante fotoperíodo curto (12 horas e longo (13 e 14 horas e na presença de temperaturas variáveis em função de diferentes épocas de semeadura, foram instalados na Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG, Brasil, durante o período de junho de 1984 a dezembro de 1985. Delineado inteiramente ao acaso, cada experimento contou com doze cultivares de soja repetidos oito vezes por época. Avaliaram-se as seguintes características: duração do subperíodo emergência - inicio do florescimento, altura de planta e número de nós vegetativos formados por planta e duração do subperíodo emergencia - maturidade fisiológica. Concluiu-se que a fase fenológica da soja compreendida entre a emergência e o inicio do florescimento é significativamente influenciada pelas variações do fotoperíodo e da temperatura do

  10. HERBICIDES EFFICIENCY AND SELECTIVITY ON WEED CONTROL IN THE SOYBEAN CROP EFICIÊNCIA E SELETIVIDADE DE HERBICIDAS NA CULTURA DA SOJA (Glycine Max (L. Merrill EM ÁREA DE CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to evaluate the efficiency and selectivity of Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (imazaquin and Sencor (metribuzin on weed control in the soybean crop, a trial was carried out at Escola de Agronomia / Universidade Federal de Goiás. Six treatments were tested: 1- Boral 500 SC(1.2 l/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1.0 l/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC +Scepter 150 CE (0.6 + 0.8 1/ha; 4- Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0.75 + 0.70 1/ha; 5- Not weeded control; 6- Weeded control. These treatments were planted as randomized blocks design with four replications. The soybean cultivar was MTBR-49 (Pioneira, sowing in 50 cm spacing and 20 plants/m density. There were not differences between the treatments in the first and second evaluation of Sida rhombifolia L., Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. and Ipomoea purpurea Lam. occurrence. There were differences between treatments for Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. O. Kuntze at first evaluation (27 days after herbicides application and for Brachiaria decumbens Stapt. and second evaluation (41 days after herbicides application. During the evaluations it was not found fitotoxicity.

    KEY-WORDS: Sulfentrazone; imazaquin; metribuzin; soybean.

    Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência e a seletividade dos produtos Boral (sulfentrazone, Scepter (lmazaquin e Sencor (metribuzin no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da soja, instalou-se um ensaio na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no município de Goiânia - GO. O ensaio constituiu-se de seis tratamentos: l- Boral 500 SC (1,2 1/ha; 2- Sencor 480 SC (1,0 1/ha; 3- Sencor 480 SC + Scepter 150 CE (0,6 + 0,8 l/ha; 4 - Sencor 480 SC + Boral 500 SC (0,75 + 0,70 l/ha; 5- Testemunha sem capina e 6-Testemunha capinada. O

  11. Evaluation of the potential energy briquettes made with corn stubble (Zea mays) and soybean residue (Glycine max (L.)) combined with waste wood; Avaliacao do potencial energetico de briquetes confeccionados com residuo de milho (Zea mays) e residuo de soja (Glycine max (L.)) combinado com residuo de madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travessini, Rosana; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Oyama, Paulo; Possan, Edna; Bittencourt, Paulo R.S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: rosana_travessini@yahoo.com.br, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br, oyama_pt@hotmail.com, epossan@gmail.com, paulob@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The agriculture industry produces a large amount of biomass whose use constitutes an economically viable alternative energy through the compression of the lignocellulosic portion, replacing the wood with an equivalent product. This is possible through the briquette, which is a very efficient way to concentrate the available energy in biomass. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of burning briquettes. The making of briquettes was performed in the laboratory of Electro mechanics and burning at the Laboratory of Environmental UTFPR Campus Medianeira / PR. For the analysis, the energy balance of the combinations we used a bomb calorimeter IKA C5000, Laboratory of Biomass Energy (LEB), Federal University of Parana - UFPR. From the results we can conclude that in all aspects of the briquettes made from soybean residues are more efficient and still points to the need for studies to the development of more efficient equipment for these specific applications. (author)

  12. High-efficiency induction of soybean hairy roots and propagation of the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H J; Farrand, S K; Noel, G R; Widholm, J M

    2000-01-01

    Cotyledon explants of 10 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars were inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599 with and without binary vectors pBI121 or pBINm-gfp5-ER possessing both neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (gus) or nptII and green fluorescent protein (gfp) genes, respectively. Hairy roots were produced from the wounded surface of 54-95% of the cotyledon explants on MXB selective medium containing 200 microg ml(-1) kanamycin and 500 microg ml(-1) carbenicillin. Putative individual transformed hairy roots were identified by cucumopine analysis and were screened for transgene incorporation using polymerase chain reaction. All of the roots tested were found to be co-transformed with T-DNA from the Ri-plasmid and the transgene from the binary vectors. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the 35S-gfp5 gene in the plant genomes. Transgene expression was also confirmed by histochemical GUS assay and Western blot analysis for the GFP. Attempts to induce shoot formation from the hairy roots failed. Infection of hairy roots of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe)-susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, with eggs of H. glycines race 1, resulted in the development of mature cysts about 4-5 weeks after inoculation. Thus the soybean cyst nematode could complete its entire life cycle in transformed soybean hairy-root cultures expressing GFP. This system should be ideal for testing genes that might impart resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

  13. Identification of novel QTL governing root architectural traits in an interspecific soybean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi P Manavalan

    Full Text Available Cultivated soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Dunbar (PI 552538 and wild G. soja (PI 326582A exhibited significant differences in root architecture and root-related traits. In this study, phenotypic variability for root traits among 251 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs developed from the cross Dunbar/PI 326582A were identified. The root systems of the parents and BILs were evaluated in controlled environmental conditions using a cone system at seedling stage. The G. max parent Dunbar contributed phenotypically favorable alleles at a major quantitative trait locus on chromosome 8 (Satt315-I locus that governed root traits (tap root length and lateral root number and shoot length. This QTL accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation of both tap root and shoot length. This QTL region was found to control various shoot- and root-related traits across soybean genetic backgrounds. Within the confidence interval of this region, eleven transcription factors (TFs were identified. Based on RNA sequencing and Affymetrix expression data, key TFs including MYB, AP2-EREBP and bZIP TFs were identified in this QTL interval with high expression in roots and nodules. The backcross inbred lines with different parental allelic combination showed different expression pattern for six transcription factors selected based on their expression pattern in root tissues. It appears that the marker interval Satt315-I locus on chromosome 8 contain an essential QTL contributing to early root and shoot growth in soybean.

  14. The Non-Mendelian Green Cotyledon Gene in Soybean Encodes a Small Subunit of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Sato, Yutaka; Ito, Hisashi; Okuzaki, Ayako; Watanabe, Mai; Kobayashi, Hideki; Nakano, Michiharu; Yamatani, Hiroshi; Masuda, Yu; Nagashima, Yumi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tetsuya; Kanazawa, Akira; Kitamura, Keisuke; Tabei, Yutaka; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kusaba, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    Chlorophyll degradation plays important roles in leaf senescence including regulation of degradation of chlorophyll-binding proteins. Although most genes encoding enzymes of the chlorophyll degradation pathway have been identified, the regulation of their activity has not been fully understood. Green cotyledon mutants in legume are stay-green mutants, in which chlorophyll degradation is impaired during leaf senescence and seed maturation. Among them, the soybean (Glycine max) green cotyledon gene cytG is unique because it is maternally inherited. To isolate cytG, we extensively sequenced the soybean chloroplast genome, and detected a 5-bp insertion causing a frame-shift in psbM, which encodes one of the small subunits of photosystem II. Mutant tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) with a disrupted psbM generated using a chloroplast transformation technique had green senescent leaves, confirming that cytG encodes PsbM. The phenotype of cytG was very similar to that of mutant of chlorophyll b reductase catalyzing the first step of chlorophyll b degradation. In fact, chlorophyll b-degrading activity in dark-grown cytG and psbM-knockout seedlings was significantly lower than that of wild-type plants. Our results suggest that PsbM is a unique protein linking photosynthesis in presenescent leaves with chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence and seed maturation. Additionally, we discuss the origin of cytG, which may have been selected during domestication of soybean. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Greenhouse Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Resistance of Soybean to Sudden Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG) (syn. Fusarium virguliforme Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma and Lattanzi), is a major disease in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Selection for SDS resistance in the field is difficult because of the impact of ...

  16. Identification of novel sources of host plant resistance to known soybean aphid biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raman; Mian, M A R; Michel, Andy P

    2013-06-01

    While soybean cultivars with resistance to the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been commercially released, the presence of virulent biotypes capable of overcoming plant resistance threatens the durability of host plant resistance as a stable management tactic. Novel sources of host plant resistance are needed to combat rapid biotype evolution. In this study, we screened 1,061 soybean plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to three known biotypes of A. glycines. Based on a series of growth chamber and field screenings, we identified 11 PIs that showed resistance to biotype 1 of A. glycines. Among these 11 PIs, 7 PIs were resistant to biotype 2 and 5 PIs were resistant to biotype 3. Further, two PIs (PI 606390A from Vietnam and PI 340034 from South Korea) showed resistance to all three biotypes of A. glycines. We also identified 11 PIs that were potentially tolerant to A. glycines, illustrated by no adverse impact on plant quality because of A. glycines infestation. As resistant PIs identified in this study belong to maturity group II-IV, they can be readily crossed to early maturing cultivars adapted to north-central states of the United States, where A. glycines is a major pest. The genetic characterization of resistance in these PIs and incorporation of novel resistant genes into elite soybean cultivars will broaden the defense against multiple biotypes of A. glycines.

  17. Palha de soja (Glycine max como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro (Sorghum bicolor ( L. Moench na alimentação de terneiros de corte confinados Soybean straw (Glycine max as a partial substitute of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the feeding of confined calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização da palha de soja como substituto parcial da silagem de sorgo forrageiro na fração volumosa da dieta de terneiros confinados, sendo testados os seguintes tratamentos: T0 constituído por 100% de silagem de sorgo; T33 constituído por 66,67% de silagem de sorgo, mais 33,33% de feno de palha de soja; T66 constituído por 33,33% de silagem de sorgo, mais 66,67% de feno de palha de soja. As dietas foram fornecidas durante 77 dias para terneiros cruzas Charolês-Nelore com peso e idade média inicial de 165,6kg e 11 meses, respectivamente. A dieta alimentar foi isonitrogenada com 14% de proteína bruta (PB na matéria seca (MS, sendo 20% suprida na forma de uréia. A relação volumoso:concentrado com base na MS, foi de 70:30. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão sendo obtidas as seguintes equações de regressão: para ganho de peso médio diário em kg (GMD = 1,166273 - 0,00186 PI (peso inicial - 0,00351 NS (nível de substituição; consumo médio diário de MS em kg/100 kg peso vivo/dia (CMSPPV = 2,284983 + 0,002679 PI - 0,002303 NS; consumo médio diário de energia digestível Mcal/100kg peso vivo/dia (CEDPPV = 5,709589 + 0,010964 PI - 0,018736 NS; conversão alimentar (CA = - 4,426857 + 0,064579 PI + 0,023165 NS. Verificou-se que a cada aumento de 1% na substituição da silagem de sorgo por feno de palha de soja, ocorreu um decréscimo de 3,51g no GMD e 2,3g no CMSPPV, enquanto que a conversão alimentar piorou em 0,023 unidades. O aumento na proporção de palha de soja na dieta em substituição à silagem de sorgo resultou em um decréscimo linear no desempenho dos animais. No entanto, mesmo no maior nível de substituição, o ganho de peso médio diário foi satisfatório.The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the use of soybean straw as partial substitute for sorghum silage in the roughage fraction of the diet of confined calves, being tested the following

  18. Eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp recomendadas para a cultura da soja (Glycine max Effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains recommended for soybean crop (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo sucessivo de soja inoculada numa mesma área proporcionou a adaptação de uma população de rizóbios, que podem não ser tão eficientes quanto à capacidade de fixação de N2, mas apresentam alta competitividade, dificultando a introdução de novas estirpes mais eficientes. Com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho simbiótico (eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 5080 e B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 e SEMIA 5019, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação onde os variantes foram inoculados isoladamente e em diferentes combinações entre os variantes e uma estirpe comprovadamente mais competitiva (SEMIA 587 ou SEMIA 5019 a partir da adição de inóculos mistos (1/1; v/v no cultivar de soja BR-16. Por meio da avaliação das variáveis analisadas (nodulação, produção de matéria de seca da parte aérea, N total acumulado na parte aérea e ocupação nodular, foi possível constatar que o determinante da maior eficiência em tratamentos co-inoculados não foi a ocupação nodular de determinada estirpe ou variante presente no inóculo, mas, sim, o tipo de interação (sinérgica ou antagônica predominante no tratamento co-inoculado e que é possível selecionar variantes eficientes e competitivos para a cultura da soja a partir de estirpes parentais que já apresentam características desejáveis para utilização em inoculantes comerciais.The continuous cultivation of inoculated soybean in the same area can determine the soil colonization with a rhizobia population presenting low nitrogen fixation effectiveness. This fact can be a problem for the establishment of a more effective population. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080 and B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 strains. The soybean biovar BR 16 was

  19. Association of the circadian rhythmic expression of GmCRY1a with a latitudinal cline in photoperiodic flowering of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingzhu; Li, Hongyu; Li, Rui; Hu, Ruibo; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Fulu; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Xu; Fu, Yongfu; Lin, Chentao

    2008-12-30

    Photoperiodic control of flowering time is believed to affect latitudinal distribution of plants. The blue light receptor CRY2 regulates photoperiodic flowering in the experimental model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is unclear whether genetic variations affecting cryptochrome activity or expression is broadly associated with latitudinal distribution of plants. We report here an investigation of the function and expression of two cryptochromes in soybean, GmCRY1a and GmCRY2a. Soybean is a short-day (SD) crop commonly cultivated according to the photoperiodic sensitivity of cultivars. Both cultivated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild relative (G. soja) exhibit a strong latitudinal cline in photoperiodic flowering. Similar to their Arabidopsis counterparts, both GmCRY1a and GmCRY2a affected blue light inhibition of cell elongation, but only GmCRY2a underwent blue light- and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis cryptochromes, soybean GmCRY1a, but not GmCRY2a, exhibited a strong activity promoting floral initiation, and the level of protein expression of GmCRY1a, but not GmCRY2a, oscillated with a circadian rhythm that has different phase characteristics in different photoperiods. Consistent with the hypothesis that GmCRY1a is a major regulator of photoperiodic flowering in soybean, the photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythmic expression of the GmCRY1a protein correlates with photoperiodic flowering and latitudinal distribution of soybean cultivars. We propose that genes affecting protein expression of the GmCRY1a protein play an important role in determining latitudinal distribution of soybeans.

  20. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE SOJA (Glycine max MERRIL BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Anticarsia gemmatalis HÜEBNER (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE ON SOYBEAN CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Baldin Pinheiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Entomologia da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em condições controladas de temperatura (25+2ºC, umidade relativa (40+10% e fotofase de 13h, com o objetivo de estudar o efeito das cultivares Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 e IAC 17, no desenvolvimento de Anticarsia gemmatalis. Foram observadas a duração do período larval, o tamanho e o peso de lagartas e peso de pupas. Na cultivar Emgopa 316, as larvas apresentaram uma diminuição no período larval e um aumento nos pesos larval e pupal, enquanto IAC 100 mostrou alguma evidência de antibiose, aumentando o período larval e diminuindo o peso de lagartas e de pupas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; antibiose; insecta.

    A laboratory work was conducted at Universidade Federal de Goiás, under controlled conditions of temperature (25+2º, relative humidity (40+10% and photophase (13h. The objective was to evaluate the effect of the soybean cultivars Emgopa 316, FT-Estrela, IAC 100 and IAC 17 on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hüebner, 1818. Duration of the development phases, length of larvae and weight of pupae were observed. Emgopa 316 showed a decreasing duration of larval stage and an increase in larvae and pupae weight; IAC 100 showed some evidence of antibiosis, increasing the larval stage and decreasing larvae and pupae weight.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; resistance; antibiosis.

  1. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  2. Evaluation of glyphosate application on transgenic soybean and its relationship with shikimic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine]-resistant crops (GRC) are the transgenic crops most extensively grown worldwide, with soybean being the major GRC. It is important to evaluate the impact of glyphosate on the shikimate pathway, growth and yield of GR soybean in the field. Furthermore, whether...

  3. Environmental Effects on Lutein Concent and Relationship of Lutein and Other Seed Components in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutein is a major carotenoid in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. ] seed, and has been shown to be beneficial for eye health in humans. Development of soybeans high in lutein is a goal of some breeding programs. Little is known about how different growing environments affect lutein concentration. Obje...

  4. Impact of crop rotation and soil amendments on long-term no-tilled soybean yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuous cropping systems without cover crops are perceived as unsustainable for long-term yield and soil health. To test this, cropping sequence and cover crop effects on soybean (Glycine max L.) yields were assessed. Main effects were 10 cropping sequences of soybean, corn (Zea mays L.), and co...

  5. Comparison of corn, grain sorghum, soybean, and sunflower under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] constitute a large share of the annual total irrigated planted area in the central Great Plains. This study aimed to determine the effect of limited irrigation on grain yield, water use, and profitability of corn and soybean in comparison with ...

  6. A survey of the agronomic and end-use characteristics of low phytic acid soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    With unique high protein and oil contents, soybean (Glycine max L. merr.) is one of the most widely grown agronomic crops in the United States. Around 98% of those soybeans are used in animal feeds ranging from swine and cattle to domestic animals and aquaculture. This chapter will introduce phytic ...

  7. From forest to waste: Assessment of the Brazilian soybean chain, using nitrogen as a marker.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Roscoe, R.; Lesschen, J.P.; Bouwman, A.F.; Comunello, E.

    2008-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a booming crop in Brazil. In 2004, the export value was equivalent to 10 billion US $, covering over 10% of total Brazilian exports. Three-quarters of total production leaves the country, mainly to China and the European Union (EU). Soybean cultivation in Brazil is expected

  8. Genetic studies on saline and sodic tolerances in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Donghe; Tuyen, Do Duc

    2012-01-01

    Salt-affected soils are generally classified into two main categories: saline and sodic (alkaline). Developing and using soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) cultivars with high salt tolerance is an effective way of maintaining sustainable production in areas where soybean growth is threatened by salt stress. Early classical genetics studies revealed that saline tolerance was conditioned by a single dominant gene. Recently, a series of studies consistently revealed a major quantitative trait locus...

  9. Ligand binding by the tandem glycine riboswitch depends on aptamer dimerization but not double ligand occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The glycine riboswitch predominantly exists as a tandem structure, with two adjacent, homologous ligand-binding domains (aptamers), followed by a single expression platform. The recent identification of a leader helix, the inclusion of which eliminates cooperativity between the aptamers, has reopened the debate over the purpose of the tandem structure of the glycine riboswitch. An equilibrium dialysis-based assay was combined with binding-site mutations to monitor glycine binding in each ligand-binding site independently to understand the role of each aptamer in glycine binding and riboswitch tertiary interactions. A series of mutations disrupting the dimer interface was used to probe how dimerization impacts ligand binding by the tandem glycine riboswitch. While the wild-type tandem riboswitch binds two glycine equivalents, one for each aptamer, both individual aptamers are capable of binding glycine when the other aptamer is unoccupied. Intriguingly, glycine binding by aptamer-1 is more sensitive to dimerization than glycine binding by aptamer-2 in the context of the tandem riboswitch. However, monomeric aptamer-2 shows dramatically weakened glycine-binding affinity. In addition, dimerization of the two aptamers in trans is dependent on glycine binding in at least one aptamer. We propose a revised model for tandem riboswitch function that is consistent with these results, wherein ligand binding in aptamer-1 is linked to aptamer dimerization and stabilizes the P1 stem of aptamer-2, which controls the expression platform. PMID:25246650

  10. Material embodiment and energy flows as efficiency indicators of soybean (Glycine max production in Brazil Incorporação material e fluxos de energia como indicadores de eficiência da produção de soja (Glycine max no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the requirement for agriculture to be environmentally suitable there is a necessity to adopt indicators and methodologies approaching sustainability. In Brazil, biodiesel addition into diesel is mandatory and soybean oil is its main source. The material embodiment determines the convergence of inputs into the crop. Moreover, the material flows are necessary for any environmental analysis. This study evaluated distinct production scenarios, and also conventional versus GMO crops, through the material embodiment and energy analysis. GMO crops demanded less indirectly applied inputs. The energy balance showed linearity with yield, whereas for EROI, the increases in input and yield were not affected.Para a agricultura alcançar os patamares de sustentabilidade ambiental, é fundamental a adoção de indicadores e metodologias que a tornem viável. No Brasil, a adição de biodiesel ao diesel foi estabelecida em lei, sendo que a principal fonte para a obtenção desse biocombustível é o óleo de soja. A incorporação de material determina a convergência das entradas de produtos e serviços dentro de uma cultura agrícola. Além disso, a avaliação dos fluxos de materiais é necessária para qualquer análise ambiental. Este trabalho procura avaliar diferentes cenários produtivos e também comparar os cultivos de soja convencional e geneticamente modificada (OGM, através da incorporação material e da análise de energia nos sistemas. O uso de OGM demandou menores inputs indiretamente aplicados ao sistema. O balanço energético mostrou linearidade com a produtividade, enquanto para o EROI, o crescimento nos inputs e na produtividade não foram afetados.

  11. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  12. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril: I - efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas e parâmetros de produção da cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides in the soybean (Glycine max (L . Merril crop: I - effects on weed control and crop yield parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Durigan

    1983-06-01

    rate, 25% an d 50% reduction of full rate of trifluralin, alachlor and metribuzin alone and in mixtures. There - commended rates were 8, 06 ; 1, 72 and 0,28 kg/h a of trifluralin, alachlor and metribuzin, respectivelly. Mixtures with reduced rates of trigluralin metribuzin (0,6 5 + 0,21 kg/ha and alachlor + metribuzin (1,44 - 0,21 kg/ha presented control rate higher than 90% up to 60th day after sowing without any phytotoxicity and deleterious effects on no dulation. Weed control achieved by 25% r eduction in herbicide rates was equivalent to hoeing and afforded similar levels of protein , et her -extract and ash content, weigh of 100 grains, number of grains per pod, plant heigh and height of inferior pod insertion. The highest soybean yield, achieved wi th full rates of the mixtures were statistically similar to yields provided with 25% reduction of the recommended rates of same herbicides. Therefore, in accordance to economic and ecologic conveniencies, it is suggested that the actual rate should be reduced 25%, under the conditions of this trial.

  13. Comportamento de baixas doses de herbicidas na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. I I-Efeitos sobre o controle das plantas daninhas, desenvolvimento e absorção de nutrientes pela cultura Behavior of low-rates of herbicides, in the soybean (Glycine max (L . Merril Crop. II - Effects on the weed control, development and nutrients uptake by the crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Durigan

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a possibilidade de redução nas doses recomendadas de herbicidas, isolados ou em misturas, sem afetar algumas características das plantas de soja (Santa Rosa, tais como o acúmulo total de matéria secada parte aérea (caule + ramos, folhas e vagens, índice de Area Foliar (IAF e teores de macro e micronutrientes (Diagnose Foliar e nos grãos. O experimento foi ins talado em Solo Latos - sol Vermelho Escuro - fase arenosa, município de Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em vinte tratamentos e três repetições, te stando-se a dose total recomendad a e reduções de 25% e 50% de la , para o trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, isolados e em misturas. As doses recomendadas foram 0,86; 1,72 e 0,28 kg/ha de trifluralin, alachlor e metribuzin, respectivamente. As 'misturas com doses reduzidas, de tri - fluralin + metribuzin (0 ,6 5 + 0, 21 kg/h a e alachlor + metribuzin (1 ,4 4 + 0, 21 kg /h a, apresentaram controle geral das plantas daninhas acima de 90% at é o 60 .° dia após a semeadura, sem apresentar fitotoxicida de ou efeitos deletérios nas plantas de soja. Além disso apresenta ram os melhores resultados relativos ao acúmulo de matéria seca na parte aérea, juntamente com as mesmas misturas nas doses padrões e testemunha capinada. A absorção de nutrientes também sempre foi maior nestes tratamentos , com maiores teores nas folhas, na matéria seca geral e nos grãos. O IAF alto e a sua manutenção por um período maior, nestes tratamentos, podem ter tido influência decisiva, com maior eficiência fotossintética das plantas.The feasibility of reducing the recommended herbicide rate, single or in mixtures, without affecting any desirable features of soybean ('Santa Rosa' , was studied such as the total dry weight of aerial parts (stem + shoots, leaves and pods , Leaf Area Index (LAI and levels of macro and micro nutrients (Foliar Diagnosis and in the grains

  14. Growth, assimilate partitioning and grain yield response of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation tested variation in the growth components, assimilate partitioning and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrrill) varieties established in CO2 enriched atmosphere when inoculated with mixtures of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) species in the humid rainforest of Nigeria. A pot and a field ...

  15. Integrating winter camelina into maize and soybean cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.] is an industrial oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family with multiple uses. Currently, camelina is not used as a cover crop, but it has the potential to be used as such in maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems. The objectives of this st...

  16. Effect of intercropping sunflower with soybean at different interrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and soybean (Glycine max) were relatively new crops of economic significance in Uganda before 1990s compared to traditional cash crops such as cotton, tea and coffee. By 2000 many smallholder farmers in the Mid-Northern Agro-ecological Zone of Uganda started planting sunflower ...

  17. Advancing our understanding of charcoal rot in soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid ) of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the last 10 years has improved our understanding of the environment conducive...

  18. In vivo Evaluation of a Cosmetic Emulsion Containing Soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To develop and assess the anti-aging potential of a cosmetic W/O emulsion containing an extract of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Fabaceae. Methods: This single-blind placebo-controlled study was performed in 11 healthy male human volunteers. A formulation comprising of 4 % of concentrated extract of ...

  19. Yield response of soybeans to levels of nitrogen and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trail was conducted at the University of Uyo Teaching and Research Farm in a high rainfall area of South eastern Nigeria to assess the yield response soybeans [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill ] to different levels of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The results showed that the number of pods/ plant, threshing percentage ...

  20. Efeitos de herbicidas e populações de plantas na nodulação e produção da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril 'Santa Rosa' Effects of herbicides and plant populations on nodulation and yield in soybeans Glycine max (L. Merril 'Santa Rosa'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deuber

    1981-12-01

    populations on nodulation and yield in soybean `Santa Rosa' were studied in three Experiments in field conditions and one in greenhouse. Clay and very clay soils were used in the field and very clay and loamy soils in pots. Trifluralin at 0,96 kg/ha and vernolate at 3,60 kg/ha, preplant incorporated; pendimethalin at 1,50 kg/ha, in two experiments, and at 1,25 in a third; alachlor at 2,40 kg; and metribu zin at 0,63 kg in two experiments and at 0,53 kg in a third, preemergence were applied in field conditions. In pots, the same rates were used, except for trifluralin which was applied at 0,86 kg/ha. A check was included in all experiments. All treatments in the field were combined with different plant densities: 200 and 300 thousand in Experiment I, 200, 300 and 400 thousand in Experiment II and 150 and 250 thousand in Experiment III. Three plants per pot were studied in the greenhouse experiment during the first 30 days. No interaction between herbicides and plant populations was observed for any of the studied parameters. The plant density increase caused increase of yield and in the N concentration in grains in two experiments. The different densities caused no change on the number or weight of nodules. Nodulation was affected, in pots, at its beginning, by trifluralin, pendimethalin and vernolate, with reduction of number and weight of nodules. Trifluralin depressed these values also in the field, in one experiment, at flower stage set. Grain yield was enhanced with population increase. Metribuzin reduced yield in one experiment.

  1. Characterization and genetics of multiple soybean aphid biotype resistance in five soybean plant introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Curtis B; Shiao, Derek; Fox, Carolyn M; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-07-01

    Five soybean plant introductions expressed antibiosis resistance to multiple soybean aphid biotypes. Two introductions had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1, Rag2, and rag4 regions; one introduction had resistance genes located in the Rag1 and Rag2 regions; and one introduction had a resistance gene located in the Rag2 region. Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is the most important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest in the USA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the resistance expressed in five plant introductions (PIs) to four soybean aphid biotypes, determine the mode of resistance inheritance, and identify markers associated with genes controlling resistance in these accessions. Five soybean PIs, from an initial set of 3000 PIs, were tested for resistance against soybean aphid biotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 in choice and no-choice tests. Of these five PIs, PI 587663, PI 587677, and PI 587685 expressed antibiosis against all four biotypes, while PI 587972 and PI 594592 expressed antibiosis against biotypes 1, 2, and 3. F2 populations derived from PI 587663 and PI 587972 were evaluated for resistance against soybean aphid biotype 1, and populations derived from PIs 587677, 587685, and 594592 were tested against biotype 3. In addition, F2:3 plants were tested against biotypes 2 and 3. Genomic DNA from F2 plants was screened with markers linked to Rag1, Rag2, Rag3, and rag4 soybean aphid-resistance genes. Results showed that PI 587663 and PI 594592 each had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 regions. PI 587677 had three genes with variable gene action located in the Rag1, Rag2 and rag4 regions. PI 587685 had one dominant gene located in the Rag1 region and an additive gene in the Rag2 region. PI 587972 had one dominant gene located in the Rag2 region controlling antixenosis- or antibiosis-type resistance to soybean

  2. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-08

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  3. Sequencing Analysis of Mutant Allele $cdc$28-$srm$ of Protein Kinase CDC28 and Molecular Dynamics Study of Glycine-Rich Loop in Wild-Type and Mutant Allele G16S of CDK2 as Model

    CERN Document Server

    Koltovaya, N A; Kholmurodov, Kh T; Kretov, D A

    2005-01-01

    The central role that cyclin-dependent kinases play in the timing of cell division and the high incidence of genetic alteration of CDKs or deregulation of CDK inhibitors in a number of cancers make CDC28 of the yeast \\textit{Saccharomyces cerevisiae }very attractive model for studies of mechanisms of CDK regulation. Earlier it was found that certain gene mutations including \\textit{cdc28-srm} affect cell cycle progression, maintenance of different genetic structures and increase cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. A~\\textit{cdc28-srm} mutation is not temperature-sensitive mutation and differs from the known \\textit{cdc28-ts }mutations because it has the evident phenotypic manifestations at 30 $^{\\circ}$C. Sequencing analysis of \\textit{cdc28-srm} revealed a single nucleotide substitution G20S. This is a third glycine in a conserved sequence GxGxxG in the G-rich loop positioned opposite the activation T-loop. Despite its demonstrated importance, the role of the G-loop has remained unclear. The crystal stru...

  4. Soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) response to soybean plant defense: stress levels, tradeoffs, and cross-virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Laramy; Bickel, Ryan; Brisson, Jennifer; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Siegfried, Blair; Zera, Anthony; Miller, Nick

    2014-02-01

    A variety of management methods to control the soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) have been investigated since its invasion into North America in 2000, among them plant resistance has emerged as a viable option for reducing aphid damage to soybeans and preventing outbreaks. Plant resistance methods often use natural soybean plant defenses that impose stress on aphids by reducing fitness and altering behavior. Research efforts have heavily focused on identification and development of aphid resistant soybean varieties, leaving much unknown about soybean aphid response to stressful host plant defenses. In this study, we aimed to 1) evaluate lifetime fitness consequences and phenotypic variation in response to host plant-induced stress and 2) investigate whether trade-offs involving fitness costs and/or cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties exists. We compared aphid survival and reproduction during and after a short period of exposure to soybeans with the Rag2 resistance gene and measured aphid clonal variation in response to Rag2 soybeans. In addition, we measured the performance of Rag2 virulent and avirulent aphids on five soybean varieties with various forms of antibiotic resistance. Our results indicate that plant defenses impose high levels of stress and have long-term fitness consequences, even after aphids are removed from resistant plants. We identified one aphid clone that was able to colonize Rag2 among the seven clones tested, suggesting that virulent genotypes may be prevalent in natural populations. Finally, although we did not find evidence of cross-virulence to multiple antibiotic soybean varieties, our results suggest independent mechanisms of aphid virulence to Rag1 and Rag2 that may involve fitness costs.

  5. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  6. Processing soybeans of different origins : response of a Chinese and a western pig breed to dietary inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, G.

    1996-01-01


    Soybeans (Glycine max) have high nutritional value for domestic animals, due to their protein and energy contents. The feeding effects of full-fat soybeans for non-ruminant and immature ruminant animals, however, are limited by the presence of some antinutritional

  7. Soybean ( Glycine max ) complementation and the zinc status of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scourge is associated with malnutrition specifically underweight, stunting and wasting among school children most of whom are orphaned by HIV. Subsequently, inadequate food supply at the household level has led to micronutrient deficiencies especially zinc. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional ...

  8. A soybean cyst nematode resistance gene points to a new mechanism of plant resistance to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiming; Kandoth, Pramod K; Warren, Samantha D; Yeckel, Greg; Heinz, Robert; Alden, John; Yang, Chunling; Jamai, Aziz; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Juvale, Parijat S; Hill, John; Baum, Thomas J; Cianzio, Silvia; Whitham, Steven A; Korkin, Dmitry; Mitchum, Melissa G; Meksem, Khalid

    2012-12-13

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop that provides a sustainable source of protein and oil worldwide. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a microscopic roundworm that feeds on the roots of soybean and is a major constraint to soybean production. This nematode causes more than US$1 billion in yield losses annually in the United States alone, making it the most economically important pathogen on soybean. Although planting of resistant cultivars forms the core management strategy for this pathogen, nothing is known about the nature of resistance. Moreover, the increase in virulent populations of this parasite on most known resistance sources necessitates the development of novel approaches for control. Here we report the map-based cloning of a gene at the Rhg4 (for resistance to Heterodera glycines 4) locus, a major quantitative trait locus contributing to resistance to this pathogen. Mutation analysis, gene silencing and transgenic complementation confirm that the gene confers resistance. The gene encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase, an enzyme that is ubiquitous in nature and structurally conserved across kingdoms. The enzyme is responsible for interconversion of serine and glycine and is essential for cellular one-carbon metabolism. Alleles of Rhg4 conferring resistance or susceptibility differ by two genetic polymorphisms that alter a key regulatory property of the enzyme. Our discovery reveals an unprecedented plant resistance mechanism against a pathogen. The mechanistic knowledge of the resistance gene can be readily exploited to improve nematode resistance of soybean, an increasingly important global crop.

  9. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two races of Heterodera glycines at different developmental stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofeng Wang

    Full Text Available The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is an important pest of soybeans. Although resistance is available against this nematode, selection for virulent races can occur, allowing the nematode to overcome the resistance of cultivars. There are abundant field populations, however, little is known about their genetic diversity. In order to elucidate the differences between races, we investigated the transcriptional diversity within race 3 and race 4 inbred lines during their compatible interactions with the soybean host Zhonghuang 13. Six different race-enriched cDNA libraries were constructed with limited nematode samples collected from the three sedentary stages, parasitic J2, J3 and J4 female, respectively. Among 689 putative race-enriched genes isolated from the six libraries with functional annotations, 92 were validated by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR, including eight putative effector encoding genes. Further race-enriched genes were validated within race 3 and race 4 during development in soybean roots. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of all the race-enriched genes at J3 and J4 female stages showed that most of them functioned in metabolic processes. Relative transcript level analysis of 13 selected race-enriched genes at four developmental stages showed that the differences in their expression abundance took place at either one or more developmental stages. This is the first investigation into the transcript diversity of H. glycines races throughout their sedentary stages, increasing the understanding of the genetic diversity of H. glycines.

  10. Effects of thiamethoxam seed treatments on soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, M D; Heng-Moss, T M; Baxendale, F P; Reese, J C; Siegfried, B D; Hunt, T E; Gaussoin, R E; Blankenship, E E

    2013-12-01

    Since its discovery in North America in 2000, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has rapidly become an important pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], sometimes resulting in significant yield losses. Previous research has documented the toxicity of neonicotinoid seed treatments to soybean aphids, but control under field conditions has been inconsistent. Imidacloprid, a popular neonicotinoid insecticide, has been shown to exhibit antifeedant effects on aphids. Antifeedant activity has not been demonstrated for other neonicotinoids, including thiamethoxam. This research investigated the effects of a thiamethoxam seed treatment on soybean aphid feeding behavior by using electronic penetration graphs (EPG) to visualize stylet penetration behavior. Soybean aphid feeding behavior was assessed for 9 h on thiamethoxam-treated and untreated soybeans (V2 and V4 stages). Because results were inconclusive from initial experiments, a study was conducted to document the effects of thiamethoxam-treated soybeans on soybean aphid survival. The seed treatment was shown to negatively affect aphid survival at 4, 8, and 11 d after aphid introduction. A subsequent EPG study then was designed to document soybean aphid feeding behavior for 15 h, after an initial exposure of 9 h to thiamethoxam-treated soybeans. In this study, the exposed aphids exhibited significant differences in feeding behavior compared with those aphids feeding on untreated soybeans. Soybean aphids on thiamethoxam-treated soybeans spent significantly less time feeding in the sieve element phase, with a greater duration of nonprobing events. These studies suggest soybean aphids are unable to ingest phloem sap, which may be another important element in seed treatment protection.

  11. Fingerprinting soybean germplasm and its utility in genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The annual accessions in the United States Department of Agriculture, Soybean Germplasm Collection including 18,480 domesticated and 1,168 wild soybeans introduced from 84 countries or developed in the U.S. were genotyped with the SoySNP50K BeadChip containing >50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SN...

  12. A correlation between host-mediated expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats and abrogation of development of female Heterodera glycines cyst formation during infection of Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Vincent P; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Martins, Veronica; Macdonald, Margaret H; Beard, Hunter S; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2009-06-01

    Host-mediated (hm) expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats was investigated as a means to abrogate the formation of mature Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) female cysts during its infection of Glycine max (soybean). A Gateway-compatible hm plant transformation system was developed specifically for these experiments in G. max. Three steps then were taken to identify H. glycines candidate genes. First, a pool of 150 highly conserved H. glycines homologs of genes having lethal mutant phenotypes or phenocopies from the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were identified. Second, annotation of those 150 genes on the Affymetrix soybean GeneChip allowed for the identification of a subset of 131 genes whose expression could be monitored during the parasitic phase of the H. glycines life cycle. Third, a microarray analyses identified a core set of 32 genes with induced expression (>2.0-fold, log base 2) during the parasitic stages of infection. H. glycines homologs of small ribosomal protein 3a and 4 (Hg-rps-3a [accession number CB379877] and Hg-rps-4 [accession number CB278739]), synaptobrevin (Hg-snb-1 [accession number BF014436]) and a spliceosomal SR protein (Hg-spk-1 [accession number BI451523.1]) were tested for functionality in hm expression studies. Effects on H. glycines development were observed 8 days after infection. Experiments demonstrated that 81-93% fewer females developed on transgenic roots containing the genes engineered as tandem inverted repeats. The effect resembles RNA interference. The methodology has been used here as an alternative approach to engineer resistance to H. glycines.

  13. GsSNAP33, a novel Glycine soja SNAP25-type protein gene: Improvement of plant salt and drought tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, Zaib-Un; Mallano, Ali Inayat; Yu, Yang; Chen, Chao; Duan, Xiangbo; Amanullah, Sikandar; Kousar, Abida; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sun, Xiaoli; Tabys, Dina; Zhu, Yanming

    2017-10-01

    The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) superfamily, specifically the SNAP25-type proteins and t-SNAREs, have been proposed to regulate cellular processes and plant resistance mechanisms. However, little is known about the role of SNAP25-type proteins in combating abiotic stresses, specifically in wild soybean. In the current study, the isolation and functional characterization of the putative synaptosomal-associated SNAP25-type protein gene GsSNAP33 from wild soybean (Glycine soja) were performed. GsSNAP33 has a molecular weight of 33,311 Da and comprises 300 amino acid residues along with Qb-Qc SNARE domains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the highest similarity of the GsSNAP33 protein to GmSNAP33 (91%), VrSNAP33 (89%), PvSNAP33 (86%) and AtSNAP33 (63%). Phylogenetic studies revealed the abundance of SNAP33 proteins mostly in dicotyledons. Quantitative real-time PCR assays confirmed that GsSNAP33 expression can be induced by salt, alkali, ABA and PEG treatments and that GsSNAP33 is highly expressed in the pods, seeds and roots of Glycine soja. Furthermore, the overexpression of the GsSNAP33 gene in WT Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in increased germination rates, greater root lengths, improved photosynthesis, lower electrolyte leakage, higher biomass production and up-regulated expression levels of various stress-responsive marker genes, including KINI, COR15A, P5Cs, RAB18, RD29A and COR47 in transgenic lines compared with those in WT lines. Subcellular localization studies revealed that the GsSNAP33-eGFP fusion protein was localized to the plasma membrane, while eGFP was distributed throughout whole cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that GsSNAP33, a novel plasma membrane protein gene of Glycine soja, might be involved in improving plant responses to salt and drought stresses in Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  15. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  16. PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG KOMPOSIT UBI JALAR PUTIH (Ipomea batatas L. KECAMBAH KEDELAI (Glycine max Merr DAN KECAMBAH KACANG HIJAU (Virginia radiata L SEBAGAI SUBSTITUEN PARSIAL TERIGU DALAM PRODUK PANGAN ALTERNATIF BISKUIT KAYA ENERGI PROTEIN [Utilization of Composite Flour from White Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L, Germinated Soybeans (Glycine max Merr., and Germinated Mung Beans (Virginia radiata L as Wheat Flour Partial Substituent of Alternative Food, High Energy-Protein Biscuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry H Sunandar2

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available An emergency food based biscuit product was formulated by utilizing composite flour from white sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans. This product was designed to meet high protein and energy wich contain protein as minimum as 12% and 50% carbohydrate. Sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were obtained by using drum dryer. The flour characteristics determination showed that there were positive corelation between bulk density and wettability, and had negative corelation with stack angle. The bulk density number of sweet potatoes, germinated soybeans, and germinated mung beans flour were 0.56, 0.38, 0.45 g/m; compact density 0.63, 0.54, and 0.56 g/ml; whiteness degree 49.77, 29.82 and 34.41%; stack angle 30.56, 41.77 and 31.16 degree; wettability 1.104, 345, 20 second; and dispersibility 1.98, 1.06 and 0.70%. Wheat flour could be substituted by sweet potatoes flour as much as 80%. The range utilization of germinated soybeans and germinated mung beans flour were 12-28 % which combined with 25-44% sweet potatoes flour. The nutritional composition of high energy and protein biscuit were within average range of protein 12.34%, fat 24.56%, carbohydrate 60.65 %, and also total dietary fiber 15.01%. The result of organoleptic test showed that high energy and protein biscuit was accepted by consument, so that its very potential to ben as alternative food.

  17. Soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) oviposition on cotton and soybean of different growth stages: influence of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Douglas J; Pitre, Henry N

    2002-04-01

    Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), oviposition in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., of various stages of plant phenological development was evaluated in field cages in 1994, 1995, and 1996. Overall, females preferred to oviposit on soybean over cotton when both crops were compared in vegetative or prebloom stages, when both crops were blooming, and when soybean was blooming or in early pod stage compared with prebloom cotton. Females preferred to deposit eggs on the lower leaf surface in the upper two-thirds of the plant canopy in cotton and soybean. Oviposition in upper and middle canopy levels varied with plant growth stage. Females tended to lay more eggs in the upper canopy compared with the middle canopy in prebloom cotton and vegetative soybean; more eggs were laid in the middle canopy of blooming cotton and reproductive stages of soybean. Females responded to both cotton and soybean volatiles in an olfactometer. There was no significant difference in response to the two sources of volatiles.

  18. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  19. Comparative analysis of chemical compositions between non-transgenic soybean seeds and those from plants over-expressing AtJMT, the gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do Young; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Seo, Jun Sung; Choi, Yang Do; Cheong, Jong-Joo; Kim, Chung Ho; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic overexpression of the Arabidopsis gene for jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AtJMT) is involved in regulating jasmonate-related plant responses. To examine its role in the compositional profile of soybean (Glycine max), we compared the seeds from field-grown plants that over-express AtJMT with those of the non-transgenic, wild-type (WT) counterpart. Our analysis of chemical compositions included proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, isoflavones, and antinutrients. Overexpression of AtJMT in the seeds resulted in decreased amounts of tryptophan, palmitic acid, linolenic acid, and stachyose, but increased levels of gadoleic acid and genistein. In particular, seeds from the transgenic soybeans contained 120.0-130.5% more genistein and 60.5-82.1% less stachyose than the WT. A separate evaluation of ingredient values showed that all were within the reference ranges reported for commercially available soybeans, thereby demonstrating the substantial equivalence of these transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of planting date on seed protein oil sugars minerals and nitrogen metabolism in soybean under irrigated and non-irrigated enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, o...

  1. Genome-wide scan for seed composition provides insights into the improvement of soybean quality and the impacts of domestication and modern breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a world-widely grown major crop rich in both protein and oil. Improvement of seed nutrients has long been one of the most important breeding objectives in soybean. To better understand the genetic architecture of the traits for improvement, we conducted genome-w...

  2. A novel, multiplexed, probe-based quantitative PCR assay for the soybean root- and stem-rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, utilizes its transposable element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean (Glycine max Merr.) is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. and Gerd.). P. sojae has a narrow host range, consisting primarily of soybean, and it is a serious pathogen worldwide. It exists in root and stem tissues as mycelium, wherein it can form oospo...

  3. Ozone injury in soybeans. Isoflavonoid accumulation is related to necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, N.T.; Taylor, O.C.

    1975-04-01

    Fumigation of soybean leaves (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with ozone caused stippling and silvering at the same time that large accumulations of the isoflavonoid compounds daidzein, coumestrol, and sojagol occurred. Nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide caused lesser accumulation of the isoflavonoids, and peroxyacetyl nitrate did not result in significant accumulation. Visible toxicity and chemical changes in ozone-fumigated leaves were similar to the hypersensitive disease defense reaction of soybean leaves to the pathogen Pseudomonas glycinea, except that the phytoalexin hydroxyphaseollin was not produced in the ozone-treated leaves. (auth)

  4. Cryptic red light signal regulates ascorbic acid in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmagadda, Lakshmi; Kadur Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad

    2009-02-15

    The regulation of endogenous level of ascorbic acid in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) by cryptic red light signal (CRS) was studied. CRS is a cellular signal induced by red light pre-irradiation that amplifies the action of phytochrome, and is known to enhance anthocyanin synthesis in sorghum. A phytochrome-enhanced endogenous level of ascorbic acid in soybean seedlings was amplified by CRS. The lifetime of CRS was from 0 to 2h and the peak of enhancement was between 16 and 24h of dark incubation after the end of treatment.

  5. Effect of Rotation Crops on Heterodera glycines Population Density in a Greenhouse Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, S A; Chen, S Y; Wyse, D L; Johnson, G A; Porter, P M

    2006-09-01

    Crop rotation is a common means of reducing pathogen populations in soil. Several rotation crops have been shown to reduce soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) populations, but a comprehensive study of the optimal crops is needed. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effect of growth and decomposition of 46 crops on population density of H. glycines. Crops were sown in soil infested with H. glycines. Plants were maintained until 75 days after planting, when the soil was mixed, a sample of the soil removed to determine egg density, and shoots and roots chopped and mixed into the soil. After 56 days, soil samples were again taken for egg counts, and a susceptible soybean ('Sturdy') was planted in the soil as a bioassay to determine egg viability. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), forage pea (Pisum sativum), lab-lab bean (Lablab purpureus), Illinois bundleflower (Desman-thus illinoensis), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) generally resulted in smaller egg population density in soil or number of cysts formed on soybean in the bioassay than the fallow control. Sunn hemp most consistently showed the lowest numbers of eggs and cysts. As a group, legumes resulted in lower egg population densities than monocots, Brassica species, and other dicots.

  6. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  7. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jennifer L; Till, Bradley J; Laport, Robert G; Darlow, Margaret C; Kleffner, Justin M; Jamai, Aziz; El-Mellouki, Tarik; Liu, Shiming; Ritchie, Rae; Nielsen, Niels; Bilyeu, Kristin D; Meksem, Khalid; Comai, Luca; Henikoff, Steven

    2008-01-24

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world's protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations in a target of interest using a strategy known as Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING). We have applied TILLING to four mutagenized soybean populations, three of which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and one with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU). We screened seven targets in each population and discovered a total of 116 induced mutations. The NMU-treated population and one EMS mutagenized population had similar mutation density (approximately 1/140 kb), while another EMS population had a mutation density of approximately 1/250 kb. The remaining population had a mutation density of approximately 1/550 kb. Because of soybean's polyploid history, PCR amplification of multiple targets could impede mutation discovery. Indeed, one set of primers tested in this study amplified more than a single target and produced low quality data. To address this problem, we removed an extraneous target by pretreating genomic DNA with a restriction enzyme. Digestion of the template eliminated amplification of the extraneous target and allowed the identification of four additional mutant alleles compared to untreated template. The development of four independent populations with considerable mutation density, together with an additional method for screening closely related targets, indicates that soybean is a suitable organism for high-throughput mutation discovery even with its extensively duplicated genome.

  8. TILLING to detect induced mutations in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Niels

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. is an important nitrogen-fixing crop that provides much of the world's protein and oil. However, the available tools for investigation of soybean gene function are limited. Nevertheless, chemical mutagenesis can be applied to soybean followed by screening for mutations in a target of interest using a strategy known as Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING. We have applied TILLING to four mutagenized soybean populations, three of which were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and one with N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU. Results We screened seven targets in each population and discovered a total of 116 induced mutations. The NMU-treated population and one EMS mutagenized population had similar mutation density (~1/140 kb, while another EMS population had a mutation density of ~1/250 kb. The remaining population had a mutation density of ~1/550 kb. Because of soybean's polyploid history, PCR amplification of multiple targets could impede mutation discovery. Indeed, one set of primers tested in this study amplified more than a single target and produced low quality data. To address this problem, we removed an extraneous target by pretreating genomic DNA with a restriction enzyme. Digestion of the template eliminated amplification of the extraneous target and allowed the identification of four additional mutant alleles compared to untreated template. Conclusion The development of four independent populations with considerable mutation density, together with an additional method for screening closely related targets, indicates that soybean is a suitable organism for high-throughput mutation discovery even with its extensively duplicated genome.

  9. Costs and benefits of jasmonic acid induced responses in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accamando, A K; Cronin, J T

    2012-06-01

    In response to herbivory, plants have evolved defense strategies to reduce herbivore preference and performance. A strategy whereby defenses are induced only upon herbivory can mitigate costs of defense when herbivores are scarce. Although costs and benefits of induced responses are generally assumed, empirical evidence for many species is lacking. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) has emerged as a model species with which to address questions about induced responses. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the fitness costs and benefits of jasmonic acid-induced responses by soybean in the absence and presence of soybean loopers (Chrysodeix includens Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In a greenhouse experiment we demonstrated that soybean induction was costly. Induced plants produced 10.1% fewer seeds that were 9.0% lighter, and had 19.2% lower germination rates than noninduced plants. However, induction provided only modest benefits to soybeans. In a choice experiment, soybean loopers significantly preferred leaves from noninduced plants, consuming 62% more tissue than from induced plants. Soybean loopers that fed on plants that were previously subjected to treatment with jasmonic acid matured at the same rate and to the same size as those that fed on control plants. However, at high conspecific density, soybean looper survivorship was reduced by 44% on previously induced relative to control plants. Reduced soybean looper preference and survivorship did not translate into fitness benefits for soybeans. Our findings support theoretical predictions of costly induced defenses and highlight the importance of considering the environmental context in studies of plant defense.

  10. Effect of Sinorhizobium fredii strain Sneb183 on the biological control of soybean cyst nematode in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lijie; Duan, Yuxi

    2014-11-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) is a major detriment to soybean production. The endophytic bacterium Sinorhizobium fredii strain Sneb183 is known to inhibit the activity of SCN. In the present study, soybean seedlings were inoculated with Sneb183, to study the penetration juveniles, and their development inside the roots. The number of cysts in the soybean roots was also examined. The induced systemic resistance in soybean was also examined through the split-root system. Our results revealed that the number of juveniles and cysts significantly decreased as a result of Sneb183 inoculation. Sneb183 also prolonged the developmental stage of SCN in the root to 30 days as compared to 27 days in the control. Furthermore, the number of nematodes in each stage was lower in the Sneb183 treated plants than control plants. We also used a split-root system to show that the S. fredii strain Sneb183 induced a systemic resistance to SCN infection in soybean. The repression rate of SCN penetration was 38.75%. Our study showed that Sneb183 can be an effective biocontrol agent for managing SCN infestation in soybean. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. GsERF6, an ethylene-responsive factor from Glycine soja, mediates the regulation of plant bicarbonate tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Ailin; Duan, Xiangbo; Wang, Sunting; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Chao; Cao, Lei; Xiao, Jialei; Li, Qiang; Nisa, Zaib Un; Zhu, Yanming; Ding, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    This is an original study focus on ERF gene response to alkaline stress. GsERF6 functions as transcription factor and significantly enhanced plant tolerance to bicarbonate (HCO 3 (-) ) in transgenic Arabidopsis . Alkaline stress is one of the most harmful, but little studied environmental factors, which negatively affects plant growth, development and yield. The cause of alkaline stress is mainly due to the damaging consequence of high concentration of the bicarbonate ion, high-pH, and osmotic shock to plants. The AP2/ERF family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors involved in diverse environmental stresses. However, little is known about their physiological functions, especially in alkaline stress responses. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel ERF subfamily gene, GsERF6 from alkaline-tolerant wild soybean (Glycine soja). In wild soybean, GsERF6 was rapidly induced by NaHCO3 treatment, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced transgenic plant tolerance to NaHCO3 challenge. Interestingly, GsERF6 transgenic lines also displayed increased tolerance to KHCO3 treatment, but not to high pH stress, implicating that GsERF6 may participate specifically in bicarbonate stress responses. We also found that GsERF6 overexpression up-regulated the transcription levels of bicarbonate-stress-inducible genes such as NADP-ME, H (+)-Ppase and H (+)-ATPase, as well as downstream stress-tolerant genes such as RD29A, COR47 and KINI. GsERF6 overexpression and NaHCO3 stress also altered the expression patterns of plant hormone synthesis and hormone-responsive genes. Conjointly, our results suggested that GsERF6 is a positive regulator of plant alkaline stress by increasing bicarbonate ionic resistance specifically, providing a new insight into the regulation of gene expression under alkaline conditions.

  12. Seed priming and sulfur effects on soybean cell membrane stability and yield in saline soil Condicionamento osmótico das sementes e disponibilidade de enxofre na estabilidade da membrana celular e produtividade de soja em solo salino

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teymur Khandan Bejandi; Mohammad Sedghi; Raouf Seyed Sharifi; Ali Namvar; Peyman Molaei

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effects of seed priming and sulfur application on cell membrane characteristics, seedling emergence, chlorophyll content and grain yield of soybean (Glycine max) in saline soil...

  13. Waktu Aplikasi Trichoderma harzianum Rifai dalam Berbagai Substrat Untuk Menekan Penyakit Busuk pangkal batang (Sclerotium rolfsii sacc.) Pada Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merill Di Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Damanik, Ilham Roh Tuah

    2011-01-01

    Ilham Roh Tuah Damanik,“ The time application Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in some substrat to supress Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) in Field”, supervisor by Ir. Mukhtar Iskandar Pinem, M. Agr. And Ir. Lahmuddin Lubis, MP. This aims of the research was to know The best time application Trichoderma harzianum Rifai with substrat to supress Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. on soybean. This research was done in BPTP ,...

  14. SEED GROWTH RATE, GROWTH DURATION, AND YIELD IN SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Guffy, R. D.; Hesketh, J. D.; Nelson, R. L.; Bernard, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Seed growth rate and duration of growth were studied for different soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars and isolines differing in maturity and stem termination behavior under field conditions. Various methods for estimating rate and duration were compared, and such estimates were compared with yield, along with mature seed weight, seed number, and days from planting to maturity. Three estimates of seed filling period were all highly correlated with each other, but the final seed weight,...

  15. Penapisan Isolat Rizobakteri dari Perakaran Tanaman Kedelai yang Sehat untuk Pengendalian Penyakit Pustul Bakteri (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulmira Yanti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Screening of indigenous  rhizobacteria from healthy soybean root to control bacterial pustule (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines using in planta technique. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are a group of bacteria  that actively colonize plant roots, increase plant growth and control  plant pathogens. The aim of this study was to obtain rhizobacteri isolates which have the ability to control bacterial pustule and  increase growth and yield of soybean. This method based on in planta selection of enhanced competitive soil root-colonizing bacteria from soil samples of healthy soybean root at endemic area of bacterial pustule in Darmasraya  District  and   Sijunjung District, West Sumatera. We characterized only the best rhizobacteri isolates which have ability to control bacterial pustule and to increase growth and yield of soybean. This type of characterization has possibility to find  new, easy and cheap biocontrol organisms. Ten Rhizobacteri isolates were introduced via seed treatment (108 cfu/ml and soil drench to 3 week old  soybean seedling. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines were inoculated to one month old of soybean seedling. The effect of rhizobacteria  on disease incidence, disease severity, plant growth and yield of soybean were evaluated.  We have found that two selected  rhizobacteri isolates from soybean (P12Rz2.1 and P14Rz1.1 were the best isolates in promoting growth and the of the soybean plants  with the effectiveness  20.62 % and 20.47 %.

  16. Shifts in Buchnera aphidicola density in soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) feeding on virus-infected soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial symbioses are prevalent across insect taxa, and are considered key to several specialized feeding behaviors and to insect diversification at large. Aphids undergo an obligate symbiosis with Buchnera aphidicola, which provides essential amino acids to its host contributing directly to host ...

  17. Glyphosate Mineralization: Effect of Temperature and Soybean and Corn Crop Residues Mineralización de Glifosato: Efecto de la Temperatura y los Residuos Vegetales de Soya y Maíz

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Rampoldi; Susana Hang; Enrique Barriuso

    2008-01-01

    Mineralization is the main mechanism of dissipation of glyphosate herbicide (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in soil. However, there is scarce information about the mineralization process in strata formed by stubbles in no-tillage systems. The kinetics and rate of mineralization of herbicide in stubbles of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. To evaluate the effect of age of crop residues, samples of soybean stubbles were collected immediately after harvest (S...

  18. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Asap Cair Kayu Sengon sebagai Chelating Agents Logam Timbal (Pb pada Model Menggunakan Biji Kedelai (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rohmah Lufti A'yuni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is one of the plants that strongly accumulate heavy metals. Therefore, soybeans need to be given a pre-treatment so that no accumulation of heavy metals in the human body. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen wood liquid smoke concentration to the reduction of Pb metal in soybean seeds and determine the influence of liquid smoke compounds to the reduction of Pb metal in soybean seeds. The study used a completely randomized design with three replications. Factor to be examined was the effect of liquid smoke concentration to the reduction of Pb metal in soybean seeds with variations 0; 12.5; 25; 50 and 100 % by 25 ml. Parameters measured were Pb metal reduction, the changes of acid, phenol, carbonyl and pH liquid smoke after chelation and Pb metal reduction because of liquid smoke compounds. Model of Pb metal was made from soybean seeds that have been contaminated by Pb (NO3 2 with the 2 ppm concentration. The results showed that the greater the concentration of liquid smoke, the greater the reduction of Pb metal. The liquid smoke with the 100% concentration gives the highest reduction of Pb metal in soybean seeds 59.12%. Carbonyl compounds of liquid smoke give the highest reduction of Pb metal in soybeans seeds 46.42  %, followed by acetic acid 43.97 % and phenol 41.55 %.

  20. Sur quelques aspects de la production du soja (Glycine max L. au Congo : essais préliminaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandimba, GR.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available About some cropping systems of soybean (Glycine max. L. in Congo : first results. Field experiments were conducted to assess the response of soybean Glycine max cv. FN3 to N fertilization and inoculation respectively. In the first experiment, the effects of different levels of N fertilizer (0 ; 20 ; 40 and 80 kg N/ha with or without liming were studied. Soybean podyield were related to N fertilization only when liming was added to the soil In the second one, the effects of four Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains F A3 ; 3-40 ; SA 1 and G3S on nodulation and yields were also studied. Inoculation has significant effect on nodulation and plant top dry weight at full bloom, and seed yield at harvest when compared to the control. However, the Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains tested had various symbiotic effectiveness on Glycine max cv. FN3. In addition, soybean plants inoculated with G3S strain and those fertilized with 100 kg N/ha produced similar seed yield. Our study illustrated that G3S strain had the better adaptability in environmental conditions of Congo soil.

  1. Identification of a single amino acid in GluN1 that is critical for glycine-primed internalization of NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Campanucci, Verónica A; Cooke, James; Salter, Michael W

    2013-08-13

    NMDA receptors are ligand-gated ion channels with essential roles in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CNS. As co-receptors for glutamate and glycine, gating of the NMDA receptor/channel pore requires agonist binding to the glycine sites, as well as to the glutamate sites, on the ligand-binding domains of the receptor. In addition to channel gating, glycine has been found to prime NMDA receptors for internalization upon subsequent stimulation of glutamate and glycine sites. Here we address the key issue of identifying molecular determinants in the glycine-binding subunit, GluN1, that are essential for priming of NMDA receptors. We found that glycine treatment of wild-type NMDA receptors led to recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2), and subsequent internalization after activating the receptors by NMDA plus glycine. However, with a glycine-binding mutant of GluN1 - N710R/Y711R/E712A/A714L - we found that treating with glycine did not promote recruitment of AP-2 nor were glycine-treated receptors internalized when subsequently activated with NMDA plus glycine. Likewise, GluN1 carrying a single point mutation - A714L - did not prime upon glycine treatment. Importantly, both of the mutant receptors were functional, as stimulating with NMDA plus glycine evoked inward currents. Thus, we have identified a single amino acid in GluN1 that is critical for priming of NMDA receptors by glycine. Moreover, we have demonstrated the principle that while NMDA receptor gating and priming share a common requirement for glycine binding, the molecular constraints in GluN1 for gating are distinct from those for priming.

  2. Genome-wide association mapping of carbon isotope and oxygen isotope ratios in diverse soybean genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficit stress is a major factor limiting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] yield. High water use efficiency (WUE) offers a means to potentially ameliorate drought impact, but increased WUE is often associated with a reduction in transpiration (T) and an accompanied reduction in photosynthesis....

  3. Water use in a winter camelina – soybean double crop system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa) followed by soybean (Glycine max) may increase land-use efficiency by producing food and biofuel in a single season and is a viable cropping system for the northern Corn Belt. However, regional success of double-cropping, especially under dryland con...

  4. Dual cropping winter camelina with soybean in the northern Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainably balancing biofuel crop production with food, feed, and fiber on agricultural lands will require developing new cropping strategies. Double- and/or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] may be a means to produce an energy and food crop o...

  5. Multiplex real-time PCR detection and differentiation of Colletotrichum species infecting soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletotrichum species are fungal plant pathogens of worldwide significance. We isolated Colletotrichum species from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] with anthracnose symptoms in the U.S. states of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Mississippi, and North Dakota from 2009 to 2013. Thirty-five strains from...

  6. Growth Predictions for Tree Species Planted on Marginal Soybean Lands in the Lower Mississippi Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Groninger; W.M. Aust; M. Miwa; John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    The establishment of bottomland hardwood forest stands and riparian buffers on frequently-flooded soybean (Glycine max.) lands in the Lower Mississippi Valley represents a tremendous opporunity to prvide both economic and environmental benefits to the region. Selecting appropriate sites for reestablishing tree cover, accurately predicting the productivity of planted...

  7. Phoma glycinicola (Red Leaf Blotch): A threat to soybean production in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red leaf blotch of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the common name for the disease caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola Gruyter & Boerema. Other names for red leaf blotch inlcude Dactuliophora leaf spot, Pyrenochaeta leaf blotch, and Pyrenochaeta leaf spot. The disease was first repor...

  8. Genome resilience and prevalence of segmental duplications following fast neutron irradiation of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast neutron radiation has been used as a mutagen to develop extensive mutant collections. However, the genome-wide structural consequences of fast neutron radiation are not well understood. Here, we examine the genome-wide structural variants observed among 264 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) pl...

  9. Novel quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 398841

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdmann is one of the most severe soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] diseases in the US. Partial resistance is as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of t...

  10. Identification of quantitative trait loci conditioning partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean PI 407861A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving resistance for Phytophthora root and stem rot is an important goal in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] breeding. Partial resistance can be as effective in managing this disease as single-gene (Rps) mediated resistance and is more durable. The objective of this study was to identify QTL con...

  11. Segmental duplications within the Glycine max genome revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization of bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Janice; Walling, Jason G; Young, Nevin D; Shoemaker, Randy C; Jackson, Scott A

    2004-08-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is presumed to be an ancient polyploid based on chromosome number and multiple RFLP fragments in genetic mapping. Direct cytogenetic observation of duplicated regions within the soybean genome has not heretofore been reported. Employing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of genetically anchored bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in soybean, we were able to observe that the distal ends of molecular linkage group E had duplicated regions on linkage groups A2 and B2. Further, using fiber-FISH, it was possible to measure the molecular size and organization of one of the duplicated regions. As FISH did not require repetitive DNA for blocking fluorescence signals, we assume that the 200-kb genome region is relatively low in repetitive sequences. This observation, along with the observation that the BACs are located in distal euchromatin regions, has implications for genome structure/evolution and the approach used to sequence the soybean genome.

  12. Nymph and Adult Performance of the Small Green Stink Bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood on Lanceleaf Crotalaria and Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lanceleaf crotalaria, Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey (Leguminosae was found hosting the small green stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, in Paraná State, Brazil. In the laboratory, nymphs showed less mortality when fed on immature pods of crotalaria (64% than when fed on immature pods of soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill (88%. From 2nd stadium to adult, nymphs required less time to complete development on crotalaria (mean of females and males = 18.4 days than on soybean (21.5 days. Fresh body weight at adult emergence was greater on crotalaria (mean of females and males = 51.4 mg than on soybean (42.2 mg. Adult P. guildinii tended to live longer on crotalaria than on soybean. Mean adult longevity was 34.6 days on crotalaria, and 28.8 days on soybean. However, the reproductive performance of females, although similar on both foods, tended to be greater on soybean. These results indicated that P. guildinii was able to develop and reproduce on the wild host lanceleaf crotalaria. Compared to soybean, this weed plant was more suitable for nymph development, and equally suitable for adult reproduction.A crotalária nativa, Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. (Leguminosae foi encontrada abrigando o percevejo verde pequeno, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Em laboratório, as ninfas tiveram uma sobrevivência maior quando alimentadas com vagens imaturas de crotalária (64,0% de mortalidade do que quando alimentadas com vagens imaturas de soja, Glycine max (L. Merrill (88,0% de mortalidade. Do segundo estádio ninfal à fase adulta, as ninfas requereram menos tempo para completar seu desenvolvimento em crotalária (média de fêmeas e machos = 18, 4 dias do que em soja (21,5 dias. O peso corporal fresco na emergência dos adultos foi maior quando as ninfas alimentaram-se de vagens de crotalária (média de fêmeas e machos = 51,4 mg do que quando se alimentaram de vagens de soja (42,2 mg. Os adultos de P. guildinii tenderam a

  13. Polyamines in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L C

    1972-07-01

    Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were three main polyamines isolated from soybeans and partially characterized. Occurrence of polyamines in soybeans was established by separating trichloroacetic acid extracts of soybeans by cationic exchange column chromatography, identification with thin layer chromatography, paper electrophoresis, mass spectral analysis, reactions with ninhydrin and Dragendorff reagents, and spectrophotometric characteristics. Soybeans contained a minimum of 29.0 micrograms of polyamines per gram of full-fat flour. The alcohol-soluble fraction of soybeans contained polyamines also. Resting seeds contained spermidine in higher concentration than either putrescine or spermine. Spermine appeared to be present in lowest concentration. Preliminary experiments suggested that some polyamines were possibly in bound forms.

  14. Proteome data associated with the leaf senescence in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are associated with the article “Coupling of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomics approaches to dig deep into the leaf senescence proteome of Glycine max” (R. Gupta, S.J. Lee, C.W. Min, S.W. Kim, K.-H. Park, D.-W. Bae, et al., 2016 [1]. Leaf senescence is one of the important aspects of the life cycle of a plant that leads to the recycling of nutrients from source to sink cells. To understand the leaf senescence-associated proteins, we used a combination of gel-based 2-DE and 1-DE shotgun proteomic approaches. Here, we display the 2-DE, Mass spectrometry, and Gene ontology data related with the leaf senescence in soybean [1].

  15. Nitrogen Sources and Rates Affect Soybean Seed Composition in Mississippi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. seed is a major source of protein, oil, carbohydrates and other nutrients that are important for human and animal nutrition. Producers have considered applying nitrogen (N fertilizer to soybean crop to maximize seed yield; however, its effect on seed composition is not well understood. The objective of this two-year (2015 and 2016 study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilizer sources and application rates (45, 90, 135 and 179 kg N ha−1 on soybean seed composition on two soil textures (clay and silt-loam in Mississippi. The three fertilizer sources included in this study were urea with N-(n butyl thiophosphoric triamide (Urea+NBPT, polymer-coated urea (PCU, and ammonium sulfate (AMS. Nitrogen application at 179 kg ha−1 on clay soil reduced seed protein by 1.05% compared to unfertilized soybeans in 2016. However, N application at 179 kg ha−1 increased oil content by 0.7% on clay soil compared to the unfertilized soybeans only in 2016. Nitrogen applications reduced stachyose content on both soil textures in 2015. The fatty acids showed variable response to N applications. Since, seed quality is not a trait from which growers receive an economic incentive, they are unlikely to adopt this practice for standard soybean production.

  16. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained....

  17. Regulation of hepatic glycine catabolism by glucagon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jois, M.; Hall, B.; Fewer, K.; Brosnan, J.T.

    1989-02-25

    Glucagon stimulates 14CO2 production from (1-14C) glycine by isolated rat hepatocytes. Maximal stimulation (70%) of decarboxylation of glycine by hepatocytes was achieved when the concentration of glucagon in the medium reached 10 nM; half-maximal stimulation occurred at a concentration of about 2 nM. A lag period of 10 min was observed before the stimulation could be measured. Inclusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate (10 mM) or acetoacetate (10 mM) did not affect the magnitude of stimulation suggesting that the effects of glucagon were independent of mitochondrial redox state. Glucagon did not affect either the concentration or specific activity of intracellular glycine, thus excluding the possibilities that altered concentration or specific activity of intracellular glycine contributes to the observed stimulation. The stimulation of decarboxylation of glycine by glucagon was further studied by monitoring 14CO2 production from (1-14C)glycine by mitochondria isolated from rats previously injected with glucagon. Glycine decarboxylation was significantly stimulated in the mitochondria isolated from the glucagon-injected rats. We suggest that glucagon is a major regulator of hepatic glycine metabolism through the glycine cleavage enzyme system and may be responsible for the increased hepatic glycine removal observed in animals fed high-protein diets.

  18. Selection of Soybean Pods by the Stink Bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gonzalo A. R.; Trumper, Eduardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  19. The Glycine soja NAC transcription factor GsNAC019 mediates the regulation of plant alkaline tolerance and ABA sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Yang; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Fan; Liu, Beidong; Sun, Xiaoli; Duan, Xiangbo; Yin, Kuide; Zhu, Yanming

    2017-10-01

    Overexpression of Gshdz4 or GsNAC019 enhanced alkaline tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. We proved that Gshdz4 up-regulated both GsNAC019 and GsRD29B but GsNAC019 may repress the GsRD29B expression under alkaline stress. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) has a high tolerance to environmental challenges. It is a model species for dissecting the molecular mechanisms of salt-alkaline stresses. Although many NAC transcription factors play important roles in response to multiple abiotic stresses, such as salt, osmotic and cold, their mode of action in alkaline stress resistance is largely unknown. In our study, we identified a G. soja NAC gene, GsNAC019, which is a homolog of the Arabidopsis AtNAC019 gene. GsNAC019 was highly up-regulated by 50 mM NaHCO3 treatment in the roots of wild soybean. Further investigation showed that a well-characterized transcription factor, Gshdz4 protein, bound the cis-acting element sequences (CAATA/TA), which are located in the promoter of the AtNAC019/GsNAC019 genes. Overexpression of Gshdz4 positively regulated AtNAC019 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis, implying that AtNAC019/GsNAC019 may be the target genes of Gshdz4. GsNAC019 was demonstrated to be a nuclear-localized protein in onion epidermal cells and possessed transactivation activity in yeast cells. Moreover, overexpression of GsNAC019 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced tolerance to alkaline stress at the seedling and mature stages, but reduced ABA sensitivity. The closest Arabidopsis homolog mutant plants of Gshdz4, GsNAC019 and GsRD29B containing athb40, atnac019 and atrd29b were sensitive to alkaline stress. Overexpression or the closest Arabidopsis homolog mutant plants of the GsNAC019 gene in Arabidopsis positively or negatively regulated the expression of stress-related genes, such as AHA2, RD29A/B and KIN1. Moreover, this mutation could phenotypically promoted or compromised plant growth under alkaline stress, implying that GsNAC019 may contribute to alkaline stress

  20. Allele-specific marker development and selection efficiencies for both flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase genes in soybean subgenus soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2013-06-01

    Color is one of the phenotypic markers mostly used to study soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genetic, molecular and biochemical processes. Two P450-dependent mono-oxygenases, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H; EC1.14.3.21) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H, EC1.14.13.88), both catalyzing the hydroxylation of the B-ring in flavonoids, play an important role in coloration. Previous studies showed that the T locus was a gene encoding F3'H and the W1 locus co-segregated with a gene encoding F3'5'H in soybean. These two genetic loci have identified to control seed coat, flower and pubescence colors. However, the allelic distributions of both F3'H and F3'5'H genes in soybean were unknown. In this study, three novel alleles were identified (two of four alleles for GmF3'H and one of three alleles for GmF3'5'H). A set of gene-tagged markers was developed and verified based on the sequence diversity of all seven alleles. Furthermore, the markers were used to analyze soybean accessions including 170 cultivated soybeans (G. max) from a mini core collection and 102 wild soybeans (G. soja). For both F3'H and F3'5'H, the marker selection efficiencies for pubescence color and flower color were determined. The results showed that one GmF3'H allele explained 92.2 % of the variation in tawny and two gmf3'h alleles explained 63.8 % of the variation in gray pubescence colors. In addition, two GmF3'5'H alleles and one gmF3'5'h allele explained 94.0 % of the variation in purple and 75.3 % in white flowers, respectively. By the combination of the two loci, seed coat color was determined. In total, 90.9 % of accessions possessing both the gmf3'h-b and gmf3'5'h alleles had yellow seed coats. Therefore, seed coat colors are controlled by more than two loci.

  1. GmWRKY31 and GmHDL56 Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae by Regulating Defense-Related Gene Expression in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Sujie Fan; Lidong Dong; Dan Han; Feng Zhang; Junjiang Wu; Liangyu Jiang; Qun Cheng; Rongpeng Li; Wencheng Lu; Fanshan Meng; Shuzhen Zhang; Pengfei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae, is a destructive disease worldwide. The molecular mechanism of the soybean response to P. sojae is largely unclear. We report a novel WRKY transcription factor (TF) in soybean, GmWRKY31, in the host response to P. sojae. Overexpression and RNA interference analysis demonstrated that GmWRKY31 enhanced resistance to P. sojae in transgenic soybean plants. GmWRKY31 was targeted to the nuc...

  2. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text