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Sample records for wild mink mustela

  1. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  2. Organochlorines in wild mink (Mustela vison) from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaare, J.U.; Polder, A.; Brevik, E.M.; Kveseth, N.J.

    Levels of PCBs, DDE, and HCB have been determined in wild mink caught in the Norwegian counties of Sogn and Fjordane, Rogaland, and Hedmark. No significant differences were founds in organochlorine levels in wild mink from these counties, and the average level, based on fat weight, in abdominal adipose tissue was about 1 ppm DDE, 0.1 ppm HCB and for PCB ranging from 1 to 15 ppm.

  3. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  4. Comparison of the craniometric parameters of wild and farm American mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, M; Sulik, M; Lasota, B

    2016-01-01

    Skulls of 65 American minks from the West Pomeranian Province were examined (farm: n = 33, male: n = 16, female: n = 17; wild: n = 32, male: n = 20, female: n = 12). Craniometric parameters in the number of 24 were determined and measured on each skull. Results were averaged and compared, maintaining the division into sex groups. Males were found to have statistically significant differences between wild and farm animals in 20 parameters; measurements showing no statistically significant differences were: nasal length, postorbital constriction, brain case height and greatest height of the mandibular body. Females were found to have statistically significant differences between wild and farm animals in 6 parameters: condylobasal length, tooth row length, greatest length of the mandible, brain case basis length, postorbital length and palatal length. The percentage conversion of measurements into the greatest length of the skull showed differences in its proportions. Among male skulls, the parameters for which the ratio of differences was more than 2% were palatal length, zygomatic breadth and brain case height. For female skulls, no craniometric parameters showed differences in the skull proportions being greater than 2%. The occurrence of measurable changes in the craniometric parameters between domestic and farm mink populations may indicate that the domestication process is still ongoing and allows distinguishing the population affiliation of an individual specimen.

  5. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.

  6. Antibodies to Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in free-ranging European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Aasted, Bent; Perrot, Amélie; Pontier, Dominique; Sauvage, Frank; Artois, Marc; Cassiède, Jean-Michel; Chauby, Xavier; Dal Molin, Alain; Simon, Christian; Fournier, Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Owing to the rapid decline of the European mink (Mustela lutreola) in France, a national conservation action plan has been initiated, in which scientific research to improve understanding of the causes of the decline is one of the primary objectives. In order to investigate the possible role of Aleutian disease parvovirus (ADV) in decline of the species, a serologic survey was conducted from March 1996 to March 2002 in 420 free-ranging individuals of six species of small carnivores distributed in eight departments of southwestern France. Antibodies to ADV were detected in 17 of 75 American mink (Mustela vison), 12 of 99 European mink, 16 of 145 polecats (Mustela putorius), four of 17 stone martens (Martes foina), one of 16 pine martens (Martes martes), and three of 68 common genets (Genetta genetta). Seroprevalence was significantly higher in American mink than in other species. Seropositive individuals with gamma globulin levels >20% were observed in four European mink, four American mink, two stone martens, and one pine marten. Geographic distribution of positive animals indicates the virus has spread to all areas where European mink are found. Furthermore, a trend of increasing prevalence seems to appear in Mustela sp. sympatric with American mink. Although further investigations are necessary to evaluate the role of ADV in decline of European mink, evidence of the virus in the wild at the levels found in our study has implications for conservation of this species.

  7. Selective predation by mink, Mustela vison, on waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Swanson, G.A.; Doty, H.A.

    1973-01-01

    Predation by mink (Mustela vison) on three types of ducks (captive, pen-reared-released and wild) was documented in two studies at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. In the first study, 36 of 60 flightless adult and juvenile ducks held on eight 0.1-acre experimental ponds disappeared between 10 July and 4 August 1969. Available evidence indicated that all were killed by a large adult mink. The mink selected recently released incubator-hatched ducklings, females in the process of incubating, and adults and juveniles on a marginal food supply.In the second study, 152 wood duck ducklings (Aix sponsa) were released on a 76-acre marsh during 1971. Half of the ducklings, when 24 to 27 days old, were placed at weekly intervals in four floating pens and allowed to escape after 4 days. Each time birds were placed in the floating pens, a comparable group was placed in a predator-proof shoreline pen. Birds in the shoreline pen escaped as they learned to fly when approximately 60 days old. The shoreline of the marsh was periodically searched, and the remains of 21 (28%) of the floating-pen birds were identified in food remains found at 16 mink dens. No remains of birds from the shoreline pen were found at the dens. Coots (Fulica americana) were also taken commonly. Wild ducklings appeared to have been almost totally consumed, but the legs and feet of the wood ducks were often left uneaten because of bands and tags.

  8. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-01-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  9. Effectiveness of femur bone indexes to segregate wild from captive minks, Mustela vison, and forensic implications for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Li; Xu, Yan Chun; Yang, Shu Hui; Hua, Yan; Stott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of free-living populations of endangered wildlife species is usually strictly prohibited or restricted. Farming of endangered species can provide products that are in demand as a countermeasure. A novel forensic issue arises because it becomes necessary to discriminate the origin of given wildlife products. We tested the effectiveness of five measurements and four indexes of femur bone using farmed minks (n = 40) and escapees (n = 32). Results showed all measurements, namely body mass (L(f)), body length (M(f)), femur mass (V(f)), femur length (M(b)), and femur volume (L(b)), were highly discriminatory. However, they are susceptible to the influence of nutrition level and sex. Femur length index (I(fl)), femur linear density (D(l)), and femur volume density (D(v)) eliminated the influence of level of nutrition and were highly effective. However, I(fl) and D(l) were influenced by sex (p = 0.000). Because D(v) was not influenced by sex (p = 0.683) and was highly effective, it was the preferred index. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Transfer of European mink (Mustela lutreola) embryos into hybrid recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, Sergei; Aalto, Jussi; Järvinen, Mikko; Lindeberg, Heli; Valtonen, Maija; Zudova, Galina; Ternovskaya, Yulia

    2004-08-01

    The European mink is considered as a highly endangered Mustelidae species. The objective of this study was to explore the intriguing possibility of embryo transfer from European mink to closely related Mustelidae recipient females. To overcome interspecies pregnancy failure, embryos of European mink (Mustela lutreola) were transferred into hybrid females obtained after mating of European polecat (Mustela putorius) males and European mink (M. lutreola) females and vice versa. A total of 32 blastocysts were surgically flushed from the uteri of nine European mink donors and surgically transferred into six pseudopregnant hybrid recipients. One of the recipients received a single embryo and did not whelp. The remaining five recipients each received five to eight embryos and delivered kits. The overall success rate was 50% (16 kits/32 transferred embryos). For both male and female offspring, the average birth weight was lower in ET group when compared with naturally bred control population of European mink. The postnatal mortality rate was significantly higher in ET group as compared to controls: only 9 of 16 kits survived past the first week. At 10 days of age, the average weight for male offspring from the ET and control groups did not differ, although differences still persisted at this age for female offspring. At 3 months of age, the weight of male and female offspring in the ET group did not differ from European minks born after natural mating. We propose that transfer of European mink embryos to hybrid recipients be considered as a new experimental tool within the framework of ex situ approach conservation of this aboriginal European mustelid.

  11. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Beauclerc, Kaela B; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison) populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD), a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  12. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A Nituch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD, a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. METHODS: To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled; however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  13. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in European mink, Mustela lutreola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, M R; Rideout, B A; Mikolon, A B; Appel, M J; Morris, P J; Shima, A L; Janssen, D J

    1997-09-01

    This report describes vaccine-induced canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in four European mink (Mustela lutreola) induced by the administration of a multivalent, avian-origin vaccine. Clinical signs consisting of seizures, ataxia, facial twitching, oculonasal discharge, hyperkeratosis of footpads, and anorexia developed 16-20 days postvaccination. Conjunctival smears from one animal were positive for CDV antigen by direct fluorescent antibody testing, confirming the clinical diagnosis. The four mink died 16-26 days postvaccination. Gross and microscopic lesions that were diagnostic for CDV infection included interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion, nonsuppurative encephalitis, and dermatitis. Vaccine-strain virus was isolated from tissues of three animals. Cases of vaccine-induced distemper in mustelids using avian-origin vaccine have seldom been reported.

  14. Pancreatitis in hyperlipemic mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstoga, K; Sørby, R; Olivecrona, G; Smith, A J; Christophersen, B

    2012-05-01

    In both man and animals, inflammatory changes in the pancreas often occur with disturbances in lipid metabolism, including hypertriglyceridemia and an excess of free fatty acids. Hyperlipoproteinemia type I is a human condition caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase. A similar metabolic disturbance that occurs in mink is of considerable comparative interest, as it is also followed by pancreatitis. Pancreatic lesions in hyperlipoproteinemic mink included overt variably sized nodules with hemorrhage and necrosis. These lesions began as intralobular necrosis of exocrine cells and progressed to total lobular destruction, with eventual involvement of interlobular tissue. Remnants of epithelial cells and lipid-filled macrophages were seen in necrotic areas, along with other types of inflammatory cells scattered in a lipid-rich exudate. Granulation tissue developed rapidly in necrotic areas. Additional observations included ductal proliferation, replacement of epithelial cells with fat, and mural arterial thickening, most conspicuously with vacuolated cells and endothelial proliferation. Extravasation of lipid-rich plasma is thought to be a major intensifier of the inflammatory response.

  15. Molecular characterization of a new genotype of Cryptosporidium from American minks ( Mustela vison) in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Feng, Yaoyu; Ning, Changshen; Jian, Fuchun; Xiao, Lihua; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2008-01-01

    A total of 469 fecal samples were collected from American minks (Mustela vison) on a farm in Hebei Province in China and examined for Cryptosporidium by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and 8 Cryptosporidim isolates were obtained...

  16. Molecular survey of genetic diversity in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Didier; Lodé, Thierry

    2003-08-01

    The European mink Mustela lutreola is regarded as one of the most endangered mammals in the world. We chose to characterize microsatellite loci in order to investigate the pattern of decline of this species. We used primer pairs developed for a related species Mustela vison to genotype individual of Mustela lutreola. Out of 19 primer pairs used 8 were useful for our purpose. The conservation of primer sequence point out the problem of neutrality of some microsatellite loci as this conservation could be related to strong selection pressure on those loci. Finally we present the first data allowing an estimation of heterozygosity of French population of European mink.

  17. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  18. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  19. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per W; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-08-17

    The presence of metacercariae and adults of the trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in roach and mink, respectively, was recorded in Lake Fure North of Copenhagen, Denmark. This zoonotic digenean opisthorchiid represents a threat to humans due to its ability to infect the biliary system following ingestion of inadequately processed infected fish. Therefore precise species identification of infective metacercariae in fish used for human consumption is essential. Due to the relatively limited information on metacercarial identity obtained by morphometric studies a series of molecular techniques were used to link the larval parasite in fish with the un-equivocally diagnosed adults in the biliary system of the mink. By the use of carefully selected polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and subsequent sequencing of the ITS region from both metacercariae and adults full sequence identity of both metacercariae and adults were confirmed. The presence of this parasitosis in fish from a lake used for both commercial and recreational fisheries call for hygienic alerts in order to prevent accidental human infection with this opisthorchiid.

  20. Is the western population of the European mink, (Mustela lutreola), a distinct Management Unit for conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Michaux, Johan; Libois, Roland; Davison, A; Chevret, P; Rosoux, R.

    2004-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is one of the most threatened carnivores in Europe, with fragmented populations in Belarus. Russia and Romania, as well in south-western France and northern Spain. Many populations have become extinct recently, or are declining. We investigated mitochondrial DNA variation, using the complete D-loop region, and concentrating oil the west European population. The aim was two-fold: to use the genetic information to advise on the conservation of European mink,...

  1. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  2. Conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola): focus on reproduction and reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Kennedy, M W

    2008-08-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) is a small mammal, which belongs to the Mustelidae family (Carnivora). Earlier, the range of distribution of this species encompassed much of the European continent. During the 20th century, the numbers of European mink declined and the range of its distribution became reduced to three fragmented populations; today this species faces extinction. The urgent necessity for effective conservation efforts to protect the European mink is accepted by the governmental organizations as well as scientific communities of most European countries. In this paper, the reasons for the disappearance of European mink are reviewed and results of past conservation efforts based on captive breeding and reintroduction programmes are critically evaluated in the broad context of modern concepts of conservation genetics and reproductive biology. The data recently obtained on the reproduction and pre-implantation development of European mink and the prospects of incorporation of modern reproductive technologies into the conservation programme of this species are discussed.

  3. Bayesian analysis of hybridization and introgression between the endangered european mink (Mustela lutreola) and the polecat (Mustela putorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, M T; Michaux, J R; Gómez-Moliner, B J; Skumatov, D; Maran, T; Fournier, P; de Luzuriaga, J López; Zardoya, R

    2011-03-01

    Human-mediated global change will probably increase the rates of natural hybridization and genetic introgression between closely related species, and this will have major implications for conservation of the taxa involved. In this study, we analyse both mitochondrial and nuclear data to characterize ongoing hybridization and genetic introgression between two sympatric sister species of mustelids, the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and the more abundant polecat (M. putorius). A total of 317 European mink, 114 polecats and 15 putative hybrid individuals were collected from different localities in Europe and genotyped with 13 microsatellite nuclear markers. Recently developed Bayesian methods for assigning individuals to populations and identifying admixture proportions were applied to the genetic data. To identify the direction of hybridization, we additionally sequenced mtDNA and Y chromosomes from 78 individuals and 29 males respectively. We found that both hybridization and genetic introgression occurred at low levels (3% and 0.9% respectively) and indicated that hybridization is asymmetric, as only pure polecat males mate with pure European mink females. Furthermore, backcrossing and genetic introgression was detected only from female first-generation (F1) hybrids of European mink to polecats. This latter result implies that Haldane's rule may apply. Our results suggest that hybridization and genetic introgression between the two species should be considered a rather uncommon event. However, the current low densities of European mink might be changing this trend. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Mustela or Vison? Evidence for the taxonomic status of the American mink and a distinct biogeographic radiation of American weasels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Larisa E; Smith, Felisa A

    2009-09-01

    The American mink's relationship to the weasels in Mustela has been uncertain. Karyological, morphological, and phylogenetic comparisons to Eurasian Mustela support placing the mink outside the genus as Neovison vison. However, genetic comparisons that incorporate other endemic American Mustela suggest the interpretation of N. vison's position to Mustela has been handicapped by biased geographic sampling. Here, we analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome-b from all weasels endemic to the Americas, including two poorly known South American species (M. felipei, M. africana), weasels native to North America (M. vison, M. frenata, M. nigripes), Mustela migrant to North America (M. erminea, M. nivalis), palearctic Mustela, and other American members of Mustelidae. Bayesian and likelihood inference methods were used to construct a phylogeny of Mustela, and relaxed Bayesian phylogenetic techniques estimated ages of divergence within the genus using priors calibrated by fossil ages. Our analyses show that the American mink and the smaller Mustela endemic to the Americas represent a distinct phylogenetic heritage apart from their Eurasian cousins, and biogeographic barriers like the Bering and Panamanian land bridges have influenced the evolutionary history of Mustela in the Americas.

  5. Canine distemper of vaccine origin in European mink, Mustela lutreola--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Kommonen, C; Rudbäck, E; Anttila, M; Aho, M; Huovilainen, A

    2003-04-02

    Cases of canine distemper (CD) related to vaccination of exotic carnivores extend over three decades and have been described in at least nine different species. Our report describes a case of acute CD in a European mink, Mustela lutreola, vaccinated with live attenuated CD vaccine licensed for use in fur-farmed mink. The male mink died of an acute grey matter disease with an unusually long incubation period. A female vaccinated at the same time showed no obvious signs of illness. The diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and by subsequent sequencing of the PCR products. The sequenced products of the virus isolated from the mink and of the vaccine batch showed 100% identity. This is the first report in which molecular methods were used to confirm that the disease was caused by the vaccine strain. Based on our findings, it is clearly evident that current CD vaccines cannot be safely used in exotic species.

  6. Aleutian disease serology, protein electrophoresis, and pathology of the European mink (Mustela lutreola) from Navarra, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Migallón Guzmán, David; Carvajal, Ana; García-Marín, Juan F; Ferreras, María C; Pérez, Valentín; Mitchell, Mark; Urra, Fermín; Ceña, Juan C

    2008-09-01

    The European mink, Mustela lutreola, has suffered a dramatic decline in Europe during the 20th century and is one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. The subpopulation of European mink from Navarra, Spain, estimated to number approximately 420, represents approximately two thirds of the total number of mink in Spain. Aleutian Disease Virus (ADV) is a parvovirus with a high degree of variability that can infect a broad range of mustelid hosts. The pathogenesis of this virus in small carnivores is variable and can be influenced by both host factors (e.g., species, American mink genotype, and immune status) and viral strain. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the pre-reproductive period of February-March 2004 and 2005 and the postreproductive period of September-December 2004. Mink were intensively trapped along seven rivers that were representative of the European mink habitat in Navarra. Antibody counter immunoelectrophoresis against ADV was performed on 84 European mink blood samples. All the samples were negative. Protein electrophoresis was performed on 93 plasma samples. Nine of those samples (9.6%) had gamma globulin levels exceeding 20% of the total plasma protein. Complete necropsies were performed on 23 cadavers of European mink collected in the area between 2000 and 2005. Seventeen of the mink (74%) had traumatic and hemorrhagic lesions compatible with vehicular impact injuries. Although there were no histopathologic lesions associated with ADV, this study documents the first description of a naturally occurring canine distemper virus infection in a European mink. In addition, pulmonary adiaspiromycosis in three European mink from Spain was reported.

  7. Feed consumption and food passage time in mink (Mustela vison) and European ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleavins, M R; Aulerich, R J

    1981-06-01

    The amount of feed consumed per day and the rate of food passage was measured in mink and European ferrets. Daily feed consumption averaged 40 and 42 g dry matter per kg body weight for male mink and ferrets and 53 and 49 g dry matter per kg body weight for female mink and ferrets, respectively. Using ferric oxide as a feed marker, no differences were observed in food passage time between mink and ferrets or between males and females within each species. The mean time of food passage was 187 minutes for mink and 182 minutes for European ferrets.

  8. Size allometry in mink (Mustela Vision) selected for feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, K.; Koops, W.J.; Grossman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives were to analyse absolute and relative size of mink at maturity, and to test effects of selection line, sex and interaction on size. For male and female mink selected for high or low feed efficiency, size at 30 weeks was analyzed for body weight, carcass weight, pelt weight, subcutaneous

  9. The first linkage map of the American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Menzorov, A.; Serov, O.

    2007-01-01

    Described herein, the first microsatellite linkage map for the American mink consists of 85 microsatellite markers resolved into 17 linkage groups. The map was constructed using 92 F1 progeny from five sire families created by crossing mink with different colour types. The linkage groups ranged f...

  10. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  11. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  12. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...

  14. First report of Filaria martis Gmelin, 1790 in the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André, Adrien; Urra Maya, Fermín; Giralda Carrera, Gloria; Fournier, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    The riparian European mink (Mustela lutreola), currently surviving in only three unconnected sites in Europe, is now listed as a critically endangered species according to the IUCN. Habitat loss and degradation, anthropic mortality, interaction with the feral American mink (Neovison vison), and infectious diseases are among the principal causes of its decline. Surveys of helminth parasites of this host that also include focus on subcutaneous potentially pathogenic helminths such as those belonging to the genus Filaria are very scarce. We report here the presence of specimens of Filaria martis in the subcutaneous connective tissues of three M. lutreola individuals from Spain. This is the first finding of a subcutaneous nematode in a representative of the genus Mustela. The report also enlarges the known range of the definitive hosts of this nematode. These worms were mainly located in the dorsal region of mink and more rarely in the knees, elbows, and hips. Skin sloughing was only observed in one M. lutreola with both septicaemia and an associated high burden of F. martis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to potentially pathogenic helminths when designing conservation programs dedicated to M. lutreola.

  15. Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in wild riparian carnivores in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, S; Ceña, J C; Ruiz-Olmo, J; Palazón, S; Domingo, M; Wolfinbarger, J B; Bloom, M E

    2001-01-01

    Serious declines in populations of native European mink (Mustela lutreola) have occurred in Europe. One responsible factor may be infectious diseases introduced by exotic American mink (Mustela vison). In order to investigate a possible role for Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV), we surveyed native riparian carnivores and feral American mink. When serum samples from 12 free-ranging European and 16 feral American mink were tested, antibodies to ADV were detected from three of nine European mink. ADV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in whole cell DNA from four of seven carcasses; two American mink, one European mink and a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Lesions typical of Aleutian disease were present in one of the American mink. A portion of the ADV VP2 capsid gene was sequenced and the results suggested that two sequence types of ADV were circulating in Spain, and that the Spanish ADVs differed from other described isolates from North America and Europe. Future conservation and restoration efforts should include measures to avoid introduction or spread of ADV infection to native animals.

  16. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  17. Biology and Ecology of European and American minks

    OpenAIRE

    Bratchikov, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the biological features, places of dwelling, distribution of two semiwater predators of genus Mustela European mink (Mustela lutreola) and American mink (Mustela vison) are considered.

  18. Carnivora: the amino acid sequence of the adult European mink (Mustela lutreola, Mustelidae) hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A; Jahan, M; Braunitzer, G

    1990-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of the hemoglobins from the adult European mink (Mustela lutreola) are presented. The erythrocytes contain two hemoglobin components and three globin chains. The isolation of globin chains achieved by ion-exchange chromatography on a column of CM-cellulose in 8 M urea buffer. The primary structure of globin chains and of the tryptic peptides determined in liquid- and gas-phase sequenators. The alignment of the alpha- and beta-chains with those of reported sequences from other carnivora species belonging to the family Mustelidae may give an insight into the evolution of this molecule.

  19. Anticipatory activity and stereotypical behaviour in American mink (Mustela vison) in three housing systems differing in the amount of enrichments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, C.M.; Bos, van den R.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure anticipatory activity in farmed mink (Mustela vison) to study the effects of the presence of environmental enrichments in three housing systems differing in cage structure and in the amount of enrichments. In studies on laboratory rats, anticipatory activity is

  20. Biliary parasite Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opistorchiidae) in American mink (Mustela vison) and Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Conall J; Caffrey, Joe M; Stuart, Peter; Lawton, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Native Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and introduced American mink (Mustela vison) carcasses collected throughout Ireland were screened for biliary parasites. Secondary intermediate hosts, Cyprinid fish, were also examined for Opistorchiid metacercariae. Twenty-nine mink and 24 otter gall bladders were screened for biliary parasites. A single mink and three otters were found to be infected with the digenetic trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum. Eighty-nine percent of roach (Rutilus rutilus) from the River Shannon were infected with P. truncatum metacercariae, confirming the persistence of the parasite. This is the first record of the species in Ireland, and its recent introduction is probably related to the movement and release of Cyprinid fishes by anglers.

  1. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  2. Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France: implications for conservation of European mink (Mustela lutreola)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Berny, Philippe J; Coiffier, Olivier; Barbedienne, Philippe; Dassé, Bernard; Delas, Gérard; Galineau, Hubert; Mazet, Alexandra; Pouzenc, Pascal; Rosoux, René; Fournier, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    Because of the rapid decline of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations in France, a national conservation program has been put into action, including research to understand the causes of decline...

  3. Effect of Fish Meal Level on Growth, Food Digestibility and Fur Properties of Farmed Mink (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HT Korhonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our study sought to determine the effects of normal vs high fish meal levels in the diet on the growing-furring process and apparent food digestibility of farmed male mink (Mustela vison. The subjects were two groups of juvenile dark mink born in May and weaned in August. The experiment started after weaning with two diet groups: (1 normal level of fish meal (NOR, i.e. 4.5% of diet, and (2 high level of fish meal (HIGH, i.e. 10.0% of diet. We found that the mink on the high fishmeal (HIGH diet consumed slightly more fresh food than the mink on the normal fishmeal diet (NOR (total consumption 30.6 kg vs 28.1 kg. The mink in the NOR group ingested almost the same amount of food as dry matter and energy as the mink in the HIGH group. On October 22, the body weights of the HIGH group animals were significantly higher than those of the NOR animals. At the final weighing on December 3 (at pelting, a tendency for the body weights of NOR mink was noted to be lower than those of HIGH mink. Skin length was significantly shorter in NOR than in HIGH mink. The number of white wool skins (i.e. fur defect was higher in NOR than in HIGH mink (4 vs 2 skins. Statistically significant differences in other fur variables were not found between the groups. The apparent digestibility of protein, fat and organic matter was significantly better in HIGH than in NOR mink. Our findings tempt us to conclude that the proportion of fish products, at least those of fishmeal, can be increased in the diet of farm-raised juvenile mink. Keywords: farm-raised mink, feeding, fish products, diet, growing-furring period Animal Production 14(1:63-69, January 2012

  4. Patterns of genetic variation in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola L., 1761).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabria, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Elena G; Gomez-Moliner, Benjamin J; Michaux, Johan R; Skumatov, Dimitry; Kranz, Andreas; Fournier, Pascal; Palazon, Santiago; Zardoya, Rafael

    2015-07-17

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola, L. 1761) is a critically endangered mustelid, which inhabits several main river drainages in Europe. Here, we assess the genetic variation of existing populations of this species, including new sampling sites and additional molecular markers (newly developed microsatellite loci specific to European mink) as compared to previous studies. Probabilistic analyses were used to examine genetic structure within and between existing populations, and to infer phylogeographic processes and past demography. According to both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite markers, Northeastern (Russia, Estonia and Belarus) and Southeastern (Romania) European populations showed the highest intraspecific diversity. In contrast, Western European (France and Spain) populations were the least polymorphic, featuring a unique mitochondrial DNA haplotype. The high differentiation values detected between Eastern and Western European populations could be the result of genetic drift in the latter due to population isolation and reduction. Genetic differences among populations were further supported by Bayesian clustering and two main groups were confirmed (Eastern vs. Western Europe) along with two contained subgroups at a more local scale (Northeastern vs. Southeastern Europe; France vs. Spain). Genetic data and performed analyses support a historical scenario of stable European mink populations, not affected by Quaternary climate oscillations in the Late Pleistocene, and posterior expansion events following river connections in both North- and Southeastern European populations. This suggests an eastern refuge during glacial maxima (as already proposed for boreal and continental species). In contrast, Western Europe was colonised more recently following either natural expansions or putative human introductions. Low levels of genetic diversity observed within each studied population suggest recent bottleneck events and stress the urgent need for

  5. FATAL ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII INFECTION IN THE CRITICALLY ENDANGERED EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Terriza, David; Guerra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Belén; Borge, Carmen; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the first case of fatal Acinetobacter baumannii infection in the critically endangered European mink ( Mustela lutreola ). Gross examination revealed a severe, diffuse hemorrhagic pneumonia and generalized congestion as main features. Microscopically, the main lesions were an acute, severe fibrinous-hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with proliferation of coccobacilli and generalized acute-subacute congestion. Cultures yielded A. baumannii ; the species was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the strain presented a multidrug-resistant pattern. The results are not only of conservation concern but also of public health concern given A. baumannii is one of the most important pathogens implicated in nosocomial infections in humans.

  6. Decline in Endangered Species as an Indication of Anthropic Pressures: The Case of European Mink Mustela lutreola Western Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, Thierry; Cormier, Jean-Paul; Le Jacques, Dominique

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  7. Noninvasive monitoring of female reproductive hormone metabolites in the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Astrid; Kneidinger, Nadja; Kiik, Kairi; Lindeberg, Heli; Maran, Tiit; Schwarzenberger, Franz

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the reproductive physiology of female European mink (Mustela lutreola) to augment the available information on estrus, ovulation, and pregnancy with the long-term goal of supporting ex situ breeding management of this highly endangered species. Fecal reproductive hormone metabolites were measured using EIAs for estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites. Seasonal hormone profiles were established. A comparison of hormone fluctuations in pregnant and nonpregnant females showed that both estrogen and 20-oxo-pregnane metabolites were significantly elevated during gestation, which is 42 days in length. Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause does not occur in this species. Litter size was correlated with 20-oxo-pregnane levels but not with estrogen concentrations. During lactation, 20-oxo-pregnane metabolite levels remained higher than in nonpregnant females. The breeding season was characterized by peaks in vaginal cornified cells and fecal estrogen metabolite levels. Up to four peaks in estrogen levels were identified and confirmed that European mink are seasonally polyestrous. The results of 20-oxo-pregnane measurements indicated that hCG can be applied to induce ovulation. With the establishment of this noninvasive method, we present a new tool to support population management of this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrolyte Composition of Mink (Mustela vison Erythrocytes and Active Cation Transporters of the Cell Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clausen TN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells from mink (Mustela vison were characterized with respect to their electrolyte content and their cell membranes with respect to enzymatic activity for cation transport. The intra- and extracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were determined in erythrocytes and plasma, respectively. Plasma and red cell water content was determined, and molal electrolyte concentrations were calculated. Red cells from male adult mink appeared to be of the low-K+, high-Na+ type as seen in other carnivorous species. The intracellular K+ concentration is slightly higher than the extracellular one and the plasma-to-cell chemical gradient for Na+ is weak, though even the molal concentrations may differ significantly. Consistent with the high intracellular Na+ and low K+ concentrations, a very low or no ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase activity and no K+-activated pNPPase activity were found in the plasma membrane fraction from red cells. The Cl- and Mg2+ concentrations expressed per liter cell water were significantly higher in red cells than in plasma whereas the opposite was the case with Ca2+. The distribution of Cl- thus does not seem compatible with an inside-negative membrane potential in mink erythrocytes. In spite of a steep calcium gradient across the red cell membrane, neither a calmodulin-activated Ca2+-ATPase activity nor an ATP-activated Ca2+-pNPPase activity were detectable in the plasma membrane fraction. The origin of a supposed primary Ca2+ gradient for sustaining of osmotic balance thus seems uncertain.

  9. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nagl, Astrid; Ashford, Kadri; Tammaru, Toomas

    2013-01-01

    High among-individual variation in mating success often causes problems in conservation breeding programs. This is also the case for critically endangered European mink and may jeopardize the long-term maintenance of the species' genetic diversity under the European mink EEP Program. In this study, breeding success of wild and captive born European minks at Tallinn Zoological Garden are compared, and the mating behavior of the males is analyzed. Results show that wild born males successfully mate significantly more often than captive born males (89% and 35%, respectively). On the basis of an extensive record of mating attempts, both male aggressiveness and passivity are identified as primary causes of the observed mating failures. All other potential determinants have only a minor role. Mating success as well as a male's aggressiveness and passivity are shown to depend more strongly on the male than the female partner. We did not find any evidence that the behavior of an individual is dependent on the identity of its partner. We suggest that aggressiveness and passivity are two expressions of abnormal behavior brought about by growing up in captivity: the same individuals are likely to display both aggressive and passive behavior. The results point to the need to study and modify maintenance conditions and management procedures of mink to reduce the negative impact of the captive environment on the long-term goals of the program. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Immobilization of free-ranging European mink (Mustela lutreola) an polecat (Mustela putorius) with medetomidine-ketamine and reversal by atipamezole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Chusseau, Jean-Pierre; Dupuch, Julien; Maizeret, Christian; Fournier, Pascal

    2003-04-01

    From March 1996 to August 1999, 24 free-ranging European mink (Mustela lutreola) and 25 free-ranging polecats (Mustela putorius) were immobilized for clinical procedures and to place radio transmitters. Data were recorded during 14 and 12 trials, respectively. Animals received intramuscularly 10 mg/kg ketamine (KET) combined with 0.20 mg/kg medetomidine (MED), antagonized by 1.00 mg/kg atipamezole (ATI). Anesthesia times were similar between species. Induction was smooth and rapid (0.7-3.9 min); the degree of anesthesia and muscle relaxation was satisfactory in most animals. Two individuals showed signs of spontaneous recovery before injection of ATI. In other individuals, ATI was injected 28.1-54.0 min after the MED-KET injection and rapidly reversed the effects of the MED. Rectal temperature and heart and respiratory rates decreased significantly 5-25 min post MED-KET injection in both species. Rectal temperature successfully remained stable by placing animals on a warmed plastic table (37 C) during anesthesia. According to these results, this anesthetic protocol produces a safe and rapid immobilization in free-ranging European mink and polecats and is recommended for surgical procedures such as radio transmitter implantation. However caution is required as hypothermia can be severe. Body temperature must be monitored and means provided to maintain stability.

  11. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta), in northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Palazón, S.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Gosálbez, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta) in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%), fish (30.9%) and birds (16.7%). Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%). Using Levins’ index, tro...

  12. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  13. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippa, Joost; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Fournier, Pascal; Schaftenaar, Willem; van de Bildt, Marco; van Herweijnen, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs; Liabeuf, Marie; Ditcharry, Sébastien; Joubert, Laurent; Bégnier, Michel; Osterhaus, Ab

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the European mink) were tested. Sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the presence of antibodies to viruses in the study area that could potentially infect mink. Antibodies to Canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected in all species; 9% of 127 European mink, 20% of 210 polecats (Mustela putorius), 5% of 112 American mink (Mustela vison), 33% of 21 stone marten (Martes foina) and 5% of 20 pine marten (Martes martes). Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in stone marten and polecats, possibly because their ranges overlap more closely with that of domestic species than that of the other species tested. Antibodies to Canine adenovirus were detected in all species but the pine marten; antibody prevalence estimates ranging from 2% to 10%. Antibodies to canine parainfluenza virus were detected in 1% of European mink, 1% of American mink and 5% of tested polecats but were not detected in Martes species. Antibodies to Rabies virus (RV) were detected in three animals, possibly because of interspecies transmission of bat lyssaviruses as the sampling area is considered to be free of RV, or to a lack of test specificity, as antibody titers were low. The high antibody prevalence to potentially lethal CDV suggests that this pathogen could have significant effects on the free-ranging populations and has implications for the conservation efforts for the endangered European mink.

  14. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were abo...

  15. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  16. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...... before measurements started and expired air was then sucked out of the respiration chamber and collected into breath bags at frequent intervals until 5.5 h after the start of measurements. The ratio of 13C/12C was measured by means of an IRIS infrared analyser and results are reported in terms of delta...

  17. LC/sub 50/ test results in polychlorinated biphenyl-fed mink: age, season, and diet comparisons. [Mustela vison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornshaw, T.C.; Safronoff, J.; Ringer, R.K.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    The toxicity of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture to mink (Mustela vison) was evaluated through three dietary LC/sub 50/ tests. These test were designed to assess the effects of age of the test animals, composition of the diet, and season and year on the results of 28-day dietary LC/sub 50/ tests. A dose-dependent weight loss was noted for animals in all tests and similar dietary LC/sub 50/s were calculated for all three trials, both at the end of the 28-day exposure period (83, 84, and 79 ppm) and after a 7-day withdrawal period (58, 47, and 49 ppm). Based on all test criteria, age, dietary composition, season, and year had little effect on the outcome of the LC/sub 50/ tests. The withdrawal period was important in determining the toxicity of Aroclor 1254 and should be considered in assessing the toxicity of other slow-acting, lipophilic compounds.

  18. Evidence of secondary poisoning of free-ranging riparian mustelids by anticoagulant rodenticides in France: implications for conservation of European mink (Mustela lutreola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Berny, Philippe J; Coiffier, Olivier; Barbedienne, Philippe; Dassé, Bernard; Delas, Gérard; Galineau, Hubert; Mazet, Alexandra; Pouzenc, Pascal; Rosoux, René; Fournier, Pascal

    2004-10-01

    Because of the rapid decline of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations in France, a national conservation program has been put into action, including research to understand the causes of decline. As part of this research, concentrations of eight anticoagulant rodenticides were examined in livers from 122 carcasses of four species of free-ranging mustelids collected between 1990 and 2002 in southwestern France. Bromadiolone residue was found in all species and 9% of the sample (one of 31 European mink, three of 47 American mink [Mustela vison], five of 33 polecats [Mustela putorius], and two of 11 European otters [Lutra lutra]). Liver concentrations ranged from 0.6 mug/g to 9.0 mug/g. Chlorophacinone residue was found in two species and 4% of the sample (in four of the American mink and in one of the otters), with liver concentrations ranging from 3.4 mug/g to 8.5 mug/g. Two polecats and one American mink had lesions and liver residues indicating bromadiolone was directly responsible for their death. However, most of our study animals survived secondary poisoning until they were caught; this study certainly underestimates the extent of fatal exposure of mustelids to rodenticides. Moreover, anticoagulant poisoning could increase their vulnerability to other causes of death. The current status of the endangered European mink population is such that any additional risk factor for mortality is important, and it is thus urgent to monitor and reduce the extensive use of bromadiolone and chlorophacinone against field rodents in France.

  19. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephal......An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic...

  20. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation ha...

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...

  2. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D.; Stankiewicz, W.; Szpinda, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, this ins and outs of the mink`s anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if ``before our eyes``. For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs.

  3. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  4. Reproductive efficiency in mink (Mustela vison) treated with the pesticides lindane, carbofuran and pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, A P; McRae, A C; Rawlings, N C

    1997-09-01

    Mink are carnivores of agroforestry fringe habitats and are exposed to pesticides that biomagnify within the food chain. Some pesticides are thought to disrupt reproductive and endocrine functions. In Expt 1, four groups of mink (n = 10) were fed either a control diet, or diets treated with lindane (1 mg kg-1 day-1), carbofuran (0.05 mg kg-1 day-1) or pentachlorophenol (1 mg kg-1 day-1) from before breeding until weaning. Mink were mated twice, at 7-8 day intervals. The treatments had no effect on the proportion of mink accepting the first mating; however, lindane and pentachlorophenol caused a decrease in the percentage of females accepting the second mating. Lindane and pentachlorophenol caused a decrease in whelping rate, although litter size was not affected. Carbofuran had no effect on fertility. Mink that mated only once had a lower whelping rate than mink that mated twice; therefore, it could not be determined whether the decreased whelping rates were due to the lack of a second mating or to increased embryo loss. In Expt 2, two groups of mink (n = 15) were fed a control diet or a diet treated with lindane (1 mg kg-1 day-1) from before mating until weaning. Mink were mated twice on two consecutive days. Lindane did not affect mating response at either mating. Whelping rate, but not implantation rate, was decreased by the lindane treatment. The proportion of embryos lost after implantation (implantation scars not represented by kits at whelping) was increased by the lindane treatment. In conclusion, both lindane and pentachlorophenol decreased fertility in mink, and the lindane effect was primarily a result of embryo mortality after implantation.

  5. Separating Wild from Domestic American Mink Neovison vison Based on Skull Morphometries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley L. Tamlin; Jeff Bowman; David F. Hackett

    2009-01-01

    Domestication can change animal traits such as skull size and shape. Given that domestic American mink Neovison vison may escape from farms within the native range of wild mink, we were interested in determining whether 1...

  6. Separating wild from domestic American mink Neovison vison based on skull morphometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tamlin, Ashley L; Bowman, Jeff; Hackett, David F

    2009-01-01

    Domestication can change animal traits such as skull size and shape. Given that domestic American mink Neovison vison may escape from farms within the native range of wild mink, we were interested in determining whether 1...

  7. Preliminary study of the diet of the European mink (Mustela lubreola ) in the southwest of France

    OpenAIRE

    Libois, Roland

    2001-01-01

    The diet has been studied in 3 zones where two species, polecat and European mink, cohabiting. Feces were collected at the animals resting-place with radio transmitters. The diet of mink is electic : mammals (Ondatra, Arvicola sapidus, rats…), birds (duck, rallids…), frogs and toads and fish. The polecat eats mammals (rabbits, hares and small mammals), some birds and reptiles, plenty toads. The trophic similarity is fairly low. In fact, for two weasels , individual and seasonal varia...

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian disease virus in free-ranging domestic, hybrid, and wild mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2012-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a prominent infectious disease in mink farms. The AMD virus (AMDV) has been well characterized in Europe where American mink (Neovison vison) are an introduced species; however, in North America, where American mink are native and the disease is thought to have originated, the virus' molecular epidemiology is unknown. As such, we characterized viral isolates from Ontario free-ranging mink of domestic, hybrid, and wild origin at two proteins: NS1, a nonstructural protein, and VP2, a capsid protein. AMDV DNA was detected in 25% of free-ranging mink (45 of 183), indicating prevalent active infection. Median-joining networks showed that Ontario AMDV isolates formed two subgroups in the NS1 region and three in the VP2 region, which were somewhat separate from, but closely related to, AMDVs circulating in domestic mink worldwide. Molecular analyses showed evidence of AMDV crossing from domestic to wild mink. Our results suggest that AMDV isolate grouping is linked to both wild endogenous reservoirs and the long-term global trade in domestic mink, and that AMD spills back and forth between domestic and wild mink. As such, biosecurity on mink farms is warranted to prevent transmission of the disease between mink farms and the wild.

  9. Embryo development and embryo transfer in the European mink (Mustela lutreola), an endangered mustelid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, S; Kizilova, E; Ternovskaya, Y; Zudova, G; Lindeberg, H; Aalto, J; Valtonen, M

    2006-01-01

    The European mink is an endangered Mustelidae species and thus requires effective conservation measures, although little is known about reproduction in this species. In particular, preimplantation development has not been studied and, therefore, embryonic development and the growth of embryos was documented in the present study for European mink using light and fluorescent microscopy. Embryos develop in the oviducts and then migrate into the uterus on Day 6 post coitum (p.c.) at the morula stage. Embryos expanded as blastocysts from Day 7 until implantation on Day 12 p.c. Based on these findings, the use of embryo transfer for a conservation programme for the European mink was evaluated. Embryos were flushed from European mink resource females and transferred into the uterine horns of recipient hybrid females (honoriks and nohoriks). These hybrids were obtained by mating European polecat males with European mink females and vice versa. A total of 40 embryos was transferred and 20 live kits were born. The rates of pre- and postnatal survival were 50% and 70%, respectively. Both male and female offspring were lighter at birth in the embryo transfer group compared with naturally born controls, but there was no difference at 3 months of age.

  10. The black mink (Mustela vison). A natural model of immunologic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Breeding for fine black fur has generated a colony of mink wherein 20- 30% of the males are infertile. Two clinical groups are distinguishable: one being infertile from the start (primary infertility), and the other infertile after one or more years of fertility (secondary fertility). Although the etiology of primary infertility is unknown, the available data indicate that secondary infertility is associated with an autoimmune disease of the testis. Thus, male mink with secondary infertility have (a) higher prevalence and levels of anti-sperm antibody when compared with animals with primary infertility, and the antibody prevalence varies with fur color; (b) severe monocytic orchitis (47%) and/or aspermatogenesis (75%) with negative cultures for bacterial, fungal, mumps, or Coxsackie B viral organisms; (c) massive and extensive granular deposits of mink IgG and/or C3 (71%), typical of immune complexes, along the basal lamina of seminiferous tubules; (d) testes that when eluted with buffer or low pH yielded IgG that was 10-fold enriched in anti-sperm antibody activity as compared with serum IgG; and (e) no immunopathologic evidence of Aleutian mink disease. Although the sperm antigen-antibody complexes in the testis may be important as a pathogenetic mechanism of the testicular disease, there is no correlation between fluorescent anti- sperm antibody detection in the serum and the infertile state. The infertile black mink is a new model of infertility associated with naturally occurring autoimmune disease of the testis. PMID:6116740

  11. Multiphasic growth curves in mink (Mustela Vision) selected for feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, K.; Grossman, M.; Koops, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Growth of mink from 1 to 28 weeks of age was modelled, using weekly body weights, and effects on model parameters of selection lines for high and low feed efficiency, sex and interaction were tested. From results on average growth curves, individual growth curves were modelled using a multiphasic

  12. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    . Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  13. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  14. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  15. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar...

  16. Serogroups and antimicrobiological susceptability among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chriél, Mariann

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy and diar...

  17. Skeletotopy of the gall bladder in American mink (`Mustela vison` (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D.; Flisinski, P. [Dept. of Anatomy. Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using anatomical and radiological methods, the projection of the gall bladder was studied in relation to the vertebral column in fifty adult minks of both sexes. The gall bladder was found to be in three positions when in relation to: (1) the longitudinal axis of the vertebral column, (2) the numerical order of the vertebrae. (author).

  18. MHC class II variation in the endangered European mink Mustela lutreola (L. 1761)--consequences for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L; Nieberg, C; Jahreis, K; Peters, E

    2009-04-01

    The polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has gained a specific relevance in pathogen resistance and mate choice. Particularly the antigen-binding site (ABS), encoded by exon 2 of the DRB class II gene, exhibits numerous alleles and extensive sequence variations between alleles. A lack of MHC variability has attributed to instances such as bottleneck effects or relaxed selection pressure and has a certain impact on the long-term viability of the species concerned. As a result of seriously decreased population density during the last century, the current population of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola, L. 1761) has suffered from geographic isolation. In this study, we amplified a partial sequence of the MHC class II DRB exon 2 (229 bp), assessed the degree of genetic variation and compared the variability with those of other Mustelidae. As a result, nine alleles were detected in 20 investigated individuals, which differ from each other by four to 25 nucleotide substitutions (two to 11 amino acid substitutions). Whilst an equal ratio for synonymous and non-synonymous substitutions was found inside the ABS, synonymous substitutions were significantly higher than non-synonymous substitutions in the non-ABS region. Results might indicate that no positive selection exists within the ex situ population of M. lutreola, at least in the analysed fragment. In addition, phylogenetic analyses support the trans-species model of evolution.

  19. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...... containing amino acids about 4%. The amino acid composition of both milk and bodies changed as lactation progressed with decreasing proportions of essential amino acids. The ratio between body and milk amino acids was constantly over 1 only for lysine, suggesting that it was the most limiting amino acid...

  20. Selection against stereotypic behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Hansen, Bente Krogh; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... of adrenocortical activity (faecal cortisol metabolites, FCM), confident versus fearful temperament, growth and reproduction. The results showed that the LSL performed less stereotypic behaviour and were less active than the HSL. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that: (1) the LSL had lower concentrations......) there was no failure to grow in any line, but on average the body weight in the LSL was higher than that in the HSL. The correlation between stereotypy and confidence in the present study supports earlier findings showing a higher proportion of fearful animals in groups of low stereotyping mink. So, although...

  1. Reproduction in the European mink, Mustela lutreola: oestrous cyclicity and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavsky, S; Lindeberg, H; Ternovskaya, Y; Zavjalov, E; Zudova, G; Klochkov, D; Gerlinskaya, L

    2009-06-01

    Despite efforts undertaken to conserve the endangered European mink, its reproduction is still poorly studied. The aim was to study its reproductive cyclicity, faecal progesterone concentration and ovarian changes during early pregnancy, with the emphasis on the pre-implantation period and implantation. During the 2004 breeding season, oestrous cycle was monitored in 39 females as well as ovarian changes during early pregnancy in 22 females. During the 2007 breeding season, faecal progesterone concentration measured by radioimmunoassay was monitored during pregnancy in 10 females throughout their pregnancy. The breeding season 2004 started on March 18 and ended on May 10, with the peak recorded in April. The duration of first oestrus was 1-12 days. If not mated, the vast majority of females entered second oestrus after 12-55 days. In general, relatively low faecal progesterone values were detected in European mink; an average of 42.69 +/- 4.70 ng/g faeces in oestrous females with a maximum of 176.44 +/- 23.01 ng/g faeces on pregnancy day 12. anova indicated a significant effect of the pregnancy stage. Post hoc comparisons with Fisher least significant difference (LSD) test revealed that faecal progesterone concentrations on days 8 and 12 post coitum (p.c.), but not at the end of pregnancy (day 40), were higher when compared with the initial oestrous level. Implantation in this species occurs on day 12 p.c. and was indicated by prominent uterine swellings and failure to flush the uterine horns beyond this day. Advanced luteogenesis was observed with prominent corpora lutea found in ovaries around the time of implantation. To conclude, European mink is a seasonally polyoestrous species; the early pregnancy of European mink resembles that of European polecat, i.e. in both species, implantation occurs on day 12 p.c. without any implantation delay.

  2. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  3. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherman Călin M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Case presentation Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Conclusions This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  4. First report of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in two threatened carnivores: the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna and the European mink, Mustela lutreola (Mammalia: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, Călin M; Sándor, Attila D; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Marinov, Mihai; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2012-08-18

    Lyme disease is a widespread cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by species belonging to the genus Borrelia. It is transmitted from animal reservoir hosts to humans through hard - ticks of genus Ixodes which are vectors of the disease. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection was identified in a marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna, and two European minks, Mustela lutreola, from Romania, by PCR. RFLP revealed the presence of a single genospecies, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. This is the first report of the Lyme disease spirochetes in the two mentioned hosts.

  5. Molecular and morphological characterization of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Luhe, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugaraitė D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The specimens collected from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania were morphologically identified as Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Lühe, 1909 and were molecularly characterized through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 region, and ND1. Relations of I. melis to other species of the genus Isthmiophora Lühe 1909 were discussed. According to ITS1 and ND1 sequences the closest species to I. melis is Isthmiophora hortensis (Asada, 1926.

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  7. Energy intake and milk production in mink (Mustela vison)--effect of litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A H; Hansen, K B; Wamberg, S; Kristensen, N B

    2001-01-01

    Energy intake and milk production were measured in 12 mink dams raising litters of 3, 6 and 9 kits one to four weeks post partum by means of balance experiments and measurements of milk intake of the kits by the water isotope dilution technique. The dams were fed ad libitum on a conventional wet mink diet (DM: 323 g/kg; CP: 173 g/kg; ME: 4.4 MJ/kg). Milk samples collected from dams with corresponding litter sizes and lactation weeks, and body composition of kits nursed by these dams, were analysed for content of DM, ash, N and fat. The ME and drinking water consumption were higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The N and water balances as well as the live weight of dams were not affected by litter size. Daily milk production was higher in dams nursing 9 kits than in dams nursing 3 kits. The DM, N and fat content of the milk increased during lactation, but were not affected by litter size. Individual kit live weight was higher in litters of 3 than in litters of 6 and 9 kits four weeks post partum. The DM and fat content of the kits were lowest in kits from litters of 9 kits, whereas these kits had the highest protein content. Daily ME for maintenance of kits and the efficiency of utilisation of ME in milk for body gain were estimated to 356 kJ/kg0.75, kp approximately 0.53 and kf approximately 0.71, respectively. In conclusion, daily milk production increased with increasing litter size, but not in proportion to the number of kits, indicating that milk production limits the growth rate of the young. In the fourth week of lactation, milk production was not different between dams nursing 6 or 9 kits, indicating a maximum capacity.

  8. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  10. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nemvalts, Kristel; Sandre, Siiri-Lii; Tammaru, Toomas

    2017-06-01

    Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  12. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, C.D. (Ecological Services for Planning Ltd., Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  13. Identification of mustelid species: otter ( Lutra lutra ), American mink ( Mustela vison ) and polecat ( Mustela putorius ), by analysis of DNA from faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of mink, otter, and polecat may be inferred from records of their seats, and the feeding biology of the species is often studied by analysis of skeletal remains and other hard parts in faeces. However, in some situations it is difficult to distinguish between faeces from these three...

  14. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60% (...

  15. Effects of dietary copper on nutrient digestibility, tissular copper deposition and fur quality of growing-furring mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Tietao; Yang, Ying; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth performance and fur quality in growing-furring minks. One hundred and five standard dark female minks were randomly assigned to seven groups with the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no supplemental Cu (control) and basal diet supplemented with either 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 or 192 mg/kg Cu from copper sulphate, respectively. Our data showed that final body weight (P = 0.033), daily gain (P = 0.029) and fat digestibility (P = 0.0006) responded to increasing levels of Cu. The activity of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as Cu increased in the diet. Increasing Cu improved total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB) (quadratic, P < 0.05). The level of ceruloplasmin (CER) responded in a linear (P < 0.0001) and quadratic (P < 0.0001) form with increasing level of Cu. Colour intensity of those minks pelted suggested that relatively high levels of supplemental Cu have a beneficial effect on intensifying hair colour of dark mink but did not affect leather thickness. Liver Cu and plasma Cu concentrations of the mink linearly (P < 0.0001) responded to increasing levels of Cu. Our results indicate that growing-furring mink can efficiently utilize added dietary fat and that Cu plays an important role in the digestion of dietary fat in growing-furring mink, and supplemental dietary Cu in growing-furring mink promotes fat digestion and improve hair colour.

  16. Effects of dietary protein levels on digestibility of nutrients and growth rate in young female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T-T; Zhang, Z-Q; Gao, X-H; Yang, F-H; Xing, X-M

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in female mink at the different dietary protein levels during the mink growth period. Effects of dietary protein on growth performance of minks were also measured. Sixty 45-day-old healthy female minks were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups with 10 animals in each group. Animals were fed diets varying in protein levels: 28% (Group I), 30% (Group II), 32% (Group III), 34% (Group IV), 36% (Group V) and 38% (Group VI), respectively. The digestibilities of key nutrients were determined on Day 14 after initiating the experiment and the last 3 days. From the beginning of the study, body weight and feed intake were weighed and recorded every other week in order to calculate the average daily bodyweight gain and the feed efficiency. The trial had demonstrated that nitrogen intake was greatly significantly different, which was affected by dietary protein levels (p < 0.001). Growth performance of minks was impaired when dietary protein level was at 28%. When dietary protein level was at 34%, minks had the best daily gains, feed efficiency, and digestibilities of some key nutrients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Mink (Mustela vison) Gut Microbial Communities from Northeast China and Its Internal Relationship with Gender and Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiping; Sun, Weili; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Yanyan; Gu, Haijun; Li, Guangyu

    2017-10-01

    It is well documented that the microbial interactions and biodiversity play an important role in health and disease in mammalian species. There is a rare study about gut microbiota of Mustelidae family. In this study, 40 male and female minks from Northeast China were divided into three groups and fed until they reached maturity. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using NGS. There were 526 OTUs principally concentrated among five bacterial phyla. Two points about mink's body weight gaining were observed: (1) the weight of male individuals increased more rapidly than female individuals; (2) the weight of individuals whose feed was supplemented with Chinese herb additives increased more rapidly than individuals without giving food additives. The differences of microorganism abundance were shown in two points: (1) two genera which had ≥2-fold change difference were found between male and female minks. (2) Ten genera which had a ≥2-fold change difference were found among minks with and without Chinese herb additive. Findings from this study provide new and fundamental knowledge on the gut microbiota composition of minks farmed in Northeast China, which can contribute to the general well-being of minks worldwide.

  18. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  19. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...

  20. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry...

  1. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth per...

  2. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the culturable aerobic faecal microflora of mink from newborn until adulthood with emphasis on the potential pathogens Escherichia coli and beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci. Rectal swabs were taken from 10 healthy dams and their offs...

  3. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Thirty mink dams nursing litters of six kits were assigned to one of three dietary treatments [high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP)], fed ad libitum for 4 week from parturition, to investigate the effects of protein supply on milk yield and milk composition in order...... to estimate the amino acid requirement of the lactating mink. Twelve dams were held in an intensive care unit and subjected to balance experiments and the kits were injected with deuterium oxide to determine water kinetics and milk yield. Eighteen dams were kept under normal farm conditions but with feed...... intake of dams and live weight gain of kits being determined and milk samples collected. The ME intake was higher (p day) was lowest (p

  4. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV...

  5. Conservation genetics and population history of the threatened European mink Mustela lutreola, with an emphasis on the west European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaux, J R; Hardy, O J; Justy, F; Fournier, P; Kranz, A; Cabria, M; Davison, A; Rosoux, R; Libois, R

    2005-07-01

    In species of great conservation concern, special attention must be paid to their phylogeography, in particular the origin of animals for captive breeding and reintroduction. The endangered European mink lives now in at least three well-separated populations in northeast, southeast and west Europe. Our aim is to assess the genetic structure of these populations to identify 'distinct population segments' (DPS) and advise captive breeding programmes. First, the mtDNA control region was completely sequenced in 176 minks and 10 polecats. The analysis revealed that the western population is characterized by a single mtDNA haplotype that is closely related to those in eastern regions but nevertheless, not found there to date. The northeast European animals are much more variable (pi = 0.012, h = 0.939), with the southeast samples intermediate (pi = 0.0012, h = 0.469). Second, 155 European mink were genotyped using six microsatellites. The latter display the same trends of genetic diversity among regions as mtDNA [gene diversity and allelic richness highest in northeast Europe (H(E) = 0.539, R(S) = 3.76), lowest in west Europe (H(E) = 0.379, R(S) = 2.12)], and provide evidences that the southeast and possibly the west populations have undergone a recent bottleneck. Our results indicate that the western population derives from a few animals which recently colonized this region, possibly after a human introduction. Microsatellite data also reveal that isolation by distance occurs in the western population, causing some inbreeding because related individuals mate. As genetic data indicate that the three populations have not undergone independent evolutionary histories for long (no phylogeographical structure), they should not be considered as distinct DPS. In conclusion, the captive breeding programme should use animals from different parts of the species' present distribution area.

  6. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on reproduction and offspring growth and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and mortality were evaluated. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). The percentage of stillborn kits per litter was significantly increased by dietary concentrations of 4.5 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater. All offspring exposed to dietary concentrations of 4.5 and 6.1 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (28 and 38 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 10 weeks of age, and all offspring exposed to 1.5 and 2.8 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (10 and 18 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) died by 31 weeks of age, leaving juveniles in the control and 0.72 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (0.41- and 4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) groups only. The dietary concentration predicted to result in 20% kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age was 0.34 µg ∑PCBs/g feed (2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed). The corresponding maternal hepatic concentration was 0.80 µg ∑PCBs/g liver, wet weight (13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver, wet wt). Mink residing in the upper Hudson River would be expected to consume species of fish that contain an average of 4.0 µg ∑PCBs/g tissue. Thus, a daily diet composed of less than 10% Hudson River fish could provide a dietary concentration of ∑PCBs that resulted in 20% kit mortality in the present study. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejborn, H. (National Institute of Animal Science, Tjele (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis.

  8. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA: effects on organ mass and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    The authors evaluated effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the upper Hudson River (New York, USA) on adult and offspring organ mass and pathology. Diets contained 2.5 to 20% Hudson River fish, providing 0.72 to 6.1 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8-38 pg toxic equivalents [TEQWHO 2005 ]/g feed). Absolute thyroid and adrenal gland masses were increased in adult females and 31-week-old juveniles, respectively, and absolute liver and heart masses were decreased in six-week-old kits exposed to dietary PCBs. Dietary concentrations of 0.72 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (4.8 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed) and greater induced mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation in adult animals. The dietary concentration of ΣPCBs predicted to result in 20% incidence of the jaw lesion (EC20) was 2.3 µg ΣPCBs/g feed (15 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed), and the hepatic concentration was 2.8 µg ΣPCBs/g liver (89 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). The EC20 values were greater than the dietary and hepatic concentrations predicted to result in a 20% increase in kit mortality (LC20) at six weeks of age (0.34 µg ΣPCBs/g feed or 2.6 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g feed and 0.80 µg ΣPCBs/g liver or 13 pg TEQWHO 2005 /g liver). However, the EC20 values reflect exposure of adults to PCBs for approximately six months, and the LC20 values reflect exposure of offspring from conception onward. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  9. Mercury in hair of muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and mink (mustela vision) from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.T. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sleeman, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are semi-aquatic rodents found throughout most of North America. Muskrats construct extensive burrow systems in the banks of streams and are potentially exposed to environmental contaminants through dermal and dietary sources. Muskrats are primarily herbivorous, which may limit their exposure to contaminants, as most plants contain relatively low concentrations of contaminants. However, riverine muskrats are known to prey on freshwater mussels, and have even been reported to prevent recovery of endangered mussels in the Clinch River of Virginia and Tennessee. Mussels and clams are known to bioaccumulate contaminants to levels several thousand times that of surrounding water, and these contaminants could potentially be bioaccumulated by predatory muskrats. The objectives of this study were to determine hair mercury levels in muskrats and mink inhabiting contaminated sites on the US DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Influence of dietary zinc and copper on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Liu, Zhi; Guo, Jungang; Wan, Chunmeng; Zhang, Tietao; Cui, Hu; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 (Cu × Zn) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of dietary copper and zinc on apparent mineral retention and serum biochemical indicators in young male mink on a corn-fish meal based diet. Animals were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from copper sulfate (CuSO4) and Zn from zinc sulfate (ZnSO4). Supplemental Cu levels were 0, 15, and 30 mg/kg copper, respectively, while supplemental Zn levels were 0, 150, and 300 mg/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Blood samples were collected via the toe clip to determine blood hematology and blood metabolites. Copper excretion, retention, and digestibility were influenced by dietary copper (P < 0.05), however, there was also a zinc-copper interaction. Copper digestibility and retention were substantially reduced when zinc was added to the low copper diet but showed little change with zinc supplementation of the high copper diet. Both plasma Cu and plasma Zn were influenced by dietary level of the respective mineral (P < 0.05). There was no influence of dietary copper on plasma zinc; however, high Zn in the diet reduced plasma Cu concentrations. There was a zinc-copper interaction for plasma Cu (P = 0.053). Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) activity tended to be influenced by dietary zinc (P = 0.065) and dietary copper (P = 0.035). Dietary copper had a significant effect on ceruloplasmin (CER) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations (P < 0.05). Our results show that moderately high Zn in the diet (Zn:Cu ratio of 40:1) significantly reduce the apparent Cu digestibility. Our results also show that moderately high Cu in the diet increases Cu retention, but not reduces Zn absorption, and moderately high Zn in the diet reduced plasma Cu concentrations and CER activity.

  11. The mink is not a reliable sentinel species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2009-10-01

    In a recent review paper, Basu et al. [Basu, N., Scheuhammer, A.M., Bursian, S.J., Elliott, J., Rouvinen-Watt, K., Chan, H.M., 2007. Mink as a sentinel species in environmental health. Environ. Res. 103, 130-144] suggested that the American mink (formerly Mustela vison, now Neovison vison) should be used as a sentinel species for studies of the effects of pollution on environmental health. They based this assertion in large part on their conclusion that mink meet a set of criteria required by a sentinel species. In this commentary, we suggest that Basu et al. overlooked an important criterion for sentinel species - that the species must be a continuous resident of the environment under evaluation. Across their native range and beyond, mink are commonly farmed for the fur industry, and a long history of studies has shown that where they are farmed, they escape. For example, in southern Ontario, Canada, 64% of the mink have been genetically identified as domestic in origin, or domestic-wild hybrids. Thus, we argue that mink do not meet the criterion of continuous residence, and cannot be reliably used as sentinel species. There is a strong likelihood of biased inference when mink are used for such purposes.

  12. Full genome comparison and characterization of avian H10 viruses with different pathogenicity in Mink (Mustela vison reveals genetic and functional differences in the non-structural gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique property of some avian H10 viruses, particularly the ability to cause severe disease in mink without prior adaptation, enabled our study. Coupled with previous experimental data and genetic characterization here we tried to investigate the possible influence of different genes on the virulence of these H10 avian influenza viruses in mink. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the viruses studied. Our study also showed that there are no genetic differences in receptor specificity or the cleavability of the haemagglutinin proteins of these viruses regardless of whether they are of low or high pathogenicity in mink. In poly I:C stimulated mink lung cells the NS1 protein of influenza A virus showing high pathogenicity in mink down regulated the type I interferon promoter activity to a greater extent than the NS1 protein of the virus showing low pathogenicity in mink. Conclusions Differences in pathogenicity and virulence in mink between these strains could be related to clear amino acid differences in the non structural 1 (NS1 protein. The NS gene of mink/84 appears to have contributed to the virulence of the virus in mink by helping the virus evade the innate immune responses.

  13. The urinary metabolome in female mink (Mustela neovison) shows distinct changes in protein and lipid metabolism during the transition from diapause to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mink exhibit an obligatory diapause. The metabolic changes during the transition from diapause to implantation and established pregnancy are currently unknown. Objectives The study aimed to characterize changes in the urinary metabolome in mink during the period from mating...

  14. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    mink coronavirus (MCV) seems to be widespread in the Danish mink population with a prevalence approaching 100%. Analysis by immunoblotting has shown that MCV is closely related to TGEV by the spike (S), matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) polypeptides. Furthermore, antibodies to MCV also cross...

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of 3 viral infections in paraffin-embedded tissue from mink (Mustela vison): a tissue-microarray-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were developed and tested for the detection of 3 viral infections in archived paraffin-embedded mink tissue. Specimens had been obtained from mink with diagnoses of acute Aleutian disease (AD), mink parvoviral enteritis (MVE), or canine distemper (CD) made by means of routine diagnostic procedures. To improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of IHC analyses, tissue microarray (TMA) technology was used. Representative cores 2 mm in diameter from each tissue specimen and from positive- and negative-control specimens were collected in a TMA block. Immunohistochemical reactions to viral antigens were assessed and graded. Positive reactions were found in 91% of the 32 specimens from mink with AD, 53% to 80% of the 60 specimens from mink with MVE, and all 66 of the specimens from mink with CD. To validate the use of TMAs, the IHC methods were applied to whole-mount paraffin-embedded sections of 10 of the positive specimens for each disease, together with whole-mount sections of small intestine and lung tissue from 2 healthy mink. The IHC grading of the TMA cores and the whole-mount sections from the same animal corresponded completely. These results suggest that IHC demonstration of viral antigen allows rapid and reliable diagnosis of the 3 viral infections in mink and is a potential supplement to histologic diagnostic procedures. The TMA technique proved useful for screening large numbers of samples for expression of specific viral antigens, while reducing overall costs. PMID:17193876

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary copper on organ indexes, tissular Cu, Zn and Fe deposition and fur quality of growing-furring male mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to study the effects of different levels of dietary copper on organ indexes, tissular Cu, Zn and Fe deposition and fur quality of mink in the growing-furring periods. One hundred and five standard dark male mink were randomly assigned to seven groups with the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no supplemental Cu (Control); basal diet supplemented with either 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 mg/kg Cu from copper sulphate, respectively. The colour intensity scores displayed a linear trend (P = 0.057). The spleen Cu concentrations responded in a linear (P  0.10) liver Zn. Our results indicate that Cu plays an important role in the pigmentation in growing-furring mink, and supplemental dietary Cu in growing-furring mink improve hair colour, and copper has limited effects on liver mineral deposition.

  18. Effects of Different Sources and Levels of Zinc on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fur Quality of Growing-Furring Male Mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hu; Zhang, Tietao; Nie, Hao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Xuelei; Shi, Bo; Xing, Xiumei; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2017-07-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources and levels of zinc (Zn) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, and fur quality in growing-furring male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet with no Zn supplementation. Mink in the other nine treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Zn from either grade Zn sulfate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O), Zn glycinate (ZnGly), or Zn pectin oligosaccharides (ZnPOS) at concentrations of either 100, 300, or 900 mg Zn/kg dry matter. One hundred and fifty healthy 15-week-old male mink were randomly allocated to ten dietary treatments (n = 15/group) for a 60-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. Mink in the Zn-POS groups had higher average daily gain than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Zn source slightly improved the feed/gain (P = 0.097). N retention was increased by Zn addition (P < 0.05). Mink supplemented with dietary Zn had higher (P < 0.05) pancreas Zn level than the control group. Fur length was greater (P < 0.05) in ZnGly and ZnPOS groups compared with the control. In addition, fur length and fur density increased (linear, P < 0.05) with Zn supplementation in the diet. In conclusion, our data show that dietary Zn addition improves growth performance by increasing nitrogen retention and fat digestibility in growing-furring mink and Z-POS is equally bioavailable to mink compared to ZnGly.

  19. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic species of mammalian predators represent a major cause of vertebrate animal extinctions on islands, particularly those that lack native mammalian carnivores. In 2001, the American mink (Mustela vison was recorded for the first time on Navarino Island, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (55° S in Chile, representing the southernmost population of mink worldwide. In order to assess its potential impact on native fauna, we studied its diet on Navarino Island, as part of an integrative management program on invasive species. Over a three-year period (2005-2007 we collected 512 scats in semi-aquatic habitats: marine coasts, riparian and lake shores. Overall, the main prey was mammals (37 % biomass, and birds (36 %, followed by fish (24 %. Over the spring and summer, mink consumed significantly more birds, whereas mammals constituted the main prey over the autumn and winter when migratory birds had left the area. Among birds, the mink preyed mainly on adult Passeriformes, followed by Anseriformes and Pelecaniformes, caught as chicks. Among mammals, the exotic muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus was the most important prey, and together with the native rodent Abrothrix xanthorhinus it accounted for 78 % of the biomass intake. For an integrated management of invasive exotic mammal species on Navarino Island and in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve it is important to further research interactions established here among the various introduced mammals, and to initiate immediate control of the mink population in its initial stage of invasion.Las especies exóticas de mamíferos carnívoros invasores constituyen una de las principales causas de extinciones de vertebrados en islas, particularmente en aquellas que carecen de predadores mamíferos nativos. En 2001, el visón norteamericano (Mustela vison fue registrado por primera vez en Isla Navarino en la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (55° S en Chile, representando la población de visones m

  20. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose......-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink...

  1. Changes in digestive enzyme activity, intestine morphology, mucin characteristics and tocopherol status in mink kits (Mustela neovision) during the weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Clausen, T.N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Weaning of livestock mammals is often associated with digestive problems related to profound changes in the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. This study was undertaken to study the developmental changes in the gastrointestinal tract of mink kits during the period of 34 to 59 days of age...

  2. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  3. Effects of different sources and levels of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and elemental balance in young female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Junjun; Guo, Jungang; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and elemental balance in young female mink on a corn-fishmeal-based diet. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet (containing 8.05 mg Cu/kg DM; control), which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Minks in other nine treatments were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate, tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper methionate. Cu concentrations of experiment diets were 10, 25, and 40 mg/kg copper. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Final body weight and average daily gain increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as Cu increased in the diet; maximal growth was seen in the Cu25 group. Cu supplementation slightly improved the feed conversion rate (P = 0.095). Apparent fat digestibility was increased by copper level (P = 0.020). Retention nitrogen was increased by copper level (linear, P = 0.003). Copper source had a significant effect on copper retention with Cu-Met and copper sulfate treatments retention more than TBCC treatments (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that mink can efficiently utilize added dietary fat and that Cu plays an important role in the digestion of dietary fat in mink, and mink can efficiently utilize Cu-Met and CuSO4.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungvall, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Korvela, Marcus; Norrby, Mattias; Bergquist, Jonas; Persson, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n = 91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury, and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead (expressed as mean ± standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2030-2035. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  5. Effects of sources and concentrations of zinc on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fur quality of growing-furring female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H; Zhang, T T; Nie, H; Wang, Z C; Zhang, X L; Shi, B; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2017-12-01

    A completely randomized 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sources and concentrations of Zn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical endpoints, and fur quality in growing-furring female black mink. One hundred fifty healthy 15-wk-old female mink were randomly allocated to 10 dietary treatments ( = 15/group) for a 60-d trial. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which consisted of mainly corn, soybean oil, meat and bone meal, and fish meal, with no Zn supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Zn from either zinc sulfate (ZnSO), zinc glycinate (ZnGly), or Zn pectin oligosaccharides (ZnPOS) at concentrations of either 100, 300, or 900 mg Zn/kg DM. The results showed that mink in the ZnPOS groups had higher ADG than those in the ZnSO groups (main effect, < 0.05). The addition of Zn reduced the G:F ( < 0.05). In addition, CP and crude fat digestibility were linearly increased with Zn supplementation ( < 0.05) and N retention tended to increase with Zn addition ( = 0.08). Dietary Zn supplementation increased the concentration of serum albumin and activity of alkaline phosphatase ( < 0.05). There was a linear effect of dietary Zn on the concentration of tibia Zn and pancreatic Zn ( < 0.05). For fur quality characteristics, the fur density and hair color of mink were improved by dietary Zn concentration ( < 0.05). Compared with ZnSO (100%), relative bioavailability values of ZnGly were 115 and 118%, based on tibia and pancreatic Zn, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of ZnPOS were 152 and 142%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Zn supplementation can promote growth and increase nutrient digestibility and fur quality and that ZnPOS is more bioavailable than ZnSO and ZnGly in growing-furring female mink.

  6. Observaciones sobre el plan de vacunación contra el distemper en visones (Mustela vison en un criadero de Argentina Evaluation of the immune response after vaccination against distemper at a mink (Mustela vison farm in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Jar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus del distemper produce una enfermedad en los visones que cursa con síntomas respiratorios, gastrointestinales, neurológicos y cutáneos y presenta alta morbilidad y mortalidad, principalmente en los cachorros. La enfermedad se controla mediante la aplicación de vacunas destinadas a esta especie. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el título de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus del distemper en visones vacunados y no vacunados de un criadero de Argentina. Se analizó la cinética de anticuerpos obtenidos posvacunación en 27 animales adultos y de anticuerpos calostrales en 10 cachorros. Todos los visones adultos vacunados mostraron títulos protectores hasta por lo menos 3 meses después de la vacunación. El 37,5% redujo significativamente sus niveles de anticuerpos a los 12 meses de la vacunación. En los cachorros, sólo un 20% mostró niveles protectores de anticuerpos calostrales a las 7 semanas de edad, que se negativizaron hacia las 11 semanas. La vacunación a las 13 semanas de edad produjo títulos protectores en todos estos animales. Estos resultados muestran que la vacunación induce respuesta humoral satisfactoria en el medio estudiado e indican la conveniencia de revacunar a las madres anualmente antes del servicio. Se discute el plan de vacunación en cachorros.Distemper virus causes a disease affecting minks with respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and skin symptoms and showing high morbidity and mortality, mainly among puppies. It is controlled through immunization, using vaccines that are supplied for mink use. The aim of this work was to determine the seroneutralization titer against the distemper virus at a mink farm in Argentina. The antibody kinetics obtained after vaccination in 27 adult animals, as well as the duration of colostrum-transferred antibodies in 10 puppies were determined. All vaccinated adult minks showed protective titers up to at least 3 months after vaccination, and 37

  7. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein corre...... not affected by diet, except for shorter hair length with inclusion of BPM. In conclusion, the experiment showed that BPM can account for 40% of dietary protein in growing-furring mink without negative effects on N metabolism, body weight gain or fur quality....... corresponding to 0,4 and 8% of the wet diets, respectively. Each diet was given to 48 animals, 24 males and 24 females. The inclusion of BPM tended to reduce feed intake and body weight gain during the first half of the experimental period, but this was compensated for during the last part of the experiment...

  8. Effects of dietary copper on elemental balance, plasma minerals and serum biochemical parameters of growing-furring male mink (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhuang Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to study the effects of different levels of dietary copper on copper and zinc balance, plasma minerals and serum biochemical parameters of mink in the growing-furring periods. One hundred and five standard dark male mink were randomly assigned to seven groups with the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no supplemental Cu (Control; basal diet supplemented with either 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, or 192 mg/kg Cu from copper sulfate, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG linearly (P = 0.0026, P = 0.0006 responded to increasing levels of Cu; maximal growth was seen in the Cu24 group. Feed efficiency tended to improve with the increase of dietary copper level (linear P = 0.0010, quad, P = 0.0011. Fecal copper, urinary copper, retention copper responded in a linear (P < 0.05 fashion with increasing level of Cu. The effect of level of Cu was linear (P < 0.001 for plasma Cu concentration. The serum glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities were increased linearly (P < 0.05 with dose of Cu, but serum total protein (TP and albumin (ALB concentrations decreased linearly (P < 0.05 as dietary copper levels increased. Effect of level of Cu was linear (P < 0.001 for serum ceruloplasmin (CER concentration or Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD activity. Supplemental dose of Cu linearly decreased serum triglyceride (TG (P = 0.011 and total cholesterol (TC (P = 0.007. Our results indicated that the activity of Cu-dependent enzymes was enhanced by increasing dietary Cu concentration and that supplementation of Cu in the diet of mink could alter the plasma lipid profile and copper concentration.

  9. Incidence of jaw lesions and activity and gene expression of hepatic P4501A enzymes in mink (Mustela vison) exposed to dietary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Moore, Jeremy; Newsted, John L; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bello, Nora; Bhat, Virunya S; Kay, Denise; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wiseman, Steve; Budinsky, Robert A; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on the incidence of jaw lesions and on hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) endpoints in mink (Mustela vison). Adult female mink were assigned randomly to one of 13 dietary treatments (control and four increasing doses of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF) and provided spiked feed for approximately 150 d (60 d prior to breeding through weaning of offspring at 42 d post-parturition). Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 150 d. Activity of hepatic CYP1A enzymes in adult and juvenile mink exposed to TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDD was generally greater compared with controls, but changes in other CYP1A endpoints were less consistent. Histopathology of the mandible and maxilla of juvenile mink suggested a dose-related increase in the incidence of jaw lesions. The dietary effective doses (ED) for jaw lesions in 50% of the population (ED50) were estimated to be 6.6, 14, and 149 ng/kg body weight (bw)/d for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, respectively. The relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF compared with TCDD based on ED10, ED20, and ED50 values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 and 0.04 to 0.09, respectively. These values are within an order of magnitude of the World Health Organization toxic equivalency factor (TEF(WHO)) values of 0.3 and 0.1 for PeCDF and TCDF, respectively. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1983-01-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is a predatory, semiaquatic mammal that is generally associated with stream and river banks, lake shores, fresh and saltwater marshes, and marine shore habitats (Gerell 1970).  Mink are chiefly nocturnal and remain active throughout the year (Marshall 1936); Gerell 1969; Burgess 1978).  The species is adaptable in its use of habitat, modifying daily habits according to environmental conditions, particularly prey availability (Wise et al. 1981; Linn and Birds 1981; Birks and Linn 1982).  The species is tolerant of human activity and will inhabit suboptimum habitats as long as an adequate food source is available; however, mink will be more mobile and change home ranges more frequently under such conditions (Linn pers. comm.).

  11. Diverse wild mouse origins of xenotropic, mink cell focus-forming, and two types of ecotropic proviral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; O'Neill, R R

    1987-10-01

    We analyzed wild mouse DNAs for the number and type of proviral genes related to the env sequences of various murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). Only Mus species closely related to laboratory mice carried these retroviral sequences, and the different subclasses of viral env genes tended to be restricted to specific taxonomic groups. Only Mus musculus molossinus carried proviral genes which cross-reacted with the inbred mouse ecotropic MuLV env gene. The ecotropic viral env sequence associated with the Fv-4 resistance gene was found in the Asian mice M. musculus molossinus and Mus musculus castaneus and in California mice from Lake Casitas (LC). Both M. musculus castaneus and LC mice carried many additional Fv-4 env-related proviruses, two of which are common to both mouse populations, which suggests that these mice share a recent common ancestry. Xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus env sequences were more widely dispersed in wild mice than the ecotropic viral env genes, which suggests that nonecotropic MuLVs were integrated into the Mus germ line at an earlier date. Xenotropic MuLVs represented the major component of MuLV env-reactive genes in Asian and eastern European mice classified as M. musculus molossinus, M. musculus castaneus, and Mus musculus musculus, whereas Mus musculus domesticus from western Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America contained almost exclusively MCF virus env copies. M. musculus musculus mice from central Europe trapped near the M. musculus domesticus/M. musculus musculus hybrid zone carried multiple copies of both types of env genes. LC mice also carried both xenotropic and MCF viral env genes, which is consistent with the above conclusion that they represent natural hybrids of M. musculus domesticus and M. musculus castaneus.

  12. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Schapendonk, Claudia M E; van den Brand, Judith M A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic animals or humans. In the present study we evaluated the viral diversity of fecal samples (n = 42) collected from 10 different species of wild small carnivores inhabiting the northern part of Spain using random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing. Samples were collected from American mink (Neovison vison), European mink (Mustela lutreola), European polecat (Mustela putorius), European pine marten (Martes martes), stone marten (Martes foina), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles) of the family of Mustelidae; common genet (Genetta genetta) of the family of Viverridae; red fox (Vulpes vulpes) of the family of Canidae and European wild cat (Felis silvestris) of the family of Felidae. A number of sequences of possible novel viruses or virus variants were detected, including a theilovirus, phleboviruses, an amdovirus, a kobuvirus and picobirnaviruses. Using random PCR in combination with next generation sequencing, sequences of various novel viruses or virus variants were detected in fecal samples collected from Spanish carnivores. Detected novel viruses highlight the viral diversity that is present in fecal material of wild carnivores.

  13. A survey of Aleutian mink disease virus infection of feral American mink in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A. Hossain; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Mitchell, Jessicca L.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2010-01-01

    Spleen samples from 14 mink that were trapped in 4 counties of Nova Scotia were tested for the presence of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) by polymerase chain reaction. Viral DNA was not detected in samples from Kings County (n = 2), but was detected in all the mink sampled from Colchester (n = 2) and Halifax (n = 6) counties, and 3 of 4 mink from Yarmouth County. The high level of AMDV-infected mink in Colchester and Halifax counties may pose a serious threat to the captive mink and wild animal populations. Because treatment of infected free-ranging mink is not an option, AMDV control strategies for the captive mink should be primarily focused on bio-security to protect clean ranches. PMID:20357945

  14. Mapping of the silver gene in mink and its association with the dilution gene in dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    recessive mutations within mink fur farming being part of some of the popular color types which combine more recessive mutations. We report there the mapping of the 'silver' gene on MVI3 by means of the first linkage genetic map in the American mink (Mustela vison). A Canis familiaris BAC clone containing...... the melanophilin gene (which generates 'silver-like' phenotype in dog) was in situ cross-hybridized onto the mink chromosomes and the result strongly supports the linkage data. Therefore the silver phenotype in the American mink presumably involves the melanophilin gene (MLPH)....

  15. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cranial helminths of Mustela vison Schreber, 1777 in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Mañas, S; Asensio, V; Eira, C; Palazón, S

    2006-04-30

    A survey was carried out to investigate the presence of cranial helminths in 337 American minks (Mustela vison) from Spain. This information was obtained partly in order to evaluate potential conservation problems and sanitary risks to the congeneric European mink (Mustela lutreola), one of the most endangered carnivores in the world. Skulls and rectal faeces of each specimen were simultaneously analysed. Troglotrema acutum and Skrjabingylus nasicola were found in 5.6% of the M. vison analysed. No cranial lesions were seen in any of the examined skulls. The finding of both helminths in Spanish free-living M. vison specimens enlarges their natural definitive host spectrum in Western Europe. One relatively important focus of T. acutum in M. vison was detected (30.4%) in the Spanish Alava province while S. nasicola was found to be very infrequent. The suitability of both analytical methods was assessed in order to know to what degree coprological analysis reflects the real prevalence of cranial helminths in this host. It is possible to conclude that coprological analysis can be used instead of necropsies to analyse the possible incidence of pathogenic cranial helminths in mustelids. This aspect is very important and useful when trying to analyse the helminthological status of endangered species such as the native mink (M. lutreola) particularly in areas where both congeneric species are present and strict competition occurs.

  17. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  18. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  19. Detection of Neospora caninum in wild carnivorans in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, P M; Wright, S E; Zimmer, I A; Roy, S; Kitchener, A C; Meredith, A; Innes, E A; Katzer, F

    2013-02-18

    Samples of brain and other tissues were collected from 99 ferrets (Mustela furo), 83 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 70 European polecats (Mustela putorius), 65 American mink (Neovison vison), 64 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and 9 stoats (Mustela erminea), from around Great Britain. DNA was extracted from approximately 1g of tissue and tested by specific nested ITS1 PCR for Neospora caninum. The results from the PCR demonstrated that Neospora specific DNA was detected in all species of wild carnivorans with the exception of the stoats (0/9). Neospora DNA positive samples were detected in: polecats 18.6% (13/70), badgers 10.9% (7/64), ferrets 10.1% (10/99), foxes 4.8% (4/83) and mink 4.6% (3/65). In the badgers N. caninum DNA positive samples were found in brain (n=2), liver (n=2) and neck muscle (n=3). Selected positive ITS1 DNA sequences were submitted to Genbank. Sequence UKwildlife1 (accession number JX857862) was found in two badgers, whilst UKwildlife2 and UKwildlife3 (accession numbers JX857863 and JX857864 respectively) were found in ferrets, all three sequences demonstrated point mutations at a single base, while sequence UKwildlife4 (accession number JX857865) was found in all the species that tested positive and showed complete identity when compared against published reference sequences for: N. caninum (Nc Liverpool isolate, EU564166). Our data shows that almost all the wild carnivoran mammal species tested are intermediate hosts for N. caninum and are therefore capable of acting as reservoirs of infection for other species. These species could also act as useful sentinel species, demonstrating the presence of the parasite in particular geographical and environmental locations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  1. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natasza

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... Stereotypies in female farm mink (Mustela vison) may be genetically transmitted and associated with higher fertility due to effects on bodyweight. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 86, 137-143. Jeppesen, L.L., Heller, K.E. & Dalsgaard, T., 2000. Effects of early weaning and housing conditions on the development.

  2. Resting and denning sites of European mink in the northern Iberian Peninsula (Western Europe)

    OpenAIRE

    Palomares, Francisco; Lopez-Bao, Jose Vicente; Telletxea, Garbine; Ceña, Juan Carlos; Fournier, Pascal; Giralda, Gloria; Urra, Fermin

    2017-01-01

    We recorded resting and breeding sites used by the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) inhabiting Western Europe (Foral Community of Navarre). Over a sample size of 22 radio-tracked mink (10 adult females, 7 adult males, 2 young females, and 3 young males) between March 2007 and February 2009, we found that European mink mainly rested within brambles and reeds (39.7% for each type, n=156), regardless of seasons and age-sex classes. On average, the resting site re-use rate was 1.3 (ran...

  3. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A

    2013-06-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory.

  4. Causes of mortality in farmed mink in the Intermountain West, North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David J; Baldwin, Thomas J; Whitehouse, Chelsea H; Hullinger, Gordon

    2015-07-01

    The primary causes of mortality were identified in postmortem examination of 339 (90.9%) of 373 farmed mink (Neovison vison; syn. Mustela vison) from January 2009 through June 2014 at the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Logan, Utah). Mink were raised under farm conditions in the Intermountain West in North America, except for 1 submission of mink from Wisconsin. In the 339 mink where cause(s) of death were established, 311 (91.7%) died from a single disease or condition, whereas 28 (8.3%) had 2 diseases or conditions contributing to death. Where cause(s) of death were evident, 11 diseases accounted for 321 (94.7%) of the diagnoses: bacterial pneumonia (67, 18.8%), Aleutian mink disease (61, 17.7%), mink viral enteritis (56, 16.2%), hepatic lipidosis (28, 8.1%), nutritional myopathy (24, 7%), bacterial enterocolitis (17, 4.9%), bacterial septicemia (16, 4.6%), starvation (15, 4.3%), epizootic catarrhal gastroenteritis of mink (14, 4.1%), pancreatitis (13, 3.8%), and bacterial metritis (10, 2.9%). In 34 (9.1%) animals, a cause of death was not evident. In an additional 16 (4.3%) of the mink, botulism was suspected from clinical history but could not be confirmed by laboratory testing. Control measures for the most common causes of death in farmed mink include testing and removal of positive animals (Aleutian mink disease), vaccination (Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, mink viral enteritis), avoidance of obesity in mink (hepatic lipidosis), and environmental management, including maintaining clean water cups, floors, feed troughs, cages, feed silos, feed truck tires, workers' shoes, dining areas for farm personnel, leather mink handling gloves, street clothes, and coveralls. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  6. Helminth communities of the autochthonous mustelids Mustela lutreola and M. putorius and the introduced Mustela vison in south-western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Miquel, J; Fournier, P; Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Liberge, M; Fons, R; Feliu, C

    2008-12-01

    This study presents the first comprehensive helminthological data on three sympatric riparian mustelids (the European mink Mustela lutreola, the polecat M. putorius and the American mink M. vison) in south-western France. One hundred and twenty-four specimens (45 M. lutreola, 37 M. putorius and 42 M. vison) from eight French departments were analysed. Globally, 15 helminth species were detected: Troglotrema acutum, Pseudamphistomum truncatum, Euryhelmis squamula, Euparyphium melis and Ascocotyle sp. (Trematoda), Taenia tenuicollis (Cestoda), Eucoleus aerophilus, Pearsonema plica, Aonchotheca putorii, Strongyloides mustelorum, Molineus patens, Crenosoma melesi, Filaroides martis and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda) and larval stages of Centrorhynchus species (Acanthocephala). The autochthonous European mink harboured the highest species richness (13 species) followed by the polecat with 11 species. The introduced American mink presented the most depauperate helminth community (nine species). The prevalence and worm burden of most of the helminths found in M. putorius and M. lutreola were also higher than those of M. vison. Some characteristics of their helminth communities were compared to relatively nearby populations (Spain) and other very distant populations (Belarus). This comparison emphasized M. patens as the most frequent parasite in all of the analysed mustelid populations. It was possible to conclude that the invasive M. vison contributes to the maintenance of the life cycle of the pathogenic T. acutum and S. nasicola helminths, with possible implications for the conservation of the endangered European mink.

  7. A coprological survey of parasites of wild carnivores in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Golden, Olwen; Zintl, Annetta; de Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; McCarthy, Elaine; Lawton, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing movement of people to wilderness areas, shrinking of wildlife habitats and the resulting urbanisation of wildlife has led to growing concerns about the transfer of parasitic diseases, particularly from contaminated faeces. Faecal samples from wild carnivores in Ireland were examined for the presence of protozoan and nematode parasites. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) samples (n = 91) were positive for Uncinaria stenocephala (38%), Eucoleus aerophilus (26%), Toxocara canis (20%), Trichuris vulpis (4%) and Isospora-like oocysts (9%). Badger (Meles meles) samples (n = 50) were positive for Uncinaria criniformis (40%), E. aerophilus (6%) and Isospora-like oocysts (16%). No parasites were observed in pine marten (n = 48; Martes martes) faeces. Approximately 5% of American mink (Mustela vison) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium by polymerase chain reaction (identified as Cryptosporidium andersoni (n = 3) and 'mink' genotype (n = 1)). The results suggest that wild carnivores in Ireland have a range of parasites, although it is unclear from the present study to what extent these infections are associated with morbidity. While it can be expected that, via their faeces, wild carnivores contribute to the spread of these parasites, they are unlikely the primary source of environmental contamination. Therefore, they should not always be the principal target of control measures.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus Variant in Farmed Mink, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus for which pigs are the primary animal reservoir. To investigate whether HEV occurs in mink in Denmark, we screened feces and tissues from domestic and wild mink. Our finding of a novel HEV variant supports previous findings of HEV variants in a variety...

  9. [Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of liver monoamine oxidases of minks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagodina, O V

    2010-01-01

    Comparative substrate-inhibitor analysis of catalytic properties of liver monoamine oxidases (MAO) was performed in the mature males of the American mink Mustela vison and the European mink Mustela lutreola. The action on the MAO activity was studied of alkaloids of the benzo[c]phenanthridine group: sanguinarine and chelidonine, diisoquinoline alkaloid berberine, medication agents Ukrain and Sanguirythrin as well as derivatives of 2-propylamine: deprenyl and clorgylin. The latter turned out to be irreversible inhibitor of the MAO A form, whereas deprehyl--irreversible inhibitor of the MAO B form in both studied mink species. The selectivity of action of each inhibitor on the corresponding liver MAO form for the species M. vison was one order of magnitude stronger than for the species M. lutreola. All studied alkaloids as well medication agents on their basis have been shown to be specific irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate strength of the liver MAO A form of both mink species. They inhibit the enzymatic deamination of serotonin, tyramine, and tryptamine without affecting the deamination reaction of benzylamine and beta-phenylethylamine (at concentrations of 10 mM and lower). Out of the studied five isoquinoline agents, the medication Ukrain and alkaloid chelidonine have the highest inhibitory action; the agent Sanguirythrin and alkaloids berberine and sanguinarine produce the weaker monoamine oxidase effect. The revealed specificity of action of the studied inhibitors is an indirect evidence for the presence in the liver enzymes of both mink species, like in the rat liver enzyme, of several molecular forms.

  10. An unusual case of spinal cord restricted mycobacteriosis in a European mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaudien, D; Flieshardt, C; Moser, I; Hotzel, H; Tipold, A; Bleyer, M; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Baumgärtner, W

    2013-01-01

    Granulomatous myelitis due to infection with Mycobacterium avium was diagnosed in a 4-year-old male neutered European mink (Mustela lutreola). The causative agent was detected by an acid-fast stain and further characterized by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the PCR product. A thorough histological evaluation of the remaining organs revealed no granulomatous lesions or detectable acid-fast organisms. Although minks are generally highly susceptible for mycobacteria, localised infections, especially of the central nervous system, are unusual and may represent an atypical chronic form of the disease.

  11. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine H; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Appelberg, Mia Tjernström; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies) and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133) had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006), heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  12. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mink from Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Persson

    Full Text Available Aleutian mink disease (AMD is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associations between being AMDV infected (defined as positive for both viral DNA and antibodies and the weight of the spleen, liver, kidneys, adrenal glands and body condition were calculated and the sequences of ten AMDV isolates were analysed in order to characterize the genetic relationships. In total, 46.1% of the mink were positive for AMDV antibodies and 57.6% were positive for AMDV DNA. Twenty-two percent of the mink tested on both tests (n = 133 had dissimilar results. The risk of having AMDV antibodies or being positive for AMDV DNA clearly increased with age and the majority of the mink that were two years or older were infected. Few macroscopic changes were found upon necropsy. However, the relative weight of the spleen was sexually dimorphic and was found to be slightly, but significantly (p = 0.006, heavier in AMDV infected male mink than uninfected. No association between AMDV infection and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems to be prevalent in wild mink in Sweden and may subtly influence the weight of the spleen.

  13. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  14. Risk induced by a native top predator reduces alien mink movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Pälvi; Nordström, Mikael; Thomson, Robert L; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2008-11-01

    1. Nonlethal predation effects may have stronger impacts on prey populations than direct predation impacts, and this should also apply to intraguild predation. The consequences of such interactions become especially important if invasive, and potentially destructive alien predators act as intraguild prey. 2. We studied the predation-risk impacts of a re-colonizing native top predator, Haliaeetus albicilla (white-tailed sea eagle), on the movements of Mustela vison (American mink), an alien predator in Europe. We radiocollared 20 mink in two study areas in the outer archipelago of the Baltic Sea, South-west Finland, during 2004 and 2005. In the archipelago, mink home ranges incorporate many islands, and mink are most predisposed to eagle predation while swimming between islands. Observed swimming distances of mink were compared to distances expected at random, and deviations from random swimming were explained by mink distance from nearest eagle nest, number of eagle observations near mink location, and mink home-range size. 3. Mink reduced their swimming distances with increasing sea eagle predation risk: for females, the reduction was 10% for an increase of 10 eagle observations, and 5% for each kilometre towards an eagle nest. Conclusions for males were restricted by their small sample size. 4. Our results suggest that female mink modify their behaviour according to eagle predation risk, which may reduce their population growth and have long-term cascading effects on lower trophic levels including bird, mammal and amphibian populations in the archipelago. Ecosystem restoration by bringing back the top predators may be one way of mitigating alien predator effects on native biota.

  15. Surgical transfer of in vivo produced farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Heli; Amstislavsky, Sergei; Järvinen, Mikko; Aalto, Jussi; Valtonen, Maija

    2002-06-01

    Surgical embryo transfer of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as part of an ex situ preservation project. The long-term objective of the project is to develop effective technology for ex situ conservation of the European mink (Mustela lutreola), which is a highly endangered aboriginal European species. Twenty European polecat females, which served as a model species for the European mink, were humanely killed 4-9 days after first mating and embryos were recovered from oviducts and uteri. Donor-recipient pairs (n = 16) were generated by mating the donors (n = 20) once a day for 2 consecutive days with fertile males and by mating the corresponding recipients (n = 16) on the same days with vasectomized males. An embryo recovery rate of 70% (200 recovered embryos/284 corpora lutea) was achieved from 20 donors. Morulae and blastocysts were recovered between Days 5 and 9 after first mating and were regarded as the best developmental stages for uterine embryo transfer. A total of 172 embryos were transferred surgically under general anaesthesia into the ovarian third of the left uterine horn of 16 recipients with a thin glass capillary. Eleven recipients (69%) produced 72 pups equivalent to an average success rate of 42% (72 pups/172 transferred embryos). The average litter size was 4.5 (range 0-9). These results with this model species, farmed European polecat, demonstrate the potential of embryo transfer as an effective method for the preservation of the endangered European mink (M. lutreola). These species are closely related and have a similar reproductive physiology. However, success of applying embryo transfer in conserving European mink is still dependent on further studies both into its reproductive physiology and developing of improved flushing techniques for anaesthetized donors and the successful transfer of frozen-thawed embryos.

  16. An American mink (Neovison vison) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2014-04-01

    HiSeq2000 Illumina pair-end sequenced transcript data originating from a pool of four different tissues of a wild-type American mink yielded approximately 90 Gb of raw data. Subsequently, unique contigs were assembled by a combined approach using velvet and phrap. Of these assembled contigs, about 136 000 match the dog genome and nearly 30 000 contigs match the human transcriptome at more than 17 000 unique gene locations. Gene annotation for these contigs was performed employing custom-made scripts run in combination with comparative sequence similarity search and alignment in the dog and human genome using blast algorithms. Transcripts representing five genes known to be associated with pigmentation were reliably aligned against large mink genomic contigs derived from BAC clones. Sequence comparison between transcript and genomic data revealed seven SNPs. In this study, we generated and annotated mink transcript sequences representing more than 16 000 known genes. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome for the American mink genome, which will facilitate further development in mink expression profiling studies and provide a good annotation basis in the perspectives of a whole genome sequencing project. The project was deposited at EMBL database with the accession number PRJEB1260. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Intrageneric diversity of the cytochrome B gene and phylogeny of eurasian species of the genus mustela (mustelidae, carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurose, N; Abramov, A V; Masuda, R

    2000-07-01

    To illuminate molecular phylogenetic relationships among Eurasian species of the genus Mustela (Mustelidae, Carnivora), we determined nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene region (1,140 base pairs). Molecular phylogenetic trees, constructed using the neighbor-joining and the maximum likelihood methods, showed the common topology of species relationships to each other. The American mink M. vison first branched off and was positioned very remotely from the other species of Mustela. Excluding M. vison, the ermine M. erminea first split from the rest of the species. Two small body-sized weasels, the least weasel M. nivalis and the mountain weasel M. altaica, comprised one cluster (named "the small weasel group"). The other species formed another cluster, where the remarkably close relationships among the domestic ferret M. furo, the European polecat M. putorius, and the steppe polecat M. eversmanni were noticed with 87-94% bootstrap values (named "the ferret group"), supporting the history that the ferret was domesticated from M. putorius and/or M. eversmanni. The European mink M. lutreola was the closest to the ferret group. The genetic distance between the Siberian weasel M. sibirica and the Japanese weasel M. itatsi corresponded to differences of interspecific level, while the two species were relatively close to M. lutreola and the ferret group. These results provide invaluable insight for understanding the evolution of Mustela as well as for investigating the hybridization status between native and introduced species for conservation.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) in Estonia, and a global phylogeny of AMDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimann, Aivi; Knuuttila, Anna; Maran, Tiit; Vapalahti, Olli; Saarma, Urmas

    2015-03-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a severe disease called Aleutian disease (AD). AMDV infects primarily mustelids, but also other mammal species. Recent evidence suggests that AMDV may also affect humans. To examine AMDV in different wild animals and in farmed mink in Estonia, we collected 203 blood samples from eight mammal species in 2007-2010, of which 152 were from species living in the wild (American mink, European mink, pine marten, polecat, raccoon dog, badger, otter, and stone marten) and 51 were from farmed mink. AMDV was tested by PCR amplification of NS1 and VP2 gene fragments, and was only detected in 4 free-ranging (14.8%) and 11 farmed (21.6%) American mink. No other species was positive for AMDV. In addition, the VP2 gene fragment was sequenced for 14 farmed mink isolates from Finland for which NS1 sequences were already publicly available. None of the four Estonian AMDV isolates found in free-ranging mink had identical sequences with farmed mink. In fact, isolates from free-ranging and farmed mink belonged to different clades, suggesting that the analyzed virus isolates circulating in nature are not from escapees of current farms. Two global phylogenies were built: one based on NS1 (336 bp, 151 taxa from nine countries); the other based on a combined NS1-VP2 dataset (871 bp, 40 taxa from six countries). AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their geographic origin, suggesting that transport of farm mink from multiple source farms has been intense. Nevertheless, one subclade in both phylogenies was comprised solely of isolates from farmed mink, while several subclades comprised isolates only from free-ranging mink, indicating that some isolates may circulate more in the wild and others among farm animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic characterization of canine distemper virus involved in outbreaks in farmed mink in Denmark 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Struve, T.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Danish farmed mink herds experienced a large outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2012. Full-length sequence analysis (1824 nucleotides) of the variable hemagglutinin (H) gene were performed on 27 viruses collected from mink and on 7 viruses collected from wild foxes. Results of the study showed...

  20. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    gene product was characterized after expression in Sf9 insect cells. The MEV VP-2 product had the same size as that reported for the wild-type MEV VP-2 protein and was recognized by convalescent sera from MEV-infected mink and a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive to MEV. Furthermore, the VP-2...

  1. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bettina Nonnemann; Mariann Chriel; Gitte Larsen; Mette Sif Hansen; Elisabeth Holm; Karl Pedersen

    2017-01-01

    ... factors are essential for A. phocae to establish a focus of infection. Since Denmark and other Scandinavian countries are not accustomed to use wild life animals as ingredients in mink feed, we consider...

  2. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida.

  3. Aleutian mink disease virus in furbearing mammals in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is widespread among ranched and free-ranging American mink in Canada, but there is no information on its prevalence in other wild animal species. This paper describes the prevalence of AMDV of 12 furbearing species in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada. Methods Samples were collected from carcasses of 462 wild animals of 12 furbearing species, trapped in 10 NS counties between November 2009 and February 2011. Viral DNA was tested by PCR using two primer pairs, and anti-viral antibodies were tested by counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) on spleen homogenates. Results Positive PCR or CIEP samples were detected in 56 of 60 (93.3%) American mink, 43 of 61 (70.5%) short-tailed weasels, 2 of 8 (25.0%) striped skunks, 2 of 11 (18.2%) North American river otters, 9 of 85 (10.6%) raccoons, and 2 of 20 (10.0%) bobcats. Samples from six fishers, 24 coyotes, 25 red foxes, 58 beavers, 45 red-squirrels and 59 muskrats were negative. Antibodies to AMDV were detected by CIEP in 16 of 56 (28.6%) mink and one of the 8 skunks (12.5%). Thirteen of the mink were positive for PCR and CIEP, but three mink and one skunk were CIEP positive and PCR negative. Positive CIEP or PCR animals were present in all nine counties from which mink or weasel samples were collected. Conclusions The presence of AMDV in so many species across the province has important epidemiological ramifications and could pose a serious health problem for the captive mink, as well as for susceptible wildlife. The mechanism of virus transmission between wildlife and captive mink and the effects of AMDV exposure on the viability of the susceptible species deserve further investigation. PMID:23394546

  4. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of observation was low on farm A, B, and C, and significantly lower than on farm D. This partly supports the hypothesis about having developed mink populations and or management adapted to group housing. The investigation has confirmed that the level of bite marks is a useful, objective measuring parameter...... and in mink kept in social groups. In total, the project included 1,191 brown mink housed on four farms in up to five different types of social groups. The result showed that mink in groups had significantly more bite marks than mink kept in pairs, and that mink with bite wounds had significantly more bite...... marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...

  5. Comparison of hepatic and nephric total mercury concentrations between feral and ranch American mink (Neovison vison) from northwestern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Budis, Halina; Lanocha, Natalia; Podlasinska, Joanna; Jedrzejewska, Ewa; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta I

    2012-05-01

    For many years the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used in North America (where it originates from) as a sensitive indirect bioindicator in assessing the degree of mercury (Hg) contamination in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this paper was the determination of total concentrations of Hg in the liver and kidneys of feral and ranch mink from the Warta Mouth National Park (WMNP) and from farms located in northwestern Poland, for comparison with similar data on American mink from North America. In road-killed feral mink from the WMNP, the mean concentrations were 11.8 and 14.1 mg/kg dry weight in the liver and kidney, respectively. Mean Hg concentrations in feral mink were from 240 to 90 times higher in these two respective tissues than in ranch mink. The feral mink from northwestern Poland had concentrations of hepatic and nephric Hg similar to the highest concentrations that have been recorded over the past several decades in wild American mink from certain areas of Canada and the USA.

  6. Effective Control of Non-Native American Mink by Strategic Trapping in a River Catchment in Mainland Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jonathan C; Richardson, Suzanne M; Rodgers, Ben J E; Rodgers, Owain R K

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of American mink (Neovison vison; hereafter mink) into Europe has had severe impacts on many native wildlife species, including the water vole (Arvicola amphibius) in mainland Britain. Although trapping has been widely used to attempt to control mink, managers have little direct evidence of its effect on mink density or distribution, particularly where immigration of mink from nearby areas is inevitable. Such evidence is needed to justify the use of lethal methods in conservation policy. During 2006-2010 we removed mink from the River Monnow Catchment in western Britain, using track-recording rafts to monitor continuously for mink presence, guiding a strategic trapping effort. The area monitored and trapped was increased in stages, from a core sub-catchment with 109 km of water-course in 2006, to a 421-km(2) catchment with 203 km of water-course in 2009. In each successive sub-catchment, mink detection and capture rates declined rapidly to near-zero levels after trapping began. Detections and captures showed seasonal peaks in every year corresponding to known dispersal periods, but also declined steadily from year to year, with increasing periods in which we did not detect mink. These results suggested that each sub-catchment was cleared of mink within a few months, with subsequent captures attributable to immigration. On average, we detected each mink 5.1 times before capture (daily probability of detection = 0.059 per mink and raft), and trapped them 3.4 days after deploying traps in response. On average, mink entering the area were likely to have been present for less than 13 days before capture. Water voles had been extinct in the Monnow Catchment since the 1980s. During 2006-2008 (starting 6 months after mink trapping commenced), we released 700 captive-bred water voles into the treatment area to re-establish a wild population. Persistence of this population through the 4 years of the project was considered indicative of effective mink control

  7. Surgical recovery and successful surgical transfer of conventionally frozen-thawed embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Heli; Aalto, Jussi; Amstislavsky, Sergei; Piltti, Katja; Järvinen, Mikko; Valtonen, Maija

    2003-11-01

    Surgical transfer of in vivo produced conventionally frozen-thawed embryos of farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as a part of an ex-situ preservation program which has the long-term aim of developing a genome resource bank for the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola). Eighteen oestrous yearling European polecat donors were mated once daily on two consecutive days using 13 fertile males. The donors were surgically flushed for embryos 8-9 days after the first mating. The embryo recovery rate was 60% (116 embryos/193 corpora lutea). The embryos were cryopreserved with 1.5 M ethylene glycol in a programmable freezer using a conventional slow freezing protocol. The thawed embryos were surgically transferred either after dilution with 0.5 M sucrose or directly without removal of ethylene glycol. To induce ovulation, eight recipient females were mated once daily on two consecutive days with vasectomized males starting 7 or 8 days before embryo transfer. The recipients received 7-11 embryos each and three recipients delivered a total of nine pups after a gestation length of 44-46 days. The embryo survival rate was 10% (9 pups/93 frozen embryos). This report describes the first successful cryopreservation of embryos in the Mustelidae family resulting in viable offspring. The low embryo survival rate, however, indicates that the freezing-thawing protocol needs to be improved.

  8. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  9. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Trebbien

    Full Text Available A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%. The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  10. Investigating the role of wild carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Peter; Zintl, Annetta; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace; Hawkins, Conall; Lawton, Colin

    2013-03-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, primarily associated with bovine abortion. The only definitive hosts discovered to date are carnivores. This study aimed to identify the role of mammalian carnivores in the epidemiology of bovine neosporosis. A sample bank of serum, fecal and brain samples was established: American mink (Mustela vison), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pine martens (Martes martes), badgers (Meles meles), stoats (Mustela erminea), otters (Lutra lutra) and feral ferrets (Mustela putorius). Approximately 1% of mink and 1% of fox samples were positive by IFAT. According to PCR analysis of DNA extracted from brain tissue, 3% of the mink, 4% of the otters and 6% of the foxes examined were infected with N. caninum. All fecal samples tested negative for N. caninum DNA (n = 311), suggesting that the species that tested positive were intermediate not definitive hosts. This is the first time that tissues from mustelids have tested positive for N. caninum. The need to test 2 relatively large (~200 mg) targeted parts of the brain to avoid false negatives was also identified. The relatively low prevalence of N. caninum in Irish carnivores suggests that the local ecology of a species has an important influence on its epidemiological role.

  11. Stereotypic behaviour in farm mink (Mustela vison) can be reduced by selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B K; Jeppesen, L L; Berg, P

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present the first estimation of genetic variation of stereotypic behaviour (SB). Stereotypic behaviour is defined as an unvarying behaviour without any specific goal or function repeated at least five times. All types of SB were included in the analyses. Altogether 1484 adult...

  12. Serology and protein electrophoresis for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens in free-ranging American mink (Neovison vison) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Pablo Eduardo; Samartino, Luis Ernesto; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar; Radman, Nilda Esther; Parrado, Eduardo Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Hypergammaglobulinemia, the ADV main clinical feature, was determined by conventional electrophoresis. Seventy-one percent of the 87 sera had antibodies against one or more pathogens. ADV accounted for the highest seroprevalence (29%), followed by T. gondii (26%), L. interrogans (14%), M. bovis (12%), B. abortus (9%), N. caninum (3%), CPV (3%) and CDV (2%). Seroprevalence was influenced by location but not sex or age. Additionally, 16% of the seropositive samples for ADV had gammaglobulin levels >40.0 g/L. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were low and difficult to interpret as almost all these cases had borderline concentrations. A cautious interpretation of the results is urged as the epidemiological role of the wild mink is largely unexplored for most of these agents. Nevertheless, the information may be clinically relevant..

  13. Inbreeding affects fecundity of American mink (Neovison vison) in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, D.; Larsen, P. F.; Baekgaard, H.

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding is an increasing problem in farmed mink, because of limited exchange of individuals between farms. In this study, genetic relatedness within seven American mink (Neovison vison) colour strains originating from 13 different mink farms in Denmark was analysed using 21 polymorphic microsa...

  14. The status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Hofmeester, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a north American mustelid that has been farmed for its fur in Europe since the 1920s. It has been feral in the Netherlands since 1958. This paper discusses its distribution, diet, the indications for reproduction, and whether feral animals are born in the wild

  15. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings...... were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark......, detected in dead seals (n = 9) (lungs, throat or wounds) and otters (n = 2) (throat and foot). An infectious skin disorder in mink associated with A. phocae has started to occur in Danish farmed mink. The origin of the infection has not been identified and it is still not clear what the pathogenesis...

  16. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-10-26

    Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark, detected in dead seals (n = 9) (lungs, throat or wounds) and otters (n = 2) (throat and foot). An infectious skin disorder in mink associated with A. phocae has started to occur in Danish farmed mink. The origin of the infection has not been identified and it is still not clear what the pathogenesis or the port of entry for A. phocae infections are.

  17. Staphylococcal adenitis in ranch mink in Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, D. Bruce; Prescott, John G.

    1991-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius was identified as the cause of an outbreak of acute adenitis of the cervical apocrine glands of neonatal mink, and the cause of vaginitis and mastitis in adults. The disease occurred with greater frequency in mutation mink with Chediak-Higashi syndrome than in pastel and dark color phases.

  18. Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, H; Järvinen, M

    2003-09-15

    Early embryonic development and in vitro culture of in vivo produced embryos in the farmed European polecat (Mustela putorius) was investigated as a part of an ex situ conservation program of the endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), using the European polecat as a model species. The oestrus cycles of 34 yearling polecat females were monitored by visual examination of the vulval swelling and, to induce ovulation, the females were mated once daily on two consecutive days. Sixteen yearling males were used for mating. The females were humanely killed 3-14 days after the first mating and the uteri and oviducts were collected for embryo recovery. Uterine and oviductal flushings yielded a total number of 295 embryos, representing developmental stages from the 1-cell stage to large expanded and hatched blastocysts. On Day 3 after the first mating, only 1-16-cell stage embryos were recovered. Between Days 4 and 6 after the first mating, 1-16-cell stage embryos and morulae were found. The first blastocysts were recovered on Day 7 after the first mating. The first implanted blastocysts were detected on Day 11 after the first mating. A total number of 85 embryos were in vitro cultured after recovery. Blastocyst production rates for in vitro cultured 1-16-cell stage embryos and for morulae/compact morulae were 68 and 84%, respectively. For all cultured embryos, the hatching rate was 15%. The in vitro culture requirements for the preimplantation embryos of the farmed European polecat remain to be determined before further utilization of the technique.

  19. Pyometra in a Siberian Polecat (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.D.; Biggins, D.E.; Wrigley, R.H.; Mangone, B.A.; Wimsatt, J.

    1999-01-01

    A 2-year-old Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni) from a breeding colony presented for ultrasound evaluation for pregnancy. It was paired with a male for 2.75 months and had remained absent of pregnancy signs when it was anesthetized and clinically evaluated. Until this time, the animal had eaten well and shown no outward signs of debility. On palpation, the animal had a fluid-filled tubular structure in the caudal abdomen, consistent in location and size with the uterus. No sign of vaginal discharge was present. Ultrasonography revealed 10 fluid-filled evaginations (approximately 12 mm in diameter) of the uterine horns. A presumptive diagnosis of a fluid-filled reproductive tract and likely reproductive failure was made in light of the animal's history, its clinical signs, and the ultrasound findings. Euthanasia was performed because the animal was nonreproductive and might yield information relevant to the breeding colony as a whole. Necropsy of the polecat revealed a distended fluctuant uterus containing mildly odiferous, thick, yellow-green, purulent material. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pyometra. A pure and heavy growth of Enterococcus fecalis was cultured from the uterine contents. In light of results from routine minimal inhibitory concentration antibiotic sensitivity screening, this isolate was resistant to all antibiotics tested in the standard teaching hospital screen.

  20. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden...... and body condition, weight of the kidneys, liver or adrenal glands were found. Several different strains of AMDV were found across the country. Two of the AMDV sequences from the very north of Sweden did not group with any of the previously described groups of strains. In summary, AMDV seems...

  1. Contaminant concentrations in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — It appears that PCB levels in Connecticut and Massachusetts mink are high enough to adversely affect reproduction. Although levels of contaminants in Massachusetts...

  2. Analysis of experimental mink enteritis virus infection in mink: in situ hybridization, serology, and histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse; Larsen, S; Lund, E

    1990-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were used in in situ hybridization studies to localize cells containing mink enteritis virus (MEV) virion DNA or MEV replicative-form DNA and mRNA. Following the experimental MEV infection of 3-month-old unvaccinated mink, a significant increase in serum antib...

  3. Pulse of inflammatory proteins in the pregnant uterus of European polecats (Mustela putorius) leading to the time of implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Heli; Burchmore, Richard J S; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2017-03-01

    Uterine secretory proteins protect the uterus and conceptuses against infection, facilitate implantation, control cellular damage resulting from implantation, and supply pre-implantation embryos with nutrients. Unlike in humans, the early conceptus of the European polecat (Mustela putorius; ferret) grows and develops free in the uterus until implanting at about 12 days after mating. We found that the proteins appearing in polecat uteri changed dramatically with time leading to implantation. Several of these proteins have also been found in pregnant uteri of other eutherian mammals. However, we found a combination of two increasingly abundant proteins that have not been recorded before in pre-placentation uteri. First, the broad-spectrum proteinase inhibitor α2-macroglobulin rose to dominate the protein profile by the time of implantation. Its functions may be to limit damage caused by the release of proteinases during implantation or infection, and to control other processes around sites of implantation. Second, lipocalin-1 (also known as tear lipocalin) also increased substantially in concentration. This protein has not previously been recorded as a uterine secretion in pregnancy in any species. If polecat lipocalin-1 has similar biological properties to that of humans, then it may have a combined function in antimicrobial protection and transporting or scavenging lipids. The changes in the uterine secretory protein repertoire of European polecats is therefore unusual, and may be representative of pre-placentation supportive uterine secretions in mustelids (otters, weasels, badgers, mink, wolverines) in general.

  4. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    experiencing outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia among their mink was that the disease always started in the mink kits, never in the adults. Furthermore, 39% reported that most deaths occurred in the male mink. The results presented in this thesis suggest that factors of the mink make them more prone to develop......Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is an acute and fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mink are typically found dead without prior clinical symptoms. The disease can be highly contagious and varying mortalities on the farm level has been reported. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink...... is seasonal with outbreaks almost exclusively occurring from September to November in Denmark. In human medicine, P. aeruginosa is regarded as a pathogen for immune compromised individuals but no underlying disease or immune defect has been identified in mink dying of hemorrhagic pneumonia. In fact, little...

  5. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  6. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of...

  7. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased...

  8. High Prevalence of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-ranging Mink on a Remote Danish Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    , and a low AMDV antibody prevalence (3% of 296) was found using countercurrent immune electrophoresis. However, on the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea, a high prevalence (45% of 142 mink) was detected in the free-ranging mink. Aleutian mink disease virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 32...

  9. Phylogeography and evolutionary genetics of the weasel : (Mustela Nivalis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Mónica Andreia Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Understanding how the biogeography and evolutionary history of species affect their current distribution, genetic variation, phenotypic diversity and adaptation to different environmental conditions, is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. In this thesis, the least weasel (Mustela nivalis) was used as a model to study the impacts of the Pleistocene climatic oscillations on the con...

  10. Temperament, stereotypies and anticipatory behaviour as measures of welfare in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W.; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2006-01-01

    A farm mink population of 290 1-year-old wild-coloured females was scanned for stereotyped behaviour in October 2003. At the same time the temperament of the individuals was established with a stick test. Some of the females performed no stereotypies in 54 scans and this fraction of the population......, 73 individuals, included significantly more fearful animals (38.4%) as opposed to the stereotyping part of the population (22.6% fearful animals). Since fear observed under farming conditions directs to reduced welfare, the results suggest that stereotypy should not unconditionally be used...... as a measure of poor welfare. On this basis, it was interesting to see if the sensitivity to a reward as expressed by the level of anticipatory behaviour of high and low stereotyping mink would clarify the discrepancy between the two classical measures of welfare. Twenty-four of the most stereotyping animals...

  11. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D. Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphyloco...

  12. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Paul W

    2010-03-10

    Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin\\/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A\\/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was

  13. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4...

  14. Postvaccination wounds associated predominantly with Arcanobacterium phocae in mink (Neovison vison) at three mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Robert J; Buter, Rianne; Sroka, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    The emerging skin disease fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) has been attributed to infection with Arcanobacterium phocae (ABP). The exact pathogenesis and risk factors of FENP have yet to be elucidated. Three mink from each of three different mink farms (A-C) with postvaccination skin wounds at the vaccination site and six mink from an unaffected mink farm (D) that had used the same vaccine batch and vaccination site (hind leg). All mink from farms A-C had severe necrotizing to necropurulent dermatitis where they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the hind leg. ABP was the sole bacterium cultured from six of nine wounds. Using 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and BOX-PCR, the ABP isolates from these wounds were indistinguishable from isolates originating from several cases of FENP. This is the first report of FENP-like lesions at the site of vaccination, in the days following the procedure, associated with ABP. At farms with FENP vaccination, procedures should be considered carefully. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Pujolar, J M; Larsen, P F; Jensen, J; Randi, E; Zalewski, A; Pertoldi, C

    2015-08-01

    Feral American mink populations (), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent with small effective population size as a consequence of line selection in the farms and founder effects of a few escapees from the farms in feral populations. Moderately high genetic differentiation was found between farm and feral animals, suggesting a scenario in which wild populations were founded from farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm or feral samples, with significant negative values found in most farm samples, showing farms are successful in avoiding inbreeding.

  16. Food transit time, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in farmed and feral American mink (Neovison vison)--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, A; Zalewski, D; Strychalski, J; Konstantynowicz, M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted in September 2011. Farmed mink with the standard coat colour were purchased from a production farm in south-eastern Poland. Feral mink were harvested using cages in the hunting grounds of the Polish Hunting Association, Branch in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised of the following: trial I - adult males (eight animals per group), trial II - young females (six animals per group), trial III-young animals (five males and five females per group). Food transit time was measured during digestibility trials, on 10 consecutive days. The coefficients of nutrient and energy digestibility and daily nitrogen balance values were compared between groups in each experiment. It was found that farming contributed to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in mink. Farmed animals were characterized by a longer bowel transit time, a tendency towards higher nutrient digestibility and higher nitrogen retention, which resulted from selection for higher productivity. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Implementing the use of a biobank in the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santymire, Rachel

    2016-03-09

    In the current global health climate, many conservation biologists are managing crisis situations, including increased species extinction rates. One strategy for securing wildlife populations into the future is to preserve biomaterials in genome resource banks (GRB; or 'biobanks'). However, for GRBs to be successful we must understand the fundamental reproductive biology of species, along with developing assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs), including AI and semen cryopreservation. ART has been successfully used for several taxa, from amphibians to mammals, including ungulates, carnivores and primates. Not all these success stories implemented the use of a biobank, but one example that discussed herein is the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) GRB. From a founder population of seven individuals, this species has been breeding in a managed setting for nearly 30 years. The goal of the breeding program is to maintain genetic integrity by ensuring each individual has the opportunity to pass his/her genes onto the next generation, while simultaneously providing animals for release into the wild. Scientists have used ART (e.g. AI) in the recovery program. Recently, semen from an individual of the founder population that was cryopreserved for up to 20 years was used successfully for AI, which improved the genetic diversity of the population. The black-footed ferret recovery program can serve as a model for other endangered species and demonstrates the usefulness of ART and GRBs to maintain highly endangered species into the future.

  18. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...... that ADV is the direct causal agent of this disease in mink kits and that cofactors, which could have been present in the original ADV-K isolate, do not play a role. Acute interstitial pneumonia characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells, intranuclear viral inclusions...... plasma cells in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph node, and intestine. Surviving kits also had hypertrophy of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and focal subpleural, intraalveolar accumulations of large cells with foamy cytoplasm, so-called lipid pneumonia....

  19. Morphology investigation of the mink’s brain (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mink is a strict carnivore and a seasonal breeder, which may be used as an experimental model for other carnivores. Using anatomical methods, 32 brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that the olfactory recess was present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection was present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, the ins and outs of the mink’s anatomical structure have begun to absorb the attention of anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that fury animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated. For this reason and because of easy access to the material, the purpose of brain dissection is to familiarize with the three dimensional structure of the brain and teach one of the great methods of studying the brain: looking at its structure.

  20. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  1. European mink-polecat hybridization events: hazards from natural process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, T; Guiral, G; Peltier, D

    2005-01-01

    Determining the significance of hybridization events raises essential issues both in conservation and in evolutionary biology. Here, we report a genetic investigation of sympatric polecat and endangered European mink populations. Although the two species were morphologically very similar, the European mink and the polecat were easily discriminated from allozymes and microsatellites and showed a high level of private alleles (effective number of alleles: mink=1.45 and polecat=3.09). Nevertheless, the allozymic polymorphism remained lower in the European mink (4 loci, 10.5%) than in polecat (9 loci, 23.7%). Similarly, from microsatellite data, the polymorphism only reached 36% at 0.99 in the European mink; whereas in the polecat, the polymorphism reached 82% at 0.99. Natural hybridization events between two native species were detected. Because of the low fertility of hybrids, interbreeding could be regarded as producing "hybrid sink" that leads to a progressive assimilation of mink by polecat. Nonetheless, pure mink populations inhabited streams in western France, and hybridization events were only detected in areas where mink were rare and now presumed disappeared. Rather than revealing the poor efficiency of the specific recognition system, our results suggest that hybridization is associated with the scarcity of mating partners.

  2. [Reproductive physiology of the European mink: progesterone profile during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskiĭ, S Ia; Zav'ialov, E L; Ternovskaia, Iu G; Gerlinskaia, L A

    2010-04-01

    Reproductive physiology of the European mink, an endangered mustelid species, has been so far scarcely investigated. This study confirms that in European mink embryo implantation occurs on the day 12 of pregnancy. Progesterone profile during pregnancy has been compared in European mink and domestic ferret. In both species, progesterone increases at peri-implantation period, i. e. on day 8 and day 12 after mating. However, toward the end of pregnancy, on day 40 after mating, progesterone concentration in faeces of the ferrets decreases and does not differ from the initial level. In contrast, increase of progesterone during first 12 days of pregnancy in European mink is not as rapid as in ferrets, but in this species, there is no visible decrease of progesterone at the end of pregnancy. Peak levels of progesterone in faeces (day 8, 12) are lower in European mink than in ferret.

  3. Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus canis, and Arcanobacterium phocae of healthy Canadian farmed mink and mink with pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Gabhan; McLean, John; Hunter, D Bruce; Brash, Marina; Slavic, Durda; Pearl, David L; Boerlin, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Pododermatitis is a disease of concern for mink breeders in Canada and worldwide, as it causes discomfort and lowers the breeding rates on farms affected by the disease. Unfortunately, the etiology and pathogenesis of pododermatitis are still unknown. In this study, we compared Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus canis isolates from healthy mink with isolates from animals with pododermatitis on 2 farms in Ontario. Almost all hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. isolated were shown to be Staphylococcus delphini Group A by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) did not reveal any S. delphini or S. canis clonal lineages specifically associated with pododermatitis, which suggests that these bacteria do not act as primary pathogens, but does not dismiss their potential roles as opportunistic pathogens. While S. delphini and S. canis were the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in mink pododermatitis, they were also present in samples from healthy mink. Arcanobacterium phocae is occasionally isolated from pododermatitis cases, but is difficult to recover with conventional culture methods due to its slow growth. A quantitative real-time PCR was developed for the detection of A. phocae and was tested on 138 samples of footpad tissues from 14 farms. The bacterium was detected only in pododermatitis-endemic farms in Canada and was at higher concentrations in tissues from infected footpads than in healthy tissues. This finding suggests that A. phocae is involved in the pathogenesis of pododermatitis.

  4. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...

  5. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  6. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  7. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 k...... leukocytes of human and various animal species have been analysed for cross-reactivity to mink leukocytes. We found eight to cross-react with mink. Of particular importance was an anticanine CD11a mAb, an antihuman CD79a mAb and an antihuman bcl-2 mAb....

  8. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  9. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....... traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates...

  10. Infection studies in mink with seal-derived morbillivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Svansson, V; Have, P.

    1989-01-01

    Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper.......Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper....

  11. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Acoustic Ecology and Remote Acoustic Monitoring of a Minke Whale Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedamke, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Sound is the most effective means of communication in the ocean. A uniquely inquisitive minke whale population on the northern Great Barrier Reef presents an unprecedented research opportunity to study minke acoustics...

  13. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2016-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct-indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and validate prerequisites for applying a cognitive (judgement) bias approach to assessing welfare in farmed mink (Neovison vison). We investigated discrimination ability and associative learning ability using auditory cues. The mink (n = 15 females) were...... farmed mink in a judgement bias approach would thus appear to be feasible. However several specific issues are to be considered in order to successfully adapt a cognitive bias approach to mink, and these are discussed....

  15. Driving forces behind the evolution of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in the context of intensive farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuti, Marta; O'Leary, Kimberly E; Hunter, Bruce D; Spearman, Grant; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh G; Lang, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes plasmacytosis, an immune complex-associated syndrome that affects wild and farmed mink. The virus can also infect other small mammals (e.g., ferrets, skunks, ermines, and raccoons), but the disease in these hosts has been studied less. In 2007, a mink plasmacytosis outbreak began on the Island of Newfoundland, and the virus has been endemic in farms since then. In this study, we evaluated the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in farmed and wild animals of Newfoundland since before the beginning of the outbreak and investigated the epidemic in a global context by studying AMDV worldwide, thereby examining its diffusion and phylogeography. Furthermore, AMDV evolution was examined in the context of intensive farming, where host population dynamics strongly influence viral evolution. Partial NS1 sequences and several complete genomes were obtained from Newfoundland viruses and analyzed along with numerous sequences from other locations worldwide that were either obtained as part of this study or from public databases. We observed very high viral diversity within Newfoundland and within single farms, where high rates of co-infection, recombinant viruses and polymorphisms were observed within single infected individuals. Worldwide, we documented a partial geographic distribution of strains, where viruses from different countries co-exist within clades but form country-specific subclades. Finally, we observed the occurrence of recombination and the predominance of negative selection pressure on AMDV proteins. A surprisingly low number of immunoepitopic sites were under diversifying pressure, possibly because AMDV gains no benefit by escaping the immune response as viral entry into target cells is mediated through interactions with antibodies, which therefore contribute to cell infection. In conclusion, the high prevalence of AMDV in farms facilitates the establishment of co-infections that can favor the occurrence of recombination

  16. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink.PCR was used to det...

  17. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  18. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 and the second was reported from Canadian mink farms. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish...

  19. On the moult in the Stoat, Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758, from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Bree, van P.J.H.

    1969-01-01

    1. A detailed study was made of the subsequent stages in the colour change of the Stoat, Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758. 2. Starting and finishing date of both Autumn and Spring moult were determined, based on the examination of 300 pelts from the Netherlands. 3. An indication was found for the

  20. Hydrodynamic performance of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) flipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lisa Noelle; Sedano, Nils; Johansson, Stig; May, Bryan; Brown, Joey D; Holliday, Casey M; Kot, Brian W; Fish, Frank E

    2008-06-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are the smallest member of balaenopterid whales and little is known of their kinematics during feeding maneuvers. These whales have narrow and elongated flippers that are small relative to body size compared to related species such as right and gray whales. No experimental studies have addressed the hydrodynamic properties of minke whale flippers and their functional role during feeding maneuvers. This study integrated wind tunnel, locomotion and anatomical range of motion data to identify functional parameters of the cambered minke whale flipper. A full-sized cast of a minke whale flipper was used in wind tunnel testing of lift, drag and stall behavior at six speeds, corresponding to swimming speeds of 0.7-8.9 m s(-1). Flow over the model surface stalled between 10 degrees and 14 degrees angle of attack (alpha) depending on testing speed. When the leading edge was rotated ventrally, loss in lift occurred around -18 degrees alpha regardless of speed. Range of mobility in the fresh limb was approximately 40% greater than the range of positive lift-generating angles of attack predicted by wind tunnel data (+14 degrees alpha). Video footage, photographs and observations of swimming, engulfment feeding and gulping minke whales showed limb positions corresponding to low drag in wind tunnel tests, and were therefore hydrodynamically efficient. Flippers play an important role in orienting the body during feeding maneuvers as they maintain trim of the body, an action that counters drag-induced torque of the body during water and prey intake.

  1. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, S; Hammer, A S; Høiby, N; Salomonsen, C M

    2017-05-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable traditional animal model for this disease. Nasal tissue samples from infected and control mink were fixed in formalin, demineralized, and embedded in paraffin. A histological examination of sections from the infected animals revealed disintegration of the respiratory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates and swelling and edema of the submucosa. The expression of mucins and sialylated glycans was examined using immunohistochemistry. MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC were upregulated in the inoculated animals as a much stronger staining was present in the respiratory epithelium in the infected animals compared to the controls. The goblet cells in the nasal epithelium from the infected mink showed high affinity to the Maackia amurensis lectin and anti-asialo GM1 indicating a high concentration of α2-3 sialic acid respectively βGalNAc1-4Galβ containing glycans in these mucin producing cells. The nasal cavity in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  3. [Research into the antibody detection technology of mink plasmacytosis and its current applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongli; Feng, Erkai; Wu, Hongchao; Yang, Yanling; Ni, Jia; Chen, Lizhi

    2015-01-01

    Mink plasmacytosis, caused by Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV), poses a threat to the development of the animal fur industry. Neutralizing antibodies against AMDV may result in a persistent infection rather than providing protection for minks. To date,no specific methods to prevent or cure this disease have been developed. In order to eliminate mink plasmacytosis, antibody detection technology has been used globally as a dominant approach to screen for AMDV-positive minks. This paper introduces the classical technology, counterimmunoelectrophoresis and emerging technology in terms of AMDV antibody detection,and provides a glimpse into the future development of these technologies.

  4. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hernádi

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  5. Man's underground best friend: domestic ferrets, unlike the wild forms, show evidence of dog-like social-cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Anna; Kis, Anna; Turcsán, Borbála; Topál, József

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has shown that dogs' possess surprisingly sophisticated human-like social communication skills compared to wolves or chimpanzees. The effects of domestication on the emergence of socio-cognitive skills, however, are still highly debated. One way to investigate this is to compare socialized individuals from closely related domestic and wild species. In the present study we tested domestic ferrets (Mustela furo) and compared their performance to a group of wild Mustela hybrids and to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We found that, in contrast to wild Mustela hybrids, both domestic ferrets and dogs tolerated eye-contact for a longer time when facing their owners versus the experimenter and they showed a preference in a two-way choice task towards their owners. Furthermore, domestic ferrets, unlike the wild hybrids, were able to follow human directional gestures (sustained touching; momentary pointing) and could reach the success rate of dogs. Our study provides the first evidence that domestic ferrets, in a certain sense, are more dog-like than their wild counterparts. These findings support the hypothesis that domestic species may share basic socio-cognitive skills that enable them to engage in effectively orchestrated social interactions with humans.

  6. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  7. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration') as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise that

  8. Environmentally Enriched Male Mink Gain More Copulations than Stereotypic, Barren-Reared Competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Bowman, Jeff; Bursian, Steve; Filion, Hélène; Galicia, David; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Napolitano, Angelo; Palme, Rupert; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht; Scribner, Kim; Mason, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing) environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison) mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition (‘perseveration’) as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula) also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing) in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential): highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We hypothesise

  9. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    , by revealing, for the first time, consistency in shyness measures across different novelty tests. Interestingly, this study shows that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across stages in the approach towards novel objects. This reveals that different...... aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. These findings highlight the importance of carefully considering the context as well as the limitations of using the shyness-boldness continuum for describing animal personality traits. Chapter III, a manuscript, adds to the knowledge of animal...... personality described in Chapter II, by revealing aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum across seasons in the farmed American mink. This study confirms the existence of personality in mink by showing consistency over time for tests in both non-social and social contexts, and it confirms the different...

  10. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development...... and validation of a novel non-invasive sampling of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) are presented. Both genes and environment affect the state of stress in farmed mink, and an overview of the major experimental findings in mink are given. This includes results from (1) selection for and against fearfulness...... with effects on the HPA-axis and the serotonin system, (2) studies of parturition/early kit mortality, and (3) cage enrichment studies affecting stress responses. Finally, recent results exploring the link between stress and abnormal behaviour are presented, investigating the HPA-axis response of stereotypic...

  11. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  12. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    was a predisposing risk parameter for disease outbreak at a farm, and strain identity substantiates the suggestion that inadequate disinfection is involved in the recurrence of outbreaks. In cases of new introductions to farms it is indicated that contact including transport between farms played a most significant......Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...... for more than 6 years exceeds the rate of mutation driven diversity. Among the isolates from farms in northern Jutland two distinct types could be identified and within each of them a number of sub-types which were all useful in tracking spread of infections. Infection at a farm the preceding season...

  13. Assessing the cryptic invasion of a domestic conspecific: American mink in their native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclerc, Kaela B; Bowman, Jeff; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2013-07-01

    Control of invasions is facilitated by their early detection, but this may be difficult when invasions are cryptic due to similarity between invaders and native species. Domesticated conspecifics offer an interesting example of cryptic invasions because they have the ability to hybridize with their native counterparts, and can thus facilitate the introgression of maladaptive genes. We assessed the cryptic invasion of escaped domestic American mink (Neovison vison) within their native range. Feral mink are a known alien invader in many parts of the world, but invasion of their native range is not well understood. We genetically profiled 233 captive domestic mink from different farms in Ontario, Canada and 299 free-ranging mink from Ontario, and used assignments tests to ascertain genetic ancestries of free-ranging animals. We found that 18% of free-ranging mink were either escaped domestic animals or hybrids, and a tree regression showed that these domestic genotypes were most likely to occur south of a latitude of 43.13°N, within the distribution of mink farms in Ontario. Thus, domestic mink appear not to have established populations in Ontario in locations without fur farms. We suspect that maladaptation of domestic mink and outbreeding depression of hybrid and introgressed mink have limited their spread. Mink farm density and proximity to mink farms were not important predictors of domestic genotypes but rather, certain mink farms appeared to be important sources of escaped domestic animals. Our results show that not all mink farms are equal with respect to biosecurity, and thus that the spread of domestic genotypes can be mitigated by improved biosecurity.

  14. Astrovirus epidemiologically linked to pre-weaning diarrhoea in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, L.; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    and Sweden to investigate whether enteric virus infections! may be a risk factor in the development of pre-weaning diarrhoea. Tissue samples from the enteric tract of 180 sacrificed mink kits were analysed histologically. Faecal contents were examined by electron microscopy (EM). Astrovirus was detected...

  15. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L.

    2013-01-01

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits’ vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal...

  16. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-09-15

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8-52 days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1 kHz to above 70 kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20 dB SPL) at 8-10 kHz, and no difference in sensitivity between the two breeding lines (P>0.22) to explain the difference in maternal care. Mink kits showed no signs of hearing up to postnatal day 24. From day 30, all kits had ABRs indicative of hearing. Hearing sensitivity increased with age, but was still below the adult level at postnatal day 52. When separated from their mothers, kits vocalized loudly. Until the age of 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P<0.001), in particular in kits that were re-tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its correlation to sound production.

  17. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    tFor many years, bite marks have been used as an indicator for aggression in mink productionsystems. However, the validity of bite marks as indicator of aggression has recently beenquestioned. We therefore tested the following hypotheses: (1) experimentally applied pressure to, or penetration of......, the pelt during the growth phase of the winter coat will producemarks that can be recognized as bite marks at pelting, (2) bite marks applied experimentally by use of an artificial tooth or occurring due to social/aggressive interactions (bites)between mink are only visible if pressure/bite on the mink...... skin is applied during the activegrowth phase of the winter coat prior to time when matured, (3) bite marks will be easierto detect on dark mink than on mink with light coloured fur and (4) the number of bitemarks accumulates and increases with time mink are housed in groups. The experimentalmink were...

  18. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  19. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carri...... level. Herd size is associated with different prescription patterns. Finally, infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, astrovirus, influenza virus and Salmonella spp. was associated with an increase in antimicrobial use....

  20. Environmental enrichment reduces signs of boredom in caged mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Animals housed in impoverished cages are often labelled 'bored'. They have also been called 'apathetic' or 'depressed', particularly when profoundly inactive. However, these terms are rarely operationally defined and validated. As a negative state caused by under-stimulation, boredom should increase interest in stimuli of all kinds. Apathy (lack of interest, by contrast, should manifest as decreased interest in all stimuli, while anhedonia (loss of pleasure, a depressive symptom should specifically decrease interest in normally rewarding stimuli. We tested the hypotheses that mink, a model carnivore, experience more boredom, depression-like apathy, or anhedonia in non-enriched (NE cages than in complex, enriched (E cages. We exposed 29 subjects (13 E, 16 NE to ten stimuli categorized a priori as aversive (e.g. air puffs, rewarding (e.g. evoking chasing or ambiguous/neutral (e.g. candles. Interest in stimuli was assessed via latencies to contact, contact durations, and durations oriented to stimuli. NE mink contacted all stimuli faster (P = 0.003 than E mink, and spent longer oriented to/in contact with them, albeit only significantly so for ambiguous ones (treatment*type P<0.013. With stimulus category removed from statistical models, interest in all stimuli was consistently higher among NE mink (P<0.0001 for all measures. NE mink also consumed more food rewards (P = 0.037. Finally, we investigated whether lying down while awake and stereotypic behaviour (both increased by NE housing predicted these responses. Lying awake positively co-varied with certain measures of increased exploration. In contrast, stereotypic 'scrabbling' or locomotion (e.g. pacing did not. Overall, NE mink showed no evidence of apathy or depression, but instead a heightened investigation of diverse stimuli consistent with boredom. This state was potentially indicated by spending much time lying still but awake (although this result requires replication. Boredom can

  1. Animal prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infive Danish mink (Neovison vison) farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    may be explained by an overall low animal-prevalence in the farm. Another explanation could be the high proportion of young mink kits (15/20) tested. All mink kits were ...Background. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) was for the first time isolated from Danish mink in 2013. Subsequent testing of all mink submitted for clinical diagnosis in Denmark, found 34 % (20/58) mink positive for LA-MRSA. In addition, 40 % (20....../50) of screened healthy Danish mink farms were found positive. LA-MRSA in mink is believed to originate from contaminated slaughter-offal in the mink feed. Objective. The objective of the present study was to identify the animal-prevalence of LA-MRSA in five Danish minkfarms. Materials and Methods. We collected 1...

  2. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown.

  3. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... groups. Feeding the low-protein diet shifted the stress-strain curves to the right for the circumferential direction, indicating the wall become softer in the circumferential direction. However, no significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction for any of the intestinal segments...

  4. Invasive crayfish reduce food limitation of alien American mink and increase their resilience to control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Yolanda; Palazón, Santiago; Lambin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Trophic relationships between invasive species in multiply invaded ecosystems may reduce food limitation relative to more pristine ecosystems and increase resilience to control. Here, we consider whether invasive predatory American mink Neovison vison are trophically subsidized by invasive crayfish. We collated data from the literature on density and home range size of mink populations in relation to the prevalence of crayfish in the diet of mink. We then tested the hypothesis that populations of an invasive predator reach higher densities and are more resilient to lethal control when they have access to super-abundant non-native prey, even in the absence of changes in density dependence, hence compensatory capacity. We found a strong positive relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink population density, and a negative relationship between the proportion of crayfish in mink diet and mink home range size, with crayfish contribution to mink diet reflecting their abundance in the ecosystem. We then explored the consequence of elevated mink density by simulating a hypothetical eradication program with a constant harvest in a Ricker model. We found that mink populations were more resilient to harvest in the presence of crayfish. As a result, the simulated number of mink harvested to achieve eradication increased by 500% in the presence of abundant crayfish if carrying capacity increased by 630%. This led to a threefold increase in time to eradication under a constant harvest and an approximately 20-fold increase in the cumulative management cost. Our results add to evidence of inter-specific positive interactions involving invasive species, and our simple model illustrates how this increases management cost.

  5. A test of mink microsatellite markers in the ferret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    Short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in mammalian genomes. Genetic variations at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis and to identify individuals, and is very useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. Fifty-nine microsatellite mar...... that were identical in size to those from mink displayed a high degree of conservation, with some differences at the repeat motif sites. These results could aid cross-utilization of markers between these two species....

  6. Projekt skal undersøge MRSA i danske mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Larsen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    MRSA blev for første gang isoleret fra to danske mink, som var indsendt til undersøgelse på DTU Veterinærinstituttet, i 2013. I løbet af 2017 gennemfører DTU Veterinærinstituttet et projekt, som har til formål at klarlægge MRSA-forekomsten og smitteoverførslen på danske minkgårde....

  7. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...

  8. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267

  9. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species and domestic (n = 69; 3 species animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  10. The concept of behavioural needs in contemporary fur science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, A.L.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the ethical implications of applying the concept of behavioural needs to captive animals. This is done on the basis of analysing the scientific literature on farmed mink and their possible need for swimming. In the wild, American mink (Mustela vison) are semi-aquatic predators...... show that mink place high value on swimming water, whereas other studies indicate the opposite, which has led scientists to question whether this preference constitutes a genuine behavioural need. In this paper, we take a methodological turn and discuss whether the oft-used concept of behavioural needs...

  11. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    than for dog and cat genomes. The alignments of mink, ferret and dog genomes help to illustrate the chromosomes rearrangement. Gene annotation identified 21,053 protein-coding sequences present in mink genome. The reference genome’s structure is consistent with the microsatellite-based genetic map...... quality animals and strengthen our understanding on evolution of Carnivora....

  12. Apparent lack of effect of vaccination against mink enteritis virus (MEV). A challenge study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1988-01-01

    The mink enteritis virus part of a triple vaccine was tested in mink. No raise in antibody response was measured after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of groups of vaccinated or not-vaccinated animals revealed no differences in virus excretion or antibody response in the different animals....

  13. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits...... virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life....

  14. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research hypothesis assumed that the size of the cage affects bodyweight after weaning and prior to slaughter and, as a consequence, mean daily bodyweight gains in individuals of both sexes. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015 at one of the private mink farms in Poland. In total, 800 brown mink were used as ...

  15. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Background: For proper treatment of bacterial infections in mink, knowledge of the causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is crucial. The used antimicrobials are in general not registered for mink, i.e. most usage is "off-label". In this study, we report the patterns of ...

  16. The effect of handling and training on measures of affective state of farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised as explorat...

  17. Cryptosporidium in ferret (Mustela putorius furo in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal parasitism in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo kept in captivity in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two three-year-old ferrets, a male and a female, were analyzed by the direct smear method, the centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate, and tha Kinyoun staining method. Oocysts of Cryptosporidum sp. were observed in the faeces of both animals. This is the first report of this protozoan in ferrets in Brazil.

  18. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    . The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink......One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests...

  19. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...... and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical...

  20. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is an acute and fatal disease of farmed mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pathogenesis of this disease has not yet been resolved. Mink are the only animals known to be susceptible to acute, contagious, and fatal lung infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The purpose...... of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial...... was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November...

  1. Neuropathologic features of Aleutian disease in farmed mink in Ireland and molecular characterization of Aleutian mink disease virus detected in brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahns, Hanne; Daly, Paul; McElroy, Maire C; Sammin, Donal J; Bassett, Hugh F; Callanan, John J

    2010-01-01

    A neuropathologic survey was conducted on mink brains from the 5 licensed mink farms in Ireland. The survey was part of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy surveillance study. Aleutian disease (AD) was present on 4 of the 5 farms (80%). Neuropathologic features of nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis were common in mink from the 4 affected farms but were absent in the mink from the fifth farm, which was free of AD. The meningoencephalitis was characterized by infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells, which were present in meninges, perivascular spaces, and the brain parenchyma. Fibrinoid necrotizing arteritis was seen in 11 mink brains, all of which were obtained from a single farm. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) sequences for the capsid protein VP2 were obtained from brain samples from all affected farms. Although containing previously unreported amino acid residues, similarities with European and North American isolates were observed in the hypervariable regions within VP2, suggesting Irish AMDV is related to those isolates. The predicted amino acid residues, suspected of conferring pathogenicity at certain positions of the VP2 sequence, were present in the viral nucleic acid sequences.

  2. From aquatic to terrestrial food webs: decrease of the docosahexaenoic acid/linoleic acid ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Lemarchand, Charles; Bec, Alexandre; Desvilettes, Christian; Amblard, Christian; Fournier, Christine; Berny, Philippe; Bourdier, Gilles

    2008-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of the adipose tissue of six carnivorous mammalian species (European otter Lutra lutra, American mink Mustela vison, European Mink Mustela lutreola, European polecat Mustela putorius, stone marten Martes foina and European wild cat Felis silvestris) was studied. These species forage to differing degrees in aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Fatty acid analysis revealed significant differences in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition between species. More specifically, our results underline a gradual significant decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/linoleic acid (LNA) ratio of carnivore species as their dependence on aquatic food webs decreases. In conclusion, the use of the DHA/LNA ratio in long-term studies is proposed as a potential proxy of changes in foraging behaviour of semi-aquatic mammals.

  3. Comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from mink by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm out...... by pathogenic strains of R aeruginosa spread between farms and animals either mechanically, or through feed or water from a common source, rather than by random nosocomial infections with strains from the farm environment.......Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm...... outbreaks of haemorrhagic pneumonia. Isolates from mink were separated into 34 distinct clones by PFGE subtyping. All isolates from mink infected during the same farm outbreak were identical, except in one case where two different strains were isolated from mink obtained from the same farm outbreak. R...

  4. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older...... animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  5. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  6. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Jensen, H E; Agger, J F; Heegaard, P M H; Damborg, P; Aalbæk, B; Hammer, A S

    2017-05-22

    Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink. Full thickness excisional wounds (2 × 2 cm) were made on the back in 18 mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris. Gross and microscopic pathology of the wounds was evaluated 2 days post-wounding together with degree of wound size reduction, presence of bacteria and blood analyses. Pathological examination on day 2 showed the greatest mean wound size reduction in Brown mink (11.0%) followed by Blue Iris (7.9%) and Silverblue (1.6%). Bacteria were cultured from all wounds, and predominantly Staphylococcus species were recovered in mixed or pure culture. Histopathology from day 2 wounds showed a scab overlying necrotic wound edges, which were separated from underlying vital tissue by a demarcation zone rich in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Fibroblasts and plump endothelial cells were more numerous in the deeper tissues. Complete blood count parameters were within normal ranges in most cases, however, the mink showed mildly to markedly decreased hematocrit and six mink of the color types Silverblue and Blue Iris showed moderately elevated numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils on day 2. There was a marked increase in concentration of serum amyloid A from day 0 to day 2 in all color types. We have described differences in early wound healing between mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris by use of an experimental wound model in farmed mink. The most pronounced difference pertained to the degree of wound size reduction which was greatest in Brown mink, followed by Blue Iris and Silverblue, respectively.

  7. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    at the end compared to the early growing period suggesting that heterogeneous residual variance should be considered for analyzing feed efficiency data in mink. This study suggests random regression methods are suitable for analyzing feed efficiency and that genetic selection for RFI in mink is promising.......Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0...

  8. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic...... correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3...

  9. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    period or reduced from a higher to a lower level in August or September. The results indicated negative effects on health and signs on immunosuprression in mink fed low dietary protein levels throughout the growing-furring period. The liver content of fat and fatty acids was higher in mink fed low......The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental...

  10. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    ). Diarrhea in mink can be caused by infectious agents (virus, bacteria and parasites) and food-related/multifactorial conditions. Known enteric viral infections are mink enteritis virus (MEV) and mink astrovirus. Coronaviruses and caliciviruses have also been implicated as potential causes or contributors...... for a quantitative diagnostic approach. We have developed new or adapted previously published real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays for MEV, astrovirus, rota- and coronavirus diagnostics. The technical test validation was initially carried out on archived diarrhea samples from diagnosed positive animals and on normal...

  11. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  12. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use...... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54.......7%). followed by penicillin (21.7%), lincosamides (20.4%), macrolides (19.1%), and spectinomycin (18.5%). Very low frequencies of resistance were recorded for other antimicrobials. The highest frequency among the E. coli isolates was recorded for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines...

  13. Comparison of the nucleoprotein genes of a chicken and a mink influenza A H 10 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U; Scholtissek, C

    1988-01-01

    The base sequences of the coding region of the nucleoprotein (NP) genes of two H 10 influenza A viruses, one avian (virus N) and one mink virus, have been determined by primer extension. When the NP genes and the NP sequences derived from the only open reading frame of the two H 10 viruses were compared with those of other human and avian influenza A viruses, it turned out that the mink virus NP was highly related to that of other avian strains, but differed from that of the human strains. Comparison of the NP genes of the mink and avian strains of European origin suggests a direct lineage between them. Since the NP plays a major role in species specificity, it is assumed that an avian influenza virus has directly invaded the mink population.

  14. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    A major concern amongst the Danish mink farmers is the incidence of the syndrome pre-weaning diarrhea. The syndrome causes major management issues and decreases the welfare of the mink and increases mortality in the pre-weaning period. The etiology of the syndrome is considered multifactorial...... as a specific cause is not fully established or understood. Adding to an increased risk of developing pre-weaning diarrhea is the fact that the mink kits are born with very low levels of circulating immunoglobulins. Rapid achievement of high levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream is essential for the kits...... early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  15. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different ‘roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH......In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  16. Rehabilitation of a Species: The Black-Footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Biggins, Dean E.; Hanebury, Lou; Conway, Courtney; Wemmer, Chris

    1991-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) are an endangered carnivore endemic to North America.  This small nocturnal member of the weasel family is totally dependent on the prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) ecosystem for survival.  The ferret lives in prairie dog burrows and relies on prairie dogs for 90 percent of its diet (3,21).  Poisoning of prairie dogs was largely responsible for the 98 percent reduction in geographic distribution of prairie dogs; concurrently, black-footed ferret numbers plummeted.  Recently, only a single known population of black-footed ferrets remained.  In 1985 that popuation, located near Meeteetse Wyoming, succumbed to an outbreak of canine distemper, and the few remaining ferrets were taken into captivity in an attempt to save the species through captive progation.

  17. The draft genome sequence of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) facilitates study of human respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinxia; Alföldi, Jessica; Gori, Kevin; Eisfeld, Amie J; Tyler, Scott R; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Brawand, David; Law, G Lynn; Skunca, Nives; Hatta, Masato; Gasper, David J; Kelly, Sara M; Chang, Jean; Thomas, Matthew J; Johnson, Jeremy; Berlin, Aaron M; Lara, Marcia; Russell, Pamela; Swofford, Ross; Turner-Maier, Jason; Young, Sarah; Hourlier, Thibaut; Aken, Bronwen; Searle, Steve; Sun, Xingshen; Yi, Yaling; Suresh, M; Tumpey, Terrence M; Siepel, Adam; Wisely, Samantha M; Dessimoz, Christophe; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Birren, Bruce W; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Di Palma, Federica; Engelhardt, John F; Palermo, Robert E; Katze, Michael G

    2014-12-01

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is an important animal model for multiple human respiratory diseases. It is considered the 'gold standard' for modeling human influenza virus infection and transmission. Here we describe the 2.41 Gb draft genome assembly of the domestic ferret, constituting 2.28 Gb of sequence plus gaps. We annotated 19,910 protein-coding genes on this assembly using RNA-seq data from 21 ferret tissues. We characterized the ferret host response to two influenza virus infections by RNA-seq analysis of 42 ferret samples from influenza time-course data and showed distinct signatures in ferret trachea and lung tissues specific to 1918 or 2009 human pandemic influenza virus infections. Using microarray data from 16 ferret samples reflecting cystic fibrosis disease progression, we showed that transcriptional changes in the CFTR-knockout ferret lung reflect pathways of early disease that cannot be readily studied in human infants with cystic fibrosis disease.

  18. NS1 gene based molecular characteristics of Aleutian mink disease virus circulating in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Michał

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic variability of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV circulating among mink farmed in Poland and to compare Polish isolates with AMDV variants available in the GenBank database. For this purpose PCR amplification and analysis of the 429 bp DNA fragment of the AMDV NS1 gene from 13 randomly selected AMDV infected mink was performed. A comparison showed that all tested amplicons were closely related to the sequence of the NS1 gene of AMDV and showed high (94%-97% homology to virus variants from American mink (Neovison vison isolated in Canada in 2007-2008. Eleven samples showing a high percentage (95%-97% of sequence similarity together with three similar isolates originating from Canada formed one clade (monophyletic group. Two variants showing a lower percentage (about 94%- 95% of sequence similarity to isolates from Canada formed a separate clade. Polish viruses can be subdivided into two main groups with a putative ancestor common to both Polish and three Canadian isolates. This result confirms the literature data indicating the occurrence of American mink in Eastern Europe (including Poland from the 1950s when the animals were imported for breeding purposes. In conclusion, we provide for the first time a report on the genetic characteristics of the AMDV variants circulating in the Polish population of farmed mink and their relationship with previously known AMDV variants isolated and described abroad.

  19. An invasive species as an additional parasite reservoir: Trichinella in introduced American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurníková, Zuzana; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Dvorožňáková, Emília; Niemczynowicz, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    The American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) is one of the most invasive alien mammal species which has been introduced to many countries in Europe, Asia and South America. As a predator which feeds on various prey, American mink carry many endoparasites; however, data about infection rate and prevalence of different parasites in mink are limited, especially concerning Trichinella spp. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of American mink in the circulation of Trichinella species in its introduced range. In total, 812 muscle samples of mink from six feral populations and three farms in Poland were examined for presence of Trichinella muscle larvae using the artificial HCl-pepsin digestion method. Muscle larvae were found in 27 out of 812 individuals (3.3%) from six localities in western and north-eastern Poland. The intensity of infection varied from 0.1 to 274.8 LPG. The majority of Trichinella-positive individuals - 15 (55.6%) were infected with T. britovi, one with T. spiralis, and one with T. pseudospiralis. Two animals harboured T. britovi and T. spiralis in co-infection and this data confirmed the first report of a mixed Trichinella infection in American mink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo transfer in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyi; Sun, Xingshen; Chen, Juan; Leno, Gregory H; Engelhardt, John F

    2006-07-15

    Embryo transfer (ET) to recipient females is a foundational strategy for a number of assisted reproductive technologies, including cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer. In an attempt to develop efficient ET in domestic ferrets, factors affecting development of transferred embryo were investigated. Unilateral and bilateral transfer of zygotes or blastocysts in the oviduct or uterus was evaluated in recipient nulliparous or primiparous females. Developing fetuses were collected from recipient animals 21 days post-copulation and examined. The percentage of fetal formation was different (PEuropean mink.

  1. The draft genome sequence of the American mink (Neovison vison) opens new opportunities of genomic research in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Panitz, Frank; Petersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    the smallest chromosome number among studied Carnivora species. Genomic information about American mink is also vital to understand the evolution of Carnivora. Hence a reference genome of mink will facilitate genetic improvement of economic traits and will increase our knowledge about the evolution....... The assembly constituted 2.4G plus gaps, representing 90% of the estimated genome size. Repeat annotation showed that repeat sequences constitute about 25% of the mink genome. The biggest repeat family was a family of LINEs similar to LINEs found in the dog and ferret genomes. Gene annotation of our draft...... draft genome has great potential to facilitate genomic research towards improved breeding for high fur quality and will strengthen our understanding of Carnivora evolution....

  2. Energy metabolism in young mink kits (Neovison vison) affected by protein and carbohydrate level in the diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Hansen, NE; Tauson, A-H

    The mink is a strict carnivore and mink diets usually have a high content of protein. The energy metabolism in young minks in the transition period from milk to solid food is not investigated in detail, and the protein requirement is poorly defined. The substrate oxidation can give useful...... information about the relative contribution of different nutrients to the total heat production (HE; Tauson et al. 1997). The aim of the study was to examine the effect of different provision of protein and carbohydrate on the energy metabolism and substrate oxidation of mink kits between 6 and 12 weeks...

  3. Wild Yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

  4. Genetic characterization of Aleutian mink disease viruses isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwu; Huang, Juan; Jia, Yun; Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Zhang, Rui

    2012-08-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex mediated disease in minks. To understand the genetic characterization of AMDV in China, the genomic sequences of three isolates, ADV-LN1, ADV-LN2, and ADV-LN3, from different farms in the Northern China were analyzed. The results showed that the lengths of genomic sequences of three isolates were 4,543, 4,566, and 4,566 bp, respectively. They shared only 95.5-96.3 % nucleotide identity with each other. The nucleotide and amino acid homology of genome sequence between the Chinese isolates and European or American strains (ADV-G, ADV-Utah1, and ADV-SL3) were 92.4-95.0 % and 92.1-93.8 %, respectively. The amino acid substitutions randomly distributed in the genome, especially NS gene. ADV-LN1 strain had a 9-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 and 72-79 in the VP1 gene, comparing with ADV-G strain; ADV-LN2 and ADV-LN3 strains had 1-amino-acid deletion at amino acid positions 70 in the VP1. Some potential glycosylation site mutations in VP and NS genes were also observed. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that the three strains belonged to two different branches based on the complete coding sequence of VP2 gene. However, they all were in the same group together with the strains from United States based on the NS1 sequence. It indicated that Chinese AMDV isolates had genetic diversity. The origin of the ancestors of the Chinese AMDV strains might be associated with the American strains.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii in feral American minks at the Maullín river, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Rosenfeld, Carla; Jara, Rocio; Pelican, Katharine M; Hill, Dolores

    2011-01-10

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a commercial latex agglutination test where a titer ≥ 1:32 was considered positive. Of 30 mink analyzed, 21 (70%) were positive to T. gondii antibodies, with titers ranging from 1:32 to 1:2048. As expected, adult mink showed higher seroprevalence of exposure to T. gondii (18/21) than young mink (3/9) (P=0.008). There was not statistically significant difference between sex groups (P=0.687). Differences in seroprevalence were observed between the two sample sites with a higher proportion of positive individuals in the peri-urban area, and therefore, closer to human settlements (35.7% vs. 100%, P=0.0001). Individuals positive to T. gondii using PCR and/or serology showed similar differences by site with higher infected individuals in peri-urban areas (58.8% vs. 100%, P=0.007). Diet of American mink based in fecal composition analyses was mainly based on crustaceans (frequency of occurrence: crustaceans=100%, birds and rodents<7%), suggesting that the high observed prevalence of T. gondii infection might be more associated with its aquatic behavior (e.g. ingestion of oocysts in contaminated fresh water) than with their trophic behavior (e.g. preying over species that can have T. gondii cysts in their tissues). As an invasive species potentially subject to routine culling to maintain population sizes under control, minks could be used as a sentinel species to monitor pathogens of public and wildlife health importance, such as T. gondii, in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...

  7. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ...

  8. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but several outbreaks have been described during recent years in Europe and the North America. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that...

  9. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, Bas W.P.M.; Forcada, Jaume; Murphy, Eugene J.; Baar, de Hein J.W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Fleming, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  10. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...

  11. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, S.W.; Bijma, P.; Moller, S.; Janss, L.; Berg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a

  12. Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) boings detected at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Julie N; Au, Whitlow W L; Duennebier, Fred

    2011-05-01

    Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the tropical North Pacific are elusive and difficult to detect visually. The recent association of a unique sound called the "boing" to North Pacific minke whales has made it possible to use passive acoustics to investigate the occurrence of this species in Hawaiian waters. One year of recordings (17 February 2007-18 February 2008) made at the Station ALOHA Cabled Observatory were examined to investigate the characteristics of boings and temporal patterns in their occurrence at this site, located 100 km north of Oahu. Characteristics of boings exhibited low variability. Pulse repetition rate and duration measurements matched those for "central" or "Hawaii" boing types. Boings were detected from October until May, with a peak in March. Although no boings were detected from June to September, the absence of boings does not necessarily indicate the absence of minke whales. Significant diel variation in boing rate was not observed. The absence of a diel pattern in boing production suggests that day- or night-time acoustic surveys are equally acceptable methods for studying minke whale occurrence. Future research should include efforts to determine what other sounds are produced by minke whales in this area, and which age/sex classes produce boings.

  13. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  14. The first draft reference genome of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam; Madsen, Lone B; Larsen, Knud; Thomsen, Bo; Bendixen, Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Panitz, Frank

    2017-11-06

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It's an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2.4 Gb including gaps. Repeat sequences constitute around 31% of the genome, which is lower than for dog and cat genomes. The alignments of mink, ferret and dog genomes help to illustrate the chromosomes rearrangement. Gene annotation identified 21,053 protein-coding sequences present in mink genome. The reference genome's structure is consistent with the microsatellite-based genetic map. Mapping of well-studied genes known to be involved in coat quality and coat color, and previously located fur quality QTL provide new knowledge about putative candidate genes for fur traits. The draft genome shows great potential to facilitate genomic research towards improved breeding for high fur quality animals and strengthen our understanding on evolution of Carnivora.

  15. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Rins de Baleia Minke (Baleanoptera acutorostrata: arquitetura e estrutura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.P. Sarmento

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre os mamíferos marinhos, a baleia é um dos animais que mais desperta atenção, especialmente no atinente ao seu sistema urinário. Este sistema segue o padrão entre os mamíferos quanto a sua constituição, entretanto, difere na morfologia renal, em número de lobos, que por sua vez, forma renículos completos, aglutinados às centenas. Esta estrutura é sustentada por tecido conjuntivo fibroso, mas altamente capaz de manter o equilíbrio hidroeletrolítico. Foram dissecados 6 pares de rins de baleia Minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata, colhidos em 1982, Cabedelo, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil, na última pesca autorizada. Estes rins estavam conservados em formol 10% e apresentaram uma camada histológica de colágeno muito grande circundando a parede medular. O duto coletor urinário forma cálices papilares, desembocando num único centro coletor que desemboca no ureter. Verificou-se que o rim da baleia Minke apresenta característica lobulada possuindo em média 700 renículos, cada renículo possui características anatômicas e funcionais de um rim unipiramidal, com uma camada interna (medula, e uma camada externa (córtex, e irrigação independente, com formação das artérias arqueadas individualmente, como observadas em mamíferos terrestres unipiramidais. Entretanto, o conjunto destes renículos constitui ao final um rim multilobular e polipiramidal, contrariando a morfologia da maioria dos mamíferos terrestres. Não foi possível distinguir ao nível de microscopia de luz as estruturas do córtex renicular da baleia Minke. Na microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi possível visualizar uma camada cortical que fica localizada entre duas cápsulas fibrosas. Esta junção por sua vez é feita por tecido conjuntivo o qual juntamente com uma camada de colágeno e fibras elásticas, separa o córtex da medula , foram visualizados os glomérulos renais, completamente tomados pelos vasos glomerulares e dispostos em várias camadas

  17. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs...... and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.......5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were...

  18. Brucella ceti Infection in a Common Minke Whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) with Associated Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Nicholas J; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dawson, Claire; Dagleish, Mark P; Haskins, Gary; Muchowski, Jakub; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2017-07-01

    There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B. pinnipedialis ST24 or the porpoise-associated B. ceti complex ST23, this case was associated with the dolphin-associated B. ceti ST26. Thus, minke whales can be infected naturally with members of all the distinct major lineages of Brucella associated with marine mammals. This report is unique in that the B. ceti ST26 did not originate from a pelagic delphinid or a beaked whale.

  19. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbaek, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters...... isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same...... chicken carcass used as one of the components in the mixed feed, which was therefore identified as the most likely source of contamination. Based on the results of this investigation it is concluded that C. limosum can be associated with abortion and increased mortality in pregnant mink females...

  20. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  1. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Rhod Larsen, Anders; Skov, Robert Leo

    2017-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study...... was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed...... producers. In clinical samples, LA-MRSA was found in 34% of submissions and was most prevalent in samples from paws (33%) and pharynx (17%), followed by nasal and intestinal samples (each 13%), whereas it was never detected in perineal samples. LA-MRSA was found in healthy animals on 40% of the investigated...

  2. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Themudo, G. E.; Jelsbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison) is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is an acute and fatal disease in farmed mink. Earlier work has demonstrated that some outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia are caused by pathogenic strains while most outbreaks are caused by local strains...... (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002-2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct...... strains of P. aeruginosa. We also identified related P. aeruginosa strains which, together with two prevalent but unrelated clones, caused one third of the outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia supporting the sparse literature on this subject. None of the SNP typed strains were identified in a large dataset...

  3. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...... region of the TYR gene. Genotypes at the markers Mvi6025 and Mvi6034 were found to be associated with the albino phenotype within an extended half-sib family. A BAC clone containing Mvi6034 was mapped to chromosome 7q1.1-q1.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Subsequent analysis of genomic TYR...... indicate that the nonsense mutation is responsible for the albino phenotype in the American mink....

  4. Application of probiotic supplementation in the nutrition of farm American mink (Neovison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia FELSKA-BŁASZCZYK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on an analysis of body weight, fur quality and selected blood biochemical indices in farm mink fed a diet with an addition of probiotics containing effective microorganisms. The feeding trial was conducted in 2013 on a population of Silverblue mink. The experimental group was offered the probiotics supplement with their daily ration. The control group did not receive a probiotic supplement. Body weight gains, blood AST and ALT content and the quality of fur were analyzed. The probiotic supplement positively and statistically significantly influenced the body weight gains of the mink, particularly in males. The supplement had a beneficial effect also in terms of pelt quality, since the animals fed the probiotic yielded pelts in the highest class of quality.

  5. Wild immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Babayan, Simon A

    2011-03-01

    In wild populations, individuals are regularly exposed to a wide range of pathogens. In this context, organisms must elicit and regulate effective immune responses to protect their health while avoiding immunopathology. However, most of our knowledge about the function and dynamics of immune responses comes from laboratory studies performed on inbred mice in highly controlled environments with limited exposure to infection. Natural populations, on the other hand, exhibit wide genetic and environmental diversity. We argue that now is the time for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of 'wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host fitness in natural environments. To achieve this requires relevant measures of immune responsiveness that are both applicable to the host-parasite interaction under study and robustly associated with measures of host and parasite fitness. Bringing immunology to nonmodel organisms and linking that knowledge host fitness, and ultimately population dynamics, will face difficult challenges, both technical (lack of reagents and annotated genomes) and statistical (variation among individuals and populations). However, the affordability of new genomic technologies will help immunologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists work together to translate and test our current knowledge of immune mechanisms in natural systems. From this approach, ecologists will gain new insight into mechanisms relevant to host health and fitness, while immunologists will be given a measure of the real-world health impacts of the immune factors they study. Thus, wild immunology can be the missing link between laboratory-based immunology and human, wildlife and domesticated animal health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Ruchoux, Marie-Madeleine; Durand, Valérie; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Dehen, Capucine; Correia, Evelyne; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Torres, Juan Maria; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon) induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE) regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe. PMID:25437205

  7. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP. Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-09-13

    For proper treatment of bacterial infections in mink, knowledge of the causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is crucial. The used antimicrobials are in general not registered for mink, i.e. most usage is "off-label". In this study, we report the patterns of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria isolated from Danish mink during the period 2014-2016. The aim of this investigation was to provide data on antimicrobial resistance and consumption, to serve as background knowledge for new veterinary guidelines for prudent and optimal antimicrobial usage in mink. A total number of 308 Escherichia coli isolates, 41 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 Streptococcus canis, 30 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 55 Staphylococcus delphini, 9 Staphylococcus aureus, and 20 Staphylococcus schleiferi were included in this study. Among E. coli, resistance was observed more frequently among the hemolytic isolates than among the non-hemolytic ones. The highest frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin, 82.3% and 48.0% of the hemolytic of the non-hemolytic isolates, respectively. The majority of the P. aeruginosa isolates were only sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Among the Staphylococcus spp., the highest occurrence of resistance was found for tetracycline. Regarding the nine S. aureus, one isolate was resistant to cefoxitin indicating it was a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both β-hemolytic Streptococcus species showed high levels of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin. The antimicrobial consumption increased significantly during 2007-2012, and fluctuated at a high level during 2012-2016, except for a temporary drop in 2013-2014. The majority of the prescribed antimicrobials were aminopenicillins followed by tetracyclines and macrolides. The study showed that antimicrobial resistance was common in most pathogenic bacteria from mink, in particular hemolytic E. coli. There is a need of guidelines for prudent use of

  9. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...... of the material from project farms and that of the submissions were approximately the same. Differences in the distribution of diagnoses as well as recovered microorganisms were found however, mainly related to the proportion of gastro-intestinal disorders and E. coli respectively. These proportions were...

  10. Molecular characterization of a novel astrovirus associated with disease in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mittelholzer, C.; Hedlund, K.O.; Englund, L.

    2003-01-01

    Pre-weaning diarrhoea is a well-known problem in mink farming in Europe, causing morbidity that varies between farms, regions and season. Different causalities for the disease have been proposed, but only most recently has a novel astrovirus been identified as an important risk factor...... amino acid level. Nevertheless, sequence analysis of MiAstV isolates from geographically distinct Swedish and Danish farms showed much less diversity. This suggests either the spread in the mink population of a virus that has evolved a long time ago or the recent introduction of an ancient virus...

  11. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p digestibility level (p digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs.

  12. Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, P.E.; Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Lopez, A.J.; Castro, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of liver necrosis and liver hemangiosarcoma were detected in a mink breeding colony in Argentina. Analysis of the Minks' food revealed the presence of 2.6 ppm dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) in it, apparently as a result of the addition of nitrite as preservative. Previous studies gave evidence of the particular susceptibility of minks to NDMA and other hepatic insults. The authors have determined several biochemical parameters known to correlate with NDMA hepatotoxic effects and compared with them those in rat liver. NDMA administration to both species resulted in the formation of reactive metabolites able to interact with liver DNA to give N/sup 7/-methylguanine and O/sup 6/-methylguanine adducts. Biotransformation of NDMA by liver slices to CO/sub 2/ was significantly lower in the mink than in the rat, whereas the covalent binding (CB) to nucleic acids was slightly lower than in the rat. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also significantly less in mink than in rat liver. The CB of NDMA reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was not significantly lower in mink as compared to the rat, and the same holds true for the biotransformation of NDMA to formaldehyde by microsomal preparations. Results suggest that the high susceptibility of minks to NDMA might be partially due to a decreased ability to detoxicate NDMA but also a higher intrinsic susceptibility of their liver cells to a given chemical insult.

  13. Inverse nickel-responsive regulation of two urease enzymes in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter mustelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Jeroen; Breijer, Simone; Pot, Raymond G J; van der Neut, Daan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2008-10-01

    The acidic gastric environment of mammals can be chronically colonized by pathogenic Helicobacter species, which use the nickel-dependent urea-degrading enzyme urease to confer acid resistance. Nickel availability in the mammal host is low, being mostly restricted to vegetarian dietary sources, and thus Helicobacter species colonizing carnivores may be subjected to episodes of nickel deficiency and associated acid sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate how these Helicobacter species have adapted to the nickel-restricted diet of their carnivorous host. Three carnivore-colonizing Helicobacter species express a second functional urea-degrading urease enzyme (UreA2B2), which functions as adaptation to nickel deficiency. UreA2B2 was not detected in seven other Helicobacter species, and is in Helicobacter mustelae only expressed in nickel-restricted conditions, and its expression was higher in iron-rich conditions. In contrast to the standard urease UreAB, UreA2B2 does not require activation by urease or hydrogenase accessory proteins, which mediate nickel incorporation into these enzymes. Activity of either UreAB or UreA2B2 urease allowed survival of a severe acid shock in the presence of urea, demonstrating a functional role for UreA2B2 in acid resistance. Pathogens often express colonization factors which are adapted to their host. The UreA2B2 urease could represent an example of pathogen adaptation to the specifics of the diet of their carnivorous host, rather than to the host itself.

  14. Pyogranulomatous panophthalmitis with systemic coronavirus disease in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Dana M; Eshar, David; Schumacher, Loni L; Almes, Kelli M; Rankin, Amy J

    2016-03-01

    A 15-month-old spayed female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) presented for lethargy and weight loss of 2 weeks duration. Upon physical examination, a 2-mm-diameter focal area of opacity was noted in the left cornea. In addition, the ferret was quiet, in poor body condition, and dehydrated. A complete blood count and plasma biochemistry revealed a severe nonregenerative anemia, azotemia, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and mild hyperphosphatemia and hyperchloremia. Urinalysis revealed hyposthenuria. Whole body radiographs showed multifocal thoracic nodular disease, splenomegaly, and renomegaly. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed bilaterally enlarged kidneys, hypoechoic liver and spleen, and a caudal abdominal hypoechoic mobile nodule. The ferret was humanely euthanized, and a postmortem examination with subsequent histopathology showed multifocal necrotizing pyogranulomas in the lung, spleen, kidneys, mesenteric lymph nodes, and serosa of the duodenum. Pyogranulomatous panophthalmitis was diagnosed in the left eye. The multisystemic granulomatous lesions were suggestive of ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV). The presence of coronavirus in the left eye was confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue from the lung, spleen, and kidney was negative for FRSCV and positive for ferret enteric coronavirus (FRECV). Systemic coronavirus disease in ferrets closely resembles feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in domestic cats, which can manifest with anterior uveitis, chorioretinitis, optic neuritis, and retinal detachment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of ocular lesions in a ferret with systemic coronavirus disease, suggesting that ferrets presented with similar ocular lesions should also be evaluated for evidence of coronavirus infection. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    were evaluated for their validity, reliability and feasibility. At present, we have identified 15 fox and 9 mink animal-based (or outcome-based) welfare measures, and 11 and 13 input-based (resource-based or management-based) measures. For both foxes and mink, each of the four WQ principles is judged......The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  16. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... to increase reliability of the difficult subjective measures....

  17. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six different non-linear models, namely Logistic, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek were used to define the growth curves of the mink. Models were compared using coefficients of determination (R2 values), the Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The R2 were ...

  18. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It’s an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we...

  19. Undersøgelse af vildtype hvalpesygevirus og DNA vaccination i mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2010-01-01

    Hill virus. Herefter undersøgte vi hvorvidt vaccination af mink med DNA vacciner baseret på gener fra vaccinestammer inducerer krydsbeskyttelse mod cirkulerende europæiske hvalpesygevirusstammer. Resultaterne fra vores undersøgelse viste, at DNA vaccinerne havde en beskyttende effekt mod udvikling af...

  20. Bentonite diminishes DON-induced changes in bone development in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON, given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.

  1. Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of spongiform encephalopathy in raccoons (Procyon lotor), 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon...

  2. Genetic and non-genetic indirect effects for bite mark traits in group housed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members vs. non-family members. We showed that mink interact differently either due to sex or the family relationship with their group mates. Our results show that IGEs are very important...

  3. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  4. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    leukocytter fra inficerede og ikke-inficerede mink ved flowcytometri. Vi fandt et tydeligt cytokinrespons (IFN-g, TNF-a og IL-4) i inficerede mink, selv i mink inficeret med den høj-virulente stamme, der udviklede udtalt immunsuppression med drastisk lymfopeni, forsinket eller udebleven virus neutraliserende...... (VN) antistofproduktion og alvorlig klinisk sygdom.  Den danske DK91 vildtype blev isoleret fra en akut dødelig syg hundehvalp under et hundesygeudbrud blandt den Københavnske hundepopulation i 1991. Både CDV og den nært beslægtede sælpest virus (PDV) har overlappende værtspektrum og har begge...... der registeret endnu et udbrud af sælpest og igen startede epidemien på øen Anholt i Kattegat. Vi udførte fylogenetiske analyser af vildtype virus isoleret direkte fra angrebne landlevende rovdyr (mink, grævling, ilder, husmår og mår) mellem 2000 og 2003 og fra spættede sæler (Phoca vitulina) fra 1988...

  5. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    whales are poorly understood, especially for populations in the North Pacific. We have already determined that there are certain characteristics of...populations exist. We will continue to examine the acoustic characteristics of boings for additional insights. RELATED PROJECTS A related NOPP funded...A Visual Sighting and Acoustic Detections of Minke Whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata ( Cetacea : Balaenopteridae), in Nearshore Hawaiian Waters

  6. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . Additionally, the amount of dam calls after separation decreased with the litter size (P=0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal motivation. These factors should, therefore, be taken into account in studies of the optimal separation age in mink....

  7. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, A.; Jensen, H. E.; Agger, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on ear...

  8. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, R; Markakis, M N; Vissenberg, K; Christensen, K

    2012-12-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different 'roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH-1 (HUGO-approved symbol ATOH1) and POMC were excluded as potential candidates for these three phenotypes. In addition, MITF and SLC24A5 were excluded for Cross and Cinnamon, and KITL (HUGO-approved symbol KITLG) for Cross and Stardust. Although most of these genes have been implicated as the cause of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Mayntz, David

    2014-10-14

    Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v. low concentration), while the third was kept at a constant level. The mink were first restricted to a single nutritionally imbalanced food for 7 d and then given a free choice to feed from the same food or a nutritionally complementary food for three consecutive days. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced foods, the mink were willing to overingest protein only to a certain level ('ceiling'). When subsequently given a choice, the mink compensated for the period of nutritional imbalance by selecting the nutritionally complementary food in the food choice pairing. Notably, this rebalancing occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results of the present study show that mink regulate their intake of all the three macronutrients within limits imposed by ceilings on protein and carbohydrate intake and that they will compensate for a period of nutritional imbalance by subsequently selecting nutritionally complementary foods.

  10. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Anistoroaei, R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Christensen, K; Fredholm, M; Nielsen, V H

    2014-02-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found to be density of wool, guard hair thickness and appearance of the surface. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert Leo; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Angen, Øystein; Larsen, Jesper; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed producers. In clinical samples, LA-MRSA was found in 34% of submissions and was most prevalent in samples from paws (33%) and pharynx (17%), followed by nasal and intestinal samples (each 13%), whereas it was never detected in perineal samples. LA-MRSA was found in healthy animals on 40% of the investigated farms, including paw samples (29%) and pharyngeal samples (16%). Twenty out of the 108 feed samples from feed producers were positive for LA-MRSA. The dominant spa-types were t034 and t011 associated to CC398, corresponding to the dominant spa-types detected in the Danish pig production, from which slaughter offal is used for mink feed. The spa-types, the high prevalence of LA-MRSA on paws and in pharynx, and its detection in feed samples, suggest feed as a possible source of LA-MRSA in mink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus B; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2012-12-10

    Our previously published second generation genetic map for the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used and redesigned in its best for genome-wide studies with maximum of efficiency. A number of 114 selected markers, including 33 newly developed microsatellite markers from the CHORI-231 mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped to 14 linkage groups corresponding to the mink autosomes. Six markers are unlinked and four markers are allocated to the X chromosome by homology but no linkage was detected. The sex-average linkage map spans 1192 centiMorgans (cM) with an average intermarker distance of 11.4cM and 1648cM when the ends of the linkage groups and the autosomal unlinked markers are added. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were also generated. The male sex-specific map had a total length of 1014.6cM between the linked markers and an average inter-marker interval of 9.7cM. The female map has a corresponding length of 1378.6cM and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool for genetic mapping and comparative genomics in mink, also useful for the future assembly of the mink genome sequence when this will be taken forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI 95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Comparison of histological lesions in mink with acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Anne Mette; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...... also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities...... culture of E. coli were examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue obtained from the mink was examined by histology and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). It was possible to detect a slight histological difference between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and by E. coli...

  15. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...... also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities...... culture of E. coli were examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue obtained from the mink was examined by histology and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). It was possible to detect a slight histological difference between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and by E. coli...

  16. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...

  17. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  18. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays multis...... in PBMCs was investigated throughout the acute infections. We observed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses beginning in the prodromal phase, and late inflammatory responses were shared between the wild-type infections.......The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...... multisystemic infection similar to measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) infections in their susceptible natural hosts. The wild-type CDVs investigated provoked marked virulence differences inducing mild versus marked to severe acute disease. The mildly virulent wild-type induced transient lymphopenia...

  19. Demonstration of non-degraded Aleutian disease virus (ADV) proteins in lung tissue from experimentally infected mink kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse; Aasted, B.

    1986-01-01

    Isolates of ADV replicate to rather high quantities in lungs from neonatally infected mink kits. The virus was analysed for polypeptide composition, and for the first time high molecular weight polypeptides have been observed inin vivo produced ADVs. These polypeptides are analogous to those ofin...... described forin vitro produced ADV-G. Presence of the ADV coded, non-structural polypeptide with the molecular weight of 71kD (p71) was also demonstrated in the lung tissue from mink kits....

  20. Anatomical distribution and gross pathology of wounds in necropsied farmed mink (Neovison vison) from June and October.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Anna; Agger, Jens Frederik; Clausen, Tove; Bertelsen, Stine; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2016-01-25

    Wounds are regarded as an indicator of reduced welfare in mink production; however, information on the occurrence and significance of wounds is sparse. To provide a basis for assessment and classification of wounds in farmed mink, the distribution pattern and characteristics of wounds in farmed mink in June and October, respectively, is described. A total of 791 and 660 mink from 6 to 12 Danish mink farms, respectively, were examined. The mink were either found dead or were euthanized due to injury or other disease. Mink included from June were kits in the pre-weaning and weaning period (1-2 months old). Mink included from October were juveniles in the late growth period (approximately 5-6 months old) or older. Macroscopic pathology and wound location was systematically recorded. There was considerable variation in morphology as well as location of wounds between June and October. Wounds were primarily located on the front parts of the body and in the head in June (1-2 month old kits) and mainly on the rear parts of the body and on the tail in October (5-6 month old kits and older). Moreover, there were significantly more females than males with wounds for most wound types, and significant differences in occurrence of ear and tail base wounds between certain colour types. Wounds varied significantly from June to October with respect to morphology and anatomical location. Wounds in June were primarily located on the front parts of the body and in the head, while wounds in October were mainly present on the hind parts of the body and on the tail. The majority of the wounds were found in specific well defined skin areas and could therefore be grouped into categories according to anatomical location.

  1. Phenozan Influence on the Physiological-Biochemical Parameters of the Young Minks Leading to Their Advanced Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Balakirev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant influence on the physiological-biochemical parameters of productive animals is one of the most important directions in modern animal science. Phenozan is a synthetic antioxidant with high biological activities including those for animals. The positive effects of phenozan on the physiological-biochemical parameters of the mink blood were found. These effects are leading to the intensive growth, strong health, enhancement of the mink fur quality, and so forth. The total amount of the erythrocytes in the mink blood increased by about 4-5% due to phenozan inclusion in the mink diet. Even a more significant increase was found in hemoglobin content in the mink blood and erythrocytes (by about 9.5% and 8.8%, resp. due to phenozan inclusion of 100 mg/day, whereas it was found only by about 6.1–5.3% or 5.5–0.3%, owing to phenozan inclusion of 50 or 150 mg/day. For many other parameters the optimal phenozan concentration was about 100 mg/day per head according to the result obtained for all studied animal groups. Thus, phenozan can be successfully used as a biologically active compound for mink nutrition and is recommended for other farm animals.

  2. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northeastern and Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Ma, Jian-Gang; Wang, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important intracellular parasite, which can infect endothermic vertebrate animals, including minks (Neovison vison). However, information on T. gondii infection in minks in China is limited. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in minks in northeastern and eastern China. A total of 1499 mink blood samples were randomly collected from eight cities between March 2014 and January 2015 in northeastern and eastern China, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined using the modified agglutination test. Overall, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.14% in the examined minks. The T. gondii seroprevalence was different among cities (ranging from 1.85% in Changchun to 15.75% in Dalian), genders (4.31% in male and 6.22% in female), seasons (spring: 11.64%; summer: 7.34%; autumn: 7.37%; and winter: 7.32%), and ages (young: 5.79%; subadult: 5.03%; and adult: 11.08%). Region and age were considered as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results provided baseline data for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in minks in China.

  3. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison in Northern China by PCR-RFLP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Zheng

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technology. 36 (8.6% of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks.

  4. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northern China by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Ma, Jian-Gang; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhao, Quan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. 36 (8.6%) of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks.

  5. Feral ferrets (Mustela furo) as hosts and sentinels of tuberculosis in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, AE; Caley, P; Paterson, BM; Nugent, G

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The control and eventual eradication of bovine tuberculosis (TB) poses major challenges in New Zealand, given the variety of wildlife species susceptible to TB, many of which are capable of onwards transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Here we discuss the role of feral ferrets (Mustela furo), focussing on potential transmission or risk pathways that have implications for management of TB. Firstly inter-specific transmission to ferrets. Ferrets scavenge potentially infected wildlife, including other ferrets, thus prevalence of TB can be amplified through ferrets feeding on tuberculous carcasses, particularly brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula). Secondly intra-specific transmission between ferrets. The rate of ferret-ferret transmission depends on population density, and in some places ferret densities exceed the estimated threshold for disease persistence. TB can therefore potentially be maintained independently of other sources of infection. Thirdly transmission from ferrets to other wildlife. These include the main wildlife maintenance host, brushtail possums, that will occasionally scavenge potentially tuberculous ferret carcasses. Fourthly transmission from ferrets to livestock. This is considered to occur occasionally, but the actual rate of transmission has never been measured. Fifthly geographical spread. M. bovis-infected ferrets can travel large distances and cause new outbreaks of TB at locations previously free of TB, which may have caused an expansion of TB-endemic areas.Ferrets play a complex role in the TB cycle in New Zealand; they are capable of contracting, amplifying and transmitting M. bovis infection, sometimes resulting in ferret populations with a high prevalence of TB. However, ferret population densities are usually too low to sustain infection independently, and transmission to other wildlife or livestock appears a rarer event than with possums. Nevertheless, management of ferrets remains a key part of the National

  6. Prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the Las Merindades area (Burgos, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L

    2011-08-01

    This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.

  7. Wilde?s worlds: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McGeachie, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. Aims To provide an overall assessment of his career. Materials and methods Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Cens...

  8. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  9. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarius

    2012-01-01

    Our previously published second generation genetic map for the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used and redesigned in its best for genome-wide studies with maximum of efficiency. A number of 114 selected markers, including 33 newly developed microsatellite markers from the CHORI-231 mink...... Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped......M and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool...

  10. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  11. Heterosis and genetic variation in the litter size of purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    animals originating from different farms. Effect of heterosis, color type, and variance components were estimated using Average information REML (AI-REML) algorithm implemented in the DMU package for analyzing multivariate mixed models. Females from 7 generations that gave birth to at least 1 offspring...... were analyzed and the effects of parity and production year were included in the analyses. Genetic trend and the proportions of the total variance explained by the effects of additive genetics (h2) , common environment (due to repeated litters from the same female; c2), and dam of the female (granddame...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  12. The effects of climbing cages on behaviour of female mink during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Axelsson, H.; Loberg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if there were differences in behaviour of female mink when kept in a climbing cage compared with a standard cage during the lactation period. The study was carried out on 90 mink of the colour type "black cross". Females were housed in either climbing cages (4.350 cm², n...... no differences between cage types. Week 5-8 after giving birth females in climbing cages were less in the nest box, less active out in the cage and had fewer abnormal behaviours, but were on the platforms and more inactive out in the cage. In the bottom cage females were more often walking, grooming and inactive...... out in the cage and tended to be more often on the platform compared to in the upper cage. It is concluded that the climbing cage worked well for females with kits and that the upper cage can offer a refuge for females when kits get older....

  13. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently fibroblasts of many mammalian species have been reprogrammed to pluripotent state using overexpression of several transcription factors. This technology allows production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with properties similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i......PS cell lines. The majority of the analyzed cell lines had normal diploid chromosome number. The only ES cell line with XX chromosome set had both X-chromosomes in active state that is characteristic of pluripotent cells. The pluripotency of ES and iPS cell lines was confirmed by formation of teratomas...

  14. [Odontologic anomaly in the American mink Neovison vison (Carnivora, Mustelidae) and possible reasons for its appearance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, P N; Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Tumanov, I L

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks.

  15. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    were post- processed using Matlab scripts developed (by S. Martin) to localize and estimate the density of boings produced by minke whales. Visual...conduct a detailed review and re-analysis the towed array acoustic localization data. This program uses . wav files and Whaletrack II database from...compiled for semi-automated measurement of over 45 variables using the Matlab based program Osprey (courtesy of D. Mellinger, OSU). Measurements from

  16. Structure and Steroidogenesis of the Placenta in the Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Motoki; AMANO, Yoko; HAYAKAWA, Daisuke; TSUBOTA, Toshio; ISHIKAWA, Hajime; MOGOE, Toshihiro; OHSUMI, Seiji; TETSUKA, Masafumi; MIYAMOTO, Akio; FUKUI, Yutaka; BUDIPITOJO, Teguh; KITAMURA, Nobuo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There are few reports describing the structure and function of the whale placenta with the advance of pregnancy. In this study, therefore, the placenta and nonpregnant uterus of the Antarctic minke whale were observed morphologically and immunohistochemically. Placentas and nonpregnant uteri were collected from the 15th, 16th and 18th Japanese Whale Research Programme with Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA) and 1st JARPA II organized by the Institute of Cetacean Research in Tokyo, Japan. In the macro- and microscopic observations, the placenta of the Antarctic minke whale was a diffuse and epitheliochorial placenta. The chorion was interdigitated to the endometrium by primary, secondary and tertiary villi, which contained no specialized trophoblast cells such as binucleate cells, and the interdigitation became complicated with the progress of gestation. Furthermore, fetal and maternal blood vessels indented deeply into the trophoblast cells and endometrial epithelium respectively with fetal growth. The minke whale placenta showed a fold-like shape as opposed to a finger-like shape. In both nonpregnant and pregnant uteri, many uterine glands were distributed. The uterine glands in the superficial layer of the pregnant endometrium had a wide lumen and large epithelial cells as compared with those in the deep layer. On the other hand, in the nonpregnant endometrium, the uterine glands had a narrower lumen and smaller epithelial cells than in the pregnant endometrium. In immunohistochemical detection, immunoreactivity for P450scc was detected in most trophoblast cells, but not in nonpregnant uteri, suggesting that trophoblast epithelial cells synthesized and secreted the sex steroid hormones and/or their precursors to maintain the pregnancy in the Antarctic minke whale. PMID:23269486

  17. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbæk, Bent; Damborg, Peter; Weiss, Vilhelm; Christiansen, Mette Line; Selsing, Søren; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-05-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same feed factory. A specific PCR-based analysis was developed for positive identification of C. limosum and used to screen archived feed samples from the implicated feed factory. Both C. limosum 16S rRNA genes and C. limosum collagenase genes were identified in both mixed feed and more specifically in raw chicken carcass used as one of the components in the mixed feed, which was therefore identified as the most likely source of contamination. Based on the results of this investigation it is concluded that C. limosum can be associated with abortion and increased mortality in pregnant mink females and it is consequently recommended that raw materials contaminated with C. limosum should be avoided in mink feed, in particular during the whelping season. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (annual primary production (320 g C m-2 y-1) estimated in the southwestern coastal region of the East Sea belongs to the highly productive coastal upwelling regions in the world. A change in the main spatial distribution of minke whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  19. Rate of exposure of a sentinel species, invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Melero, Yolanda; Giela, Anna; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Sharp, Elizabeth; Boada, Luis D; Taylor, Michael J; Camacho, María; Lambin, Xavier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Hartley, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are highly toxic compounds that are exclusively used for the control of rodent pests. Despite their defined use, they are nonetheless found in a large number of non-target species indicating widespread penetration of wildlife. Attempts to quantify the scale of problem are complicated by non-random sampling of individuals tested for AR contamination. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a wide ranging, non-native, generalist predator that is subject to wide scale control efforts in the UK. Exposure to eight ARs was determined in 99 mink trapped in NE Scotland, most of which were of known age. A high percentage (79%) of the animals had detectable residues of at least one AR, and more than 50% of the positive animals had two or more ARs. The most frequently detected compound was bromadiolone (75% of all animals tested), followed by difenacoum (53% of all mink), coumatetralyl (22%) and brodifacoum (9%). The probability of mink exposure to ARs increased by 4.5% per month of life, and was 1.7 times higher for mink caught in areas with a high, as opposed to a low, density of farms. The number of AR compounds acquired also increased with age and with farm density. No evidence was found for sexual differences in the concentration and number of ARs. The wide niche and dietary overlap of mink with several native carnivore species, and the fact that American mink are culled for conservation throughout Europe, suggest that this species may act as a sentinel species, and the application of these data to other native carnivores is discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, C M; Themudo, G E; Jelsbak, L; Molin, S; Høiby, N; Hammer, A S

    2013-04-12

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison) is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is an acute and fatal disease in farmed mink. Earlier work has demonstrated that some outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia are caused by pathogenic strains while most outbreaks are caused by local strains. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and geographical relationship among outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of P. aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, chosen isolates were typed by a commercial genotyping method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002 to 2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct strains of P. aeruginosa. We also identified related P. aeruginosa strains which, together with two prevalent but unrelated clones, caused one third of the outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia supporting the sparse literature on this subject. None of the SNP typed strains were identified in a large dataset of human and environmental origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein...

  2. Chemical characterization of the oligosaccharides in beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) and Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urashima, Tadasu; Sato, Harumi; Munakata, Jiro; Nakamura, Tadashi; Arai, Ikichi; Saito, Tadao; Tetsuka, Masafumi; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M

    2002-07-01

    Carbohydrates were extracted from the milk of a beluga, Delphinopterus leucas (family Odontoceti), and two Minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Family Mysticeti), sampled late in their respective lactation periods. Free oligosaccharides were separated by gel filtration and then neutral oligosaccharides were purified by preparative thin layer chromatography and gel filtration, while acidic oligosaccharides were purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were determined by 1H-NMR. In one of the Minke whale milk samples, lactose was a dominant saccharide, with Fuc(alpha1-2)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(2'-fucosyllactose), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(lacto-N-neotetraose), GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal(beta1-4)Glc(A-tetrasaccharide), Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (para lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (LST c) and Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc (sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose) also being found in the milk. The second Minke whale sample contained similar amounts of lactose, 2'-fucosyllactose and A-tetrasaccharide, but no free sialyl oligosaccharides. Sialyl lacto-N-neotetraose and sialyl para lacto-N-neohexaose are novel oligosaccharides which have not been previously reported from any mammalian milk or colostrum. These and other oligosaccharides of Minke whale milk may have biological significance as anti-infection factors, protecting the suckling young against bacteria and viruses. The lactose of Minke whale milk could be a source of energy for them. The beluga whale milk contained trace amounts of Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(3'-N-acetylneuraminyllactose), but the question of whether it contained free lactose could not be clarified. Therefore

  3. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  4. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal...... transit time, questioning its relevance. In this study, we hypothesise that oral amoxicillin treatment affects the gut microbiota in mink. This was investigated in a controlled trial including 24 animals of which 12 were treated with amoxicillin for 7 days. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found...... that the faecal microbiota was markedly altered already after 2 days of treatment, with a surprising increase in diversity to resemble the feed. The diversity within the mucosa at termination was however reduced, which indicates this compartment as an important colonisation site in mink. No impact on blood...

  5. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    be obtained by only considering RFI estimate and BW at pelting, however, lower genetic correlations than unity indicate that extra genetic gain can be obtained by including estimates of these traits at the growing period. This study suggests random regression methods are suitable for analysing feed efficiency......The aim of this study was to determine genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and body weight (BW) growth in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. Eight BW measures for each mink was recorded every three weeks from 63 to 210...... days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...

  6. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  7. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    and the early kit vitality in farmed mink. We hypothesized that early transfer is beneficial for mink mothers and their offspring in comparison to intermediate or late movement closer to delivery, being the current practice in the commercial production. We used 180 double mated female yearlings in three equally...... to an environment with free access to nest building material. During the weeks before delivery, INTERMEDIATE females had 50% higher FCM concentrations than the other two groups (P = 0.002), indicative of stress. After delivery, late moved females had, in average, 2.7 °C colder nests compared to early moved females...... vitality from early moved females. In conclusion, transfer into the maternity unit early after mating, rather than later during the pregnancy period, reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink....

  8. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  10. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lehmkuhl Noer

    Full Text Available Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison, which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts. Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality

  11. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Struve, Tina; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-06-29

    Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case control study was carried out on 30 Danish mink farms. Data concerning management, biosecurity, hygiene, feed consumption, antibacterial prescription and production efficiency were analyzed. The proportion of 1-year old females, farm size (total number of females), energy supply per female in the late gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk factor, but needs further clarification.

  12. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution......Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...

  13. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    to the counter-current immune electrophoresis (CIE) routinely used in the serological screening programme. Mink organs (n = 299) obtained from 55 recently infected farms and 8 non-infected farms from 2008 to 2010 were tested by PCR, and the results were found to have a high correlation with the serological...... status of the mink. The relative diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 94.7%, and the relative diagnostic specificity was 97.9% when read in parallel with the CIE. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis revealed high similarity within the analysed AMDV strains and to AMDV strains...

  14. Short term behavioural consequences of denied access to environmental facilities in mink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.B HANSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether farm mink denied access to water for swimming became more frustrated than animals denied access to an empty cage. Also the relative importance of water for swimming, the empty cage and the nest box was measured. Seventy-eight farm mink were placed in four groups according to a 2x2 experimental design: two unit sizes, large and small, and two water conditions, with or without water. Each unit consisted of three cages side by side in which half of the animals had a water filled basin and the other half an empty area in the middle cage. This cage had openings to the other two cages. In addition, a tunnel above the basin connected the right and left cage. One hour before the beginning of daily observations the animals had their access restricted to only the left cage. Each animal was observed ten times a day on nine consecutive days. No difference in scratching into the tunnel, basin or nest box was detected between the four groups. All groups scratched significantly or nearly significantly more into the nest box than into both the tunnel and the basin. Most stereotypies were found in the group in small cages with a dry basin. Our investigation suggests that when compared to the deprivation from a nest box, the deprivation of water for swimming does not alone cause frustration of farm mink any more that the exclusion from an empty cage. However, it does indicate that the cage size may affect the level of stereotypy.;

  15. Effects of dietary hexachlorobenzene exposure on regional brain biogenic amine concentrations in mink and European ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleavins, M R; Bursian, S J; Brewster, J S; Aulerich, R J

    1984-01-01

    In the initial trial, adult mink and ferrets were administered hexachlorobenzene (HCB) via the feed at concentrations of 1, 5, or 25 ppm for 47 wk. Animals receiving 125 and 625 ppm HCB in the diet died before termination of the experiment, with female ferrets at the 125 ppm level displaying abnormal aggressiveness and hyperexcitability just prior to death. Hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) was significantly elevated at all dose levels in mink, and cerebellar 5-HT was significantly elevated at 1 ppm in the ferret. Regional brain biogenic amine concentrations were also determined in the offspring of the female mink that were administered 1 and 5 ppm HCB. Hypothalamic dopamine (DA) concentrations were significantly depressed by 1 and 5 ppm in these kits. In a second study, adult male and female ferrets were administered 250 or 500 ppm HCB via the diet for 7 wk. Two animals at the 250-ppm level and 3 animals at the 500-ppm level died before termination of the experiment without showing behavioral changes. Of the remaining animals, 3 ferrets at 250 ppm and 1 ferret at 500 ppm showed slight aggressiveness and hyperexcitability during the last week of the experiment. Concentrations of 5-HT were significantly elevated at 500 ppm in the cerebral hemispheres and at 250 ppm in the midbrain of male ferrets, while in the females, 5-HT was elevated in the cerebral hemispheres at 250 ppm and in the hypothalamus at both 250 and 500 ppm. Norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were significantly elevated in the cerebellum of males exposed to 250 and 500 ppm, as were NE concentrations in the midbrain. HCB at 500 ppm caused a significant increase in medullary NE, while 250 ppm caused an increase in hypothalamic NE in males. The only change in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations occurred at 500 ppm HCB in the midbrain of males, where there was a significant elevation of this neurotransmitter.

  16. Minke whale song, spacing, and acoustic communication on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedamke, Jason

    An inquisitive population of minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) that concentrates on the Great Barrier Reef during its suspected breeding season offered a unique opportunity to conduct a multi-faceted study of a little-known Balaenopteran species' acoustic behavior. Chapter one investigates whether the minke whale is the source of an unusual, complex, and stereotyped sound recorded, the "star-wars" vocalization. A hydrophone array was towed from a vessel to record sounds from circling whales for subsequent localization of sound sources. These acoustic locations were matched with shipboard and in-water observations of the minke whale, demonstrating the minke whale was the source of this unusual sound. Spectral and temporal features of this sound and the source levels at which it is produced are described. The repetitive "star-wars" vocalization appears similar to the songs of other whale species and has characteristics consistent with reproductive advertisement displays. Chapter two investigates whether song (i.e. the "star-wars" vocalization) has a spacing function through passive monitoring of singer spatial patterns with a moored five-sonobuoy array. Active song playback experiments to singers were also conducted to further test song function. This study demonstrated that singers naturally maintain spatial separations between them through a nearest-neighbor analysis and animated tracks of singer movements. In response to active song playbacks, singers generally moved away and repeated song more quickly suggesting that song repetition interval may help regulate spatial interaction and singer separation. These results further indicate the Great Barrier Reef may be an important reproductive habitat for this species. Chapter three investigates whether song is part of a potentially graded repertoire of acoustic signals. Utilizing both vessel-based recordings and remote recordings from the sonobuoy array, temporal and spectral features, source levels, and

  17. The science behind the development and implementation of the WelFur-Mink protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Henriksen, Britt; Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg

    2017-01-01

    The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...... welfare among farm workers employed at five different Danish farms (pig, dairy cattle and mink). The methodology employed ethnographic field studies during daily work at the farms and qualitative interviews with 23 farm workers, of which some are of Danish nationality and others from other countries....

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe

    2017-09-29

    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  19. FLEAS OF BLACK-FOOTED FERRETS (MUSTELA NIGRIPES) AND THEIR POTENTIAL ROLE IN THE MOVEMENT OF PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Grassel, Shaun M; Britten, Hugh B

    2017-07-01

    Sylvatic plague is one of the major impediments to the recovery of the black-footed ferret ( Mustela nigripes ) because it decimates their primary prey species, prairie dogs ( Cynomys spp.), and directly causes mortality in ferrets. Fleas are the primary vector of Yersinia pestis , the causative agent of sylvatic plague. The goal of this research was to better understand the flea fauna of ferrets and the factors that might influence flea abundance on ferrets. Fleas from ferrets were tested for Y. pestis in a post hoc assessment to investigate the plausibility that some ferrets could act as incidental transporter hosts of fleas infected with Y. pestis . Fleas were collected from ferrets captured on the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in central South Dakota, US from 2009 to 2012. A total of 528 fleas collected from 67 individual ferrets were identified and tested for the presence of Y. pestis with a nested PCR assay. The predominant flea recovered from ferrets was Oropsylla hirsuta , a species that comprises 70-100% of the fleas recovered from prairie dogs and their burrows in the study area. Yersinia pestis was detected at low levels in fleas collected from ferrets with prevalence ranging from 0% to 2.9%; male ferrets harbored significantly more fleas than female ferrets. Six of 67 ferrets vaccinated against plague carried fleas that tested positive for Y. pestis , which suggests ferrets vaccinated against plague could inadvertently act as incidental transporter hosts of Y. pestis -positive fleas.

  20. Advances in reproductive science for wild carnivore conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comizzoli, P; Crosier, A E; Songsasen, N; Gunther, M Szykman; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge about reproduction is critical for predicting the viability of wildlife populations in nature and for managing breeding programmes in captivity. Intensive species-based studies are the priority, because reproductive mechanisms are extraordinarily diverse, even within the same taxonomic family. Carnivores deserve more attention as such species are highly vulnerable to environmental change and human persecution. The present review provides contemporary illustrations of how reproductive science is contributing to understand unique reproductive mechanisms that are both of fundamental and applied interest. In the case of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) free-living in South Africa, non-invasive faecal corticosteroid assessments have yielded new insights about the impact of animal relocation and reintroduction on adaptive responses, reproductive fitness and survival. For the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), advances have been made in characterizing and comparing reproductive traits in free-ranging vs captive individuals. For the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), recent studies have focused on the cryosensitivity of sperm and the ability to develop a field-friendly sperm cryo-method. The by-product has been a large-scale frozen repository of sperm from wild-caught cheetahs useful for infusing new genes into ex situ populations. Finally, rigorous, multi-disciplinary and cross-institutional reproductive studies of the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), including the use of artificial insemination, have contributed to the remarkable recovery and restoration of this species, once on the brink of extinction. In summary, advances in reproductive science are not necessarily related to 'assisted breeding'. However, understanding the unique ways of carnivore reproduction greatly contributes to species management and conservation.

  1. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with P....... aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found...

  2. Population study on Mustela erminea in Northwest Italy (Valle d'Aosta region: captures, morphometric data, diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bounous

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By capturing-marking-recapturing method, 58 stoats Mustela erminea (37 males and 21 females were captured from 1990 to 1993 in an alpine area of the Valle d'Aosta region. Trappings were generally conducted from 15th July to 15th October of each year. Considering 2-3 subsequent trapping years the number of recaptures was very low, while in the same year we recaptured on average 57% of the animals. The population of stoats seemed to show a rapid turnover. The highest level of density was like to be reached at the beginning of September when the dispersal of animals probably started. The diet included exclusively small rodents, mainly Microtus. Riassunto Studio di popolazione su Mustela erminea, nell'Italia nord occidentale (Valle d'Aosta: catture, dati morfometrici, analisi alimentare - Nel periodo 1990-93, mediante il metodo di cattura-marcatura-ricattura, sono stati catturati 58 ermellini Mustela erminea (37 maschi e 21 femmine in una zona alpina della Valle d'Aosta. I trappolaggi sono stati effettuati dal 15 luglio al 15 ottobre di ogni anno. Il numero delle ricatture registrate in anni successivi è molto basso, mentre nell'arco di uno stesso anno raggiungeva mediamente il 57% del campione di animali catturati. Durante il periodo di studio la popolazione sembrava rinnovarsi pressoché totalmente. Il livello di densità più elevato sembrava essere raggiunto all'inizio di settembre, mese in cui gli animali probabilmente iniziavano a disperdersi. I risultati sull'analisi alimentare indicano una predazione esclusivamente a carico di piccoli roditori, in particolare Microtus.

  3. Development of a 14C-urea breath test in ferrets colonised with Helicobacter mustelae: effects of treatment with bismuth, antibiotics, and urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColm, A A; Bagshaw, J A; O'Malley, C F

    1993-01-01

    A 14C-urea breath test analogous to its clinical counterpart is described for use in ferrets naturally or experimentally infected with Helicobacter mustelae. The test is performed within a sealed glass metabolism chamber through which air is drawn at a constant rate and expired breath collected into sodium hydroxide. Peak 14CO2 production occurred approximately 1 hour after substrate administration. Both inter- and intra-animal responses were highly reproducible, with mean coefficients of variation less than 10%. Other than enhancing peak 14CO2 levels very slightly, fasting had little influence on the response. In infant animals challenged with H mustelae, breath test activity increased linearly with the total count of culturable bacteria isolated from the antrum. Treatment of established infections with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (DeNol) for 4 weeks resulted in clearance of all detectable bacteria but retention of some breath test activity. Subsequent regrowth of bacteria was parallelled by an increase in the breath test response. Inclusion of amoxycillin and metronidazole in the treatment regimen, however, eradicated all the bacteria and almost totally eliminated 14CO2 production. This response parallels the clinically observed suppressive effect on H pylori achieved with bismuth alone relative to the total eradication seen with triple therapy. A single oral dose of the urease inhibitor, flurofamide, inhibited over 90% of the response for at least 24 hours. Acetohydroxamic acid was less effective. These findings suggest that in the ferret H mustelae model, breath test analysis can be a useful, non-invasive alternative to endoscopy for evaluation of agents affecting either growth of the organism or urease activity. PMID:8432469

  4. Ferro-manganese encrustation on the tympanic bulla of a minke whale from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    Ear bone of a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was collected from 5200 m water depth with thin coating of Fe-Mn oxide on its surface. The Fe-Mn coating material was similar in nature and ratios Mn/Fe and Cu + Ni/Co were closely comparable...

  5. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  6. Spring distribution and density of minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata along an offshore bank in the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Minke whales were recorded in the central North Sea in an area characterised by frontal features and high productivity northeast of the Dogger Bank (4677 km2). Survey efforts were carried out from 28 March to 2 July 2007, at a finer scale than in earlier studies in the region, using 2 vessels as

  7. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Sirotkin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings and old (3-5 years of age minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml. We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a reduction in basal progesterone release and (b alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I.

  8. Identification of a novel Aleutian mink disease virus B-cell epitope using a monoclonal antibody against VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Zhang, Miao; Cao, Zhigang; Tong, Mingwei; Cheng, Shipeng; Yan, Xijun

    2016-09-02

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a parvovirus that causes an immune complex-mediated disease in minks. Capsid protein VP2 is a major structural viral protein and can be used to diagnose AMDV. In this study, a specific monoclonal antibody, 1M13, was produced against the AMDV VP2 protein (amino acids 291-502). A linear VP2-protein epitope was identified by subjecting a series of partially overlapping synthesized peptides to be enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. The results indicated that (386)HLQQNFSTRYIYD(398) was the minimal linear epitope that could be recognized by mAb 1M13. ELISA assays revealed that mink anti-AMDV sera could also recognize the minimal linear epitope. Sequence alignments demonstrated that the linear epitope is highly conserved among AMDV strains except (386)H and is less conserved among Raccoon dog amdovirus, Gray fox amdovirus, Red fox amdovirus, Bat parvovirus and Mink enteritis parvovirus. Taken together, the generation of this VP2-specific mAb with a defined linear peptide epitope may have potential applications in the development of suitable diagnostic techniques for AMDV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...

  10. Comparison of histological lesions in mink with acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, Niels; Jensen, Trine H; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2013-07-01

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities based on histopathology. The study included material submitted for diagnostic investigation to the National Veterinary Institute in Denmark from 2006 to 2009. Altogether, 19 cases of hemorrhagic pneumonia with a pure lung culture of P. aeruginosa and 18 cases of hemorrhagic pneumonia with a pure lung culture of E. coli were examined. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissue obtained from the mink was examined by histology and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). It was possible to detect a slight histological difference between hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa and by E. coli, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher frequency of alveolar edema and mild lymphoid cuffing in the lungs.

  11. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    to reduce the number of measurements needed in the welfare assessment system WelFur-Mink in the different production periods without compromising the validity of the assessment. There seems to be an effect of date of the assessment in the nursing period, which can be handled elegantly if the other two...

  12. Feeding rates and under-ice foraging strategies of the smallest lunge filter feeder, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, A S; Goldbogen, J A; Nowacek, D P; Read, A J; Johnston, D; Gales, N

    2014-08-15

    Body size and feeding mode are two fundamental characteristics that determine foraging performance and ecological niche. As the smallest obligate lunge filter feeders, minke whales represent an ideal system for studying the physical and energetic limits of filter feeding in endotherms. We used multi-sensor suction cup tags to quantify the feeding performance of Antarctic minke whales. Foraging dives around and beneath sea ice contained up to 24 lunges per dive, the highest feeding rates for any lunge-feeding whale. Their small size allows minke whales access to krill in sea-ice environments not easily accessible to larger baleen whales. Furthermore, their ability to filter feed provides an advantage over other smaller sympatric krill predators such as penguins and seals that feed on individual prey. The unique combination of body size, feeding mechanism and sea-ice habitat of Antarctic minke whales defines a previously undocumented energetic niche that is unique among aquatic vertebrates. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials...

  14. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  15. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  16. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Isaack, Pernille; Clausen, Tove; Byskov, Kevin; Honoré, Oliver Lykke; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal transit time, questioning its relevance. In this study, we hypothesise that oral amoxicillin treatment affects the gut microbiota in mink. This was investigated in a controlled trial including 24 animals of which 12 were treated with amoxicillin for 7 days. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the faecal microbiota was markedly altered already after 2 days of treatment, with a surprising increase in diversity to resemble the feed. The diversity within the mucosa at termination was however reduced, which indicates this compartment as an important colonisation site in mink. No impact on blood biochemistry, lipid metabolism, serum amyloid A, vitamins A and E and histomorphology of the gut and liver was found; however, a slight decrease in fat digestibility was observed. We suggest that early-life use of amoxicillin in mink production may be counteractive as dysbiosis of the microbiota during infancy is increasingly being recognised as a risk factor for future health. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Denise; Gales, Nicholas J; Gedamke, Jason; Kindermann, Lars; Nowacek, Douglas P; Read, Andrew J; Siebert, Ursula; Van Opzeeland, Ilse C; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Friedlaender, Ari S

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action.

  18. Estimated food consumption of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Northeast Atlantic waters in 1992-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars P Folkow

    2000-05-01

    Uncertainties in stock estimates suggest a 95% confidence range of 1.4 - 2.1 million tonnes. The point estimate was composed of 602,000 tonnes of krill Thysanoessa spp., 633,000 tonnes of herring Clupea harengus, 142,000 tonnes of capelin Mallotus villosus, 256,000 tonnes of cod Gadus morhua, 128,000 tonnes of haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus and 54,500 tonnes of other fish species, including saithe Pollaehius virens and sand eel Ammodytes sp. Consumption of various prey items by minke whales may represent an important mortality factor for some of the species. For example, the estimated annual consumption of herring corresponds to about 70% of the herring fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic in 1995. Minke whale diets are subject to year-to-year variations due to changes in the resource base in different feeding areas. Thus, the regional distribution of consumption of different prey items is highly dynamic.

  19. Aleutian mink disease virus in free-ranging mustelids in Finland - a cross-sectional epidemiological and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, A; Aaltonen, K; Virtala, A-M K; Henttonen, H; Isomursu, M; Leimann, A; Maran, T; Saarma, U; Timonen, P; Vapalahti, O; Sironen, T

    2015-06-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) can cause severe immune-complex-mediated disease in American mink. AMDV has also been detected in several other mustelid species with potential negative impact on their health and population. A molecular and cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to obtain data on the prevalence, distribution, transmission and diversity of AMDV strains in Finnish free-ranging mustelids and risk factors associated with infection. The presence of anti-AMDV antibodies and/or AMDV DNA was tested from 308 samples representing eight mustelid species and 17 administrative regions. Positive samples were detected across Finland, and in 54 % (31/57) of feral American mink, 27 % (7/26) of European badgers and 7 % (1/14) of European polecats. Samples from Eurasian otters, European pine martens, least weasels, stoat and wolverine were negative. Major risk factors for infection were the species American mink with 335 and badger with 74 times higher odds than other species, and the years 2006-2009 with five times higher odds than the years 2010-2014. No clustering according to species, geographical origin or year was evident in phylogeny, except for four divergent sequences from Estonian badgers that formed a separate phylogroup distinct from other AMDV strains. This study showed that AMDV was prevalent in certain species of Finnish free-ranging mustelids and widely distributed across Finland. Furthermore, the free-ranging mustelids carried both strains similar to those found in farmed mink, but also distinct strains that may represent novel amdoparvoviruses. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Leigh-Anne; Karlsson, Karl Ae; Patzke, Nina; Spocter, Muhammad A; Siegel, Jerome M; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments.

  2. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'. Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male, and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites. E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm, effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis', similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a. and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  3. Transcript Profiling of Toll-Like Receptor mRNAs in Selected Tissues of Mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mingwei; Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Zhang, Miao; Cao, Zhigang; Wang, Jianke; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Shipeng

    2016-12-28

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses against invading infectious agents. The aim of this study was to assess the transcript profile of mink TLRs (mTLRs) in mink peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a range of tissues, and to explore the potential role of mTLRs in the antiviral immune response process. The results indicated that the mTLR partial nucleotide sequences had a high degree of nucleotide identity with ferret sequences (95-98%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that mammalian TLRs grouped into five TLR families, with a closer relationship of the mTLRs with those of ferret than the other mammalian sequences. Moreover, all the mTLRs were ubiquitously expressed in lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) and PBMCs. Interestingly, the mTLR expression patterns in lung, uterus, and heart showed quite a lot of similarity. Another remarkable observation was the wide expression of mTLR1-3 mRNAs in all tissues. Among the analyzed tissues, skeletal muscle was revealed to being the lowest repertoire of mTLR expression. Additionally, mink PBMCs exposed to the canine distemper virus revealed significant upregulation of mTLR2, mTLR4, mTLR7, and mTLR8 mRNAs, indicating that mTLRs have a role in innate immunity in the mink. Collectively, our results are the first to establish the basic expression patterns of mTLRs and the relationship between mTLRs and a virus, which will contribute to better understanding of the evolution and the functions of mTLRs in the innate immune system in minks.

  4. Evidence for widespread Leishmania infantum infection among wild carnivores in L. infantum periendemic northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, L; Chitimia, L; Cubas, A; Victoriano, I; De la Rúa, P; Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Muñoz-García, C I; Goyena, E; García-Martínez, D; Fisa, R; Riera, C; Murcia, L; Segovia, M; Berriatua, E

    2014-03-01

    Leishmania spp. infection was investigated in tissue samples of wild carnivores from the Spanish Basque Country (BC), by PCR and DNA sequencing. The region is at the northern periphery of Leishmania infantum endemic Iberian Peninsula and infection in the dog (reservoir) or other species has not been previously reported. Leishmania kinetoplast DNA was detected by real-time PCR (rtPCR) in 28% (44/156) of animals. Specifically, in 26% of Eurasian badgers (n=53), 29% of foxes (n=48), 29% of stone martens (n=21) and in 25-50% of less numerous species including genets, wild cats, pole cats, European mink and weasels. Infected animals particularly badgers, were most prevalent in the southernmost province of the BC (Araba) in areas dominated by arable land. Subsequent amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) from a subset of rtPCR positives samples confirmed the species as L. infantum, showing a high sequence homogeneity with ITS2 sequences of L. infantum from dogs and humans from southern Spain. In summary, this study reports for the first time L. infantum infection in wild carnivores from the BC including in stone martens, pole cats and minks in which infection has not been previously described. It supports the need to study infection in dogs and people in this region and is an example of the value of infection surveillance in wildlife to assess potential risks in the domestic environment and their role in spreading infections in non-endemic areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  6. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Breum, Solvej Ø; Larsen, Lars E; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne S

    2012-11-26

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  7. A retrospective cohort study estimating the individual Aleutian disease progress in female mink using a VP2 ELISA and its association to reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna-Maria; Nyman, Ann-Kristin; Wallgren, Per

    2017-05-01

    Aleutian Disease (AD) is an important disease in mink characterized by a persistent chronic infection typically causing a progressive disease with symptoms such as weight loss, polydipsia, polyuria, reduced reproductive performance and increased herd mortality. Due to lack of success in eradicating AD by stamping out, disease control programs based on estimating the disease progression have been implemented and used in the selection of future breeding animals. The aim of this project was to evaluate the association between the reproductive performance of female mink (expressed as being barren or not and litter size of non-barren females) and the individual AD status (defined as diseased or non-diseased based on the OD450 value in a dried blood spot samples (DBS) VP2 ELISA) while controlling for age and color type. The project included a pilot study with data on OD450 values and reproductive performance of 2067 female mink in one herd and a follow-up study with data from 10,368 primiparous female mink in four different herds. To investigate the association between the reproductive performance and the AD status, a multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used in the pilot study and an univariable mixed-effect logistic and Poisson regression model was used in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, being barren was significantly associated with age in an interaction with the AD status of the female mink with the highest risk among the primiparous diseased mink and lowest risk among older non-diseased mink (OR=5.8; pstudy, both being barren as well as litter size were significantly associated with the AD status of the female mink (OR=1.6 (pperformance of the female mink and the individual AD status. The effect of disease on litter size was minor compared to the effect on the barren percentage. Thus, assessment of the AD status with the DBS VP2 ELISA can be concluded to be a valuable tool for improving the reproductive performance of mink herds

  8. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Diurnal activity of the American Mink (Neovison vison in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The American mink (Neovison vison is an invasive species in Spain and its population ecology is poorly understood. Diurnal activity was studied in a population of central Spain by means of direct observations. This activity peaked in summer and winter, mink being more active just after daybreak (06:00-08:00 and before dawn (16:00-18:00. Foraging (50% of observations; N = 146 and travelling (38.2%, were the main activities recorded during daylight. Mink were recorded as either in water or on land. In the latter, their distance from the water edge never exceeded 5.5 m. This pattern of daylight activity could be a mechanism for reducing potential interactions with nocturnal mammals sharing the same habitats. The success of culling campaigns could be increased by extending trapping sessions to daylight hours. Riassunto Attività diurna del visone americano (Neovison visonM nella Spagna centrale. L’ecologia dell’alloctono visone americano in Spagna è tuttora poco nota. Tramite osservazione diretta, è stata indagata l’incidenza della attività diurna in una popolazione della Spagna centrale. Tale attività è risultata più frequente in estate ed inverno, quando i visoni sono attivi nelle prime ore del giorno (06:00-08:00 e prima del tramonto (16:00-18:00. Le attività registrate più frequentemente sono state il foraggiamento (50% delle osservazioni, N = 146 e gli spostamenti (travelling, 38,2%. I visoni sono stati osservati indistintamente sia in acqua che a terra; in quest’ultimo caso la distanza dalla riva non è mai stata superiore a 5,5 m. Si ipotizza che l’attività diurna potrebbe essere un meccanismo per ridurre le interazioni con mammiferi prevalentemente notturni legati ai medesimi ambienti. In base ai risultati ottenuti, si suggerisce che il successo delle operazioni di controllo della specie potrebbe essere incrementato estendendo il

  10. Wild blijft je bezighouden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van C.A.P.; Harmont, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Wild kan zorgen voor fikse productie- en kwaliteitschade én een hoop ergernis. Als de schade al te verhalen is, dan houdt de afhandeling van een schadeclaim veel rompslomp in. Neem daarom tijdig voorzorgsmaatregelen. Maar hoe je het ook wendt of keert, wild blijft je bezighouden.

  11. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  12. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Piter; Møller, Steen Henrik; Janss, Luc; Berg, Peer

    2014-05-07

    Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks carried by one individual depends on the behaviour of other individuals and that it may have a genetic basis. Thus, for a successful breeding strategy it could be crucial to consider both direct (DGE) and indirect (IGE) genetic effects on this trait. However, to date no study has investigated the genetic basis of bite marks in mink. A model that included DGE and IGE fitted the data significantly better than a model with DGE only, and IGE contributed a substantial proportion of the heritable variation available for response to selection. In the model with IGE, the total heritable variation expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance (T2) was six times greater than classical heritability (h2). For instance, for total bite marks, T2 was equal to 0.61, while h2 was equal to 0.10. The genetic correlation between direct and indirect effects ranged from 0.55 for neck bite marks to 0.99 for tail bite marks. This positive correlation suggests that mink have a tendency to fight in a reciprocal way (giving and receiving bites) and thus, a genotype that confers a tendency to bite other individuals can also cause its bearer to receive more bites. Both direct and indirect genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite

  13. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle...... with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G(2) block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed...... that population A cells sustained significantly higher levels of DNA replication than population B cells during the ADV-induced cell cycle arrest. Therefore, the type of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest was not trivial and could have implications for subsequent viral replication in the target cell....

  14. Do rabbits eat voles? Apparent competition, habitat heterogeneity and large-scale coexistence under mink predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew; Luque-Larena, Juan José; Lambin, Xavier

    2009-11-01

    Habitat heterogeneity is predicted to profoundly influence the dynamics of indirect interspecific interactions; however, despite potentially significant consequences for multi-species persistence, this remains almost completely unexplored in large-scale natural landscapes. Moreover, how spatial habitat heterogeneity affects the persistence of interacting invasive and native species is also poorly understood. Here we show how the persistence of a native prey (water vole, Arvicola terrestris) is determined by the spatial distribution of an invasive prey (European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus) and directly infer how this is defined by the mobility of a shared invasive predator (American mink, Neovison vison). This study uniquely demonstrates that variation in habitat connectivity in large-scale natural landscapes creates spatial asynchrony, enabling coexistence between apparent competitive native and invasive species. These findings highlight that unexpected interactions may be involved in species declines, and also that in such cases habitat heterogeneity should be considered in wildlife management decisions.

  15. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina

    2017-01-01

    for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case...... gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating...... types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk...

  16. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    % of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify...... specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones in mammals and re-assures the suitability of this technique for obtaining the sequence information...... of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF...

  17. Impairment of cellular immunity in west Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Larsen, Hans J S; Loft, Klaus Earl; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Móller, Per

    2006-03-15

    Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber is rich in organohalogen contaminants, mercury, and n-3 fatty acids. In the present study we show that a daily intake of 50-200 g of minke whale blubber causes an impairment of the nonspecific and specific cellular immune system in the West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris). Immune reactions were measured by mitogen (PHA, Con A) and antigen (KLH) intradermal testing, and as the study used exposure levels similar to those of Inuits and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), it is reasonable to infer that Inuits and polar bears suffer from similar decreased resistance to diseases. It is speculated that food sources are depleted by thinning sea ice due to climate change and that more research should assess the forecasted rise in additive immunopathy effects in polar bears. Additionally, our study suggests that the fatty acid composition may be of importance when investigating combined immunotoxic effects of contaminated food resources in future Inuit and polar bear studies.

  18. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  19. Wild Poliovirus List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio + Prevention The Virus Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses The Vaccines IPV OPV The Communities History of Polio Polio Now This Week Wild poliovirus list Public Health Emergency status Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus Surveillance Indicators The Global Polio Laboratory ...

  20. Evaluation of oral and subcutaneous delivery of an experimental canarypox recombinant canine distemper vaccine in the Siberian polecate (Mustela eversmanni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.; Innes, Kim; Taylor, Bobbi; Garell, Della

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the safety and efficacy of an experimental canarypox-vectored recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) subunit vaccine in the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmanni), a close relative of the black-footed ferret, (M. nigripes), an endangered species that is highly susceptible to the virus. Siberian polecats were randomized into six treatment groups. Recombinant canine distemper vaccine was administered s.c. at three dose levels (104.5, 105.0, and 105.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per dose) and was administered orally by spraying the vaccine into the oropharnyx at two dose levels (105.5, 108.0 PFU per dose). The sixth group of control animals was not vaccinated. For both routes of administration, two 1-ml doses of reconstituted vaccine were delivered 4 wk apart, followed by live virus challenge 3 wk after the second vaccination. During the challenge, Synder Hill test strain CDV obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, was administered i.p. Serial blood samples for CDV serology were collected immediately before vaccination and challenge, and 10, 15, and 20 days after challenge. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded up to 32 days after challenge. The survival rate in animals receiving vaccine at the highest oral dose (108.0 PFU per dose) was 83.3%. Survival rate was 50.0% in the high s.c. and 60.0% in the medium s.c. groups. All animals in the low–s.c. dose, low–oral dose, and control groups died after exposure. Vaccine dose overall (oral and s.c.) and dose in response to s.c. administration when considered alone were significant predictors of survival (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). Among the polecats challenged with virulent virus, those that died became sick sooner than those that survived. Animals that died lost significantly more weight during the 10 days after challenge than did animals that survived (P = 0.02). Survival rates did not differ by sex, founder female status, or breeding pedigree in any of

  1. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  2. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Zalewski

    Full Text Available Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55, genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates.

  3. A study on the improvement of age estimation in common minke whales using the method of gelatinized extraction of earplug

    OpenAIRE

    Hikari Maeda; Tadafumi Kawamoto; Hidehiro Kato

    2013-01-01

    We attempted to settle the potential problems of bias caused by too soft earplugs and poor formation of the growth layers in age readings of common minke whales. Thus, we examined the feasibility of a new technique of incorporating gelatin in order to collect earplugs for age assessment. Frozen sectioning and histology of the earplug core were also used as methods to improve age estimation. Earplugs were collected by filling the space in the external auditory meatus with gelatin, hardening th...

  4. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver inflammation in the American mink Neovison vison with benign hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Pal, Catherine; Martin, Timothy; Harris, Lora; Astatkie, Tessema; Kryzskaya, Darya; Kärjä, Vesa; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Tammi, Raija; Tammi, Markku; Nieminen, Petteri

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the presence of inflammatory signs in the progression of fatty liver disease induced by fasting. Sixty standard black American mink (Neovison vison) were fasted for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days and one group for 7 days followed by re-feeding for 28 days. Liver sections were evaluated histologically and liver mRNA levels indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic transformation, and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. After 3 days of fasting, the mink had developed moderate liver steatosis. Increased hyaluronan reactivity in lymphocytic foci but no Mallory-Denk bodies were seen in livers of the mink fasted for 5-7 days. Up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa was observed on day 7 indicating ER stress, especially in the females. Liver lipoprotein lipase and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA levels increased in response to 5-7 days of food deprivation, while tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was the highest in the mink fasted for 5 days. The expression of the genes of interest, except for TNF-α, correlated with each other and with the liver fat content. The mRNA levels were found to change more rapidly below n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio threshold of 0.15. Following re-feeding, hepatocyte morphology and mRNA abundance returned to pre-fasting levels. Within the studied timeframe, evidence for ER stress, adipogenic transformation, and liver inflammation suggested incipient transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis with potential for development of more severe liver disease. This may present a possibility to influence disease progression before histologically observable steatohepatitis.

  6. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  7. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  8. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (<6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  9. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2017-10-25

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  10. [Effect of dextrofer 100 and dextrofer 100 with B12 on the growth and fertility of mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankov, N; Gabrashanski, P

    1983-01-01

    The effect was followed up of dextrofer-100 and dextrofer-100 with B12 on the growth and fertility of minks. It was found that the i/m injection of dextrofer-100 at the rate of 0.5 cm3 per head (50 mg Fe3+), twice, at the interval of 45 days to a total of 45-day-old minks did not effect essentially their growth. The i/m application of dextrofer-100 with vitamin B12 at 0.5 cm3 per animal (50 mg Fe3+ and 40 mcg B12), singly in the beginning of the mating period to young female minks (at the age of 11 months) resulted in raising the number of offsprings from 3.4 to 4.68 (with impregnated females), and from 4.05 to 5.13 (with those that gave birth), and in lowering the number of those of the males that did not give birth as well as of those that gave birth but ate their offsprings. The weight of the obtained offsprings of the test and control males did not differ essentially between the age of 40 days and the age of 24 weeks.

  11. Landscape barriers reduce gene flow in an invasive carnivore: geographical and local genetic structure of American mink in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Piertney, Stuart B; Zalewska, Hanna; Lambin, Xavier

    2009-04-01

    To be effective, management programmes geared towards halting or reversing the spread of invasive species must focus on defined and defensible areas. This requires knowledge of the dispersal of non-native species targeted for control to better understand invasion and recolonisation scenarios. We investigated the genetic structure of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) in Scotland, and incorporated landscape genetic approaches to examine resultant patterns in relation to geographical features that may influence dispersal. Populations of mink sampled from 10 sites in two regions (Argyll and Northeast Scotland) show a distinct genetic structure. First, the majority of pairwise population comparisons yielded F(ST) values that were significantly greater than zero. Second, AMOVA revealed that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among regions. Assignment tests placed 89 or more of individuals into their sampled region. Bayesian clustering methods grouped samples into two clusters according to their region of origin. Wombling approach identified the Cairngorms Mountains as a major impediment to gene flow between the regions. Mantel pairwise correlations between genetic and geographical distances estimated as least-cost distance assuming a linear increase in the cost of movement with increasing elevation were higher than Euclidean distances or distance along waterways. Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed stronger spatial structuring for females than for males. These results suggest that gene flow by American mink is restricted by landscape features (mountain ranges) and that eradication attempt should in the first instance break down the connectivity between management units separated by mountains.

  12. 70 years of research on the American mink (Neovison vison schreb., 1777 genetics - where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupski Jakub Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about the genetics of the American mink (Neovison vison Schreb., 1777 - a species that achieved in the twentieth century an unprecedented ecological success associated with the dynamic development of its economic use. However, despite the large popularity and economic importance of the American mink as a fur animal, and the scale of the problems associated with its introduction beyond the range of natural occurrence, genetic research, particularly molecular genetics and genomics of this species, show relatively little progress. The article contains a comprehensive description of the studies undertaken on the genetics of the species, both in terms of cytogenetics, molecular genetics, genomics, population genetics and phylogenetics. The progress of the genome sequencing project of the American mink is also described as well as its transcriptome annotation. The article also deals with still unexplained and not completed, despite 70 years of genetic research, issues such as the standard karyotype, the precise molecular basis of coat color inheritance and systematic position of the species.

  13. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite.

  14. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  15. Establishment of stably transfected cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated antigenic proteins of two genetically distinct mink astroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi R M Bidokhti

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are becoming a growing concern in veterinary and public health. To date there are no registered vaccines against astrovirus-induced disease, mostly due to the difficulty to cultivate astroviruses to high titer for vaccine development using conventional techniques. As means to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals as evaluated by in-situ PLA and IFA, and confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant full-length and truncated proteins induced a high level of antibodies in mink, evaluated by ELISA, demonstrating their immunogenicity. In a challenge experiment in mink, a reduction in presentation clinical signs and virus shedding was observed in mink kits born from immunized females. The gene integration and protein expression were sustained through cell passage, showing that the used approach is robust and reliable for expression of functional capsid proteins for vaccine and diagnostic applications.

  16. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink () as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, M T; Tauson, A-H; Matthiesen, C F; Ahlstrøm, Ø

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink () as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied with respect to CP digestibility and AA composition and included lamb meal (LBM), poultry meal (PM), and fish meal (FM) with low, intermediate, and high protein quality, respectively. Nitrogen balance, BW gain, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were used as measures of protein and AA bioavailability in growing mink. Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) was used to measure protein and AA bioavailability in adult dogs (). The mink study (3 × 3 Latin square design) included 12 kits aged 8 to 11 wk. The dog study included 12 dogs divided in 3 groups allocated to 1 of the experimental diets. The growing mink responded in accordance with the different AA supply between diets, as determined by the first limiting AA. The LBM diet deviated from the other diets with lower ( European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog foods, information on AA composition and digestibility is crucial.

  17. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...... the prevalence and determinants of urban collectors of wild plants in Kampala, Uganda. During February to August 2015, 93 structured interviews were conducted in inner, outer, and peri-urban areas of the city. The findings in this study show that urban wild plants are used by almost half (47%) of the respondents......, mainly for medicinal purposes but also as a complement to diets. The findings further indicate that residents with lower income, of younger age (urban areas are more likely to be urban collectors. Seasonality appears to be of greater importance...

  18. De novo SNP calling from RAD sequences for a mink (Neovison vison) specific genotyping assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pujolar, José Martin; Larsen, Peter F

    The genetic marker of choice in mink has until now been microsatellites, but recently has single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) been used more and more in other species. In several species, SNP panels have been established through SNP chips. However, generations of such chips are expensive...... and require a large market to cover the cost. New technologies based on next generation sequencing (NGS) have made it possible to identify thousands of SNPs using a cost effective and fast method. The method can be used for non-model organisms in conservation biology and for production species with small...... population sizes. The aim of this study was to create a mink specific SNP panel well suited for population genetic studies, parental testing and forensic investigations. A SNP panel specific for American mink (Neovison vison) has been generated from Restriction site-Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Fourteen...

  19. Wild grapevine management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  20. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next...... day,D7: seven days after). Supplementary, we evaluated dam body condition (weight, score), nipple activity and health at separation. The two treatment groups had an equal litter size at the time of separation(7w: 5.5 ± 0.17; 8 w: 5.5 ± 0.17 kits; P = 0.76). Likewise, there was no significant...

  1. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin ( or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  2. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamir, Amir N; Greenlee, Justin J; Stanton, Thad B; Smith, Jodi D; Doucette, Stephanie; Kunkle, Robert A; Stasko, Judith A; Richt, Juergen A; Kehrli, Marcus E

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not Spiroplasma mirum would be capable of producing lesions of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) when inoculated in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and, if that was possible, to compare the clinicopathological findings with those of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) in the same experimental model. For this purpose, 5 groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either S. mirum and/or TME. Two other groups (n = 5) of raccoon kits served as sham-inoculated controls. All animals inoculated with TME, either alone or in combination, showed clinical signs of neurologic disorder and were euthanized within 6 mo post-inoculation (MPI). None of the carcasses revealed gross lesions. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by light microscopy and the presence of abnormal disease-causing prion protein (PrP(d)) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) techniques in only the raccoons administered TME. Raccoons inoculated with Spiroplasma, but not administered TME agent, were euthanized at 30 MPI. They did not show clinical neurologic signs, their brains did not have lesions of spongiform encephalopathy, and their tissues were negative for S. mirum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for PrP(d) by IHC and WB techniques. The results of this study indicate that Spiroplasma mirum does not induce TSE-like disease in raccoons.

  3. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  4. Methylmercury accumulation and elimination in mink (Neovison vison) hair and blood: results of a controlled feeding experiment using stable isotope tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan E; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Evans, Hayla E

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of metals in hair are used often to develop pharmacokinetic models for both animals and humans. Although data on uptake are available, elimination kinetics are less well understood; stable isotope tracers provide an excellent tool for measuring uptake and elimination kinetics. In the present study, methylmercury concentrations through time were measured in the hair and blood of mink (Neovison vison) during a controlled 60-d feeding experiment. Thirty-four mink were fed a standard fish-based diet for 14 d, at the end of which (day 0), 4 mink were sacrificed to determine baseline methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations. From day 0 to day 10, the remaining mink were fed a diet consisting of the base diet supplemented with 0.513 ± 0.013 µg Me(199) Hg/g and 0.163 ± 0.003 µg Me(201) Hg/g. From day 10 to day 60, mink were fed the base diet supplemented with 0.175 ± 0.024 µg Me(201) Hg/g. Animals were sacrificed periodically to determine accumulation of Me(201) Hg in blood and hair over the entire 60-d period and the elimination of Me(199) Hg over the last 50 d. Hair samples, collected from each mink and cut into 2.0-mm lengths, indicate that both isotopes of MeHg appeared in the hair closest to the skin at approximately day 10, with concentrations in the hair reaching steady state from day 39 onward. The elimination rate of Me(199) Hg from the blood was 0.05/d, and the ratio of MeHg in the hair to blood was 119. A large fraction of MeHg (22% to >100%) was stored in the hair, suggesting that in fur-bearing mammals the hair is a major route of elimination of MeHg from the body. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine Høvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance...... (37% vs 26% of HE, P diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P ..., P diet caused growth restriction and increased kit...

  6. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...... at national and regional levels tend to neglect their importance for food sovereignty and food culture (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Foraged plants often grow spontaneously and many exist independent of human interaction (Heywood, 1999)...

  7. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    the group. Qualitative interviews were conducted with the farmers to evaluate their perception of stable schools. Based on the results from the study, and results from other studies of stable schools, we can conclude that farmers generally are positive to the structural way of working in stable schools......The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based...

  8. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E 2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P 4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E 2 , P 4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E 2 , P 4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E 2 ) later. To evaluate E 2 priming, mink were treated with E 2 for 3 days, then P 4 for an additional 3 days (E 2 →P 4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E 2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E 2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P < 0.05). Treatment as E 2 →P 4 reduced glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E 2 →P 4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E 2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P 4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Genetic parameters for fur quality graded on live animals and dried pelts of American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Jensen, J; Lund, M S

    2017-08-01

    Fur quality and skin size are integral qualities in the mink industry and are main determinants of sales price and subsequent income for mink fur producers. Parental animals of future generations are selected based on quality grading from live animals, but selection response is obtained from dried skins sold after pelting. In this study, we evaluated traits assessed during live grading and pelt traits examined on dried skins to determine correlation between live and pelt traits. Grading traits and body weight were measured during live animal grading for 9,539 Brown American mink, and pelt quality traits and skin size were evaluated on 8,385 dried mink skins after pelting. Data were sampled from 2 yearly production cycles. Genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method implemented in the DMU package. Heritabilities and proportions of litter variance were calculated from estimated variance components for all traits, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between all traits were estimated in a series of bivariate analyses. Heritability estimates for live grading traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.28, heritability estimates for pelt quality traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.30, and finally heritability estimates for body size traits ranged from 0.43 to 0.48. Skin size and body weight were regarded as different traits for the two sexes and were therefore analysed for each sex separately. Genetic correlations between grading traits exhibited a range of 0.30-0.99 and genetic correlations between pelt quality traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.86. Genetic correlations between quality, wool density and silky appearance evaluated during live animal grading and on dried skin after pelting were 0.74, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively. Skin size and body weight were negatively correlated with pelt quality traits and ranged from -0.55 to -0.25. Using standard selection index theory and combined information from both live grading and skin evaluation increase of reliability of selection

  10. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-01-01

    .... Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds...

  11. Going WILD for Drupal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Jennifer; Sandberg, Tami

    2014-06-01

    The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), formerly known as the Avian Literature Database, was created in 1997. The goal of the database was to begin tracking the research that detailed the potential impact of wind energy development on birds. The Avian Literature Database was originally housed on a proprietary platform called Livelink ECM from Open- Text and maintained by in-house technical staff. The initial set of records was added by library staff. A vital part of the newly launched Drupal-based WILD database is the Bibliography module. Many of the resources included in the database have digital object identifiers (DOI). The bibliographic information for any item that has a DOI can be imported into the database using this module. This greatly reduces the amount of manual data entry required to add records to the database. The content available in WILD is international in scope, which can be easily discerned by looking at the tags available in the browse menu.

  12. Uterine glycogen metabolism in mink during estrus, embryonic diapause and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Matthew; Hunt, Jason; McDougall, Lisa; Rose, Jack

    2014-01-01

    We have determined uterine glycogen content, metabolizing enzyme expression and activity in the mink, a species that exhibits obligatory embryonic diapause, resulting in delayed implantation. Gross uterine glycogen concentrations were highest in estrus, decreased 50% by diapause and 90% in pregnancy (P ≤ 0.05). Endometrial glycogen deposits, which localized primarily to glandular and luminal epithelia, decreased 99% between estrus and diapause (P ≤ 0.05) and were nearly undetectable in pregnancy. Glycogen synthase and phosphorylase proteins were most abundant in the glandular epithelia. Glycogen phosphorylase activity (total) in uterine homogenates was higher during estrus and diapause, than pregnancy. While glycogen phosphorylase protein was detected during estrus and diapause, glycogen synthase was almost undetectable after estrus, which probably contributed to a higher glycogenolysis/glycogenesis ratio during diapause. Uterine glucose-6-phosphatase 3 gene expression was greater during diapause, when compared to estrus (P ≤ 0.05) and supports the hypothesis that glucose-6-phosphate resulting from phosphorylase activity was dephosphorylated in preparation for export into the uterine lumen. The relatively high amount of hexokinase-1 protein detected in the luminal epithelia during estrus and diapause may have contributed to glucose trapping after endometrial glycogen reserves were depleted. Collectively, our findings suggest to us that endometrial glycogen reserves may be an important source of energy, supporting uterine and conceptus metabolism up to the diapausing blastocyst stage. As a result, the size of uterine glycogen reserves accumulated prior to mating may in part, determine the number of embryos that survive to the blastocyst stage, and ultimately litter size.

  13. Second passage of sheep scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agents in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamir, A N; Kunkle, R A; Miller, J M; Richt, J A

    2005-11-01

    To determine the transmissibility and pathogenicity of sheep scrapie and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) agents derived from raccoons (first passage), raccoon kits were inoculated intracerebrally with either TME (one source) or scrapie (two sources-each in separate groups of raccoons). Two uninoculated raccoon kits served as controls. All animals in the TME-inoculated group developed clinical signs of neurologic dysfunction and were euthanatized between postinoculation month (PIM) 6 and 8. Raccoons in the two scrapie-inoculated groups manifested similar clinical signs of disease, but such signs were observed much later and the animals were euthanized between PIM 12 and 18. Necropsy revealed no gross lesions in any of the raccoons. Spongiform encephalopathy was observed by use of light microscopy, and the presence of protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) was detected by use of immunohistochemical (IHC) and Western blot analytic techniques. Results of IHC analysis indicated a distinct pattern of anatomic distribution of PrPres in the TME- and scrapie-inoculated raccoons. These findings confirm that TME and sheep scrapie are experimentally transmissible to raccoons and that the incubation periods and IHC distribution for both agents are distinct. Therefore, it may be possible to use raccoons for differentiating unknown transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents. Further studies, with regard to the incubation period and the pattern of PrPres deposition by use of IHC analysis in bovine spongiform encephalopathy and for other isolates of scrapie, chronic wasting disease, and TME in raccoons are needed before the model can be further characterized for differentiation of TSE agents.

  14. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus...

  15. Altered vitamin D status in liver tissue and blood plasma from Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to organohalogen contaminated minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Kirkegaard, Maja; Jakobsen, Jette

    2014-01-01

    This study compared vitamin D3 (vitD3) and 25-OH vitamin D3 (25OHD3) status in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) given either minke whale (Balaenoptera acuterostrata) blubber high in organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) or clean porcine (Suis scrofa) fat for up to 636 days. A group of six...

  16. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  17. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Morag F; Hurford, Jennifer; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2014-01-16

    Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  18. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, B M; Dalgaard, T S; Larsen, T; Hedemann, M S; Hansen, S W

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior to the expected feeding time both in the cases of restrictive and ad libitum feeding indicating a changed RFI-High feeding motivation and a higher risk of developing stereotypic activity. The body weight gain and the feed consumption were higher for RFI-High than for RFI-Low when feeding ad libitum indicating that RFI-High has a higher growth potential and/or a higher energy requirement than RFI-Low. Signs of immunosuppression were shown in connection with restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding, and RFI-High females seemed to be more susceptible to immunosuppression than RFI-Low females. Based on the present results, mink characterised as RFI-Low would be preferable as breeders because they involve lower feed costs and seem to be less susceptible to immunosuppression. They also seem to have less risk of developing stereotypic activity, which is beneficial for the welfare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum amyloid P component in mink, a non-glycosylated protein with affinity for phosphorylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omtvedt, Lone A; Wien, Tale N; Myran, Theresa; Sletten, Knut; Husby, Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Experimental AA amyloidosis in the mink is used as a model for the amyloid disease process. In that context it is important to characterize the different proteins involved in the amyloid formation. In the present work, we have characterized the serum amyloid P component (SAP) in mink. SAP was purified from serum by affinity chromatography using phosphorylethanolamine-coupled ECH-sepharose 4B. SDS-PAGE showed one major protein band (approximately 26 kDa) together with one minor band (10% of the major band) with a higher molecular mass (approximately 30 kDa) corresponding to a non-glycosylated and a glycosylated variant. All SAP molecules elucidated so far have at least one major subunit that is heavily glycosylated. It is therefore the first time that a non-glycosylated SAP protein is found in a mammalian species. The amino acid sequence was established using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. As expected, the protein showed high homology with the other mammalian SAP molecules, ranging from 73% (human) to 63% (mouse). The SAP protein showed affinity for phosphorylcholine and thus expressed CRP-like properties.

  20. Cloning and expression of mink (Neovison vison) interferon-γ gene and development of an antiviral assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Sining; Hu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Dongliang; Xu, Shujuan; Yan, Xijun

    2015-08-01

    Minks (Neovison vison) farming is under a threat of a variety of viral infections with increasingly growing number of breeding in Northeastern and Western China. While interferon is effective in controlling viral infection, IFN among different species rarely share high homology enough to provide cross protective effect on inhibition of virus replication. We cloned, sequenced, phlogenetically analyzed and expressed the miIFN-γ gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The anti-vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activity of miIFN-γ protein was tested in MDCK cells using in vitro cytopathic inhibition assay. The recombinant miIFN-γ could inhibit VSV replication in MDCK cells, which was confirmed by that pre-incubation of rabbit anti-miIFN-γ antibodies with miIFN-γ abrogated the miIFN-γ protective effect. Our findings implicated that the miIFN-γ gene may be a potential counter measure against viral infection in the mink farming. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of the American mink, Neovison vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ken; Fukue, Yuko; Kishimoto, Ryosuke; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2014-05-01

    We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, and vallate papillae, and lateral organ) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in the American mink (Neovison vison) using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae were distributed on the apex linguae and rostral regions of the corpus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed over the caudal region and absent in the radix linguae. Numerous ridges were present in the radix linguae. Four to six vallate papillae were situated at the border between the corpus and radix linguae. Instead of foliate papillae, a pair of lateral organs was situated on the caudal edge of the corpus. The epithelial surface of each filiform papilla consisted of a single main process and 10-12 accessory processes. Notably, filiform papillae in the apex linguae exhibited morphological variation, and some were dome-like and lacked processes. In contrast, filiform papillae on the rostral part were not variable, were extended to a sharp tip, were associated with an eosinophilic stratum corneum, and lacked nuclei. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main core and slender accessory cores surrounding a concavity. Those in the apex linguae were similar in appearance and consisted of main and adjacent accessory cores. The fungiform papillae had a dome-like epithelial surface and their CTCs were columnar, with upper concavities and flanges. The simplified lingual morphology of the American mink, particularly in the filiform papillae in the apex linguae, may be influenced by its diet and semiaquatic lifestyle.

  3. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  4. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Vaccination with F1-V fusion protein protects black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) against plague upon oral challenge with Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Smith, Susan; Marinari, Paul E.; Kreeger, J.; Enama, J.T.; Powell, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have established that vaccination of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) with F1-V fusion protein by subcutaneous (SC) injection protects the animals against plague upon injection of the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This study demonstrates that the F1-V antigen can also protect ferrets against plague contracted via ingestion of a Y. pestis-infected mouse, a probable route for natural infection. Eight black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated with F1-V protein by SC injection at approximately 60 days-of-age. A booster vaccination was administered 3 mo later via SC injection. Four additional ferret kits received placebos. The animals were challenged 6 wk after the boost by feeding each one a Y. pestis-infected mouse. All eight vaccinates survived challenge, while the four controls succumbed to plague within 3 days after exposure. To determine the duration of antibody postvaccination, 18 additional black-footed ferret kits were vaccinated and boosted with F1-V by SC injection at 60 and 120 days-of-age. High titers to both F1 and V (mean reciprocal titers of 18,552 and 99,862, respectively) were found in all vaccinates up to 2 yr postvaccination, whereas seven control animals remained antibody negative throughout the same time period.

  6. Foetal life protein restriction in male mink (Neovison vison) kits lowers post-weaning protein oxidation and the relative abundance of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, D.; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2012-01-01

    protein deficiency affects the response to adequate or deficient protein provision post weaning. Further, we intended to study whether the changes in the gene expression of key enzymes in foetal hepatic tissue caused by maternal protein deficiency were manifested post-weaning. A total of 32 male mink kits...... (P restriction leads to changes in post-weaning protein metabolism through lower protein oxidation of male mink kits....

  7. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effects of three different high-lipid diets on plasma lipoproteins and phospholipids in mink (Mustela vison). The 18 mink studied were fed one of the three diets during a 25-d period in a parallel group design. The compared diets had 0, 17, and 67% extracted lipids from natural gas...

  8. Wild McEliece Incognito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja; Peters, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The wild McEliece cryptosystem uses wild Goppa codes over nite elds to achieve smaller public key sizes compared to the original McEliece cryptosystem at the same level of security against all attacks known. However, the cryptosystem drops one of the condence-inspiring shields built into the orig...

  9. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effect of nest box temperature and humidity on the growth and survival of approx. 700 mink litters. Surprisingly this study did not find any general biological explanatory temperature and/or humidity effects within days on the number of live born kits dying and kits...... growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors acting...... on the female/litter prior to or during the parturition are an important determent of early kit growth and viability. The results indicate that females with large litters have less success by taken care of the kits compared to females with small litters. In addition litters with high mean growth were also...

  10. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams....... Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit...... growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit ( PLitter size affected kit vitality...

  11. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pertoldi, Cino; Larsen, Peter Foged

    2014-01-01

    Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2...... and F3) after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly...... caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females...

  12. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirstrup Janne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2 and F3 after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females.

  13. The Wilde analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  14. A study on the improvement of age estimation in common minke whales using the method of gelatinized extraction of earplug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Maeda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We attempted to settle the potential problems of bias caused by too soft earplugs and poor formation of the growth layers in age readings of common minke whales. Thus, we examined the feasibility of a new technique of incorporating gelatin in order to collect earplugs for age assessment. Frozen sectioning and histology of the earplug core were also used as methods to improve age estimation. Earplugs were collected by filling the space in the external auditory meatus with gelatin, hardening the gelatin, earplug and its fragments, by spraying with cooling gas, and removing the earplug embedded in gelatin. In 174 trials with common minke whales in the Western North Pacific of coastal waters of Japan in 2007–2009, it was revealed that embedding earplugs with gelatin minimized breakage and protected the neonatal line (NL. This method was particularly effective in younger animals. As a result, the readability was improved. We also examined the histological sections, which were sliced using the Kawamoto specialized frozen sectioning technique, and stained them separately with toluidine blue, haematoxylin and eosin, Sudan III, Sudan VII, and alizarin red S to display a clearer core surface image of the growth layers. The histological sections stained with alizarin red S provided the clearest images, in which we could easily identify both dark and pale laminations. This suggested a close relationship with the seasonal changes in calcium intake from feeding. Earlier age estimation methods focused on fat content in the growth layers; however, we found potential for an improvement in the readability of unclear growth layers when focusing on calcium.

  15. Use of bovine recombinant prion protein and real-time quaking-induced conversion to detect cattle transmissible mink encephalopathy prions and discriminate classical and atypical L- and H-Type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soyoun; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    Prions are amyloid-forming proteins that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies through a process involving conversion from the normal cellular prion protein to the pathogenic misfolded conformation (PrPSc). This conversion has been used for in vitro assays including serial protein misfolding amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC). RT-QuIC can be used for the detection of prions in a variety of biological tissues from humans and animals. Extensive work has been done to demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive prion detection assay. RT-QuIC uses recombinant prion protein to detect minute amounts of PrPSc. RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc from different prion diseases with a variety of substrates including hamster, human, sheep, bank vole, bovine and chimeric forms of prion protein. However, recombinant bovine prion protein has not been used to detect transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) or to differentiate types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in samples from cattle. We evaluated whether PrPSc from TME and BSE infected cattle can be detected with RT-QuIC using recombinant bovine prion proteins, and optimized the reaction conditions to specifically detect cattle TME and to discriminate between classical and atypical BSE by conversion efficiency. We also found that substrate composed of the disease associated E211K mutant protein can be effective for the detection of TME in cattle and that wild type prion protein appears to be a practical substrate to discriminate between the different types of BSEs.

  16. Genetic parameters and effect of selection for body weight in lines of mink (Neovion vison) on ad libitum and restricted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Bente Krog

    2012-01-01

    Selection was performed for high November weight on ad libitum (AL) and restricted feeding (RF) in mink in two generations. A farm fed line (FF) was maintained as a control. The estimates of heritability for November weight were large (0.62, 0.52, and 0.73 in males and 0.68, 0.51, and 0.60 in fem......Selection was performed for high November weight on ad libitum (AL) and restricted feeding (RF) in mink in two generations. A farm fed line (FF) was maintained as a control. The estimates of heritability for November weight were large (0.62, 0.52, and 0.73 in males and 0.68, 0.51, and 0...

  17. Validation of the sperm quality analyzer and the hypo-osmotic swelling test for frozen-thawed ram and minke whale (Balaenoptera bonarensis) spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Yutaka; Togawa, Morihiko; Abe, Norihito; Takano, Yuuki; Asada, Masatsugu; Okada, Aki; Iida, Kenji; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-02-01

    The object of the present study was to investigate the validation of the sperm quality analyzer (SQA) and the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test with standard sperm analysis methods in frozen-thawed ram and minke whale spermatozoa. In rams, highly significant correlations were observed in the percentage of motile spermatozoa (Psperm concentration (Pwhale spermatozoa, the SVI (sperm viability index) values by the standard method were significantly (Psperm motility index (SMI) values by SQA. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was also significantly correlated (Pwhale spermatozoa, and that the SQA and HOS test values are significantly correlated in ram spermatozoa. However, sperm concentration and morphologically normal spermatozoa are not assessed accurately by SQA in minke whales.

  18. Ectoparasites of the endangered Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M

    2007-09-01

    Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other

  19. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  20. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  2. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2017-08-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing the effect of the feed parameters total volatile nitrogen, dry matter, crude protein and fat; total bacterial count (21°C), and counts of sulphite producing bacteria (21°C), Clostridium spp., faecal cocci (FC) (44°C), yeast, and mould; presence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens (dichotome). Three outcome variables were applied: prescription of oral antimicrobial on herd level within time slots of 3, 5 or 7days after feeding of an included batch. Two binomial models were developed, adjusting for significant effects (p<0.0001) of Ps. aeruginosa infection, herd size, month (season) and year. Antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.0001) associated with FC (all time slots, both models). A negative association (p<0.0001) with crude protein on antimicrobial prescription within a 7day slot suggested an association between low content of crude protein and antimicrobial use. The associations need to be confirmed in controlled studies, and ideally, potential causalities should be investigated. The perspective of such findings could be the development of tests for

  3. Occurrence and molecular genotyping of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wild mesocarnivores in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Marta; de Mingo, Marta Hernández; de Lucio, Aida; Morales, Lucía; Balseiro, Ana; Espí, Alberto; Barral, Marta; Lima Barbero, José Francisco; Habela, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-García, José L; Bernal, Rafael Calero; Köster, Pamela C; Cardona, Guillermo A; Carmena, David

    2017-02-15

    There is a surprisingly scarce amount of epidemiological and molecular data on the prevalence, frequency, and diversity of the intestinal protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in wildlife in general and mesocarnivore species in particular. Consequently, the extent of the cyst/oocyst environmental contamination attributable to these wild host species and their potential implications for public veterinary health remain largely unknown. In this molecular epidemiological survey a total of 193 individual faecal samples from badgers (Meles meles, n=70), ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, n=2), genets (Genetta genetta, n=6), Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus, n=6), beech martens (Martes foina, n=8), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon, n=2), otters (Lutra lutra, n=2), polecats (Mustela putorius, n=2), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=87), wildcats (Felis silvestris, n=2), and wolves (Canis lupus, n=6) were obtained from road-killed, hunted, and accidentally found carcasses, and from camera-trap surveys or animals entering rescue shelters, during the period December 2003-April 2016. Investigated specimens were collected in five Spanish autonomous regions including Andalusia (n=1), Asturias (n=69), Basque Country (n=49), Castile-La Mancha (n=38), and Extremadura (n=36). The presence of cysts/oocysts was confirmed by PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (ssu) ribosomal RNA gene of these parasite species. Genotyping of the obtained isolates were attempted at appropriate markers including the glutamate dehydrogenase (G. duodenalis) and the 60-kDa glycoprotein (C. parvum and C. ubiquitum) loci. Overall, G. duodenalis was detected in 8% (7/87) of red foxes, a single beech marten, and a single wolf, respectively. Cryptosporidium was identified in 3% (2/70) of badgers, 8% (7/87) of red foxes, a single genet, and a single mongoose, respectively. None of the nine G. duodenalis isolates generated could be genotyped at the assemblage/sub-assemblage level. Out of the

  4. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study...... the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  5. The number of neurons in specific amygdala regions is associated with boldness in mink: a study in animal personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Needham, Esther Kjær; Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2018-01-09

    Conspecifics vary consistently in their behavioural responses towards environment stimuli such as exposure to novel objects; ethologists often refer to this variability as animal personality. The neurological mechanisms underlying animal personality traits remain largely unknown, but linking the individual variation in emotional expression to brain structural and neurochemical factors is attracting renewed interest. While considerable research has focused on hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on behavioural responses, less is known about how individual variation in the number of specific neuron populations contributes to individual variation in behaviour. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the central nuclei of the amygdala (CeA) mediate emotional processing by regulating behavioural responses of animals in a potentially threatening situation. As such, these structures are good candidates for evaluating the relationship between neuronal populations and behavioural traits. We now show that individual American mink (Neovison vison) reacting more boldly towards novelty have more neurons in the BLA than do their more timid conspecifics, suggesting that a developmental pattern of the number of amygdala neurons can influence behavioural traits of an adult animal. Furthermore, post hoc correlations revealed that individuals performing with higher arousal, as reflected by their frequency of startle behaviour, have more CeA neurons. Our results support a direct link between the number of neurons in amygdala regions and aspects of animal personality.

  6. The complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L D; Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Jones, B N; Gurd, F R

    1977-02-22

    The complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the Arctic minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at the two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage of the methylacetimidated apomyoglobin at the three arginine residues with trypsin. The further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin and S. aureus strain V8 protease enabled the determining of the remainder of the covalent structure. This myoglobin differs from that of the dwarf sperm whale, Kogia simus, at 16 positions, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, at 14 positions, from that of the common porpoise, Phocaena phocaena, and the bottlenosed dolphin, Tursiops truncatus at 13 positions, from that of the Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis, at 10 positions, and from that of California gray whale, Eschrichtius gibbosus, at 3 positions- All of the substitutions observed in this sequence fit easily into the three-dimensional structure of the sperm whale myoglobin.

  7. On the olfactory anatomy in an archaic whale (Protocetidae, Cetacea) and the minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Balaenopteridae, Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Stephen J; Geisler, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, Erich M G

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the olfactory apparatus is not well known in both archaic and extant whales; the result of poor preservation in most fossils and locational isolation deep within the skulls in both fossil and Recent taxa. Several specimens now shed additional light on the subject. A partial skull of an archaic cetacean is reported from the Pamunkey River, Virginia, USA. The specimen probably derives from the upper middle Eocene (Piney Point Formation) and is tentatively assigned to the Protocetidae. Uncrushed cranial cavities associated with the olfactory apparatus were devoid of sediment. CT scans clearly reveal the dorsal nasal meatus, ethmoturbinates within the olfactory recess, the cribriform plate, the area occupied by the olfactory bulbs, and the olfactory nerve tract. Several sectioned skulls of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) were also examined, and olfactory structures are remarkably similar to those observed in the fossil skull from the Pamunkey River. One important difference between the two is that the fossil specimen has an elongate olfactory nerve tract. The more forward position of the external nares in extant balaenopterids when compared with those of extant odontocetes is interpreted to be the result of the need to retain a functional olfactory apparatus and the forward position of the supraoccipital/cranial vertex. An increase in the distance between the occipital condyles and the vertex in balaenopterids enhances the mechanical advantage of the epaxial musculature that inserts on the occiput, a specialization that likely stabilizes the head of these enormous mammals during lunge feeding. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Partitioning and kinetics of methylmercury among organs in captive mink (Neovison vison): A stable isotope tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Despite the importance of methylmercury (MeHg) as a neurotoxin, we have relatively few good data on partitioning and kinetics of MeHg among organs, particularly across the blood-brain barrier, for mammals that consume large quantities of fish. The objective of this study was to determine the partition coefficients between blood and brain, liver and kidney and fur for MeHg under steady-state conditions and to measure the half-lives for MeHg in these organs. Captive mink (Neovison vison) were fed a diet enriched with two stable isotopes of Hg, Me(199)Hg and Me(201)Hg for a period of 60 days. After a period of 10 days the diet was changed to contain only Me(201)Hg so that, between days 10 and 60, we were able to measure both uptake and elimination rates from blood, brain, liver kidney and fur. Liver and kidney response was very rapid, closely following changes in blood concentrations but there was a small lag time between peak blood concentrations and peak brain concentrations. Half-lives for MeHg were 15.4, 10.2 and 13.4 days for brain, liver and kidney, respectively. There was no measurable conversion of the MeHg to inorganic Hg (IHg) in the brain over the 60 day period, unlike in liver and kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  10. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  11. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  12. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129 and Miy...

  13. Observations on hippocampal mossy cells in mink (Neovison vison) with special reference to dendrites ascending to the granular and molecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K; Scharfman, Helen E; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2016-02-01

    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  16. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    -throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large......Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short...... that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals....

  17. The gastrointestinal tract of farmed mink (Neovison vison ) maintains a diverse mucosa-associated microbiota following a 3-day fasting period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hammer, Anne S.; Clausen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Although it is well documented that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease in mammalian species, this area has been poorly studied among carnivorous animals, especially within the mustelidae family. The gastrointestinal tract of carnivores is characterized by its short......-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to explore the resident gut microbiota of the mink in terms of intra-and interindividual diversity. We report, for the first time, that the mucosa-associated bacterial community within the colon is diverse and dissimilar from the community found in the feed. We found large...... that a resident and stable microbiota is hosted by these animals....

  18. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent...... farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm...

  19. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2012-06-01

    Growth performance and metabolism were investigated in mink kits (n = 210) exposed to the same dietary treatment as their dams (n = 30), i.e. high (HP; 61% of metabolisable energy, ME), medium (MP; 48% of ME) or low (LP; 30% of ME) protein supply, from birth until 10 weeks of age. The kits were weighed weekly, and were measured by means of balance experiment and indirect calorimetry, in weeks eight and nine post-partum (p.p.). At weaning (seven weeks p.p.) and 10 weeks p.p. one kit per litter was killed and blood, liver and kidneys were collected. Plasma amino acid profiles, and hepatic abundance of mRNA for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) by q-PCR, were determined. There were no differences in live weights among kits the first four weeks of life when kits solely consumed milk, but male LP kits were the heaviest. After transition to solid feed MP kits weighed most at nine weeks of age (p < 0.05). At eight weeks of age, the kits fed the LP diet retained less (p < 0.05) N than HP and MP kits. Heat production did not differ among kits, although protein oxidation was higher (p < 0.001) in HP kits than in LP kits. Kits fed the LP diet had lower (p < 0.05) plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine and leucine than MP kits. Dietary treatment was not reflected in the relative abundance of any of the studied mRNAs, but kits had significantly lower abundance of all studied mRNA than their dams, ranging from 83% less PEPCK abundance to 40% less for G-6-Pase. The kidney mass was smallest (p < 0.01) in kits fed the LP diet, and liver masses were largest (p < 0.001) in HP kits. The results indicate that the LP diet did not meet the protein requirements for mink kits in the transition period from milk to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in

  20. Primi dati sull'uso dello spazio e sui ritmi di attività della donnola Mustela nivalis in Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magrini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La donnola Mustela nivalis, è il più piccolo carnivoro conosciuto. È distribuita in Italia su tutta la penisola fino ai 2000 m di quota e sulle isole maggiori, e, benché sia una specie largamente diffusa anche in ambienti antropizzati, pochi sono gli studi di campo condotti in Italia, che ne mettano in luce presenza, densità, ecologia di base (dieta, uso dello spazio e dell'habitat, e genetica. La presente ricerca avviata nel gennaio 2003, prevede una raccolta di dati mensile con una presenza costante nell'area di studio, e interessa un territorio, all'interno della Riserva Regionale Parziale dei Laghi Lungo e Ripasottile, in provincia di Rieti (Lazio, caratterizzato da colture estensive e dalla presenza di una fitta rete di canali e di aree lacustri. La metodologia di studio si basa su sessioni di trappolaggio di durata variabile e a scadenza mensile. Vengono utilizzate trappole di legno incruente (in media n = 30 con esca morta (Mus musculus; gli animali catturati vengono marcati con trasponder sottocutaneo per il riconoscimento individuale, e provvisti di trasmittente radio (del peso di 1,5 g posizionata tramite collare o zainetto. La radiolocalizzazione avviene tramite "homing", il segnale viene ricevuto a una distanza massima di 200 m, ma in media molto inferiore a causa degli ostacoli naturali e delle abitudini fossorie della donnola che diminuiscono notevolmente la capacità di ricezione del segnale. Sono stati catturati e seguiti 4 animali maschi adulti per un totale di 318 localizzazioni, 184 durante le ore diurne, 108 nelle ore notturne, e 18 durante le ore crepuscolari, prese con un intervallo di 15 minuti l'una dall'altra, e distribuite in maniera non omogenea tra gli individui. Il massimo periodo di telemetria continuativa per un animale corrisponde a 5 giorni, questo a causa della frequente perdita della radio trasmittente nelle prime 48 ore dopo il posizionamento (62,5% dei casi, perdita dovuta da un lato