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Sample records for wild aquatic bird

  1. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  2. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 avian influenza viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine, with an overall virus isolation frequency of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from thr...

  3. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of selenium (Se) in wild aquatic birds have been documented as a consequence of pollution of the aquatic environment by subsurface agricultural drainwater and other sources. These effects include mortality, impaired reproduction with teratogenesis, reduced growth, histopathological lesions and alterations in hepatic glutathione metabolism. A review is provided, relating adverse biological effects of Se in aquatic birds to altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress. Laboratory studies, mainly with an organic form of Se, selenomethionine, have revealed oxidative stress in different stages of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) life cycle. As dietary and tissue concentrations of Se increase, increases in plasma and hepatic GSH peroxidase activities occur, followed by dose-dependent increases in the ratio of hepatic oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG:GSH) and ultimately hepatic lipid peroxidation measured as an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). One or more of these oxidative effects were associated with teratogenesis (4.6 ppm wet weight Se in eggs), reduced growth in ducklings (15 ppm Se in liver), diminished immune function (5 ppm Se in liver) and histopathological lesions (29 ppm Se in liver) in adults. Manifestations of Serelated effects on glutathione metabolism were also apparent in field studies in seven species of aquatic birds. Reduced growth and possibly immune function but increased liver:body weight and hepatic GSSG:GSH ratios were apparent in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) hatchlings from eggs containing 9 ppm Se. In blacknecked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), which contained somewhat lower Se concentrations, a decrease in hepatic GSH was apparent with few other effects. In adult American coots (Fulica americana), signs of Se toxicosis included emaciation, abnormal feather loss and histopathological lesions. Mean liver concentrations of 28 ppm Se (ww) in the coots were associated with elevated

  6. Characterizing wild bird contact and seropositivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Alaskan residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Carrie; Bruden, Dana; Byrd, Kathy K; Veguilla, Vic; Bruce, Michael; Hurlburt, Debby; Wang, David; Holiday, Crystal; Hancock, Kathy; Ortiz, Justin R; Klejka, Joe; Katz, Jacqueline M; Uyeki, Timothy M

    2014-09-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have infected poultry and wild birds on three continents with more than 600 reported human cases (59% mortality) since 2003. Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza A viruses, and migratory birds have been documented with HPAI H5N1 virus infection. Since 2005, clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to many countries. We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey in Anchorage and western Alaska to identify possible behaviors associated with migratory bird exposure and measure seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We enrolled rural subsistence bird hunters and their families, urban sport hunters, wildlife biologists, and a comparison group without bird contact. We interviewed participants regarding their exposures to wild birds and collected blood to perform serologic testing for antibodies against a clade 2.2 HPAI H5N1 virus strain. Hunters and wildlife biologists reported exposures to wild migratory birds that may confer risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses, although none of the 916 participants had evidence of seropositivity to HPAI H5N1. We characterized wild bird contact among Alaskans and behaviors that may influence risk of infection with avian influenza A viruses. Such knowledge can inform surveillance and risk communication surrounding HPAI H5N1 and other influenza viruses in a population with exposure to wild birds at a crossroads of intercontinental migratory flyways. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Avian Influenza Virus Surveillance in South-Central Spain Using Fecal Samples of Aquatic Birds Foraging at Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Bárbara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic wild birds have been intensively studied to better understand their role in avian influenza virus (AIV maintenance and spread. To date, AIV surveillance has primarily focused on natural aquatic environments where different bird species aggregate and viral survival is enhanced. However, artificial habitats such as landfills are attracting substantial numbers of wild birds, AIV reservoir species included. The use of landfills as a predictable food source has significantly influenced population size, migratory traits, and feeding behavior of white storks (Ciconia ciconia and black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus among others. Considering the proximity of landfills to urban settlements and frequently poultry-farms, targeted monitoring of AIV in bird species that forage at landfills but are known to also frequent urban and agricultural habitats could be a useful means for monitoring of AIV, especially during periods of bird aggregation. During the wintering season 2014–2015, the prevalence of AIV in five avian species at two landfills in South-Central Spain was explored by rRT-PCR and species related temporal variation in AIV prevalence determined. We collected and tested 1,186 fresh fecal samples from white storks (N = 689, cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis, N = 116 and mixed flocks of gulls (N = 381 as well as cloacal and oral swabs from five birds found dead. Seven samples contained AIV, five from gulls and one each from a stork and a cattle egret. Overall, AIV prevalence was 0.60%. No significant temporal variation was observed in AIV prevalence. Prevalence differed significantly among the sampled taxonomic groups, being highest in gulls (1.31%. H16N3 subtype was detected from a cattle egret and H11N9 subtype from a white stork, whereas gulls harbored both subtypes in addition to H11N3 subtype. H16 subtype detection in a cattle egret evidences its host range may not be restricted to gulls. Our results indicate that wild

  8. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  9. Can preening contribute to influenza A virus infection in wild waterbirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Delogu

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and virus-isolation (VI assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5 and cotton swabs (n = 24 experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system.

  10. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  11. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  12. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  13. Characterization and expression analysis of AH receptors in aquatic mammals and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Young [Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Matsuyama (Japan); Yasui, Tomoko; Hisato, Iwata; Shinsuke, Tanabe [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The magnitude of the risk that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) pose to the health of aquatic birds and mammals is uncertain, because of the lack of direct information on the sensitivity and toxicity to these chemicals. Exposure to PHAHs is speculated to produce toxicity through changes in the expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. These changes are initiated by the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor. The AHR and its dimerization partner ARNT belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcriptional regulation proteins. The bHLH domain was involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions, and the PAS domain forms a secondary dimerization surface for heteromeric interactions between AHR and ARNT. Although the presence and basic function of AHR are known to be conserved in most vertebrates, only a limited number of studies on the structure and functional diversity of AHR in aquatic mammals and birds have been reported, in spite of their high exposure to dioxins and other related chemicals. To understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to dioxin exposure and toxic effects that PHAHs pose in wild animals, we investigated the molecular and functional characterization of AHRs from aquatic mammals and birds. Initially, the AHR cDNAs from the livers of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica), black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) and common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were cloned and sequenced. We also clarified the tissue-specific expression pattern of AHR mRNA and the relationships among PHAHs, AHR and CYP expression levels in the liver of Baikal seals and common cormorants.

  14. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  15. West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Monitoring of Wild Birds in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Friederike; Fast, Christine; Reuschel, Maximilian; Müller, Kerstin; Urbaniak, Sylvia; Brandes, Florian; Schwehn, Rebekka; Groschup, Martin H.; Ziegler, Ute

    2018-01-01

    By systematically setting up a unique nation-wide wild bird surveillance network, we monitored migratory and resident birds for zoonotic arthropod-borne virus infections, such as the flaviviruses West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV). More than 1900 wild bird blood samples, from 20 orders and 136 different bird species, were collected between 2014 and 2016. Samples were investigated by WNV and USUV-specific real-time polymerase chain reactions as well as by differentiating virus neutralization tests. Dead bird surveillance data, obtained from organ investigations in 2016, were also included. WNV-specific RNA was not detected, whereas four wild bird blood samples tested positive for USUV-specific RNA. Additionally, 73 USUV-positive birds were detected in the 2016 dead bird surveillance. WNV neutralizing antibodies were predominantly found in long-distance, partial and short-distance migrants, while USUV neutralizing antibodies were mainly detected in resident wild bird species, preferentially with low seroprevalences. To date, WNV-specific RNA has neither been detected in wild birds, nor in mosquitoes, thus, we conclude that WNV is not yet present in Germany. Continued wild bird and mosquito monitoring studies are essential to detect the incursion of zoonotic viruses and to allow risk assessments for zoonotic pathogens. PMID:29361762

  16. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  17. Plastic ingestion in aquatic-associated bird species in southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Katy R; Lo Savio, Roberto; McQuaid, Christopher D; Madeira, Pedro; Valbusa, Ugo; Azevedo, Fábia; Casero, Maria; Lourenço, Carla; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2018-01-01

    Excessive use of plastics in daily life and the inappropriate disposal of plastic products are severely affecting wildlife species in both coastal and aquatic environments. Birds are top-predators, exposed to all threats affecting their environments, making them ideal sentinel organisms for monitoring ecosystems change. We set a baseline assessment of the prevalence of marine plastic litter affecting multi-species populations of aquatic birds in southern Portugal. By examining 160 stomach contents from 8 species of aquatic birds, we show that 22.5% were affected by plastic debris. Plastic was found in Ciconia ciconia, Larus fuscus and L. michahellis. Ciconia ciconia ingested the highest amount (number of items and total mass) of plastic debris. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicones) was the most abundant polymer and was recorded only in C. ciconia. Plastic ingestion baseline data are of crucial importance to evaluate changes through time and among regions and to define management and conservation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  19. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nott Mark P

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza virus (AIV is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur and how high pathogenicity influenza might travel if it enters wild bird populations in the US. Modelling the number of AIV cases is important because the rate of co-infection with multiple AIV subtypes increases with the number of cases and co-infection is the source of reassortment events that give rise to new strains of influenza, which occurred before the 1968 pandemic. Aquatic birds in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes have been recognized as reservoirs of AIV since the 1970s. However, little is known about influenza prevalence in terrestrial birds in the order Passeriformes. Since passerines share the same habitat as poultry, they may be more effective transmitters of the disease to humans than aquatic birds. We analyze 152 passerine species including the American Robin (Turdus migratorius and Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus. Methods We formulate a regression model to predict AIV cases throughout the US at the county scale as a function of 12 environmental variables, sampling effort, and proximity to other counties with influenza outbreaks. Our analysis did not distinguish between types of influenza, including low or highly pathogenic forms. Results Analysis of 13,046 cloacal samples collected from 225 bird species in 41 US states between 2005 and 2008 indicates that the average prevalence of influenza in passerines is greater than the prevalence in eight other avian orders. Our regression model identifies the Great Plains and the Pacific Northwest as high-risk areas for AIV. Highly significant predictors of AIV include the amount of

  20. Selenium toxicity: cause and effects in aquatic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallholz, J.E.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    There are several manners in which selenium may express its toxicity: (1) an important mechanism appears to involve the formation of CH3Se- which either enters a redox cycle and generates superoxide and oxidative stress, or forms free radicals that bind to and inhibit important enzymes and proteins. (2) Excess selenium as selenocysteine results in inhibition of selenium methylation metabolism. As a consequence, concentrations of hydrogen selenide, an intermediate metabolite, accumulate in animals and are hepatotoxic, possibly causing other selenium-related adverse effects. (3) It is also possible that the presence of excess selenium analogs of sulfur-containing enzymes and structural proteins play a role in avian teratogenesis. l-selenomethionine is the most likely major dietary form of selenium encountered by aquatic birds, with lesser amounts of l-selenocysteine ingested from aquatic animal foods. The literature is suggestive that l-selenomethionine is not any more toxic to adult birds than other animals. l-Selenomethionine accumulates in tissue protein of adult birds and in the protein of egg white as would be expected to occur in animals. There is no suggestion from the literature that the levels of l-selenomethionine that would be expected to accumulate in eggs in the absence of environmental concentration of selenium pose harm to the developing embryo. For several species of aquatic birds, levels of Se as selenomethionine in the egg above 3 ppm on a wet weight basis result in reduced hatchability and deformed embryos. The toxicity of l-selenomethionine injected directly into eggs is greater than that found from the entry of l-selenomethionine into the egg from the normal adult diet. This suggests that there is unusual if not abnormal metabolism of l-selenomethionine in the embryo not seen when l-selenomethionine is present in egg white protein where it likely serves as a source of selenium for glutathione peroxidase synthesis in the developing aquatic chick.

  1. A novel avian-like hepatitis E virus in wild aquatic bird, little egret (Egretta garzetta), in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Mátics, Róbert; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), family Hepeviridae, has public health concerns because of its zoonotic potential; however, the host species spectrum, animal to animal transmissions, the natural chain of hepevirus infections and the genetic diversity of HEV in wildlife especially in birds are less known. Using random amplification and next generation sequencing technology a genetically divergent avian HEV was serendipitously identified in wild bird in Hungary. HEV RNA was detected with high faecal viral load (1.33×10 8 genomiccopies/ml) measured by real-time PCR in faecal sample from a little egret (Egretta garzetta). The complete genome of HEV strain little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN (KX589065) is 6660-nt long including a 18-nt 5' end and a 103-nt 3' end (excluding the poly(A)-tail). Sequence analyses indicated that the ORF1 (4554nt/1517aa), ORF2 (1728nt/593aa) and ORF3 (339nt/112aa) encoded proteins of little egret/kocsag02/2014/HUN shared the highest identity (62.8%, 71% and 61.5%) to the corresponding proteins of genotype 1 avian (chicken) HEV in species Orthohepevirus B, respectively. This study reports the identification and complete genome characterization of a novel orthohepevirus distantly related to avian (chicken) HEVs at the first time in wild bird. It is important to recognize all potential hosts, reservoirs and spreaders in nature and to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of hepeviruses. Birds could be an important reservoir of HEV generally and could be infected with genetically highly divergent strains of HEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surveillance and identification of influenza A viruses in wild aquatic birds in the Crimea, Ukraine (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, M V; Ilinykh, F A; Zaykovskaya, A V; Epanchinzeva, A V; Evstaphiev, I L; Tovtunec, N N; Sharshov, K A; Durimanov, A G; Penkovskaya, N A; Shestopalov, A M; Lerman, A I; Drozdov, I G; Swayne, D E

    2010-09-01

    The ecology of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild aquatic birds of Asia is poorly understood, especially for the H5N1 high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) viruses. From March 2006 through November 2008, 20 AI viruses were isolated in the Crimea region of Ukraine with an overall frequency of virus recovery of 3.3%. All the viruses were isolated from three species of dabbling ducks: mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), wigeon (Anas penelope), and garganey (Anas querquedula), making the frequency of virus recovery for dabbling ducks 6.3%. The viruses were predominantly isolated during the fall sampling period. All viruses were genetically and antigenically characterized. No H5N1 HPAI viruses were isolated, but other HA and NA subtypes were identified including H3N1 (2), H3N6 (3), H3N8 (4), H4N6 (6), H5N2 (3), H7N8 (1), and H10N6 (1) subtypes. All isolates were of low pathogenicity, as determined by the intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.00. For H5N2 and H7N8 isolates, the HA gene was sequenced and the phylogenetic analysis revealed possible ecologic connections of the Crimea region with AI viruses from Siberia and Europe. No influenza A isolates were recovered from other Anseriformes (diving ducks [two species of pochards] and graylag geese), Columbiformes (collared doves), Gruiformes (coot), and Galliformes (gray partridges).

  3. Molecular surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds across the United States: inferences from the hemagglutinin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette J Piaggio

    Full Text Available A United States interagency avian influenza surveillance plan was initiated in 2006 for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV in wild birds. The plan included a variety of wild bird sampling strategies including the testing of fecal samples from aquatic areas throughout the United States from April 2006 through December 2007. Although HPAIV was not detected through this surveillance effort we were able to obtain 759 fecal samples that were positive for low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV. We used 136 DNA sequences obtained from these samples along with samples from a public influenza sequence database for a phylogenetic assessment of hemagglutinin (HA diversity in the United States. We analyzed sequences from all HA subtypes except H5, H7, H14 and H15 to examine genetic variation, exchange between Eurasia and North America, and geographic distribution of LPAIV in wild birds in the United States. This study confirms intercontinental exchange of some HA subtypes (including a newly documented H9 exchange event, as well as identifies subtypes that do not regularly experience intercontinental gene flow but have been circulating and evolving in North America for at least the past 20 years. These HA subtypes have high levels of genetic diversity with many lineages co-circulating within the wild birds of North America. The surveillance effort that provided these samples demonstrates that such efforts, albeit labor-intensive, provide important information about the ecology of LPAIV circulating in North America.

  4. Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 50 CFR 16.12 - Importation of live wild birds or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live wild birds or their... Importation of live wild birds or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is... importation, transportation, and possession of such live birds under the terms and conditions set forth in...

  6. Dispersal and Transmission of Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype 4 among Wild Birds and Domestic Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 (APMV-4 is found sporadically in wild birds worldwide, and it is an economically important poultry pathogen. Despite the existence of several published strains, very little is known about the distribution, host species, and transmission of APMV-4 strains. To better understand the relationships among these factors, we conducted an APMV-4 surveillance of wild birds and domestic poultry in six provinces of China suspected of being intercontinental flyways and sites of interspecies transmission. APMV-4 surveillance was conducted in 9,160 wild birds representing seven species, and 1,461 domestic poultry in live bird markets (LMBs from December 2013 to June 2016. The rate of APMV-4 isolation was 0.10% (11/10,621, and viruses were isolated from swan geese, bean geese, cormorants, mallards, and chickens. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 11 isolated viruses indicated that all the isolates belonging to genotype I were epidemiologically connected with wild bird-origin viruses from the Ukraine and Italy. Moreover, chicken-origin APMV-4 strains isolated from the LBMs were highly similar to wild bird-origin viruses from nearby lakes with free-living wild birds. In additional, a hemagglutination-negative APMV-4 virus was identified. These findings, together with recent APMV-4 studies, suggest potential virus interspecies transmission between wild birds and domestic poultry, and reveal possible epidemiological intercontinental connections between APMV-4 transmission by wild birds.

  7. Serological Evidence for Influenza A Virus Exposure in Wild Birds in Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16 for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region.

  8. Identification of Gene Resistance to Avian InfluenzaVirus (Mx Gene among Wild Waterbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Elfidasari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mx gene is an antiviral gene used to determine the resistance or the susceptibility to different types of viruses, including the Avian Influenza (AI virus subtype H5N1. The AI virus subtype H5N1 infection in chickens causes Mx gene polymorphism. The Mx+ gene shows resistant to the AIvirus subtype H5N1, whereas the Mx-gene shows signs of susceptible. The objective of thisresearch was to detect the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method with the primer pairs F2 and NE-R2/R and the RsaI restriction enzyme. DNA samples were obtained from eight species of wild waterbirds with positive and negative exposure to the AI virus subtype H5N1. DNA amplification results showed that the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds is found in a 100 bp fragment, which is the same as the Mx gene found in chickens. However, unlike chickens, the Mxgene in wild aquatic birds did not show any polymorphism. This study proves that Mx- based resistance to AI virus subtype H5N1 in different in wild birds than in chickens.

  9. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  10. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  11. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  13. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    healthy live birds in waterfowl reservoirs and along migratory flyways, birds living in proximity to domestic poultry, and hunted game birds. Dead birds were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. Healthy live wild birds were captured with nets, traps, or by hand and were sampled by swabbing...... America via Greenland and vice versa. In Denmark, the screenings for AI showed LPAI viruses to be naturally occurring in the wild bird population, particularly in waterfowl. The occurrence of AI viruses in the wild bird population may pose a risk for AI infections in Danish poultry....

  14. First time identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the cornea samples of wild birds; Is Acanthamoeba keratitis making the predatory birds a target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting......7 subtypes were detected throughout the period together with several other LPAI subtypes. In GL, HPAI was not detected, but few samples were PCR positive for AI. The occurrence of AI subtypes in the wild bird population correlates with concurrent outbreaks of LPAI in Danish poultry, which may...

  16. Lead and cadmium in wild birds in southeastern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, A.J.; Sanchez-Garcia, J.A.; Luna, A. [Univ. of Murcia (Spain); Jimenez-Montalban, P. [Regional Environmental Agency, Murcia (Spain). Centro de Recuperacion de Fauna Silvestre El Valle

    1995-12-01

    The main purpose of this study was to monitor exposure to lead and cadmium in wild birds in Murcia, a southeastern region of Spain on the Mediterranean coast. This region lies on one of the African-European flyways. Samples of liver, kidney, brain, bone, and whole blood from several species of wild birds were obtained during 1993. The authors found a clear relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in birds and their feedings habits. Vultures (Gyps fulvus) had the highest concentrations of lead (mean 40 {micro}g/dl in blood), and seagulls (Larus argentatus and Larus ridibundus) the highest concentrations of cadmium (mean 4.43 {micro}g/g in kidney). Insectivores had high concentrations of both metals, and diurnal and nocturnal raptors showed the lowest tissue concentrations. The findings that tissue and blood concentrations were generally not elevated suggests environmental (rather than acute) exposure. Birds from more industrialized areas of the region studied here had higher concentrations of both lead and cadmium.

  17. Species diversity and richness of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of bird species diversity and richness in Dagona-Waterfowl Sanctuary was carried out during the midst of both early wet and late dry seasons, to provide comprehensive data on wild birds. Dagona Sanctuary is located within the Bade-Nguru Wetland sector. It is one of the important bird areas marked for the ...

  18. Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobey, Britni; Kucknoor, Ashwini; Armacost, Jim

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Various species of wild birds were sampled at five sites in Southeastern Texas representing rural (Birds were captured in mist nets and samples were taken from the oral cavity, crop, and vent to detect the presence of pathogens. Samples were screened for Trichomonas by examining wet mounts under a light microscope, whereas samples were screened for Salmonella and Listeria by examining colonies grown on agar plates. Pathogens detected during the initial screening were further confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Infection rates for Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria were 9%, 17%, and 5%, respectively. The distributions of infection rates across habitats (i.e., rural, exurban, rural) did not differ significantly from the expected null distributions for any of the three pathogens; however, the data suggested some interesting patterns that should be confirmed with a larger dataset. Infection rates for Trichomonas and Salmonella were highest at the suburban sites, whereas the infection rate for Listeria was highest at the rural site. Feeder birds were more likely to be infected by all three pathogens than non-feeder birds. Small sample sizes prevent definitive conclusions regarding variation in infection rates along the suburban to rural gradient, but the results suggest that pathogens followed the predicted patterns. For many of the bird species sampled, this study presents the first report of infection rates by these three pathogens in wild populations.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  20. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  1. [Distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons of La Paz city in South Baja California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Orozco, Elvia Margarita; Carmona, Roberto; Brabata, Georgina

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomic composition, spatial and temporal distribution of aquatic birds in oxidation lagoons (LO) of La Paz city in south Baja California, Mexico, were determined during 24 censuses realized in two-week intervals (April/98-March/99). There are five lagoons of5 Ha each and 17 ha of terrains constantly flooded that serve as feeding areas for cattle and birds. One hundred twenty three species were observed, 75 of which were aquatic birds. A total of 46 041 observations were made (average 1 918 birds/census). Richness and abundance of aquatic birds were influenced mainly by migration of anatids and sandpipers. The first group had the greatest abundance due to its affinity towards fresh water bodies. The terrains were the favorite sites of dabbling ducks (Anas) and sandpipers. In contrast, two of the most abundant species (Oxyura jamaicensis, 12.5% of all species, and Fulica americana, 8.8 %) restricted their presence to the oxidation lagoons. LO presented a bird structure of its own and atypical, according to the dryness of the region.

  2. Ecology of Avian Influenza Virus in Wild Birds in Tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Several ecologic factors have been proposed to describe the mechanisms whereby host ecology and the environment influence the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds, including bird's foraging behavior, migratory pattern, seasonal congregation, the rate of recruitment of juvenile birds, and abiotic factors. However, these ecologic factors are derived from studies that have been conducted in temperate or boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere. These factors cannot be directly translated to tropical regions, where differences in host ecology and seasonality may produce different ecologic interactions between wild birds and AIV. An extensive dataset of AIV detection in wildfowl and shorebirds sampled across tropical Africa was used to analyze how the distinctive ecologic features of Afrotropical regions may influence the dynamics of AIV transmission in wild birds. The strong seasonality of rainfall and surface area of wetlands allows testing of how the seasonality of wildfowl ecology (reproduction phenology and congregation) is related to AIV seasonal dynamics. The diversity of the African wildfowl community provides the opportunity to investigate the respective influence of migratory behavior, foraging behavior, and phylogeny on species variation in infection rate. Large aggregation sites of shorebirds in Africa allow testing for the existence of AIV infection hot spots. We found that the processes whereby host ecology influence AIV transmission in wild birds in the Afrotropical context operate through ecologic factors (seasonal drying of wetlands and extended and nonsynchronized breeding periods) that are different than the one described in temperate regions, hence, resulting in different patterns of AIV infection dynamics.

  3. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular characterization of AI viruses from poultry and wild bird surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Krog, Jesper Schak; Madsen, Jesper J.

    Infection with avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may cause devastating disease although the same virus may not cause disease in wild birds. Since AI viruses can be exchanged between poultry and wild birds, surveillance in wild birds provides important knowledge for control of disease...... in poultry. AIV’s from the Danish wild bird active surveillance were characterized, focusing on viruses from 2012, and from outbreaks of AI in poultry in Denmark. The matrix (M) gene from more than 50 viruses of different subtypes and the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from more than 30 subtype H5 low pathogenic...... viruses were sequenced and compared by alignment and phylogenetic analyses. The aim was to evaluate: the origin of viruses from outbreaks of AI in Danish poultry, the design of active surveillance in Denmark, and the suitability of the molecular diagnostic RT-PCR tests employed. All M-genes from Danish...

  5. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Peters, Valerie E; Weygandt, P Logan; Jimenez, Carlos; Villegas, Pedro; O'Connor, Barry; Yabsley, Michael J; Garcia, Maricarmen; Riblet, Sylva M; Carroll, C Ron

    2013-06-01

    Shade-grown coffee plantations are often promoted as a conservation strategy for wild birds. However, these agro-ecosystems are actively managed for food production, which may alter bird behaviors or interactions that could change bird health, compared to natural forest. To examine whether there is a difference between the health parameters of wild birds inhabiting shade-grown coffee plantations and natural forest, we evaluated birds in Costa Rica for (1) their general body condition, (2) antibodies to pathogens, (paramyxovirus and Mycoplasma spp.), and (3) the prevalence and diversity of endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. We measured exposure to Mycoplasma spp. and paramyxovirus because these are pathogens that could have been introduced with domestic poultry, one mechanism by which these landscapes could be detrimental to wild birds. We captured 1,561 birds representing 75 species. Although seasonal factors influenced body condition, we did not find bird general body condition to be different. A total of 556 birds of 31 species were tested for antibodies against paramyxovirus-1. Of these, five birds tested positive, four of which were from shade coffee. Out of 461 other tests for pathogens (for antibodies and nucleotide detection), none were positive. Pterolichus obtusus, the feather mite of chickens, was found on 15 birds representing two species and all were from shade-coffee plantations. Larvated eggs of Syngamus trachea, a nematode typically associated with chickens, were found in four birds captured in shade coffee and one captured in forest. For hemoparasites, a total of 1,121 blood smears from 68 bird species were examined, and only one species showed a higher prevalence of infection in shade coffee. Our results indicate that shade-coffee plantations do not pose a significant health risk to forest birds, but at least two groups of pathogens may deserve further attention: Haemoproteus spp. and the diversity and identity of endoparasites.

  6. Low pathogenic avian influenza isolates from wild birds replicate and transmit via contact in ferrets without prior adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Elizabeth A; Pickens, Jennifer A; Humberd-Smith, Jennifer; Gordy, James T; Bradley, Konrad C; Steinhauer, David A; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Tompkins, Stephen Mark

    2012-01-01

    Direct transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals has become an increasingly investigated topic during the past decade; however, isolates that have been primarily investigated are typically ones originating from human or poultry outbreaks. Currently there is minimal comparative information on the behavior of the innumerable viruses that exist in the natural wild bird host. We have previously demonstrated the capacity of numerous North American avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds to infect and induce lesions in the respiratory tract of mice. In this study, two isolates from shorebirds that were previously examined in mice (H1N9 and H6N1 subtypes) are further examined through experimental inoculations in the ferret with analysis of viral shedding, histopathology, and antigen localization via immunohistochemistry to elucidate pathogenicity and transmission of these viruses. Using sequence analysis and glycan binding analysis, we show that these avian viruses have the typical avian influenza binding pattern, with affinity for cell glycoproteins/glycolipids having terminal sialic acid (SA) residues with α 2,3 linkage [Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal]. Despite the lack of α2,6 linked SA binding, these AIVs productively infected both the upper and lower respiratory tract of ferrets, resulting in nasal viral shedding and pulmonary lesions with minimal morbidity. Moreover, we show that one of the viruses is able to transmit to ferrets via direct contact, despite its binding affinity for α 2,3 linked SA residues. These results demonstrate that avian influenza viruses, which are endemic in aquatic birds, can potentially infect humans and other mammals without adaptation. Finally this work highlights the need for additional study of the wild bird subset of influenza viruses in regard to surveillance, transmission, and potential for reassortment, as they have zoonotic potential.

  7. Epizootic emergence of Usutu virus in wild and captive birds in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Becker

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the causative agent of mass mortality in wild and captive birds in southwest Germany and to gather insights into the phylogenetic relationship and spatial distribution of the pathogen. Since June 2011, 223 dead birds were collected and tested for the presence of viral pathogens. Usutu virus (USUV RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in 86 birds representing 6 species. The virus was isolated in cell culture from the heart of 18 Blackbirds (Turdus merula. USUV-specific antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain, heart, liver, and lung of infected Blackbirds. The complete polyprotein coding sequence was obtained by deep sequencing of liver and spleen samples of a dead Blackbird from Mannheim (BH65/11-02-03. Phylogenetic analysis of the German USUV strain BH65/11-02-03 revealed a close relationship with strain Vienna that caused mass mortality among birds in Austria in 2001. Wild birds from lowland river valleys in southwest Germany were mainly affected by USUV, but also birds kept in aviaries. Our data suggest that after the initial detection of USUV in German mosquitoes in 2010, the virus spread in 2011 and caused epizootics among wild and captive birds in southwest Germany. The data also indicate an increased risk of USUV infections in humans in Germany.

  8. Avian Influenza H5N1 and the Wild Bird Trade in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brooks-Moizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife trade and emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health and global biodiversity. Legal and illegal trade in domestic and wild birds has played a significant role in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which has killed more than 240 people, many millions of poultry, and an unknown number of wild birds and mammals, including endangered species, since 2003. This 2007 study provides evidence for a significant decline in the scale of the wild bird trade in Hanoi since previous surveys in 2000 (39.7% decline and 2003 (74.1% decline. We attribute this to the enforcement of Vietnam's Law 169/2005/QD UBND, introduced in 2005, which prohibits the movement and sale of wild and ornamental birds in cities. Nevertheless, 91.3% (21/23 of bird vendors perceived no risk of H5N1 infection from their birds, and the trade continues, albeit at reduced levels, in open market shops. These findings highlight the importance of continued law enforcement to maintain this trade reduction and the associated benefits to human and animal health and biodiversity conservation.

  9. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  10. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  11. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  12. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  13. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2018-05-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

  15. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

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    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  16. Investigation of avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry and humans in Eastern Dongting Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinghong; Gao, Lidong; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yunzhi; Dong, Libo; Liu, Fuqiang; Yang, Hao; Cai, Yahui; Yu, Mingdong; Yao, Yi; Xu, Cuilin; Xiao, Xiangming; Shu, Yuelong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry, and humans at Eastern Dongting Lake, China. We analyzed 6,621 environmental samples, including fresh fecal and water samples, from wild birds and domestic ducks that were collected from the Eastern Dongting Lake area from November 2011 to April 2012. We also conducted two cross-sectional serological studies in November 2011 and April 2012, with 1,050 serum samples collected from people exposed to wild birds and/or domestic ducks. Environmental samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using quantitative PCR assays and virus isolation techniques. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were used to detect antibodies against AIV H5N1, and microneutralization assays were used to confirm these results. Among the environmental samples from wild birds and domestic ducks, AIV prevalence was 5.19 and 5.32%, respectively. We isolated 39 and 5 AIVs from the fecal samples of wild birds and domestic ducks, respectively. Our analysis indicated 12 subtypes of AIV were present, suggesting that wild birds in the Eastern Dongting Lake area carried a diverse array of AIVs with low pathogenicity. We were unable to detect any antibodies against AIV H5N1 in humans, suggesting that human infection with H5N1 was rare in this region.

  17. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus among Wild Birds in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Martin; Jambal, Losolmaa; Karesh, William B.; Fine, Amanda; Shiilegdamba, Enkhtuvshin; Dulam, Purevtseren; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Ganzorig, Khuukhenbaatar; Batchuluun, Damdinjav; Tseveenmyadag, Natsagdorj; Bolortuya, Purevsuren; Cardona, Carol J.; Leung, Connie Y. H.; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Spackman, Erica; Swayne, David E.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    Mongolia combines a near absence of domestic poultry, with an abundance of migratory waterbirds, to create an ideal location to study the epidemiology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in a purely wild bird system. Here we present the findings of active and passive surveillance for HPAIV subtype H5N1 in Mongolia from 2005–2011, together with the results of five outbreak investigations. In total eight HPAIV outbreaks were confirmed in Mongolia during this period. Of these, one was detected during active surveillance employed by this project, three by active surveillance performed by Mongolian government agencies, and four through passive surveillance. A further three outbreaks were recorded in the neighbouring Tyva Republic of Russia on a lake that bisects the international border. No HPAIV was isolated (cultured) from 7,855 environmental fecal samples (primarily from ducks), or from 2,765 live, clinically healthy birds captured during active surveillance (primarily shelducks, geese and swans), while four HPAIVs were isolated from 141 clinically ill or dead birds located through active surveillance. Two low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) were cultured from ill or dead birds during active surveillance, while environmental feces and live healthy birds yielded 56 and 1 LPAIV respectively. All Mongolian outbreaks occurred in 2005 and 2006 (clade 2.2), or 2009 and 2010 (clade 2.3.2.1); all years in which spring HPAIV outbreaks were reported in Tibet and/or Qinghai provinces in China. The occurrence of outbreaks in areas deficient in domestic poultry is strong evidence that wild birds can carry HPAIV over at least moderate distances. However, failure to detect further outbreaks of clade 2.2 after June 2006, and clade 2.3.2.1 after June 2010 suggests that wild birds migrating to and from Mongolia may not be competent as indefinite reservoirs of HPAIV, or that HPAIV did not reach susceptible populations during our study. PMID:22984464

  18. Predicting wading bird and aquatic faunal responses to ecosystem restoration scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Trexler, Joel C.; Catano, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    In large-scale conservation decisions, scenario planning identifies key uncertainties of ecosystem function linked to ecological drivers affected by management, incorporates ecological feedbacks, and scales up to answer questions robust to alternative futures. Wetland restoration planning requires an understanding of how proposed changes in surface hydrology, water storage, and landscape connectivity affect aquatic animal composition, productivity, and food-web function. In the Florida Everglades, reintroduction of historical hydrologic patterns is expected to increase productivity of all trophic levels. Highly mobile indicator species such as wading birds integrate secondary productivity from aquatic prey (small fishes and crayfish) over the landscape. To evaluate how fish, crayfish, and wading birds may respond to alternative hydrologic restoration plans, we compared predicted small fish density, crayfish density and biomass, and wading bird occurrence for existing conditions to four restoration scenarios that varied water storage and removal of levees and canals (i.e. decompartmentalization). Densities of small fish and occurrence of wading birds are predicted to increase throughout most of the Everglades under all restoration options because of increased flows and connectivity. Full decompartmentalization goes furthest toward recreating hypothesized historical patterns of fish density by draining excess water ponded by levees and hydrating areas that are currently drier than in the past. In contrast, crayfish density declined and species composition shifted under all restoration options because of lengthened hydroperiods (i.e. time of inundation). Under full decompartmentalization, the distribution of increased prey available for wading birds shifted south, closer to historical locations of nesting activity in Everglades National Park.

  19. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

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    Gesa Feenders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  20. Frequency of zoonotic bacteria among illegally traded wild birds in Rio de Janeiro

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    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    Full Text Available Abstract The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families. These birds were recovered from illegal trade in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and sent to a rehabilitation center. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 86 wild birds (78.9%. A mean (±SD of 1.68 (±1.30 different bacterial species were isolated per bird, with a maximum of five bacterial species from three bird species. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, followed by Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and other enteric bacteria. Salmonella ser. Typhimurium was isolated from a Temminck's seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris, and two Salmonella ser. Panama were isolated from two specimens of chestnut-capped blackbird (Chrysomus ruficapillus. Of the 70 selected bacterial isolates, 60 exhibited antibiotic resistance. The resistance patterns varied from one to nine of the antibiotics tested. Resistance to ceftiofur was the most prevalent, followed by ampicillin and ceftriaxone. The dissemination potential of resistant strains in situations typically seen in the management of captive birds may become a problem for the conservation of natural bird populations and for public health.

  1. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. Results: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens’ (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens. Conclusion: The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures. PMID:28717324

  2. Wild bird surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Franson, J. Christian; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. We also suggest that sampling be focused on regions with the greatest risk for poultry losses and attempt to define the mechanisms of transfer to enhance biosecurity. Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes.

  3. Population growth in a wild bird is buffered against phenological mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Grotan, V.; Jenouvrier, S.; Saether, B.E.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    road-scale environmental changes are altering patterns of natural selection in the wild, but few empirical studies have quantified the demographic cost of sustained directional selection in response to these changes. We tested whether population growth in a wild bird is negatively affected by

  4. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    . The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  5. Characterization of velogenic Newcastle disease viruses isolated from dead wild birds in Serbia during 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidanović, Dejan; Sekler, Milanko; Asanin, Ruzica; Milić, Nenad; Nisavić, Jakov; Petrović, Tamas; Savić, Vladimir

    2011-04-01

    Avian paramyxoviruses type 1 or Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are frequently recovered from wild birds and such isolates are most frequently of low virulence. Velogenic NDV are usually recovered from poultry and only occasionally from wild birds. Five NDV isolates were obtained from carcasses of four wild bird species during 2007 in Serbia: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Eurasian Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), feral Rock Pigeon (Columba livia), and Eurasian Collared Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). All the isolates have a typical fusion protein cleavage site motif of velogenic viruses ((112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117)). The highest homology (99%) for the nucleotide sequences spanning the M and F gene of the studied isolates was with the genotype VII NDV isolate Muscovy duck/China(Fujian)/FP1/02. Phylogenetic analysis based on a partial F gene sequence showed that the isolates from wild birds cluster together with concurrent isolates from poultry in Serbia within the subgenotype VIId, which is the predominant pathogen involved currently in Newcastle disease outbreaks in poultry worldwide. It is unlikely that the wild birds played an important role in primary introduction or consequent spread of the velogenic NDV to domestic poultry in Serbia, and they probably contracted the virus from locally infected poultry.

  6. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

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    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  7. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A (H5) in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hua; Dai, Feiyan; Liu, Zili; Yuan, Feizhou; Zhao, Siyue; Xiang, Xun; Zou, Fengcai; Zeng, Bangquan; Fan, Yating; Duan, Gang

    2014-02-03

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin have caused animal and human disease and mortality in several countries of Southeast Asia, such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. The investigation revealed that the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 was as following: Ciconiiformes 2.6%, Strigiformes 13.04%, Passeriformes 20%, Cuculiformes 21.74%, Gruiformes 0%, Columbiformes 0%, Charadriiformes 0% and Coraciiformes 0%. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference of prevalence between the orders (P avian influenza H5 antibodies were detected in 23 of 440 (5.23%) sera. Mean HI titer 23 positive sera against H5 were 5.4 log₂. The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. The results of the present survey have significant public health concerns.

  8. Transmission of influenza reflects seasonality of wild birds across the annual cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Boyce, Walter M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A Viruses (IAV) in nature must overcome shifting transmission barriers caused by the mobility of their primary host, migratory wild birds, that change throughout the annual cycle. Using a phylogenetic network of viral sequences from North American wild birds (2008–2011) we demonstrate a shift from intraspecific to interspecific transmission that along with reassortment, allows IAV to achieve viral flow across successive seasons from summer to winter. Our study supports amplification of IAV during summer breeding seeded by overwintering virus persisting locally and virus introduced from a wide range of latitudes. As birds migrate from breeding sites to lower latitudes, they become involved in transmission networks with greater connectivity to other bird species, with interspecies transmission of reassortant viruses peaking during the winter. We propose that switching transmission dynamics may be a critical strategy for pathogens that infect mobile hosts inhabiting regions with strong seasonality.

  9. Wild Birds and the Urban Ecology of Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Sarah Hamer, Assistant Professor and Veterinary Ecologist with the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, discusses her investigation of ticks on wild birds in urban Chicago.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/27/2012.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  11. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

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    Cha Ra Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  12. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Yu, Qingzhong; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-01-30

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  13. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  14. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rajendran, C; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2011-10-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Mexico. In the present study, serum samples and tissues from 653 birds from Durango State, Mexico, were evaluated for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1∶25 or higher) were found in 17 (2.6%) of the 653 birds, including 1 of 2 curve-billed thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre), 2 (1 Anas platyrhynchos, 1 Anas diazi) of 4 ducks, 1 of 2 eagles (Aquila sp.), 5 (27.8%) of 18 great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), 7 (1.3%) of 521 rock pigeons (Columba livia), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 quail (Coturnix coturnix). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in birds captured in a park outside the city zoo (11.6%, 8/69) was significantly higher than that found in birds from other regions (1.5%, 9/584, OR  =  8.38; 95% CI: 2.82-24.77; P  =  0.0001). Brains and hearts of 23 birds (17 seropositive, 6 seronegative) were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 7 seropositive pigeons. The DNA obtained from the T. gondii isolate from the pigeon was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and revealed an atypical genotype. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in great-tailed grackles, the Mexican duck, and curved-billed thrashers and the first survey of wild birds in Mexico.

  15. First isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli from wild birds in Italy

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    Laura Mancini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820 which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.

  16. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.

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    Vivien G Dugan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.

  17. Object categorization by wild ranging birds-Winter feeder experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Nela; Veselý, Petr; Fuchs, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The object categorization is only scarcely studied using untrained wild ranging animals and relevant stimuli. We tested the importance of the spatial position of features salient for categorization of a predator using wild ranging birds (titmice) visiting a winter feeder. As a relevant stimulus we used a dummy of a raptor, the European sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), placed at the feeding location. This dummy was designed to be dismantled into three parts and rearranged with the head in the correct position, in the middle or at the bottom of the dummy. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with a dummy pigeon, they preferred this option to visiting the feeder with the dummy sparrowhawk with the head in any of the three positions. When the birds had the option of visiting an alternative feeder with an un-rearranged dummy sparrowhawk, they visited both feeders equally often, and very scarcely. This suggests that the titmice considered all of the sparrowhawk modifications as being dangerous, and equally dangerous as the un-rearranged sparrowhawk. The position of the head was not the most important cue for categorization. The presence of the key features was probably sufficient for categorization, and their mutual spatial position was of lower importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Infectivity, transmission and pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for domestic and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual avian influenza (AI) virus strains vary in their ability to infect, transmit and cause disease and death in different bird species. Low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) viruses are maintained in wild birds, and must be adapted to pass to domestic poultry, where they replicate in respiratory and in...

  19. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

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    Hanaa Mohamed Fadel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR, antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1, stx2, and eae genes. Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2. 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158, while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]. stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]. Only one pigeon (3.1% possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3% sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%, and amoxicillin (50%. On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters

  20. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  1. Cleaning priority index for aquatic birds vulnerable to oil spills in the St. Lawrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daigle, S.; Darveau, M.

    1995-01-01

    A cleaning priority index for 120 species of aquatic birds present in the St. Lawrence River system and vulnerable to the effects of oil spills, was developed. Six criteria were considered in drawing up the index: (1) world population size, (2) productivity, (3) vulnerability, (4) local numbers, (5) economic value, and (6) survival during rehabilitation. Birds were assessed against each of the criteria, using a semi-quantitative ordinal scale ranging from 0 to 5. The index can be used as a decision-making tool for directing oiled-bird capture and cleaning. In the case of individual birds, the physiological condition of the bird in question should be used as an additional point of reference when deciding which bird to clean. Use of the index is not confined to the St. Lawrence River; it is readily adaptable to any other region. 58 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Ethno-ornithology and conservation of wild birds in the semi-arid Caatinga of northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of birds as pets has been recognized as one of the principal threats to global avifauna. Most of the information about the use and sale of birds as pets has been limited to areas of high biodiversity and whose impacts of anthropic actions have been widely broadcast internationally, for example for the Amazon Forest and forest remnants of Southeast Asia. The Caatinga predominates in the semi-arid region of Brazil, and is one of the semi-arid biomes with the greatest biological diversity in the world, where 511 species of birds exist. Many of these birds are used as pets, a common practice in the region, which has important conservationist implications but has been little studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detail aspects of the use of birds as pets in a locality in the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil. Information on the use of avifauna was obtained through interviews and visits to the homes of 78 wild bird keepers. A total of 41 species of birds were recorded, mostly of the families Emberizidae (n = 9 species), Columbidae (n = 7 species), Icteridae (n = 6 species) and Psittacidae (n = 3 species). The birds that were most often recorded were Paroaria dominicana (n = 79 especimens), Sporophila albogularis (n = 67), Aratinga cactorum (n = 49), Sporophila lineola (n = 36), Sicalis flaveola (n = 29) and Sporophila nigricollis (n = 27). The use of wild birds in the area studied, as an example of what occurs in other places in the semi-arid Northeast, demonstrates that such activities persist in the region, in spite of being illegal, and have been happening in clandestine or semi-clandestine manner. No statistically significant correlation were found between socioeconomic factors and keeping birds as pets reflects the cultural importance of this practice of rearing wild birds for pets in the region, which is widespread among the local population, independent of socioeconomic factors. Obviously

  3. Selenium teratogenesis in natural populations of aquatic birds in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and types of malformations are described that were encountered during the spring of 1983 in a natural population of aquatic birds exposed to agricultural drainwater ponds and food items containing high concentrations of selenium in central California. A total of 347 nests of aquatic birds containing 1,681 eggs was selected for study at Kesterson Reservoir located in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Merced County, California. Embryos collected during incubation or from eggs that failed to hatch were examined to determine the age at death and presence of malformations. Embryonic death was generally high; approximately 17?60% of the nests of different species contained at least one dead embryo. The incidence of malformed embryos was also high; approximately 22?65% of the nests where at least two embryos were examined contained abnormal embryos. American coots (Fulica americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) experienced the highest incidence of malformed embryos. For all species, the average percentage of eggs containing dead or live abnormal embryos was 16.1 whereas the average percentage containing live abnormal embryos was 10.7. Multiple gross malformations of the eyes, brain, and feet were often present. Brain defects included hydrocephaly and exencephaly. Eye defects included both unilateral and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Eye and foot defects with ectrodactyly and swollen joints were the most common in coots. Beak defects also occurred frequently and most often included incomplete development of the lower beak of ducks (Anas spp.) and stilts. Wing and leg defects were most prevalent in stilts and ducks, with ectromelia and amelia most prevalent in stilts. Other malformations occurring at lower frequencies included enlarged hearts with thin ventricular walls, liver hypopiasia, and gastroschisis. Based upon simultaneous examination of a control population of aquatic birds of the same species and published

  4. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

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    Mohammed Y. Shobrak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor. Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1-5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration.

  5. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  6. Detection of and phylogenetic studies with avian metapneumovirus recovered from feral pigeons and wild birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippe, Paulo Anselmo; Silva, Luciana Helena Antoniassi da; Santos, Márcia Bianchi Dos; Sakata, Sonia Tatsumi; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-related viruses were present in wild and synanthropic birds in Brazil. Therefore, we analysed samples from wild birds, feral pigeons and domestic chickens in order to perform a phylogenetic comparison. To detect the presence of aMPV, a nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed with the aim of amplifying a fragment of 270 bases for subtype A and 330 bases for subtype B, comprising the gene coding the G glycoprotein. Positive samples for aMPV subtypes A and B were found in seven (13.2%) different asymptomatic wild birds and pigeons (50%) that had been received at the Bosque dos Jequitibás Zoo Triage Center, Brazil. Also analysed were positive samples from 15 (12.9%) domestic chickens with swollen head syndrome from several regions of Brazil. The positive samples from wild birds, pigeons and domestic chickens clustered in two major phylogenetic groups: some with aMPV subtype A and others with subtype B. The similarity of the G fragment nucleotide sequence of aMPV isolated from chickens and synanthropic and wild avian species ranged from 100 to 97.5% (from 100 to 92.5% for the amino acids). Some positive aMPV samples, which were obtained from wild birds classified in the Orders Psittaciformes, Anseriformes and Craciformes, clustered with subtype A, and others from the Anas and Dendrocygma genera (Anseriformes Order) with subtype B. The understanding of the epizootiology of aMPV is very important, especially if this involves the participation of non-domestic bird species, which would add complexity to their control on farms and to implementation of vaccination programmes for aMPV.

  7. Influenza a virus migration and persistence in North American wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Bahl

    Full Text Available Wild birds have been implicated in the emergence of human and livestock influenza. The successful prediction of viral spread and disease emergence, as well as formulation of preparedness plans have been hampered by a critical lack of knowledge of viral movements between different host populations. The patterns of viral spread and subsequent risk posed by wild bird viruses therefore remain unpredictable. Here we analyze genomic data, including 287 newly sequenced avian influenza A virus (AIV samples isolated over a 34-year period of continuous systematic surveillance of North American migratory birds. We use a Bayesian statistical framework to test hypotheses of viral migration, population structure and patterns of genetic reassortment. Our results reveal that despite the high prevalence of Charadriiformes infected in Delaware Bay this host population does not appear to significantly contribute to the North American AIV diversity sampled in Anseriformes. In contrast, influenza viruses sampled from Anseriformes in Alberta are representative of the AIV diversity circulating in North American Anseriformes. While AIV may be restricted to specific migratory flyways over short time frames, our large-scale analysis showed that the long-term persistence of AIV was independent of bird flyways with migration between populations throughout North America. Analysis of long-term surveillance data provides vital insights to develop appropriately informed predictive models critical for pandemic preparedness and livestock protection.

  8. Different environmental drivers of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Si, Y.; Boer, de W.F.; Gong, P.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds have been reported in Europe since 2005. Distinct spatial patterns in poultry and wild birds suggest that different environmental drivers and potentially different spread mechanisms are operating.

  9. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

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    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  10. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  11. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates, considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  12. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.; Bunck, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1–2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50–60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  13. The role of wild and scenic rivers in the conservation of aquatic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Rothlisberger; Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Russell F. Thurow

    2017-01-01

    Formerly diverse and abundant freshwater species are highly imperiled, with higher extinction rates than many other taxonomic groups worldwide. In the 50 years since passage of the US Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, wild and scenic rivers (WSRs) have contributed significantly to the conservation of native aquatic biodiversity as well as to the conservation and restoration...

  14. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29% out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26% out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33% out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland.

  15. Prevalence of avian influenza virus in wild birds before and after the HPAI H5N8 outbreak in 2014 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Wang, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Jipseol; An, In-Jung; Hwang, Jong-Kyung; Jo, Seong-Deok; Yu, Seung Do; Choi, Kyunghee; Chung, Hyen-Mi; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Seol-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus outbreaks have occurred five times in Korea, with four HPAI H5N1 outbreaks and one HPAI H5N8 outbreak. Migratory birds have been suggested to be the first source of HPAI in Korea. Here, we surveyed migratory wild birds for the presence of AI and compared regional AI prevalence in wild birds from September 2012 to April 2014 for birds having migratory pathways in South Korea. Finally, we investigated the prevalence of AI in migratory birds before and after HPAI H5N8 outbreaks. Overall, we captured 1617 migratory wild birds, while 18,817 feces samples and 74 dead birds were collected from major wild bird habitats. A total of 21 HPAI viruses were isolated from dead birds, and 86 low pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses were isolated from captured birds and from feces samples. Spatiotemporal distribution analysis revealed that AI viruses were spread southward until December, but tended to shift north after January, consistent with the movement of migratory birds in South Korea. Furthermore, we found that LPAI virus prevalences within wild birds were notably higher in 2013-2014 than the previous prevalence during the northward migration season. The data from our study demonstrate the importance of the surveillance of AI in wild birds. Future studies including in-depth genetic analysis in combination with evaluation of the movement and ecology of migratory birds might help us to bridge the gaps in our knowledge and better explain, predict, and ultimately prevent future HPAI outbreaks.

  16. Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rojas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177 were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.

  17. Microsporidian species known to infect humans are present in aquatic birds: implications for transmission via water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Nowosad, Andrzej; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Girouard, Autumn S; Majewska, Anna C

    2006-07-01

    Human microsporidiosis, a serious disease of immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people, can be due to zoonotic and environmental transmission of microsporidian spores. A survey utilizing conventional and molecular techniques for examining feces from 570 free-ranging, captive, and livestock birds demonstrated that 21 animals shed microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans, including Encephalitozoon hellem (20 birds; 3.5%) and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (1 bird; 0.2%). Of 11 avian species that shed E. hellem and E. intestinalis, 8 were aquatic birds (i.e., common waterfowl). The prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl (8.6%) was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other birds (1.1%) (P < 0.03); waterfowl fecal droppings contained significantly more spores (mean, 3.6 x 10(5) spores/g) than nonaquatic bird droppings contained (mean, 4.4 x 10(4) spores/g) (P < 0.003); and the presence of microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans in fecal samples was statistically associated with the aquatic status of the avian host (P < 0.001). We demonstrated that a single visit of a waterfowl flock can introduce into the surface water approximately 9.1 x 10(8) microsporidian spores of species known to infect humans. Our findings demonstrate that waterborne microsporidian spores of species that infect people can originate from common waterfowl, which usually occur in large numbers and have unlimited access to surface waters, including waters used for production of drinking water.

  18. Spatial, temporal, and species variation in prevalence of influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J. Munster (Vincent); C. Baas (Chantal); P. Lexmond (Pascal); J. Waldenström (Jonas); A. Wallensten (Anders); T. Fransson (Thord); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); W.E.Ph. Beyer (Walter); M. Schutten (Martin); B. Olsen (Björn); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAlthough extensive data exist on avian influenza in wild birds in North America, limited information is available from elsewhere, including Europe. Here, molecular diagnostic tools were employed for high-throughput surveillance of migratory birds, as an alternative to classical

  19. Pasteurella multocida from outbreaks of avian cholera in wild and captive birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of avian cholera was observed among wild birds in a few localities in Denmark in 2001. The highest mortalities were among breeding ciders (Somateria mollissima) and gulls (Larus spp.). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted using ApaI and SmaI as restriction enzymes...... the outbreak strain. Among 68 isolates from wild birds, only one PFGE and one REA pattern were demonstrated, whereas among 23 isolates from domestic poultry, 14 different SmaI, 12 different ApaI, and 10 different HpaII patterns were found. The results suggest that a P. multocida strain has survived during...

  20. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine pollutants in aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds of Belgium: levels, patterns, tissue distribution and condition factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, V.L.B.; Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Dauwe, T.; Eens, M.; Schepens, P.

    2006-01-01

    Liver and muscle samples from 7 species of aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds from Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). PCBs were the predominant compounds in our samples, which showed highest concentrations in the liver of barn owl (Tyto alba) and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (up to 1000 μg/g lipid weight). PBDEs could be determined in most samples at lower concentrations than PCBs (up to 64 μg/g lipid in sparrowhawk liver). Sparrowhawks had the highest levels of hexachlorobenzene, DDTs and PBDEs. In contrast, kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) had relatively low levels of most measured organochlorines. BDE 47 was the most abundant congener in heron (Ardea cinerea) and grebe (Podiceps cristatus), while BDE 47, 99 and 153 were equally important in the terrestrial species. BDE 183 and BDE 209 were only measured in the terrestrial birds. These results indicate that terrestrial birds may be more exposed to higher brominated BDE congeners than aquatic species. - Aquatic and terrestrial predatory birds show different accumulation profiles of PBDEs

  1. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houserova, Pavlina; Kuban, Vlastimil; Kracmar, Stanislav; Sitko, Jilji

    2007-01-01

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg 2+ ) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F 4.6 = 56.71, P -5 ). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed

  2. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Kim Torchetti, Mia; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G.; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Killian, Mary Lea; Pederson, Janice C.; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  3. Widespread detection of highly pathogenic H5 influenza viruses in wild birds from the Pacific Flyway of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S N; Dusek, R J; White, C L; Gidlewski, T; Bodenstein, B; Mansfield, K G; DeBruyn, P; Kraege, D; Rowan, E; Gillin, C; Thomas, B; Chandler, S; Baroch, J; Schmit, B; Grady, M J; Miller, R S; Drew, M L; Stopak, S; Zscheile, B; Bennett, J; Sengl, J; Brady, Caroline; Ip, H S; Spackman, E; Killian, M L; Torchetti, M K; Sleeman, J M; Deliberto, T J

    2016-07-06

    A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the United States. A total of 4,729 hunter-harvested wild birds were sampled and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected in 1.3% (n = 63). Three H5 clade 2.3.4.4 subtypes were isolated from wild birds, H5N2, H5N8, and H5N1, representing the wholly Eurasian lineage H5N8 and two novel reassortant viruses. Testing of 150 additional wild birds during avian morbidity and mortality investigations in Washington yielded 10 (6.7%) additional highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates (H5N8 = 3 and H5N2 = 7). The geographically widespread detection of these viruses in apparently healthy wild waterfowl suggest that the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses may behave similarly in this taxonomic group whereby many waterfowl species are susceptible to infection but do not demonstrate obvious clinical disease. Despite these findings in wild waterfowl, mortality has been documented for some wild bird species and losses in US domestic poultry during the first half of 2015 were unprecedented.

  4. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are transcontinental migration routes of wild birds from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting of many migratory bird species with a very high level of ...

  5. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  6. Non-invasive genetics outperforms morphological methods in faecal dietary analysis, revealing wild boar as a considerable conservation concern for ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Ragne; Soe, Egle; Valdmann, Harri; Saarma, Urmas

    2017-01-01

    Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and other grouse species represent conservation concerns across Europe due to their negative abundance trends. In addition to habitat deterioration, predation is considered a major factor contributing to population declines. While the role of generalist predators on grouse predation is relatively well known, the impact of the omnivorous wild boar has remained elusive. We hypothesize that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, but has been neglected as a bird predator because traditional morphological methods underestimate the proportion of birds in wild boar diet. To distinguish between different mammalian predator species, as well as different grouse prey species, we developed a molecular method based on the analysis of mitochondrial DNA that allows accurate species identification. We collected 109 wild boar faeces at protected capercaillie leks and surrounding areas and analysed bird consumption using genetic methods and classical morphological examination. Genetic analysis revealed that the proportion of birds in wild boar faeces was significantly higher (17.3%; 4.5×) than indicated by morphological examination (3.8%). Moreover, the genetic method allowed considerably more precise taxonomic identification of consumed birds compared to morphological analysis. Our results demonstrate: (i) the value of using genetic approaches in faecal dietary analysis due to their higher sensitivity, and (ii) that wild boar is an important predator of ground-nesting birds, deserving serious consideration in conservation planning for capercaillie and other grouse.

  7. The characterization of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Tetsu; Le, Mai Q; Phuong, Lien S; Ozaki, Hiroichi; Tsunekuni, Ryota; Usui, Tatsufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Murase, Toshiyuki; Ono, Etsuro; Otsuki, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    Due to concerns that wild birds could possibly spread H5N1 viruses, surveillance was conducted to monitor the types of avian influenza viruses circulating among the wild birds migrating to or inhabiting in northern Vietnam from 2006 to 2009. An H5N2 virus isolated from a Eurasian woodcock had a close phylogenetic relationship to H5 viruses recently isolated in South Korea and Japan, suggesting that H5N2 has been shared between Vietnam, South Korea, and Japan. An H9N2 virus isolated from a Chinese Hwamei was closely related to two H9N2 viruses that were isolated from humans in Hong Kong in 2009, suggesting that an H9N2 strain relevant to the human isolates had been transmitted to and maintained among the wild bird population in Vietnam and South China. The results support the idea that wild bird species play a significant role in the spread and maintenance of avian influenza and that this also occurs in Vietnam. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Total mercury and mercury species in birds and fish in an aquatic ecosystem in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houserova, Pavlina [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kuban, Vlastimil [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kuban@mendelu.cz; Kracmar, Stanislav [Department of Animal Nutrition, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Sitko, Jilji [Commenius Museum, Moravian Ornithological Station, Horni nam. 1, Prerov CZ-751 52 (Czech Republic)

    2007-01-15

    Total mercury and mercury species (methylmercury-MeHg, inorganic mercury - Hg{sup 2+}) were determined in the aquatic ecosystem Zahlinice (Czech Republic). Four tissues (muscle, intestines, liver and kidney) of three bird species - cormorant, great crested grebe and Eurasian buzzard, muscle tissues of common carp, grass carp, northern pike, goldfish, common tench, perch and rudd, aquatic plants (reed mace and common reed), sediments and water were analysed. Relative contents of MeHg (of total Hg) were in the range from 71% to 94% and from 15% up to 62% in the muscle and intestines and in liver, respectively, for all birds. Statistically significant differences were found between contents of MeHg in liver tissues of young and adult cormorant populations (F {sub 4.6} = 56.71, P < 10{sup -5}). Relative contents of MeHg in muscle tissues of fishes were in the range from 65.1% to 87.9% of total Hg. - The distribution of the mercury species among the organs of the individual birds is discussed.

  9. Assessment of contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in wild birds sampled in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Hicks, Joseph T.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundAvian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread of APMV-1 viruses are relevant to avian health.MethodsIn this study we sequenced the fusion gene from 58 APMV-1 isolates recovered from thirteen species of wild birds sampled throughout the USA during 2007–2014. We analyzed sequence information with previously reported data in order to assess contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of APMV-1 in wild birds sampled in North America.ResultsOur results suggest that wild birds maintain previously undescribed genetic diversity of APMV-1; however, such diversity is unlikely to be pathogenic to domestic poultry. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that APMV-1 diversity detected in wild birds of North America has been found in birds belonging to numerous taxonomic host orders and within hosts inhabiting multiple geographic regions suggesting some level of viral exchange. However, our results also provide statistical support for associations between phylogenetic tree topology and host taxonomic order/region of sample origin which supports restricted exchange among taxa and geographical regions of North America for some APMV-1 sub-genotypes.ConclusionsWe identify previously unrecognized genetic diversity of APMV-1 in wild birds in North America which is likely a function of continued viral evolution in reservoir hosts. We did not, however, find support for the emergence or maintenance of APMV-1 strains predicted to be pathogenic to poultry in wild birds of North America outside of the order Suliformes (i.e., cormorants). Furthermore, genetic evidence suggests that ecological drivers or other mechanisms may restrict viral exchange among taxa and regions of North America. Additional and more systematic sampling for APMV-1 in North America would likely provide further inference on viral

  10. Pyrethroid insecticides in wild bird eggs from a World Heritage Listed Park: A case study in Doñana National Park (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcellas, Cayo; Andreu, Ana; Máñez, Manuel; Sergio, Fabrizio; Hiraldo, Fernando; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the common pyrethroid insecticides are present in aquatic biota tissues. In this study, 123 samples of unhatched eggs of 16 wild bird species collected from 2010 to 2012 in Doñana National and Natural Park were analysed to determine 13 pyrethroids. This study represents the first time that pyrethroids are detected in tissues of terrestrial biota, 93% of these samples being positive to those pollutants. Levels of total pyrethroids ranged from not detected to 324 ng g -1 lw. The samples were characterized by stable isotope analysis. Species with diets based on anthropogenic food showed higher levels of pyrethroids and lower values of δ 15 N. Finally, we characterized the isomers of pyrethroids and discerned some isomeric- and enantiomeric-specific accumulations. In particular, tetramethrin and cyhalothrin showed an enantiomeric-selective accumulation of one enantiomer, highlighting the need to assess toxicological effects of each enantiomer separately to be able to make a correct risk assessment of pyrethroids in birds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  12. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  13. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  14. Isolation of an H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain from Wild Birds in Seoul, a Highly Urbanized Area in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Sol; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2017-07-01

    Asian-lineage H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have caused recurrent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds. In January 2014, H5N8 HPAIV caused outbreaks in South Korea and subsequently spread to East Asia, Europe, and North America. We report the isolation of an H5N8 HPAIV strain from wild birds in Seoul, the most-developed city in South Korea. We analyzed the complete genome sequence of this isolate and estimated its origin using a phylogenetic analysis. The Seoul H5N8 isolate clustered phylogenetically with strains isolated from migratory wild birds but was distinct from Korean poultry isolates. This H5N8 virus was likely introduced into the urbanized city by migratory wild birds. Therefore, wild bird habitats in urbanized areas should be carefully monitored for HPAIV.

  15. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region of Ukraine (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in a region of Ukraine known as being intercontinental (North-South and East-West) flyways. A total of 6,281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and 11 orders. From these samples, 69 ...

  16. Victims and vectors: highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and the ecology of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin; Hill, Nichola J.; Yan, Baoping; Xiao, Xiangming; Lei, Fumin; Li, Tianxian; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Howell, Judd A.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses has raised concerns about the role of wild birds in the spread and persistence of the disease. In 2005, an outbreak of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 killed more than 6,000 wild waterbirds at Qinghai Lake, China. Outbreaks have continued to periodically occur in wild birds at Qinghai Lake and elsewhere in Central China and Mongolia. This region has few poultry but is a major migration and breeding area for waterbirds in the Central Asian Flyway, although relatively little is known about migratory movements of different species and connectivity of their wetland habitats. The scientific debate has focused on the role of waterbirds in the epidemiology, maintenance and spread of HPAI H5N1: to what extent are they victims affected by the disease, or vectors that have a role in disease transmission? In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of wild bird involvement in the ecology of HPAI H5N1. Specifically, we present details on: (1) origin of HPAI H5N1; (2) waterbirds as LPAI reservoirs and evolution into HPAI; (3) the role of waterbirds in virus spread and persistence; (4) key biogeographic regions of outbreak; and (5) applying an ecological research perspective to studying AIVs in wild waterbirds and their ecosystems.

  17. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  18. Avian influenza virus wild bird surveillance in the Azov and Black Sea regions of Ukraine (2010-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Azov and Black Sea basins are part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from Northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa and Southwest Asia. These regions constitute an area of transit, stops during migration, and nesting for many different bird species. From September ...

  19. Foraging traces as an indicator to monitor wild boar impact on ground nesting birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roda , Fabrice; Roda , Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The successful management of large herbivores requires the monitoring of a set of indicators of ecological change describing animal performance, relative animal abundance, and ungulate impact on habitat. Wild boar populations increases have been spectacular in many countries including France. Wild boars can have a substantial environmental impact on many ecosystem components including birds, but indicators to monitor such impact are currently lacking. In this paper, we examined the usefulness...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  1. Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Crespo, Rocio; Kohrs, Paul; DeBruyn, Paul; Mansfield, Kristin G; Baszler, Timothy; Badcoe, Lyndon; Bodenstein, Barbara; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Killian, Mary Lea; Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole; Gidlewski, Thomas; DeLiberto, Thomas; Sleeman, Jonathan M

    2015-05-01

    Novel Eurasian lineage avian influenza A(H5N8) virus has spread rapidly and globally since January 2014. In December 2014, H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 viruses were detected in wild birds in Washington, USA, and subsequently in backyard birds. When they infect commercial poultry, these highly pathogenic viruses pose substantial trade issues.

  2. Nonnative trout impact an alpine-nesting bird by altering aquatic-insect subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin, Peter N; Knapp, Roland A; Lawler, Sharon P

    2010-08-01

    Adjacent food webs may be linked by cross-boundary subsidies: more-productive donor systems can subsidize consumers in less-productive neighboring recipient systems. Introduced species are known to have direct effects on organisms within invaded communities. However, few studies have addressed the indirect effects of nonnative species in donor systems on organisms in recipient systems. We studied the direct role of introduced trout in altering a lake-derived resource subsidy and their indirect effects in altering a passerine bird's response to that subsidy. We compared the abundance of aquatic insects and foraging Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches (Leucosticte tephrocotis dawsoni, "Rosy-Finch") at fish-containing vs. fishless lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California (USA). Introduced trout outcompeted Rosy-Finches for emerging aquatic insects (i.e., mayflies). Fish-containing lakes had 98% fewer mayflies than did fishless lakes. In lakes without fish, Rosy-Finches showed an aggregative response to emerging aquatic insects with 5.9 times more Rosy-Finches at fishless lakes than at fish-containing lakes. Therefore, the introduction of nonnative fish into the donor system reduced both the magnitude of the resource subsidy and the strength of cross-boundary trophic interactions. Importantly, the timing of the subsidy occurs when Rosy-Finches feed their young. If Rosy-Finches rely on aquatic-insect subsidies to fledge their young, reductions in the subsidy by introduced trout may have decreased Rosy-Finch abundances from historic levels. We recommend that terrestrial recipients of aquatic subsidies be included in conservation and restoration plans for ecosystems with alpine lakes.

  3. Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.

    2018-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.

  4. Next remarks to the knowledge of heavy metal concentrations in gravid tapeworm species parasitizing aquatic birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenora, F.; Baruš, Vlastimil; Prokeš, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2002), s. 143-148 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314; GA AV ČR IAA6093104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : heavy metal concentrations * Cestoda * aquatic birds Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.646, year: 2002

  5. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  6. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 sam...

  7. Surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry, Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennelle, Christopher S.; Carstensen, Michelle; Hildebrand, Erik C.; Cornicelli, Louis; Wolf, Paul C.; Grear, Daniel A.; Ip, Hon S.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Minicucci, Larissa A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9–June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Cooper’s hawk but not from waterfowl.

  8. Deaths among wild birds during highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, van der Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  9. Deaths among Wild Birds during Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus Outbreak, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Slaterus, Roy; Bodewes, Rogier; Rijks, Jolianne M.; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; Beerens, Nancy; Kelder, Leon; Poen, Marjolein J.; Stegeman, Jan A.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; Jeugd, Henk P. van der

    2017-01-01

    During autumn–winter 2016–2017, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses caused mass die-offs among wild birds in the Netherlands. Among the ≈13,600 birds reported dead, most were tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and Eurasian wigeons (Anas penelope). Recurrence of avian influenza outbreaks

  10. [Hemoparasites in wild birds in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanga, V; Soula, F; Raherilalao, M J; Goodman, S M; Sadonès, H; Tall, A; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Raharimalala, L; Duchemin, J B; Ariey, F; Robert, V

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in native Malagasy birds. Among the 387 birds, belonging to 43 species sampled at six localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 139 (35.9%) showed at least 1 hemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus (19.9%), microfilariae (13.7% of 387 birds), Leucocytozoon (11.1%) and Trypanosoma (1.0%). An analysis to further elucidate these observations took into account the interaction of different environmental variables (altitude, season, site of collection) or aspects of the birds (age, weight, sex). There is evidence that some parasites preferentially infect some bird species or families. The largest male birds harboured the highest prevalences and densities of haemoparasite, regardless of species. These findings extend knowledge of bird/blood parasite relationships of Malagasy birds and provide interesting insights, especially concerning the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by insect vectors.

  11. Provision of supplementary food for wild birds may increase the risk of local nest predation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, Hugh J.; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Fellowes, Mark D. E.

    2017-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, USA and Australia, approximately half of households provide supplementary food for wild birds, making this the public’s most common form of active engagement with nature. Year round supplementary feeding is currently encouraged by major conservation charities in the UK as it is thought to be of benefit to bird conservation. However, little is understood of how the provision of supplementary food affects the behaviour and ecology of target and non-target species. G...

  12. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  13. Rotavirus research in Amazon wild birds kept in captivity in the state of Pará, Brazi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Araújo Luz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Luz M.A., Bezerra D.A., Silva R.R., Guerreiro A.N., Seixas L.S., Bastos R.K.G., Mascarenhas J. D’Arc P., Moraes C.C.G., Souza N.F. & Meneses A.M.C. [Rotavirus research in Amazon wild birds kept in captivity in the state of Pará, Brazil.] Pesquisa de rotavírus em aves silvestres da região amazônica mantidas em cativeiro no estado do Pará, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:167-173, 2014. Instituto da Saúde e Produção animal na Amazônia, Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, Avenida Presidente Tancredo Neves, 2501, Montese, Belém, PA 66077-901, Brasil. E-mail: monique.luz@ufra.edu.br This study aimed to investigate rotavirus in wild birds kept in captivity at Pará State, to detect and characterize the electropherotypes groups of circulating rotaviruses and investigate A and D rotavirus groups presence in fecal specimens of these birds. Fecal samples were collected at Fazenda Paricuiã (Terra Alta / PA, Brazil, in Jardim Zoobotânico da Amazônia Bosque Rodrigues Alves, Parque Ecológico Mangal das Garças, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG and Bioparque Amazônia Crocodilo Safari in Belém/Pará/Brazil, between March 2011 and February 2012. Were collected fecal samples from 83 birds belonging to the orders: Psittaciformes (Family Psittacidae, Ciconiformes (Ardeidae and Threskiornithidae families and Falconiformes (Family Accipitridae. Fecal suspensions were prepared from samples collected, with subsequent extraction of viral dsRNA, which was subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed with specific primers for amplification of NSP4 gene of A rotavirus and VP6 gene of D rotavirus. All samples were negative by both EGPA and by RT-PCR, requiring, however, further studies aimed in wild birds kept in captivity to determine the role of these species in the rotavirus epidemiology.

  14. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  15. Epidemic Spread of Usutu Virus in Southwest Germany in 2011 to 2013 and Monitoring of Wild Birds for Usutu and West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Jöst, Hanna; Müller, Kerstin; Fischer, Dominik; Rinder, Monika; Tietze, Dieter Thomas; Danner, Klaus-Jürgen; Becker, Norbert; Skuballa, Jasmin; Hamann, Hans-Peter; Bosch, Stefan; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. One of these viruses is Usutu virus (USUV), a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus group within the family Flaviviridae. Since the occurrence of USUV among wild birds in June, 2011, infected Blackbirds (Turdus merula) have frequently been found dead in southwest Germany, cumulating in a massive die-off. Moreover, other bird species (Strigiformes) in this region have been affected. In a first study, 209 of over 600 dead birds (wild birds and birds kept in aviaries) collected from 2011 to 2013 carried USUV, more than 88% of them Blackbirds. USUV had already been detected in 2010, one year before the epizooty, in a mosquito-based surveillance program in Germany. The main epidemic area of the USUV outbreak in wild birds in southwest Germany has been similar for the last three years. In a second study during 2011 to 2013, 902 live migratory and resident birds (representing 87 bird species belonging to 14 bird orders) from four different sampling sites were bled and tested serologically and by qPCR for West Nile virus (WNV) and USUV infections. No USUV or WNV genomes were detected. Some migratory birds (mainly long-distance migrants and some partial migrants) carried neutralizing antibodies against WNV as discriminated by USUV and WNV cross-neutralization tests. Only few resident birds showed relevant USUV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The occurrence of USUV in the Upper Rhine valley area of southwest Germany is a proof of principle for the incursion and spread of other arthropod-borne (arbo)-viruses along these routes. Therefore, monitoring studies in birds and mosquitoes for the presence of arboviruses in these areas are indispensable.

  16. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  17. Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-24

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Novel Eurasian Highly Pathogenic Influenza A H5 Viruses in Wild Birds, Washington, USA, 2014.  Created: 3/24/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  18. Investigation of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds due to novel avian-origin influenza A(H10N8) in Nanchang City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiansheng; He, Fenglan; Hu, Maohong; Zhou, Xianfeng; Wang, Bin; Feng, Changhua; Wu, Yumei; Li, Youxing; Tu, Junling; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Shengen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events within poultry and wild birds had resulted in the establishment of another novel avian influenza A(H10N8) virus, and finally resulted in human death in Nanchang, China. However, there was a paucity of information on the prevalence of avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds in Nanchang area. We investigated avian influenza virus in poultry and wild birds from live poultry markets, poultry countyards, delivery vehicles, and wild-bird habitats in Nanchang. We analyzed 1036 samples from wild birds and domestic poultry collected from December 2013 to February 2014. Original biological samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus using specific primer and probe sets of H5, H7, H9, H10 and N8 subtypes by real-time RT-PCR. In our analysis, the majority (97.98%) of positive samples were from live poultry markets. Among the poultry samples from chickens and ducks, AIV prevalence was 26.05 and 30.81%, respectively. Mixed infection of different HA subtypes was very common. Additionally, H10 subtypes coexistence with N8 was the most prevalent agent during the emergence of H10N8. This event illustrated a long-term surveillance was so helpful for pandemic preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Use of FTA sampling cards for molecular detection of avian influenza virus in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Shamus P; Ferro, Pamela J; Brown, Justin D; Fang, Xingwang; El-Attrache, John; Poulson, Rebecca; Jackwood, Mark W; Stallknecht, David E

    2012-03-01

    Current avian influenza (AI) virus surveillance programs involving wild birds rely on sample collection methods that require refrigeration or low temperature freezing to maintain sample integrity for virus isolation and/or reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR. Maintaining the cold chain is critical for the success of these diagnostic assays but is not always possible under field conditions. The aim of this study was to test the utility of Finders Technology Associates (FTA) cards for reliable detection of AI virus from cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs of wild birds. The minimum detectable titer was determined, and the effect of room temperature storage was evaluated experimentally using multiple egg-propagated stock viruses (n = 6). Using real time RT-PCR, we compared results from paired cloacal swab and samples collected on FTA cards from both experimentally infected mallards (Anasplatyrhynchos) and hunter-harvested waterfowl sampled along the Texas Gulf Coast. Based on the laboratory trials, the average minimal detectable viral titer was determined to be 1 x 10(4.7) median embryo infectious dose (EID50)/ml (range: 1 x 10(4.3) to 1 x 10(5.4) EID50/ml), and viral RNA was consistently detectable on the FTA cards for a minimum of 20 days and up to 30 days for most subtypes at room temperature (23 C) storage. Real-time RT-PCR of samples collected using the FTA cards showed fair to good agreement in live birds when compared with both real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation of swabs. AI virus detection rates in samples from several wild bird species were higher when samples were collected using the FTA cards compared with cloacal swabs. These results suggest that FTA cards can be used as an alternative sample collection method when traditional surveillance methods are not possible, especially in avian populations that have historically received limited testing or situations in which field conditions limit the ability to properly store or ship swab samples.

  1. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds in the Azov-Black Sea Region of Ukraine (2001-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Spackman, Erica; Smith, Diane; Rula, Oleksandr; Muzyka, Nataliia; Stegniy, Borys

    2016-05-01

    Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus (AIV) was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in the Azov - Black Sea region of the Ukraine, considered part of the transcontinental wild bird migration routes from northern Asia and Europe to the Mediterranean, Africa, and southwest Asia. A total of 6281 samples were collected from wild birds representing 27 families and eight orders for virus isolation. From these samples, 69 AIVs belonging to 15 of the 16 known hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and seven of nine known neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. No H14, N5, or N9 subtypes were identified. In total, nine H6, eight H1, nine H5, seven H7, six H11, six H4, five H3, five H10, four H8, three H2, three H9, one H12, one H13, one H15, and one H16 HA subtypes were isolated. As for the NA subtypes, twelve N2, nine N6, eight N8, seven N7, six N3, four N4, and one undetermined were isolated. There were 27 HA and NA antigen combinations. All isolates were low pathogenic AIV except for eight highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs that were isolated during the H5N1 HPAI outbreaks of 2006-08. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes revealed epidemiological connections between the Azov-Black Sea regions and Europe, Russia, Mongolia, and Southeast Asia. H1, H2, H3, H7, H8, H6, H9, and H13 AIV subtypes were closely related to European, Russian, Mongolian, and Georgian AIV isolates. H10, H11, and H12 AIV subtypes were epidemiologically linked to viruses from Europe and Southeast Asia. Serology conducted on serum and egg yolk samples also demonstrated previous exposure of many wild bird species to different AIVs. Our results demonstrate the great genetic diversity of AIVs in wild birds in the Azov-Black Sea region as well as the importance of this region for monitoring and studying the ecology of influenza viruses. This information furthers our understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild bird species.

  2. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  3. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  4. Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Okuya, Kosuke; Kawabata, Toshiko; Matsuu, Aya; Takase, Kozo; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Toda, Shigehisa; Ozawa, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014-2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes' roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

  5. Thyroid hormones correlate with basal metabolic rate but not field metabolic rate in a wild bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Welcker

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (TH are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in mammals and birds. Hence, in many laboratory studies a positive relationship between TH concentrations and basal metabolic rate (BMR has been demonstrated whereas evidence from species in the wild is scarce. Even though basal and field metabolic rates (FMR are often thought to be intrinsically linked it is still unknown whether a relationship between TH and FMR exists. Here we determine the relationship between the primary thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3 with both BMR and FMR in a wild bird species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla. As predicted we found a strong and positive relationship between plasma concentrations of T3 and both BMR and mass-independent BMR with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.36 to 0.60. In contrast there was no association of T3 levels with either whole-body or mass-independent FMR (R(2 =0.06 and 0.02, respectively. In accordance with in vitro studies our data suggests that TH play an important role in modulating BMR and may serve as a proxy for basal metabolism in wild birds. However, the lack of a relationship between TH and FMR indicates that levels of physical activity in kittiwakes are largely independent of TH concentrations and support recent studies that cast doubt on a direct linkage between BMR and FMR.

  6. Thyroid Hormones Correlate with Basal Metabolic Rate but Not Field Metabolic Rate in a Wild Bird Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Jorg; Chastel, Olivier; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Guillaumin, Jerome; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Speakman, John R.; Tremblay, Yann; Bech, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are known to stimulate in vitro oxygen consumption of tissues in mammals and birds. Hence, in many laboratory studies a positive relationship between TH concentrations and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated whereas evidence from species in the wild is scarce. Even though basal and field metabolic rates (FMR) are often thought to be intrinsically linked it is still unknown whether a relationship between TH and FMR exists. Here we determine the relationship between the primary thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) with both BMR and FMR in a wild bird species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). As predicted we found a strong and positive relationship between plasma concentrations of T3 and both BMR and mass-independent BMR with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.36 to 0.60. In contrast there was no association of T3 levels with either whole-body or mass-independent FMR (R2 = 0.06 and 0.02, respectively). In accordance with in vitro studies our data suggests that TH play an important role in modulating BMR and may serve as a proxy for basal metabolism in wild birds. However, the lack of a relationship between TH and FMR indicates that levels of physical activity in kittiwakes are largely independent of TH concentrations and support recent studies that cast doubt on a direct linkage between BMR and FMR. PMID:23437096

  7. Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Bethany J; Munster, Vincent J; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Klaassen, Marcel; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2010-12-01

    Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. However, survey design, sampling, and interpretation in the context of host populations still present major challenges. We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. Recognizing that wildlife disease surveillance is logistically and financially constrained, we discuss pragmatic alternatives for achieving probability-based sampling schemes that capture this host-pathogen system. We recommend hypothesis-driven surveillance through standardized, local surveys that are, in turn, strategically compiled over broad geographic areas. Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases.

  8. Infectious offspring: how birds acquire and transmit an avian polyomavirus in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Potti

    Full Text Available Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an 'upwards vertical' route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care.

  9. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessandro; Guberti, Vittorio; Nardelli, Riccardo; Pirrello, Simone; Serra, Lorenzo; Volponi, Stefano; Green, Rhys E

    2018-01-01

    In European wetlands, at least 40 bird species are exposed to the risk of lead poisoning caused by ingestion of spent lead gunshot. Adopting a methodology developed in North America, we estimated that about 700,000 individuals of 16 waterbird species die annually in the European Union (EU) (6.1% of the wintering population) and one million in whole Europe (7.0%) due to acute effects of lead poisoning. Furthermore, threefold more birds suffer sub-lethal effects. We assessed the economic loss due to this lead-induced mortality of these 16 species by calculating the costs of replacing lethally poisoned wild birds by releasing captive-bred ones. We assessed the cost of buying captive-bred waterbirds for release from market surveys and calculated how many captive-bred birds would have to be released to compensate for the loss, taking into account the high mortality rate of captive birds (72.7%) in the months following release into the wild. Following this approach, the annual cost of waterbird mortality induced by lead shot ingestion is estimated at 105 million euros per year in the EU countries and 142 million euros in the whole of Europe. An alternative method, based upon lost opportunities for hunting caused by deaths due to lead poisoning, gave similar results of 129 million euros per year in the EU countries and 185 million euros per year in the whole of Europe. For several reasons these figures should be regarded as conservative. Inclusion of deaths of species for which there were insufficient data and delayed deaths caused indirectly by lead poisoning and effects on reproduction would probably increase the estimated losses substantially. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the benefits of a restriction on the use of lead gunshot over wetlands could exceed the cost of adapting to non-lead ammunition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and characterization of avipoxviruses from wild birds in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, B O; Mackenzie, J S; Lalor, P A

    1983-01-01

    Avipoxviruses were isolated from wart-like lesions in an Australian magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen) and a silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and the poxvirus aetiology of wart-like lesions in a magpie-lark (Grallina cyanoleuca) was confirmed. The three viruses produced typical pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated eggs and were able to replicate in trypsin-dispersed chick embryo fibroblast cultures but not confluent monolayer cultures. Pock neutralization and immunodiffusion studies showed that the three wild bird isolates were distinct from fowlpox, although antigenically closer to fowlpox than pigeonpox. The magpie and silvereye isolates were more closely related to each other than to the magpie-lark isolate.

  12. Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-19

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ dispatch, Historical Prevalence and Distribution of Avian Influenza Virus A(H7N9) among Wild Birds.  Created: 12/19/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/24/2013.

  13. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in eurasian wild birds: A phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Z. Javakhishvili (Zurab); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Lexmond (Pascal); K.B. Westgeest (Kim); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); R.A. Halpin (Rebecca); X. Lin (Xudong); A. Ransier (Amy); N.B. Fedorova (Nadia B.); T.B. Stockwell (Timothy B.); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); B. Olsen (Björn); G.J.D. Smith (Gavin); J. Bahl (Justin); D.E. Wentworth (David E.); J. Waldenström (Jonas); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences

  14. Prevalence and multidrug resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from resident wild birds of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Faruq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases, and the presence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in wild birds is global public health threat. Throughout the last decades, multidrug resistance of Salmonella spp. has increased, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance pattern against Salmonella spp. from two species of resident wild birds namely house crow (Corvus splendens and Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from cloacal swabs of house crows and Asian pied starling for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method against Salmonella spp. isolates during March to December 2014. Results: The prevalence of Salmonella in Asian pied starling and house crows were 67% and 65%, respectively. Within the category of samples from different species, the variation in prevalence was not varied significantly (p>0.05. Isolated Salmonella spp. was tested for resistance to six different antimicrobial agents. Among six antimicrobial tested, 100% resistance were found to penicillin, oxacillin, and clindamycin followed by erythromycin (50-93%, kanamycin (7-20%, and cephalothin (30-67% from both species of birds. Kanamycin remained sensitive in (70-73%, cephalothin (26-70%, and erythromycin appeared to be (0-30% sensitive against Salmonella spp. isolates. Isolated Salmonella spp. was multidrug resistant up to three of the six antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antimicrobials needs to be adopted in the treatment of disease for livestock, poultry, and human of Bangladesh to limit the emergence of drug resistance to Salmonella spp.

  15. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  16. [Distribution of aquatic and raptor birds in a freshwater artificial pond of Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Guerrero, J A; Carmona, R

    2001-01-01

    We determined the taxonomic composition and spatial-temporal distribution of aquatic and raptor birds in a freshwater artificial pond of El Centenario, Baja California Sur, México, during 24 biweekly censuses (April, 1998 to March, 1999). The pond is particularly attractive for birds because of its variety of food items. A total 25,563 records of 69 species were done, among them the first report of Chlidonias niger and Phalaropus tricolor for the region. Species richness and abundance were determined for the migrant component, mostly Anatidae (16 species and 55.6% of the total abundance) and shorebirds (18 species and 13.3%). The greater number of species and individuals was in C the deepest and more heterogeneous section of the pond. The most important species was Oxyura jamaicensis (30% of the total observed individuals), with highest abundance in the peninsula. The artificial pond presented an atypical and distinct ornithological composition because it is located in an arid region, and acts as a resting site for migrant birds. The site included species that usually live in freshwater and coastal areas, a characteristic reflected in their high richness. It contributes noticeably to the local avian biodiversity.

  17. Experimental infection of one-day-old chicks with Salmonella Serotypes Previously isolated from poultry facilities, wild birds, and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Sousa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to maintain the high production and export rates achieved by the Brazilian poultry industry, it is necessary to prevent and control certain disease agents, such as Salmonella spp. Using bacterial cultures, the aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in specimens collected from broiler facilities. Local wild birds were also sampled, as well as the feces of swine housed on the poultry farm. After sample collection, the isolated serotypes were subsequently inoculated into broiler chicks to determine their effects. Positive samples were collected from the following locations in the poultry facilities: poultry litter (S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Heidelberg; S. Infantis, broiler feces (S. Heidelberg; S. serotype 6,7:R:-; S. serotype 4,5,12:R:-; S. Tennessee, water (S. Glostrup; S. serotype 6,8:d:-;, and lesser mealworms (Alphitobius diaperinus found in the litter (S. Tennessee. Among the 36 wild birds captured, S. Heidelberg was isolated from one bird's organs and intestinal contents (Colaptes campestris, and S. Enteritidis was isolated from another bird's intestinal contents (Zenaida auriculata. Salmonella Panama and Salmonella Typhimurium were isolated from swine feces. One-day-old chicks (150 were divided into 10 groups of 15 animals each. Each group was orally inoculated with a previously isolated serotype of Salmonella. Soft stools were observed on the cage floor and around the birds' cloaca between 3 and 12 days post-infection (dpi. The different serotypes of Salmonella used to inoculate the chicks were re-isolated from the spleen, liver, and cecal content samples of the infected birds on 15 and 21 dpi.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Virus from Wild Birds and Mallards Reared for Shooting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kurt; Therkildsen, O. R.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2010-01-01

    related with genes from AIV circulating in northern Europe. For the Danish sequences only the PB2 and NS genes differ, so they cluster to more than one cluster in the phylogenetic trees. In spring 2006, highly pathogenic (HP) AIV H5N1 was detected in 44 cases of wild birds in Denmark. Sequence analysis...

  19. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  20. Eco-Virological Approach for Assessing the Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Avian Influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations. PMID:22347393

  1. Eco-virological approach for assessing the role of wild birds in the spread of avian influenza H5N1 along the central Asian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Hill, Nichola J.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Janies, Daniel; Voronkin, Igor O.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Wikelski, Martin; Balachandran, Sivananinthaperumal; Mundkur, Taej; Douglas, David C.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this ‘thoroughfare’. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005–2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable opportunity for HPAI H5N1 spillover from poultry. Both species showed correlation with wild bird outbreaks during the spring migration, suggesting they may be involved in the northward movement of the virus. However, phylogeographic mapping of HPAI H5N1 clades 2.2 and 2.3 did not support dissemination of the virus in a northern direction along the migration corridor. In particular, two subclades (2.2.1 and 2.3.2) moved in a strictly southern direction in contrast to our spatio-temporal analysis of bird migration. Our attempt to reconcile the disciplines of wild bird ecology and HPAI H5N1 virology highlights prospects offered by both approaches as well as their limitations.

  2. Isolation and genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses and a Newcastle disease virus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kirk O; Lavoie, Marc C; Kim, L Mia; Afonso, Claudio L; Suarez, David L

    2007-09-01

    Zoonotic transmission of an H5N1 avian influenza A virus to humans in 2003-present has generated increased public health and scientific interest in the prevalence and variability of influenza A viruses in wild birds and their potential threat to human health. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 hemagglutinin and nine neuraminidase influenza subtypes have been isolated from wild birds, but waterfowl of the order Anseriformes are the most commonly infected. Using 9-to-11-day-old embryonating chicken egg culture, virus isolation attempts were conducted on 168 cloacal swabs from various resident, imported, and migratory bird species in Barbados during the months of July to October of 2003 and 2004. Hemagglutination assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to screen all allantoic fluids for the presence of hemagglutinating agents and influenza A virus. Hemagglutination positive-influenza negative samples were also tested for Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is also found in waterfowl. Two influenza A viruses and one NDV were isolated from Anseriformes (40/168), with isolation rates of 5.0% (2/40) and 2.5% (1/40), respectively, for influenza A and NDV. Sequence analysis of the influenza A virus isolates showed them to be H4N3 viruses that clustered with other North American avian influenza viruses. This is the first report of the presence of influenza A virus and NDV in wild birds in the English-speaking Caribbean.

  3. Wild Coastline Birds as Reservoirs of Broad-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Miami Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potron, Anaïs; De La Cuesta, Carolina; Cleary, Timothy; Nordmann, Patrice; Munoz-Price, L. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    A high rate of broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates was identified from seagull and pelican feces collected in the Miami Beach, Florida, area. The most commonly identified resistance determinants were CMY-2 and CTX-M-15. Those wild birds might be therefore considered vehicles for wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. PMID:22314536

  4. Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R.; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723–1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841–6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence. PMID:24806216

  5. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Valiakos

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS. Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density. Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386. Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189 and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  6. Use of wild bird surveillance, human case data and GIS spatial analysis for predicting spatial distributions of West Nile virus in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiakos, George; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos; Giannakopoulos, Alexios; Birtsas, Periklis; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hutchings, Michael R; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Pervanidou, Danai; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Tsokana, Constantina; Baka, Agoritsa; Manolakou, Katerina; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Artois, Marc; Yon, Lisa; Hannant, Duncan; Petrovska, Liljana; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Billinis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is the causative agent of a vector-borne, zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Recent expansion and introduction of WNV into new areas, including southern Europe, has been associated with severe disease in humans and equids, and has increased concerns regarding the need to prevent and control future WNV outbreaks. Since 2010, 524 confirmed human cases of the disease have been reported in Greece with greater than 10% mortality. Infected mosquitoes, wild birds, equids, and chickens have been detected and associated with human disease. The aim of our study was to establish a monitoring system with wild birds and reported human cases data using Geographical Information System (GIS). Potential distribution of WNV was modelled by combining wild bird serological surveillance data with environmental factors (e.g. elevation, slope, land use, vegetation density, temperature, precipitation indices, and population density). Local factors including areas of low altitude and proximity to water were important predictors of appearance of both human and wild bird cases (Odds Ratio = 1,001 95%CI = 0,723-1,386). Using GIS analysis, the identified risk factors were applied across Greece identifying the northern part of Greece (Macedonia, Thrace) western Greece and a number of Greek islands as being at highest risk of future outbreaks. The results of the analysis were evaluated and confirmed using the 161 reported human cases of the 2012 outbreak predicting correctly (Odds = 130/31 = 4,194 95%CI = 2,841-6,189) and more areas were identified for potential dispersion in the following years. Our approach verified that WNV risk can be modelled in a fast cost-effective way indicating high risk areas where prevention measures should be implemented in order to reduce the disease incidence.

  7. The Genetic Diversity of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Martha I.; Pollett, Simon; Ghersi, Bruno; Silva, Maria; Simons, Mark P.; Icochea, Eliana; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Segovia, Karen; Kasper, Matthew R.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the global ecology of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) is impeded by historically low levels of viral surveillance in Latin America. Through sampling and whole-genome sequencing of 31 AIVs from wild birds in Peru, we identified 10 HA subtypes (H1-H4, H6-H7, H10-H13) and 8 NA subtypes (N1-N3, N5-N9). The majority of Peruvian AIVs were closely related to AIVs found in North America. However, unusual reassortants, including a H13 virus containing a PA segment related to extremely divergent Argentinian viruses, suggest that substantial AIV diversity circulates undetected throughout South America. PMID:26784331

  8. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  9. Pathogenicity of two recent Western Mediterranean West Nile virus isolates in a wild bird species indigenous to Southern Europe: the red-legged partridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotelo Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is an emerging zoonotic pathogen whose geographic spread and incidence in humans, horses and birds has increased significantly in recent years. WNV has long been considered a mild pathogen causing self-limiting outbreaks. This notion has changed as WNV is causing large epidemics with a high impact on human and animal health. This has been particularly noteworthy since its introduction into North America in 1999. There, native bird species have been shown to be highly susceptible to WNV infection and disease with high mortalities. For this reason, the effect of WNV infection in North American bird species has been thoroughly studied by means of experimental inoculations in controlled trials. To a lesser extent, European wild birds have been shown to be affected clinically by WNV infection. Yet experimental studies on European wild bird species are lacking. The red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa is a gallinaceous bird indigenous to the Iberian Peninsula, widely distributed in South Western Europe. It plays a key role in the Mediterranean ecosystem and constitutes an economically important game species. As such it is raised intensively in outdoor facilities. In this work, red-legged partridges were experimentally infected with two recent WNV isolates from the Western Mediterranean area: Morocco/2003 and Spain/2007. All inoculated birds became viremic and showed clinical disease, with mortality rates of 70% and 30%, respectively. These results show that Western Mediterranean WNV variants can be pathogenic for some European bird species, such as the red-legged partridge.

  10. Captive wild birds as reservoirs of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Lilian Aparecida; Gomes, Marcelo da Silva; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier de; Vieira, Mônica Aparecida Midolli; Gomes, Tânia Aparecida Tardelli; Knobl, Terezinha

    Psittacine birds have been identified as reservoirs of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, a subset of pathogens associated with mortality of children in tropical countries. The role of other orders of birds as source of infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular diagnosis of infection with diarrheagenic E. coli in 10 different orders of captive wild birds in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples were analyzed from 516 birds belonging to 10 orders: Accipitriformes, Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Falconiformes, Galliformes, Passeriformes, Pelecaniformes, Piciformes, Psittaciformes and Strigiformes. After isolation, 401 E. coli strains were subjected to multiplex PCR system with amplification of genes eae and bfp (EPEC), stx1 and stx2 for STEC. The results of these tests revealed 23/401 (5.74%) positive strains for eae gene, 16/401 positive strains for the bfp gene (3.99%) and 3/401 positive for stx2 gene (0.75%) distributed among the orders of Psittaciformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes. None of strains were positive for stx1 gene. These data reveal the infection by STEC, typical and atypical EPEC in captive birds. The frequency of these pathotypes is low and restricted to few orders, but the data suggest the potential public health risk that these birds represent as reservoirs of diarrheagenic E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological and physiological/toxicological effects of petroleum on aquatic birds: A summary of research activities FY76 through FY78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Lucille F.; Dieter, Michael P.

    1979-01-01

    Oil and gas development and exploration in marine coastal areas and the Great Lakes will result in unavoidable spills of polluting oil. Although large oil spills may kill thousands of birds and stimulate much public concern, the bulk of oil that reaches aquatic environmentS released in the course of normal operations, with a total input into the world's oceans estimated at 6 million metric tons per year. The effects of sublethal low-level oil pollution may be more deleterious to bird populations over the long term than the spectacular bird kills resulting from oil spills.The physiological and ecological effects of oil on waterbirds were examined in a series of laboratory and field experiments, including studies of the effects of oiling on hatchability of eggs; the effects of an oil-contaminated diet on physiological condition, reproduction, and survival; and the accumulation of oil in body tissues. Chemical methodology was developed in support of these studies.

  12. Constituents in oil field produced waters discharged into the Loch Katrine wetland complex, Park County, Wyoming, and their bioconcentration in the aquatic bird food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, P. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements, hydrocarbons and radium-226 concentrations were analyzed in water, sediment and biota from the Loch Katrine wetlands at Park County, WY in 1992. This study was designed to determine if produced waters pose a risk to aquatic birds inhabiting the wetlands. The radium-226 concentration recorded at the Sidney Battery Discharge in July, 93.7 pCi/l, exceeded WY DEQ's 60 pCi/l standard for the protection of aquatic life. Water quality acute criteria were exceeded for arsenic, Custer Lake, July, and for zinc, Sidney Battery discharge, April. Radium-226 concentrations in sediments from Custer Lake and Sidney Battery Discharge exceeded the 3 pCi/g background for Oregon Basin soils. The radium-226 concentration in aquatic vegetation, Custer Lake, 29.5 pCi/g, greatly exceeded the 2.9 pCi/g average concentration found in plants growing in uranium mill tailings in South Dakota. Radium-226 in aquatic vegetation may be available to aquatic birds. Oil and grease concentrations, Sidney Battery Discharge, exceeded the 10 mg/l standard of WY DEQ. Sediment hydrocarbon concentrations were highest at Sidney Battery Discharge, 6.376 μg/g, followed by Custer Lake, 1.104 μg/g. Benzo(a)pyrene was not detected in gadwalls from Loch Katrine but was detected in northern shovelers from Custer Lake. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in northern shoveler bile ranged from 500 to 960 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations in shovelers is indicative of exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons

  13. Multidisciplinary re-description of Plasmodium (Novyella) paranucleophilum in Brazilian wild birds of the Atlantic Forest kept in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raquel; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Martinele, Isabel; Senra, Marcus Vinicius Xavier; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2017-07-01

    Haemosporidian blood parasites of the Plasmodium genus are the causative agents of avian malaria in many parts of the world. Despite the great diversity of Brazilian avifauna, few studies have been conducted to examine the haemosporidians of wild birds found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, especially those kept in captivity. This study aimed to re-examine and further characterize the South American avian parasite Plasmodium paranucleophilum using a multidisciplinary approach. Blood samples were collected from 68 captive birds representing 15 species found in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Morphometric and morphological characterization was performed, in addition to PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The overall prevalence of P. paranucleophilum infection in the study was 13.23% (n = 9), with a mean parasitemia of 0.58%. We observed the highest parasitemia of 3.88% in Rupornis magnirostris. In our phylogenetic analysis, P. paranucleophilum and P lasmodium nucleophilum formed distinct, highly supported clades, with a mean genetic divergence of 2.48%. This study provides new morphological and molecular data, expanding our knowledge of the haemosporidians of wild birds in Brazil and highlighting the need for further investigation. The true depth of diversity in Brazilian avian haemosporidians remains largely unknown, and given the enormous variety of vectors and avian species, there may be many more species of these blood parasites yet to be described.

  14. Impact of wild herbivorous mammals and birds on the altitudinal and northern treeline ecotones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild herbivorous mammals may damage treeline vegetation an cause soil erosion at a local scale. In many high mountain areas of Europe and North America, large numbers of red deer have become a threat to the maintenance of high-elevation forests and attempts to restore the climatic treeline. In northern Fennoscandia, overgrazing by reindeer in combination with mass outbreaks of the autumnal moth are influencing treeline dynamics. Moose are also increasingly involved damaging treeline forest. In the Alps, the re-introduction of ibex is causing local damage to subalpine forests and tree establishment above the forest limit as well as aggravating soil erosion. High-elevation forests and treeline in Europe are susceptible to the deleterious impact of wild ungulate populations because of former extensive pastoral use. Rodents may damage tree seedlings and saplings by girdling, root cutting, bark stripping and burrowing. Hares damage young trees by gnawing. Large numbers of small rodents may occasionally impede tree regeneration by depleting the seed sources. Rodents do not contribute to forest expansion beyond the current treeline. Among birds, nutcrackers are highly effective in influencing tree distribution patterns and treeline dynamics. Without the nutcracker caching of stone pine seeds any upward advance of the trees in response to climatic warming would be impossible. Some bird species such as black grouse, willow grouse and ptarmigan can impair tree growth by feeding on buds, catkins and fresh terminal shoots.

  15. Effectiveness of the Wild Birds and Habitats Directives in the Wadden Sea area : will the tiger loose its teath?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, J.M.; Laursen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Almost the entire Wadden Sea area has been designated by Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands as a Special Protection Area under the Wild Birds Directive and as a Special Area of Conservation under the Habitats Directive. The new Water Framework Directive will, eventually, also have consequences for

  16. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  17. [The occurrence of campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella bacteria in some wild birds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosef, O

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was carried out into the occurrence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella species in some wild birds. A total of 129 birds was examined, consisting of 71 pigeons, 54 seagulls, three crows and one raven. Campylobacter bacteria were isolated from 32 birds (24.8%), of which three were pigeons, 27 seagulls and two were crows. Of the 27 Campylobacter strains isolated from seagulls, four had the biochemical characteristics of the NARTC biotype described by Skirrow and Benjamin, seven were grouped as Campylobacter coli biotype and 16 as the biotype of Campylobacter jejuni. All the strains isolated from crows and pigeons had the biochemical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni biotypes. Salmonella bacteria were isolated from the intestinal contents of two of the 54 seagulls (3.7%), and were identified serologically as Salmonella indiana and Salmonella typhimurium. One seagull was found to be a carrier of both Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Salmonella typhimurium. A correlation could not be demonstrated between the occurrence of Salmonella bacteria and Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

  18. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  19. Biochemical and toxicological impacts of persistent organochlorines on aquatic ecosystem. With particular attention to dioxins and their related compounds; Zanryusei yuki enso kagobutsu no suiken seitaikei eno eikyo. Toku ni dioxin rui ni chakumokushite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs are organochlorine compounds which induce toxicological impacts on test animals, such as reduced weight, thymic gland dwarf, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity and endocrine disturbance. They are generally referred to as dioxins. They are difficult to be decomposed in vivo, and tend to be more concentrated in higher organisms, placed at higher positions in the food chain. In aquatic ecosystems, they are observed to accumulate at high concentrations in fishes, fish-eating birds, claspers and whales. Therefore, there are growing concerns over their possible adverse effects on wild animals in aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes the effects of persistent organochlorine compounds on fishes, birds and aquatic mammals; and induction of cytochrome P450 of each organic species, caused by exposure to dioxins, and the induction examples in aquatic ecosystems. It also discusses whether or not the cytochrome P450 induction capacity of each organism species can be used as an index which explains difference between organism species in toxicological impacts of dioxins. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Josanne H.; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Lierz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and

  1. Public health concerns associated with care of free-living birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julia K

    2011-09-01

    Free-living birds are not only susceptible to certain infectious diseases; wild bird populations serve as reservoirs of several important diseases of public health concern. Bacterial and viral diseases endemic in populations of free-living birds such as tuberculosis, avian influenza, arboviral infections, and enteropathogens have been classified as emerging or reemerging. Providing care to wild avian patients increases the opportunity for direct contact with infected birds and the possibility of transmission of infectious disease to human handlers. Awareness of disease potential is critical to disease monitoring of wild populations and will allow for the implementation of precautionary measures when working with wild avian species. Biosecurity measures designed to minimize risk must be evaluated by individual facilities.

  2. Environmental risk and toxicology of human and veterinary waste pharmaceutical exposure to wild aquatic host-parasite relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Neil J

    2009-03-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by human and veterinary waste pharmaceuticals is an increasing area of concern but little is known about their ecotoxicological effects on wildlife. In particular the interactions between pharmaceuticals and natural stressors of aquatic communities remains to be elucidated. A common natural stressor of freshwater and marine organisms are protozoan and metazoan parasites, which can have significant effects on host physiology and population structure, especially under the influence of many traditional kinds of toxic pollutants. However, little is known about the effects of waste pharmaceuticals to host-parasite dynamics. In order to assess the risk waste pharmaceuticals pose to aquatic wildlife it has been suggested the use of toxicological data derived from mammals during the product development of pharmaceuticals may be useful for predicting toxic effects. An additional similar source of information is the extensive clinical studies undertaken with numerous classes of drugs against parasites of human and veterinary importance. These studies may form the basis of preliminary risk assessments to aquatic populations and their interactions with parasitic diseases in pharmaceutical-exposed habitats. The present article reviews the effects of the most common classes of pharmaceutical medicines to host-parasite relationships and assesses the risk they may pose to wild aquatic organisms. In addition the effects of pharmaceutical mixtures, the importance of sewage treatment, and the risk of developing resistant strains of parasites are also assessed. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aves silvestres infestadas por Phthiraptera (Insecta na Zona da Mata Norte de Pernambuco, Brasil Wild birds infested by Phthiraptera (Insecta in Pernambuco North Zona da Mata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Aline Roda

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the relationship between Phthiraptera and wild birds captured by mist nets at the Engenho Independência, at Vicência's county. Three families of Phthiraptera were identified. The Menoponidae were the one with the highest number of hosts. They were specially found in the dorsal face of the remiges. The Trochiloecetidae were only seen infesting the neck of birds belonging to the hummingbirds. The Philopteridae were observed on birds from three orders showing the highest variety of distribution on the birds.

  4. Miniaturised sample preparation method for the multiresidual determination of regulated organohalogenated pollutants and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Vicente, Alba; Ramos, Lourdes; Jiménez, Begoña

    2017-08-01

    A simplified, miniaturised matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD)-based method allowing the simultaneous extraction and purification of contaminants belonging to selected families of regulated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and penta- to octa-polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and related contaminants of emerging concern, such as deca-BDE and Dechlorane Plus (DP), has been proposed. Wild bird eggs were used as biotic fat-containing model matrices. Once optimised, the procedure allowed sample preparation to be accomplished within 30 min, in a single step, and with minimal sample and reagent consumption and waste generation. These features contributed to speeding up and greening the analytical process as compared to the large-scale multistep procedures for these types of analyses. The method was combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) for PCB and OCP analysis and with GC-negative ion chemical ionisation-quadrupole mass spectrometry (NCI-qMS) for PBDE and DP determination. The complete analytical method provided satisfactory recoveries of the target compounds (above 83% for all analytes, except for PBDE 209, 63%), although as small an amount of sample as 0.300 g was used. The repeatability of the complete procedure was less than 16% (with the only exception for PCB 153, which looked to be affected by an interference). The limits of detection were in all cases lower than 34 pg g -1 dry weight (as calculated for real samples), demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed procedure for accurate determination of the target compounds in biological samples. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of the target POPs in unhatched eggs of wild bird species. Graphical abstract Scheme of the miniaturised methodology proposed for environmental monitoring of POPs and related compounds in wild bird eggs.

  5. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kariwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 μL of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region.

  6. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  7. Reoccurrence of H5Nx clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds during 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian-origin H5N1 A/goose/Guangdong/1/1996 (Gs/GD) lineage of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) has become widespread across four continents, affecting poultry, wild birds and humans. H5N1 HPAIV has evolved into multiple hemagglutinin (HA) genetic clades and reassorting with dif...

  8. Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Modeling Output Online

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Yao; Rogala, Jim; Sullivan, John; Rohweder, Jason

    2005-01-01

    .... Predictions for distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation beds can potentially increase hunter observance of voluntary avoidance zones where foraging birds are left alone to feed undisturbed...

  9. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  10. Testing the Effect of Internal Genes Derived from a Wild-Bird-Origin H9N2 Influenza A Virus on the Pathogenicity of an A/H7N9 Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Su

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, avian influenza A(H7N9 viruses have diversified into multiple lineages by dynamically reassorting with other viruses, especially H9N2, in Chinese poultry. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed by H7N9 viruses, little is known about the biological properties of H7N9 viruses that may recruit internal genes from genetically distinct H9N2 viruses circulating among wild birds. Here, we generated 63 H7N9 reassortants derived from an avian H7N9 and a wild-bird-origin H9N2 virus. Compared with the wild-type parent, 25/63 reassortants had increased pathogenicity in mice. A reassortant containing PB1 of the H9N2 virus was highly lethal to mice and chickens but was not transmissible to guinea pigs by airborne routes; however, three substitutions associated with adaptation to mammals conferred airborne transmission to the virus. The emergence of the H7N9-pandemic reassortant virus highlights that continuous monitoring of H7N9 viruses is needed, especially at the domestic poultry/wild bird interface.

  11. No Association between Personality and Candidate Gene Polymorphisms in a Wild Bird Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah A Edwards

    Full Text Available Consistency of between-individual differences in behaviour or personality is a phenomenon in populations that can have ecological consequences and evolutionary potential. One way that behaviour can evolve is to have a genetic basis. Identifying the molecular genetic basis of personality could therefore provide insight into how and why such variation is maintained, particularly in natural populations. Previously identified candidate genes for personality in birds include the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and serotonin transporter (SERT. Studies of wild bird populations have shown that exploratory and bold behaviours are associated with polymorphisms in both DRD4 and SERT. Here we tested for polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis population on Cousin Island, Seychelles, and then investigated correlations between personality and polymorphisms in these genes. We found no genetic variation in DRD4, but identified four polymorphisms in SERT that clustered into five haplotypes. There was no correlation between bold or exploratory behaviours and SERT polymorphisms/haplotypes. The null result was not due to lack of power, and indicates that there was no association between these behaviours and variation in the candidate genes tested in this population. These null findings provide important data to facilitate representative future meta-analyses on candidate personality genes.

  12. Sulfide Generated by Sulfate Reduction is a Primary Controller of the Occurrence of Wild Rice (Zizania palustris) in Shallow Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Swain, E. B.; Engstrom, D. R.; Coleman Wasik, J.; Brenner, J.; Dykhuizen Shore, M.; Peters, E. B.; Blaha, G.

    2017-11-01

    Field observations suggest that surface water sulfate concentrations control the distribution of wild rice, an aquatic grass (Zizania palustris). However, hydroponic studies show that sulfate is not toxic to wild rice at even unrealistically high concentrations. To determine how sulfate might directly or indirectly affect wild rice, potential wild rice habitat was characterized for 64 chemical and physical variables in over 100 sites spanning a relatively steep climatic and geological gradient in Minnesota. Habitat suitability was assessed by comparing the occurrence of wild rice with the field variables, through binary logistic regression. This analysis demonstrated that sulfide in sediment pore water, generated by the microbial reduction of sulfate that diffuses or advects into the sediment, is the primary control of wild rice occurrence. Water temperature and water transparency independently control the suitability of habitat for wild rice. In addition to generating phytotoxic sulfide, sulfate reduction also supports anaerobic decomposition of organic matter, releasing nutrients that can compound the harm of direct sulfide toxicity. These results are important because they show that increases in sulfate loading to surface water can have multiple negative consequences for ecosystems, even though sulfate itself is relatively benign.

  13. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of lead poisoning of wild raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A.; Redig, Patrick; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a threat to birds, particularly scavenging birds of prey. With the availability of portable lead-testing kits, an increasing number of field researchers are testing wild-caught birds, in situ, for lead poisoning. We describe guidelines for evaluation of lead toxicity in wild raptors by outlining field testing of blood-lead concentrations, presenting criteria for removing a lead-poisoned bird from the wild for treatment, and suggesting strategies for effective treatment of lead intoxicated raptors. Field testing of birds is most commonly accomplished via portable electrochemical analysis of blood; visual observation of condition alone may provide insufficient evidence upon which to make a decision about lead poisoning. Our intended audience is not only the avian research community, but also rehabilitation facilities that may receive apparently uninjured birds. Best practices suggest that birds whose blood-lead levels are 60 μg/dL are potentially lethally poisoned and best served if removed from the wild for appropriate treatment at a licensed rehabilitation facility and later released. We present guidelines for decision-making when treating lead poisoning of wild raptors. Future work based on experimental studies will clarify the role of lead poisoning for specific species and be important to refine these guidelines to improve effectiveness.

  14. Serological evidence of continuing high Usutu virus (Flaviviridae) activity and establishment of herd immunity in wild birds in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meister, T.; Lussy, H.; Bakonyi, T.; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo; Vogl, W.; Winkler, H.; Frey, H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.; Weissenböck, H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 127, 3-4 (2008), s. 237-248 ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Grant - others:Federal Ministry for Health and Women's Issues(AT) ÖTKA D048647 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Usutu virus * USUV * Serology * Wild birds * Herd immunity Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.370, year: 2008

  15. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiara Furtado Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health.

  16. Mapping risk of avian influenza transmission at the interface of domestic poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of avian influenza viruses with high lethality to humans, such as the currently circulating highly pathogenic A(H5N1) (emerged in 1996) and A(H7N9) cause serious concern for the global economic and public health sectors. Understanding the spatial and temporal interface between wild and domestic populations, from which these viruses emerge, is fundamental to taking action. This information, however, is rarely considered in influenza risk models, partly due to a lack of data. We aim to identify areas of high transmission risk between domestic poultry and wild waterfowl in China, the epicenter of both viruses. Two levels of models were developed: one that predicts hotspots of novel virus emergence between domestic and wild birds, and one that incorporates H5N1 risk factors, for which input data exists. Models were produced at 1 and 30 km spatial resolution, and two temporal seasons. Patterns of risk varied between seasons with higher risk in the northeast, central-east, and western regions of China during spring and summer, and in the central and southeastern regions during winter. Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses indicated varying levels of model confidence, with lowest errors in the densely populated regions of eastern and southern China. Applications and limitations of the models are discussed within.

  17. THERMAL CONDUCTANCE IN AQUATIC BIRDS IN RELATION TO THE DEGREE OF WATER CONTACT, BODY-MASS, AND BODY-FAT - ENERGETIC IMPLICATIONS OF LIVING IN A STRONG COOLING ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, J; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    Thermal conductance of carcasses of 14 aquatic bird species was determined by the warming constant technique. The effect on thermal conductance of body mass, age sex, fat deposits, and the degree of contact with water were studied. Only body mass and the degree of submergence in water had an effect.

  18. Multielemental accumulation and its intracellular distribution in tissues of some aquatic birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Anan, Yasumi; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining multielemental concentration and its intracellular distribution in selected tissues of cormorant and waterfowl species. Non-essential elements such as Hg, Tl, Cd, Pb and V in tissues were generally consistent with those in ingested items, indicating the significance of food sources of non-essential metal accumulation in great cormorants and mallards. Great cormorants and four waterfowl species examined reflected natural background levels of toxic metals such as Cd, Hg and Pb as well as some essential elements, indicating no specific metal exposure from local sources. Most of Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Ag, Cd, Cs, and Hg contents were present in the hepatocytosolic fraction, whereas a large percentage of V and Mo were present in insoluble fraction in great cormorant, mallard, and spot-billed duck. The major role of these subcelluar fractions in elemental regulation accounts for the high percentage contribution of each cellular fraction to the total metal contents. Cadmium and Cu are chiefly sequestered through binding to metallothioneins (MTs) of hepatocytosolic fraction in these three avian species. Both MTs and high-molecular-weight substance (HMWS) for Zn and low-molecular-weight substance (LMWS) for Rb were also involved in their sequestration in cytosolic fractions. Relatively different species-specific cytosolic substances were responsible for varying degrees of Ag, Mn, and Co accumulation. It is worth noting that these intracellular metal levels in birds are closely regulated by metal-associated cellular constituents. Therefore, risk assessment studies of metal accumulation in such wild birds should take intracellular metal distribution and specific cellular constituents into account

  19. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  20. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  1. 77 FR 24613 - Significant New Use Rules on Certain Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... performing an anaerobic aquatic metabolism test (OPPTS Test Guideline 835.4400) and an amphibian... environment, could bioaccumulate or biomagnify, and could be toxic to humans, wild mammals, and birds. These... environment, could bioaccumulate or biomagnify, and could be toxic to people, wild mammals, and birds. These...

  2. First introduction of highly pathogenic H5NI avian influenza A viruses in wild and domestic birds in Denmark, Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, K.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Background: Since 2005 highly pathogenic ( HP) avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to Africa and Europe infecting poultry, humans and wild birds. HP H5N1 virus was isolated in Denmark for the first time in March 2006. A total of 44 wild birds were found positive for the HP H5N1...... infection. In addition, one case was reported in a backyard poultry flock. Results: Full-genome characterisation of nine isolates revealed that the Danish H5N1 viruses were highly similar to German H5N1 isolates in all genes from the same time period. The haemagglutinin gene grouped phylogenetically in H5...... clade 2 subclade 2 and closest relatives besides the German isolates were isolates from Croatia in 2005, Nigeria and Niger in 2006 and isolates from Astrakhan in Russia 2006. The German and Danish isolates shared unique substitutions in the NA, PB1 and NS2 proteins. Conclusion: The first case of HP H5N1...

  3. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  4. Cross-species transmission and emergence of novel viruses from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-02-01

    Birds, the only living member of the Dinosauria clade, are flying warm-blooded vertebrates displaying high species biodiversity, roosting and migratory behavior, and a unique adaptive immune system. Birds provide the natural reservoir for numerous viral species and therefore gene source for evolution, emergence and dissemination of novel viruses. The intrusions of human into natural habitats of wild birds, the domestication of wild birds as pets or racing birds, and the increasing poultry consumption by human have facilitated avian viruses to cross species barriers to cause zoonosis. Recently, a novel adenovirus was exclusively found in birds causing an outbreak of Chlamydophila psittaci infection among birds and humans. Instead of being the primary cause of an outbreak by jumping directly from bird to human, a novel avian virus can be an augmenter of another zoonotic agent causing the outbreak. A comprehensive avian virome will improve our understanding of birds' evolutionary dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants in wild edible aquatic organisms: Implications for bioaccumulation and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Li, Qing X; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Xiaobo; Peng, Pingan; Mai, Bixian

    2018-03-01

    Highly industrialized and urbanized watersheds may receive various contaminants from anthropogenic activities. In this study, legacy and emerging organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs) were measured in edible wild aquatic organisms sampled from the Pearl River and Dongjiang River in a representative industrial and urban region in China. High concentrations of target contaminants were observed. The Pearl River exhibited higher concentrations of OHCs than the Dongjiang River due to high industrialization and urbanization. Agrochemical inputs remained an important source of OHCs in industrialized and urbanized watershed in China, but vigilance is needed for recent inputs of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) originated from e-waste recycling activities. Bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and Dechlorane Plus (DP) was biological species- and compound-specific, which can be largely attributed to metabolic capability for xenobiotics. No health risk was related to the daily intake of DDTs, HCHs, and PBDEs via consumption of wild edible species investigated for local residents. However, the current exposure to PCBs through consuming fish is of potential health concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D

    2018-02-18

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics of global H5N1 outbreaks match bird migration patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Si

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in poultry, wild birds and humans, poses a significant pandemic threat and a serious public health risk. An efficient surveillance and disease control system relies on the understanding of the dispersion patterns and spreading mechanisms of the virus. A space-time cluster analysis of H5N1 outbreaks was used to identify spatio-temporal patterns at a global scale and over an extended period of time. Potential mechanisms explaining the spread of the H5N1 virus, and the role of wild birds, were analyzed. Between December 2003 and December 2006, three global epidemic phases of H5N1 influenza were identified. These H5N1 outbreaks showed a clear seasonal pattern, with a high density of outbreaks in winter and early spring (i.e., October to March. In phase I and II only the East Asia Australian flyway was affected. During phase III, the H5N1 viruses started to appear in four other flyways: the Central Asian flyway, the Black Sea Mediterranean flyway, the East Atlantic flyway and the East Africa West Asian flyway. Six disease cluster patterns along these flyways were found to be associated with the seasonal migration of wild birds. The spread of the H5N1 virus, as demonstrated by the space-time clusters, was associated with the patterns of migration of wild birds. Wild birds may therefore play an important role in the spread of H5N1 over long distances. Disease clusters were also detected at sites where wild birds are known to overwinter and at times when migratory birds were present. This leads to the suggestion that wild birds may also be involved in spreading the H5N1 virus over short distances.

  8. Molecular analyses reveal an abundant diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds in two regions of primary Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; McIntosh, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Brazilian wild birds are recognized as frequent and important hosts for immature stages of more than half of the 32 recognized species of Amblyomma ticks recorded in that country. Several species of Amblyomma harbor rickettsial agents, including members of the spotted fever group (SFG). Most studies on this topic relied primarily on morphological characterization and reported large portions of the collected ticks at the genus rather than species level. Clearly, this factor may have contributed to an underestimation of tick diversity and distribution and makes comparisons between studies difficult. The current investigation combined morphological and molecular analyses to assess the diversity of ticks and rickettsial agents associated with wild birds, captured in two regions of native Atlantic rainforest, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 910 birds were captured, representing two orders, 34 families and 106 species, among which 93 specimens (10.2%), were parasitized by 138 immature ticks (60 larvae and 78 nymphs), representing 10 recognized species of the genus Amblyomma; together with two reasonably well classified haplotypes (Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré and Amblyomma sp. strain USNTC 6792). Amplification by PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes (htrA, gltA, ompA and ompB), demonstrated the presence of Rickettsia DNA in 48 (34%) of the ticks. Specifically, Rickettsia bellii was detected in a single larva and a single nymph of A. aureolatum; R. amblyomatis was found in 16 of 37 A. longirostre and was recorded for the first time in three nymphs of A. calcaratum; R. rhipicephali was detected in 9 (47%) of 19 Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks. The remaining ticks were infected with genetic variants of R. parkeri, namely strain ApPR in 12 A. parkeri and seven Amblyomma sp. haplotype Nazaré ticks, with the strain NOD found in two specimens of A. nodosum. Interestingly, a single larvae of A. ovale was shown to be infected with the emerging

  9. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  10. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  11. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%, but was far less prevalent (<1% in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  12. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  13. Wild rufous hummingbirds use local landmarks to return to rewarded locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David J; Scott, Renee D; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Animals may remember an important location with reference to one or more visual landmarks. In the laboratory, birds and mammals often preferentially use landmarks near a goal ("local landmarks") to return to that location at a later date. Although we know very little about how animals in the wild use landmarks to remember locations, mammals in the wild appear to prefer to use distant landmarks to return to rewarded locations. To examine what cues wild birds use when returning to a goal, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward at a location that was specified by three nearby visual landmarks. Following training we expanded the landmark array to test the extent that the birds relied on the local landmarks to return to the reward. During the test the hummingbirds' search was best explained by the birds having used the experimental landmarks to remember the reward location. How the birds used the landmarks was not clear and seemed to change over the course of each test. These wild hummingbirds, then, can learn locations in reference to nearby visual landmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  15. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  16. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  17. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  18. Spatial transmission of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses among wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekuni, Ryota; Yaguchi, Yuji; Kashima, Yuki; Yamashita, Kaoru; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Mine, Junki; Tanikawa, Taichiro; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko

    2018-05-01

    From 29 November 2016 to 24 January 2017, sixty-three cases of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections were detected in wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Here, we analyzed the genetic, temporal, and geographic correlations of these 63 HPAIVs to elucidate their dissemination throughout the prefecture. Full-genome sequence analysis of the Ibaraki isolates showed that 7 segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, NS) were derived from G1.1.9 strains while the M segment was from G1.1 strains; both groups of strains circulated in south China. Pathological studies revealed severe systemic infection in dead swans (the majority of dead birds and the only species necropsied), thus indicating high susceptibility to H5N6 HPAIVs. Coalescent phylogenetic analysis using the 7 G1.1.9-derived segments enabled detailed analysis of the short-term evolution of these highly homologous HPAIVs. This analysis revealed that the H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from wild birds in Ibaraki Prefecture were divided into 7 groups. Spatial analysis demonstrated that most of the cases concentrated around Senba Lake originated from a single source, and progeny viruses were transmitted to other locations after the infection expanded in mute swans. In contrast, within just a 5-km radius of the area in which cases were concentrated, three different intrusions of H5N6 HPAIVs were evident. Multi-segment analysis of short-term evolution showed that not only was the invading virus spread throughout Ibaraki Prefecture but also that, despite the small size of this region, multiple invasions had occurred during winter 2016-2017.

  19. Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl in 2010 in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jeong Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans.

  20. West Nile Virus in Resident Birds from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrea; Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesus; Monge, Otto; Ramírez, Abigaíl; Galindo, Francisco; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas is thought to be transported at large spatial scales by migratory birds and locally spread and amplified by resident birds. Local processes, including interspecific interactions and dominance of passerine species recognized as competent reservoirs, may boost infection and maintain endemic cycles. Change in species composition has been recognized as an important driver for infection dynamics. Due to migration and changes in species diversity and composition in wintering grounds, changes in infection prevalence are expected. To these changes, we used PCR to estimate the prevalence of WNV in wild resident birds during the dry and rainy seasons of 2012 in Yucatan, Mexico. Serum samples were obtained from 104 wild birds, belonging to six orders and 35 species. We detected WNV in 14 resident birds, representing 11 species and three orders. Prevalences by order was Passeriformes (27%), Columbiformes (6%), and Piciformes (33%). Resident birds positive to WNV from Yucatan may be indicative of local virus circulation and evidence of past virus transmission activity.

  1. Experimental infection of macaques with a wild water bird-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fujiyuki

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV continues to threaten human health. Non-human primate infection models of human influenza are desired. To establish an animal infection model with more natural transmission and to determine the pathogenicity of HPAIV isolated from a wild water bird in primates, we administered a Japanese isolate of HPAIV (A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008, H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, in droplet form, via the intratracheal route. Infection of the lower and upper respiratory tracts and viral shedding were observed in both macaques. Inoculation of rhesus monkeys with higher doses of the isolate resulted in stronger clinical symptoms of influenza. Our results demonstrate that HPAIV isolated from a water bird in Japan is pathogenic in monkeys by experimental inoculation, and provide a new method for HPAIV infection of non-human primate hosts, a good animal model for investigation of HPAIV pathogenicity.

  2. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in birds from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Kobédová, Kateřina; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Rampedi, Kgethedi Michael; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2018-02-01

    There are not any records on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of wild birds in the African continent. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DNA from these protozoan parasites in brain tissue samples collected in years 2014-2015 from 110 wild and domestic birds of 15 orders. Birds came mainly from the province of Limpopo (n=103); the other seven birds came from other five provinces of South Africa. Parasite DNAs were detected by PCR in animal brains. While all samples were negative for N. caninum, T. gondii DNA was detected in three (2.7%) birds: a Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata), a Laughing Dove (S. senegalensis) and a Southern-Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), all from Limpopo province. Positive samples were selected for genotyping by a 15 microsatellite markers method in a single multiplex PCR assay. Only the sample from the Red-eyed Dove was successfully genotyped and characterized as type II. This is the first detection of T. gondii in tissue of native African wild birds and the first study focusing on N. caninum in birds from South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 7 CFR 70.14 - Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. 70.14... Products General § 70.14 Squabs and domesticated game birds; eligibility. Squabs and domesticated game birds (including, but not being limited to, quail, pheasants, and wild species of ducks and geese raised...

  4. Diagnostic criteria for selenium toxicosis in aquatic birds: histologic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Albers, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Chronic selenium toxicosis was induced in 1-year-old male mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) by feeding selenium, as seleno-DL-methionine, in amounts of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 parts per million (ppm) to five groups of 21 ducks each for 16 wk during March to July 1988. All mallards in the 80 ppm group, three in the 40 ppm group, and one in the 20 ppm group died. Histologic lesions in mallards that died of selenosis were hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration progressing to centrolobular and panlobular necrosis, nephrosis, apoptosis of pancreatic exocrine cells, hypermaturity and avascularity of contour feathers of the head with atrophy of feather follicles, lymphocytic necrosis and atrophy of lymphoid organs (spleen, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and lumbar lymph nodes), and severe atrophy and degeneration of fat. Histologic lesions in surviving mallards in the 40 ppm group, which had tissue residues of selenium comparable to mallards that died, were fewer and much milder than mallards that died; lesions consisted of atrophy of lymphoid tissue, hyalinogranular swelling of hepatocytes, atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and senescence of feathers. No significant histologic lesions were detected in euthanized mallards in the 0, 10 and 20 ppm groups. Based on tissue residues and histologic findings, primarily in the liver, there was a threshold of selenium accumulation above which pathophysiologic changes were rapid and fatal. Pathognomonic histologic lesions of fatal and nonfatal selenosis were not detected. Criteria for diagnosis of fatal selenosis in aquatic birds include consistent histologic lesions in the liver, kidneys, and organs of the immune system. Although histologic changes were present in cases of chronic non-fatal selenosis, these were inconsistent. Consistent features of fatal and non-fatal chronic selenosis were marked weight loss and elevated concentrations of selenium in organs.

  5. Food preferences of winter bird communities in different forest types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swen C Renner

    Full Text Available Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity.

  6. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  7. Transport characteristics and morphology of the colon and coprodeum in two wild birds of different habitats, the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and the common murre (Uria aalge)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Árnason, Sighvatur S; Elbrønd (Bibs), Vibeke Sødring; Laverty, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Dietary salt intake in domestic fowl affects epithelial transport and morphology of the lower intestine (colon and coprodeum). This study investigated lower intestinal morphology and transport activity in two wild bird species with natural diets containing either low or high salt. Tissues from rock...

  8. Virological surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of the PB2 genes of influenza viruses isolated from wild water birds flying from their nesting lakes in Siberia to Hokkaido, Japan in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Rozanah Asmah Abdul; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Simulundu, Edgar; Manzoor, Rashid; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    Recent introduction of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in wild birds from poultry in Eurasia signaled the possibility that this virus may perpetuate in nature. Surveillance of avian influenza especially in migratory birds, therefore, has been conducted to provide information on the viruses brought by them to Hokkaido, Japan, from their nesting lakes in Siberia in autumn. During 2008-2009, 62 influenza viruses of 21 different combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were isolated. Up to September 2010, no HPAIV has been found, indicating that H5N1 HPAIV has not perpetuated at least dominantly in the lakes where ducks nest in summer in Siberia. The PB2 genes of 54 influenza viruses out of 283 influenza viruses isolated in Hokkaido in 2000-2009 were phylogenetically analysed. None of the genes showed close relation to those of H5N1 HPAIVs that were detected in wild birds found dead in Eurasia on the way back to their northern territory in spring.

  9. Spatial and temporal association of outbreaks of H5N1 influenza virus infection in wild birds with the 0 degrees C isotherm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A Reperant

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild bird movements and aggregations following spells of cold weather may have resulted in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV H5N1 in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006. Waterbirds are constrained in winter to areas where bodies of water remain unfrozen in order to feed. On the one hand, waterbirds may choose to winter as close as possible to their breeding grounds in order to conserve energy for subsequent reproduction, and may be displaced by cold fronts. On the other hand, waterbirds may choose to winter in regions where adverse weather conditions are rare, and may be slowed by cold fronts upon their journey back to the breeding grounds, which typically starts before the end of winter. Waterbirds will thus tend to aggregate along cold fronts close to the 0 degrees C isotherm during winter, creating conditions that favour HPAIV H5N1 transmission and spread. We determined that the occurrence of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in waterbirds in Europe during the winter of 2005-2006 was associated with temperatures close to 0 degrees C. The analysis suggests a significant spatial and temporal association of outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 in wild birds with maximum surface air temperatures of 0 degrees C-2 degrees C on the day of the outbreaks and the two preceding days. At locations where waterbird census data have been collected since 1990, maximum mallard counts occurred when average and maximum surface air temperatures were 0 degrees C and 3 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the abundance of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos and common pochards (Aythya ferina was highest when surface air temperatures were lower than the mean temperatures of the region investigated. The analysis implies that waterbird movements associated with cold weather, and congregation of waterbirds along the 0 degrees C isotherm likely contributed to the spread and geographical distribution of outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 infection in wild birds in

  10. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  11. Diversity and evolution of avian influenza viruses in live poultry markets, free-range poultry and wild wetland birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Jun; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Wang, Wen; Ying, Xu-Hua; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Yu, Bin; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-04-01

    The wide circulation of novel avian influenza viruses (AIVs) highlights the risk of pandemic influenza emergence in China. To investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of AIVs in different ecological contexts, we surveyed AIVs in live poultry markets (LPMs), free-range poultry and the wetland habitats of wild birds in Zhejiang and Hubei provinces. Notably, LPMs contained the highest frequency of AIV infection, and the greatest number of subtypes (n = 9) and subtype co-infections (n = 14), as well as frequent reassortment, suggesting that they play an active role in fuelling AIV transmission. AIV-positive samples were also identified in wild birds in both provinces and free-range poultry in one sampling site close to a wetland region in Hubei. H9N2, H7N9 and H5N1 were the most commonly sampled subtypes in the LPMs from Zhejiang, whilst H5N6 and H9N2 were the dominant subtypes in the LPMs from Hubei. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole-genome sequences of 43 AIVs revealed that three reassortant H5 subtypes were circulating in LMPs in both geographical regions. Notably, the viruses sampled from the wetland regions and free-range poultry contained complex reassortants, for which the origins of some segments were unclear. Overall, our study highlights the extent of AIV genetic diversity in two highly populated parts of central and south-eastern China, particularly in LPMs, and emphasizes the need for continual surveillance.

  12. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Anatomy and histology of the Fibrocartilago humerocapsularis in some species of European wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; De Sordi, Nadia; Clavenzani, Paolo; Grandis, Annamaria

    2014-07-01

    The occurrence and structure of the fibrocartilago humerocapsularis (FHC) in the shoulders of 72 subjects of various species of wild birds were evaluated by gross dissection and histological examination with the purpose of increasing the body of knowledge regarding this structure and verifying the functional hypotheses submitted in the past in other species. The results showed that the FHC has a conical shape with a narrow cavity on the inside. The structure is heterogeneous in the various species and consists of different tissues, such as hyaline cartilage, fibrous cartilage, and bone. From the data obtained in this study, there does not appear to be any correlation between ossification and the weight of the prey lifted, wing shape, and aging. This study also provided interesting preliminary data regarding the ossification of the FHC. In fact, in the Hooded Crow (Corvus cornix), the ossification seemed to be correlated with the mechanical stimulation of flying. Additional studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  15. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Erica A; Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J; Fedorova, Natalia; Hasty, Jeomhee M; Vaughn, Charles; Lane, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized linear models and zero-inflated negative binomial models to determine associations of bird behaviors, taxonomic relationships and infestation by I. pacificus with borrelial infection in the birds. Infection status in birds was best explained by taxonomic order, number of infesting nymphs, sampling year, and log-transformed average body weight. Presence and counts of larvae and nymphs could be predicted by ground- or bark-foraging behavior and contact with dense oak woodland. Molecular analysis yielded the first reported detection of Borrelia bissettii in birds. Moreover, our data suggest that the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla), a non-resident species, could be an important reservoir for B. burgdorferi s.s. Of 12 individual birds (9 species) that carried B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected larvae, no birds carried the same genospecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. in their blood as were present in the infected larvae removed from them. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Our study is the first to explicitly incorporate both taxonomic relationships and behaviors as predictor variables to identify putative avian reservoirs of B. burgdorferi s.l. Our findings underscore the importance of bird behavior to explain local tick infestation and Borrelia infection in these animals, and suggest the potential for bird-mediated geographic spread of vector ticks and spirochetes in the far-western United States.

  17. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  18. Effects of physical and biogeochemical processes on aquatic ecosystems at the groundwater-surface water interface: An evaluation of a sulfate-impacted wild rice stream in Minnesota (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Yourd, A. R.; Myrbo, A.; Johnson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Significant uncertainty and variability in physical and biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-surface water interface complicate how surface water chemistry affects aquatic ecosystems. Questions surrounding a unique 10 mg/L sulfate standard for wild rice (Zizania sp.) waters in Minnesota are driving research to clarify conditions controlling the geochemistry of shallow sediment porewater in stream- and lake-beds. This issue raises the need and opportunity to carry out in-depth, process-based analysis into how water fluxes and coupled C, S, and Fe redox cycles interact to impact aquatic plants. Our study builds on a recent state-wide field campaign that showed that accumulation of porewater sulfide from sulfate reduction impairs wild rice, an annual grass that grows in shallow lakes and streams in the Great Lakes region of North America. Negative porewater sulfide correlations with organic C and Fe quantities also indicated that lower redox rates and greater mineral precipitation attenuate sulfide. Here, we focus on a stream in northern Minnesota that receives high sulfate loading from iron mining activity yet maintains wild rice stands. In addition to organic C and Fe effects, we evaluate the degree to which streambed hydrology, and in particular groundwater contributions, accounts for the active biogeochemistry. We collect field measurements, spanning the surrounding groundwater system to the stream, to constrain a reactive-transport model. Observations from seepage meters, temperature probes, and monitoring wells delineate upward flow that may lessen surface water impacts below the stream. Geochemical analyses of groundwater, porewater, and surface water samples and of sediment extractions reveal distinctions among the different domains and stream banks, which appear to jointly control conditions in the streambed. A model based on field conditions can be used to evaluate the relative the importance and the spatiotemporal scales of diverse flux and

  19. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in birds: field investigations in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-01-01

    In Senegal, wild ground-feeding birds are frequently infested with immature ticks. In two areas where numerous Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus isolations were obtained from Hyalomma marginatum rufipes adult ticks collected on ungulates, 175 birds were captured and sera collected. CCHF antibodies were detected by ELISA in 6/22 red-beaked hornbills (Tockus erythrorhynchus), 2/11 glossy starlings (Lamprotornis sp.) and 1/3 guinea fowls. The virus was isolated from H. m. rufipes nymphs collected on a hornbill. The role of wild ground-feeding birds in CCHF virus ecology in West Africa is discussed.

  20. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  1. Effects of satellite transmitters on captive and wild mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Foggia, Jennifer R.; Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Humburg, Dale D.; Naylor, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a leading method for studying large-scale movements and survival in birds, yet few have addressed potential effects of the larger and heavier tracking equipment on study subjects. We simultaneously evaluated effects of satellite telemetry equipment on captive and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to assess impacts on behavior, body mass, and movement. We randomly assigned 55 captive ducks to one of 3 treatment groups, including a standard body harness group, a modified harness group, and a control group. Ducks in the control group were not fitted with equipment, whereas individuals in the other 2 groups were fitted with dummy transmitters attached with a Teflon ribbon harness or with a similar harness constructed of nylon cord. At the conclusion of the 14-week captive study, mean body mass of birds in the control group was 40–105 g (95% CI) greater than birds with standard harnesses, and 28–99 g (95% CI) greater than birds with modified harnesses. Further, results of focal behavior observations indicated ducks with transmitters were less likely to be in water than control birds. We also tested whether movements of wild birds marked with a similar Teflon harness satellite transmitter aligned with population movements reported by on-the-ground observers who indexed local abundances of mid-continent mallards throughout the non-breeding period. Results indicated birds marked with satellite transmitters moved concurrently with the larger unmarked population. Our results have broad implications for field research and suggest that investigators should consider potential for physiological and behavioral effects brought about by tracking equipment. Nonetheless, results from wild ducks indicate satellite telemetry has the potential to provide useful movement data.

  2. Prevalence and Diversity of Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana S; Müller, Maria L; Ortiz, Lucía; Cordón-Rosales, Celia; Perez, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    Waterfowl species are known to harbor the greatest diversity of low pathogenicity influenza A virus (LPAIV) subtypes and are recognized as their main natural reservoir. In Guatemala there is evidence of circulation of LPAIV in wild ducks; however, the bird species contributing to viral diversity during the winter migration in Central America are unknown. In this study, samples obtained from 1250 hunter-killed birds from 22 different species were collected on the Pacific coast of Guatemala during three winter migration seasons between 2010 and 2013. Prevalence of LPAIV detected by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was 38.2%, 23.5%, and 24.7% in the 2010-11, 2011-12, and 2012-13 seasons, respectively. The highest virus prevalence was detected in the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata), followed by the blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The majority of positive samples and viral isolates were obtained from the blue-winged teal. Analysis of LPAIV prevalence over time in this species indicated a decreasing trend in monthly prevalence within a migration season. Sixty-eight viruses were isolated, and nine HA and seven NA subtypes were identified in 19 subtype combinations. In 2012-13 the most prevalent subtype was H14, a subtype identified for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in 2010. The results from this study represent the most detailed description available to date of LPAIV circulation in Central America.

  3. The role of free-ranging, captive, and domestic birds of Western Poland in environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia lamblia cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Anna C; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Tamang, Leena; Jedrzejewski, Szymon; Zduniak, Piotr; Solarczyk, Piotr; Nowosad, Andrzej; Nowosad, Piotr

    2009-04-01

    As Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia can be disseminated in the environment by avian hosts, a total of 499 fecal dropping from 308 free-ranging, 90 captive, and 101 domestic birds were tested by conventional, immunological, and molecular techniques for these human enteropathogens. Twenty-six (5.2%) tested positive for G. lamblia cysts and 19 (3.8%) for C. parvum oocysts. A bird total of 23 (7.5%) free-ranging, two (2.2%) captive, and one (0.1%) domestic tested positive for cysts, whereas 18 (5.8%) free-ranging, one (1.1%) captive, and zero livestock birds tested positive for oocysts. G. lamblia cysts and C. parvum oocysts were found significantly more frequently in fecal droppings of free-ranging aquatic birds than in birds not normally associated with water. No specimen tested positive for both pathogens simultaneously. Aquatic birds represent an important epidemiologic link in water-associated transmission cycles of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and play a significant role in environmental contamination of aquatic habitats with these anthropozoonotic pathogens.

  4. Increased pathogenicity and shedding in chickens of a wild bird-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza virus of the H7N3 subtype following multiple in vivo passages in quail and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilloni, Filippo; Toffan, Anna; Giannecchini, Simone; Clausi, Valeria; Azzi, Alberta; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate viral adaptation mechanisms to poultry, we performed serial in vivo passages of a wild bird low pathogenicity avian influenza isolate of the H7N3 subtype (A/mallard/Italy/33/01) in three different domestic species (chicken, turkey, and Japanese quail). The virus under study was administered via natural routes at the dose of 10(6) egg infective dose50/ 0.1 ml to chickens, turkeys, and quails in order to investigate the clinical susceptibility and the shedding levels after infection. Multiple in vivo passages of the virus were performed by serially infecting groups of five naive birds of each species, with samples collected from a previously infected group. Quails and turkeys were susceptible to infection for 10 serial passages, whereas chickens were susceptible to two cycles of infection only. Infection of chicken with the quail- and turkey-adapted viruses showed an increased pathogenicity and/or shedding, causing more severe clinical signs and/or higher levels of viral excretion compared to the original strain. The data obtained herein suggest that infection of selected avian species may facilitate the adaptation of avian influenza viruses originating from the wild bird reservoir to chicken. This is the first time turkey has been shown to act as a species in which a virus from the wild reservoir can increase its replication activity in other domestic species.

  5. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ18Ocalc and δ13Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ18Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in 18O relative to 16O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ18Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ18Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ13Ccalc and δ18Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ13Ccalc and high δ18Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  6. Neospora caninum in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Miura, Ana Carolina; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-08-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects domestic and wild animals. Canids are considered to be definitive hosts since they may shed oocysts into the environment through their feces. The disease is recognized as one of the major causes of bovine abortion worldwide, leading to important economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have reported N. caninum infection in different species of birds; infection in birds has been associated with increased seroprevalence and reproductive problems in dairy cattle. Although the role of birds in the epidemiological cycle of neosporosis is unknown, birds are exposed to infection because they feed on the ground and could thus contribute to parasite dissemination. This review is focused on the current state of knowledge of neosporosis in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  8. Mercury levels in feathers of eagle-owls Bubo bubo in a captive, a reintroduced and a native wild population in SW Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broo, B.; Odsjoe, T.

    1981-01-01

    Mercury levels in feathers are presented for both captive and wild eagle-owls from the period 1963-1976. Levels are compared between wild birds occupying old territories and released birds in newly occupied territories. The wild population in SW Sweden shows decreasing levels in the inland territories, and at present these levels are similar to the natural background level. The coastal owls have significantly higher levels which show no decrease. Low levels prevail in captive eagle-owls, fed on low-contaminted food. Birds in newly occupied territories (mainly released birds) have similar mercury levels as native birds. After being released captive birds therefore seem to accumulate mercury rather quickly. (author)

  9. The Implications of Ranaviruses to European farmed and wild freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    The present thesis explores the implications of ranaviruses to European farmed and wild freshwater fish. The work presented was carried out as a part of the EU project “Risk assessment of new and emerging systemic iridoviral diseases for European fish and aquatic ecosystems” which was initiated...... in 2005 as a reaction to the speculation that ranaviruses might pose a serious threat to both farmed and wild-living freshwater fish and amphibians within the European community. In the present thesis, the purpose is to determine the implications of ranaviruses to European freshwater farmed and wild...... describing the risk of introduction and spread of exotic ranaviruses in European wild and farmed aquatic ecosystems Objectives 1 and 2 have been addressed by experimental trials involving bath challenges of both European farmed and wild fish species and ornamental fish species. The results showed that some...

  10. Occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, A; Fioretti, A; Russo, T P; Varriale, L; Rampa, L; Paone, S; De Luca Bossa, L M; Raia, P; Dipineto, L

    2018-03-01

    The importance of wild birds as potential vectors of disease has received recent renewed empirical interest, especially regarding human health although information regarding the enteropathogenic bacteria in birds of prey continue to be scant. This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.) in birds of prey carcasses in Southern Italy. The results of the present study showed a prevalence of 33·1% (49/148) for Campylobacter spp. where all positive isolates (49/49) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni, and among these positive 12/49 were also identified as Campylobacter coli. Thus, 12/49 birds of prey showed mixed infections for both Campylobacter species. Differences in Campylobacter spp. prevalence between diurnal and nocturnal birds were statistically significant (P = 0·016). Escherichia coli showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serogrouped as O26 (n = 3), O55 (n = 2), O145 (n = 5). Salmonella spp. showed a prevalence of 6·8% (10/148) and were serotyped as S. Napoli (n = 4), Salmonella salamae (n = 3) and S. Typhimurium (n = 3). Although wildlife disease outbreaks have often been underreported in the broader context of global epidemiology, results of the present study suggest that birds of prey may serve as a reservoir of pathogens for livestock and human health, acting at the animal-human-ecosystem interface. This study confirms the role of birds of prey as a reservoir of enteropathogenic bacteria (i.e. Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.). Wild birds can contaminate environment with their faeces and play a crucial role in the transmission of pathogens to poultry and livestock farms and aquifers supplying water to humans. Furthermore, wild birds could disseminate pathogens within rescue and rehabilitation centres where they are admitted. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. A nearly modern amphibious bird from the Early Cretaceous of northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Hai-Lu; Lamanna, Matthew C; Harris, Jerald D; Chiappe, Luis M; O'connor, Jingmai; Ji, Shu-An; Lü, Jun-Chang; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Li, Da-Qing; Zhang, Xing; Lacovara, Kenneth J; Dodson, Peter; Ji, Qiang

    2006-06-16

    Three-dimensional specimens of the volant fossil bird Gansus yumenensis from the Early Cretaceous Xiagou Formation of northwestern China demonstrate that this taxon possesses advanced anatomical features previously known only in Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic ornithuran birds. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Gansus within the Ornithurae, making it the oldest known member of the clade. The Xiagou Formation preserves the oldest known ornithuromorph-dominated avian assemblage. The anatomy of Gansus, like that of other non-neornithean (nonmodern) ornithuran birds, indicates specialization for an amphibious life-style, supporting the hypothesis that modern birds originated in aquatic or littoral niches.

  12. Energy Metabolism and Transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in Mammals and Birds - Energy metabolism and transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in mammals, birds, and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melintescu, Anca; Galeriu, Dan [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Environmental Physics and Life, 30 Reactorului St., POB MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Av. Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The transfer of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in environment needs to be modelled differently than that of other radionuclides released from nuclear facilities because hydrogen and carbon are key components of biological tissues and the carbon and hydrogen life cycles. A detailed understanding of the behaviour of {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C in the food chain is essential because {sup 3}H may be released in large quantities from CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) reactors and future thermonuclear reactors, and {sup 14}C accumulates in the environment because of its long half-life. In recent years, the authors published both a simple and a complex dynamic metabolic model for {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C transfer to farm and wild animals. The models applications for wild animals were restricted to few examples. There is an increased interest to extend the models for a larger selection of wild animals, birds and fish to support developments such as the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) environmental protection framework. In this paper we describe activities to expand {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C models to cover a wider range of wildlife. The updated model of the dynamics of tritium transfer in aquatic food chains (AQUATRIT model) developed by the authors was successfully tested for small and large (trout) fish. Wild mammals and birds generally have a lower fat content than domestic species and must adapt to variable environmental conditions. The body mass is an important parameter involved in radionuclide transfer. The environmental temperature, type of animal, and diet must also be considered. The model input parameters for wild mammals are poorly defined because the experimental data are too few and the intraspecific variability is higher than that for farm and laboratory mammals. In the present study, our previously published approach considering the use of energy metabolism and the link between energy and organic matter turnover rate at the whole body and organ

  13. Pasteurella multocida isolated from wild birds of North America: a serotype and DNA fingerprint study of isolates from 1978 to 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Duncan, R.M.; Nordholm, G.E.; Berlowski, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Serotype and DNA fingerprint methods were used to study Pasteurella multocida isolated from 320 wild birds of North America. Isolates were collected during 1978-93. The HhaI profiles of 314 isolates matched the HhaI profile of somatic reference type 1, strain X-73; somatic type 1 antigen was expressed by 310 isolates, and the serotype of four isolates was undetected. Differentiation of the 314 isolates was observed by digestion of DNA with HpaII. None of the HpaII profiles matched the HpaII profile of X-73 (designated HhaI 001/HpaII 001). Three HpaII profiles were recognized among the somatic type 1 isolates: HpaII 002 (n = 18), HpaII 003 (n = 122), and HpaII 004 (n = 174). Profile HpaII 002 was found among isolates collected during 1979-83. Profile HpaII 003 was identified from isolates collected during 1979-89, with the exception of two isolates in 1992. The HpaII 004 profile was identified from isolates collected during 1983-93. Of the six remaining isolates, four expressed somatic type 4 and had HhaI profiles identical to the somatic type 4 reference strain P-1662 profile (designated HhaI 004); these isolates were differentiated by digestion of DNA with HpaII. One isolate was identified as serotype F:11, and another was serotype A:3,4. In the present study, 314 of 316 (99.4%) isolates from wild birds in the Central, Mississippi, and Pacific flyways during 1978-93, were P. multocida somatic type 1.

  14. Endrin in birds: Lethal residues and secondary poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Hughes, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Endrin residues in brains that are diagnostic of death were determined for several species of birds. Residues of 0.8 ppm or more of endrin in brain meant death; 0.6 ppm or less meant survival; between was a zone of overlap. These criteria indicate that some wild birds of the U.S., particularly white pelicans in the Northwest and two bald eagles, have been killed by endrin. Signs of endrin poisoning in experimental birds are described. The important and highly toxic metabolite in rodents, 12-ketoendrin, was sought but not found.

  15. Chemical regulation of body feather microbiota in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Staffan; Sallé, Louis; Zinger, Lucie; Chaine, Alexis S; Ducamp, Christine; Boutault, Léa; Russell, Andrew F; Heeb, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    The microbiota has a broad range of impacts on host physiology and behaviour, pointing out the need to improve our comprehension of the drivers of host-microbiota composition. Of particular interest is whether the microbiota is acquired passively, or whether and to what extent hosts themselves shape the acquisition and maintenance of their microbiota. In birds, the uropygial gland produces oily secretions used to coat feathers that have been suggested to act as an antimicrobial defence mechanism regulating body feather microbiota. However, our comprehension of this process is still limited. In this study, we for the first time coupled high-throughput sequencing of the microbiota of both body feathers and the direct environment (i.e., the nest) in great tits with chemical analyses of the composition of uropygial gland secretions to examine whether host chemicals have either specific effects on some bacteria or nonspecific broad-spectrum effects on the body feather microbiota. Using a network approach investigating the patterns of co-occurrence or co-exclusions between chemicals and bacteria within the body feather microbiota, we found no evidence for specific promicrobial or antimicrobial effects of uropygial gland chemicals. However, we found that one group of chemicals was negatively correlated to bacterial richness on body feathers, and a higher production of these chemicals was associated with a poorer body feather bacterial richness compared to the nest microbiota. Our study provides evidence that chemicals produced by the host might function as a nonspecific broad-spectrum antimicrobial defence mechanism limiting colonization and/or maintenance of bacteria on body feathers, providing new insight about the drivers of the host's microbiota composition in wild organisms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Correlation of gene expression and contaminat concentrations in wild largescale suckers: a field-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Maule, Alec G.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research.

  17. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  19. Detection of Anaplasma sp. phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum in a free-living bird in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Claudia Baumel Mongruel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wild animals play an important role in carrying vectors that may potentially transmit pathogens. Several reports highlighted the participation of wild animals on the Anaplasma phagocytophilum cycle, including as hosts of the agent. The aim of this study was to report the molecular detection of an agent phylogenetically related to A. phagocytophilum isolated from a wild bird in the Midwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Fifteen blood samples were collected from eleven different bird species in the Guarapuava region. One sample collected from a Penelope obscura bird was positive in nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. The phylogenetic tree based on the Maximum Likelihood analysis showed that the sequence obtained was placed in the same clade with A. phagocytophilum isolated from domestic cats in Brazil. The present study reports the first molecular detection of a phylogenetically related A. phagocytophilum bacterium in a bird from Paraná State.

  20. A NEW EARLY PLEISTOCENE BIRD ASSOCIATION FROM PIETRAFITTA (PERUGIA, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILDA ZUCCHETTA

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We here present che preliminary results of the analysis of the fossil bird assemblages found in the lignite deposits of the Pietrafitta Mine (Perugia, Central Italy. A rich vertebrate association, mainly mammals, has been retrieved in Pietrafitta, which is the richest local fauna of the Farneta Faunal Unit (late Villafranchian, early Pleistocene. Avian remains of Podicipedidae, Ardeidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anatidae, Phasianidae and Rallidae have been identified, for most of which Pietrafitta represents the earliest occurrence in Italy. The Pietrafitta fossil bird association is the first Italian bird assemblage of the Early Pleistocene and seems to be one of the most important ones for the early Pleistocene in Europe, especially because it contains mainly aquatic birds, often rare in many other European deposits. 

  1. Proceedings of the 22nd annual aquatic toxicity workshop: October 2-4, 1995, St. Andrews, New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haya, K.; Niimi, A.J. [eds.

    1996-02-01

    The proceedings contain copies (in many cases in abstract form only) of the 4 plenary, 87 platform, and 28 poster presentations. The sessions are: working with industry; toxicology and chemistry in watershed management; bioassay: ecological risk assessment; toxicity identification and reduction; fate and effects of PAHs in the aquatic environment; PCBs in waterways: transport and toxicity; mercury in aquatic ecosystems; sediment toxicity; bio-markers of pollution; statistics for estimating potency from non-quantal data; advances in micro-scale aquatic toxicity; aquatic toxicity of water birds; and aquatic pathology and its role in forensic science. One paper is abstracted separately.

  2. Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Kevin; McCracken, Kevin G.; Gibson, Daniel D.; Pruett, Christin L.; Meier, Rose; Huettmann, Falk; Wege, Michael; Kulikova, Irina V.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.; Perdue, Michael L.; Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Asian-origin avian influenza (AI) viruses are spread in part by migratory birds. In Alaska, diverse avian hosts from Asia and the Americas overlap in a region of intercontinental avifaunal mixing. This region is hypothesized to be a zone of Asia-to-America virus transfer because birds there can mingle in waters contaminated by wild-bird?origin AI viruses. Our 7 years of AI virus surveillance among waterfowl and shorebirds in this region (1998?2004; 8,254 samples) showed remarkably low infecti...

  3. Melatonin delays clutch initiation in a wild songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greives, Timothy J.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Beltrami, Giulia; Hau, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is known to play an important role in regulating many seasonal changes in physiology, morphology and behaviour. In birds, unlike in mammals, melatonin has thus far been thought to play little role in timing seasonal reproductive processes. This view is mainly derived from laboratory experiments on male birds. This study tests whether melatonin is capable of influencing the timing of clutch initiation in wild female songbirds. Free-living female great tits (Parus major) treated with melatonin-filled implants prior to the breeding season initiated their first clutch of the season significantly later than females carrying an empty implant. Melatonin treatment did not affect clutch size. Further, melatonin treatment did not delay the onset of daily activity in the wild nor adversely affect body mass in captivity compared with controls. These data suggest a previously unknown role for this hormone in regulating the timing of clutch initiation in the wild. PMID:22171024

  4. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Short- and long-term consequences of early developmental conditions: a case study on wild and domesticated zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, B; Rutstein, A N; Postma, E; Mariette, M; Griffith, S C

    2009-02-01

    Divergent selection pressures among populations can result not only in significant differentiation in morphology, physiology and behaviour, but also in how these traits are related to each other, thereby driving the processes of local adaptation and speciation. In the Australian zebra finch, we investigated whether domesticated stock, bred in captivity over tens of generations, differ in their response to a life-history manipulation, compared to birds taken directly from the wild. In a 'common aviary' experiment, we thereto experimentally manipulated the environmental conditions experienced by nestlings early in life by means of a brood size manipulation, and subsequently assessed its short- and long-term consequences on growth, ornamentation, immune function and reproduction. As expected, we found that early environmental conditions had a marked effect on both short- and long-term morphological and life-history traits in all birds. However, although there were pronounced differences between wild and domesticated birds with respect to the absolute expression of many of these traits, which are indicative of the different selection pressures wild and domesticated birds were exposed to in the recent past, manipulated rearing conditions affected morphology and ornamentation of wild and domesticated finches in a very similar way. This suggests that despite significant differentiation between wild and domesticated birds, selection has not altered the relationships among traits. Thus, life-history strategies and investment trade-offs may be relatively stable and not easily altered by selection. This is a reassuring finding in the light of the widespread use of domesticated birds in studies of life-history evolution and sexual selection, and suggests that adaptive explanations may be legitimate when referring to captive bird studies.

  6. Effects of contaminants on reproductive success of aquatic birds nesting at Edwards Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Law, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and trace elements at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), located in the Mojave Desert, could adversely affect nesting aquatic birds, especially at the sewage lagoons that comprise Piute Ponds. Estimates of avian reproduction, in conjunction with analyses of eggs and avian foods for contaminant residues, may indicate the potential for negative effects on avian populations. From 1996 to 1999, we conducted studies at the Piute Ponds area of EAFB to evaluate the impacts of contaminants on nesting birds. Avian reproduction was evaluated in 1999. Eggs were collected for chemical analyses in 1996 and 1999, and African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis), a likely food source, were collected for chemical analyses in 1998. Avian species occupying the higher trophic levels-black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)-generally bioaccumulated higher concentrations of contaminants in their eggs. Reproductive success and egg hatchability of night-herons and white-faced ibises in the Piute Ponds were similar to results observed at other western colonies. Deformities were observed in only one embryo in this study, but concentrations of contaminants evaluated in this ibis embryo were considered insufficient to have caused the deformities. Because clawed frogs, a primary prey item for night-herons at Piute Ponds, had no detectable levels of any OCs, it is likely that OCs found in night-heron eggs were acquired from the wintering grounds rather than from EAFB. The presence of isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in ibis eggs indicated recent exposure, but invertebrates used for food by ibises were not sampled at Piute Ponds, and conclusions about the source of OCs in ibis eggs could not be made. Concentrations of contaminants in random and failed eggs of individual species were not different, and we concluded

  7. Species diversity and abundance of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    The study of bird species diversity and richness in Dagona-Waterfowl sanctuary was carried out in early wet and late dry ... conservation of important species that rural inhabitants ... wetland of international importance on waterfowl habitat,.

  8. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  9. Household factors influencing participation in bird feeding activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Fuller, Richard A.; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    whether and how the socioeconomic background of a household influences participation in food provision for wild birds, the most popular and widespread form of human-wildlife interaction. A majority of households feed birds (64% across rural and urban areas in England, and 53% within five British study...... cities). House type, household size and the age of the head of the household were all important predictors of bird feeding, whereas gross annual household income, the occupation of the head of the household, and whether the house is owned or rented were not. In both surveys, the prevalence of bird...... a week. The proportion of households regularly feeding birds was positively related to the age of the head of the household, but declined with gross annual income. As concerns grow about the lack of engagement between people and the natural environment, such findings are important if conservation...

  10. Avian influenza prevalence among hunter-harvested birds in a remote Canadian First Nation community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberda, Eric N; Meldrum, Richard; Charania, Nadia A; Davey, Robert; Tsuji, Leonard Js

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) prevalence has been associated with wild game and other bird species. The contamination of these birds may pose a greater risk to those who regularly hunt and consumed infected species. Due to resident concerns communicated by local Band Council, hunter-harvested birds from a remote First Nation community in subArctic Ontario, Canada were assessed for AIV. Hunters, and especially those who live a subsistence lifestyle, are at higher risk of AIV exposure due to their increased contact with wild birds, which represent an important part of their diet. Cloacal swabs from 304 harvested game birds representing several species of wild birds commonly hunted and consumed in this First Nation community were analyzed for AIV using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Subtyping was performed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sequences were assembled using Lasergene, and the sequences were compared to Genbank. In total, 16 of the 304 cloacal swab samples were positive for AIV. Of the 16 positive samples, 12 were found in mallard ducks, 3 were found in snow geese (wavies), and 1 positive sample was found in partridge. The AIV samples were subtyped, when possible, and found to be positive for the low pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes H3 and H4. No samples were positive for subtypes of human concern, namely H5 and H7. This work represents the first AIV monitoring program results of hunter-harvested birds in a remote subsistence First Nation community. Community-level surveillance of AIV in remote subsistence hunting communities may help to identify future risks, while educating those who may have the highest exposure about proper handling of hunted birds. Ultimately, only low pathogenic strains of AIV were found, but monitoring should be continued and expanded to safeguard those with the highest exposure risk to AIV.

  11. A High Diversity of Eurasian Lineage Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Viruses Circulate among Wild Birds Sampled in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Nancy A.; Jones, Joyce; Simpson, Natosha; Balish, Amanda; ElBadry, Maha Adel; Baghat, Verina; Rusev, Ivan; de Mattos, Cecilia C.; de Mattos, Carlos A.; Zonkle, Luay Elsayed Ahmed; Kis, Zoltan; Davis, C. Todd; Yingst, Sam; Cornelius, Claire; Soliman, Atef; Mohareb, Emad; Klimov, Alexander; Donis, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian). The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring. PMID:23874653

  12. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  13. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  14. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  15. Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C.; Haig, Susan M.

    2004-01-01

    To provide information for managing the captive population of endangered Guam Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina), four biologically relevant thermal metrics were compared among captive facilities on the United States mainland and habitats used by wild Micronesian kingfishers on the island of Pohnpei (H. c. reichenbachii), Federated States of Micronesia. Additionally, aviaries where kingfishers laid eggs were compared to those in which birds did not attempt to breed. Compared to aviaries, habitats used by wild Pohnpei kingfishers had 3.2A?C higher daily maximum and minimum temperatures and the proportion of time when temperatures were in the birds' thermoneutral zone was 45% greater. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation in captive and wild environments. In captive environments in which birds bred, daily maximum temperatures were 2.1A?C higher and temperatures were within the thermoneutral zone 25% more often than in the aviaries where the kingfishers did not breed. No differences were found in the magnitude of temperature fluctuation or the daily minimum temperature. Results suggest that the thermal environment has the potential to influence reproduction, and that consideration should be given to increasing temperatures in captive breeding facilities to improve propagation of the endangered Micronesian kingfisher.

  16. Functional and Anatomic Correlates of Neural Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Avian species show variation in longevity, habitat, physiologic characteristics, and lifetime endocrine patterns. Lifetime reproductive and metabolic function vary. Much is known about the neurobiology of the song system in many altricial birds. Little is known about aging in neural systems in birds. Captive birds often survive beyond the age they would in the wild, providing an opportunity to gain an understanding of the physiologic and neural changes. This paper reviews the available information with the goal of capturing areas of potential investigation into gaps in our understanding of neural aging as reflected in physiologic, endocrine, and cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Response of the Hepatic Transcriptomes of Domesticated and Wild Turkey to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 poses a significant risk to poultry, which are highly susceptible to its hepatotoxic effects. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive, whereas wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are more resistant. AFB1 toxicity entails bioactivation by hepatic cytochrome P450s to the electrophilic exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO. Domesticated turkeys lack functional hepatic GST-mediated detoxification of AFBO, and this is largely responsible for the differences in resistance between turkey types. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey livers by AFB1, and to contrast the response of domesticated (susceptible and wild (more resistant birds. Gene expression responses to AFB1 were examined using RNA-sequencing. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatment groups and between turkey types. Expression analysis identified 4621 genes with significant differential expression (DE in AFB1-treated birds compared to controls. Characterization of DE transcripts revealed genes dis-regulated in response to toxic insult with significant association of Phase I and Phase II genes and others important in cellular regulation, modulation of apoptosis, and inflammatory responses. Constitutive expression of GSTA3 was significantly higher in wild birds and was significantly higher in AFB1-treated birds when compared to controls for both genetic groups. This pattern was also observed by qRT-PCR in other wild and domesticated turkey strains. Results of this study emphasize the differential response of these genetically distinct birds, and identify genes and pathways that are differentially altered in aflatoxicosis.

  18. Varying energetic costs of Brent Geese along a continuum from aquatic to agricultural habitats: the importance of habitat-specific energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fox, Anthony David

    2013-01-01

    and alert than birds feeding in aquatic areas, and also spent much less time roosting. Frequency of disturbance was found to be higher in terrestrial habitats compared to aquatic habitats. These stress-related behavioural differences between habitats highlight the vulnerability of the species associated...... with adapting to different food sources. Combining time-budgets with activity-specific BMR-multiplicators showed that activity-based metabolic rates ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 × BMR within habitats exploited by Brent Geese, and emphasized that aquatic areas represent the energetically least expensive foraging...... habitat for these birds. This is largely the result of habitat-specific variation in time spent flying. These findings underline the importance of measuring habitat-specific behaviour and disturbance when studying avian energetics, and demonstrate the risk of uncritically using allometric relationships...

  19. Experimental Mycoplasma gallisepticum infections in captive-reared wild turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Amundson, Terry E.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infections on egg production, fertility, and hatchability were studied in captive-reared wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Three groups of adult birds, each consisting of four hens and two toms, were exposed to MG by the respiratory route at the beginning of their breeding season. Fourteen control birds received sterile growth medium. Although no mortality of infected or control birds occurred, egg production during the first breeding season after infection was reduced. The mean number of eggs/hen/day produced by infected groups the first breeding season postexposure (PE) was significantly lower than the control value. The mean number of eggs produced daily by the same hens 1 yr later was unaffected by MG infection. The pecentage of fertile eggs produced by infected groups was slightly reduced in both the first and second breeding seasons PE. Hatchability of fertile eggs from infected hens was significantly lower than eggs from control hens. Productivity may be impaired if MG infections occur in free-ranging wild turkey populations.

  20. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  1. Temperature influences on growth of aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.; Suffern, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Temperature profoundly affects the growth rates of aquatic organisms, and its control is essential for effective aquaculture. Characteristically, both low and high temperatures produce slow growth rates and inefficient food conversion, while intermediate temperature ranges provide rapid growth and efficient food conversion. Distinct, species-specific optimum temperatures and upper and lower temperatures of zero growth can often be defined. Thermal effects can be greatly modified by amounts and quality of food. These data not only provide the basis for criteria which maintain growth of wild organisms but also for effectively using waste heat to create optimal conditions of temperature and food ration for growing aquatic organisms commercially

  2. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within hosts, RNA viruses form populations that are genetically and phenotypically complex. Heterogeneity in RNA virus genomes arises due to error-prone replication and is reduced by stochastic and selective mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defining how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations is critical because it can inform treatment paradigms and enhance control efforts. We allowed West Nile virus (WNV to replicate in wild-caught American crows, house sparrows and American robins to assess how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations in ecologically relevant hosts that differ in susceptibility to virus-induced mortality. After five sequential passages in each bird species, we examined the phenotype and population diversity of WNV through fitness competition assays and next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that fitness gains occur in a species-specific manner, with the greatest replicative fitness gains in robin-passaged WNV and the least in WNV passaged in crows. Sequencing data revealed that intrahost WNV populations were strongly influenced by purifying selection and the overall complexity of the viral populations was similar among passaged hosts. However, the selective pressures that control WNV populations seem to be bird species-dependent. Specifically, crow-passaged WNV populations contained the most unique mutations (~1.7× more than sparrows, ~3.4× more than robins and defective genomes (~1.4× greater than sparrows, ~2.7× greater than robins, but the lowest average mutation frequency (about equal to sparrows, ~2.6× lower than robins. Therefore, our data suggest that WNV replication in the most disease-susceptible bird species is positively associated with virus mutational tolerance, likely via complementation, and negatively associated with the strength of selection. These differences in genetic composition most likely have distinct phenotypic consequences for the virus populations. Taken together

  3. Essential and toxic elements in meat of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Carla; Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Fagiolino, Ivan; Feduzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Essential and toxic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic absorption (AS) in meat of 14 migratory birds originating from central and northern Europe to provide baseline data regarding game meat consumed in central Italy. In all samples analyzed, cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (total) levels were meat. These findings indicate that elevated Pb concentrations in game ingested by humans may be a cause for concern.

  4. Diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds: a review I. Radiographic techniques and radiographs of healthy birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.; Szentgali, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the present review summaries the basic technical conditions of radiological examinations, analyses the radiographic features of healthy birds, and describes the procedure and radiological indications of contrast radiography. (This paper can be seen on the Internet at: http://www.akkrt.hu)

  5. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Aroha [Department of Applied Biology, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Elliott, John E., E-mail: John.Elliott@ec.gc.ca [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Elliott, Kyle H.; Guigueno, Mélanie F. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Wilson, Laurie K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Lee, Sandi [Science and Technology, Environment Canada, Delta, BC V4K 3N2 (Canada); Idrissi, Abde [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003–2012). Dietary tracers (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. - Highlights: • Seabird eggs have been used to monitor POPs on the west coast of Canada since 1979. • Samples of these eggs were analysed retrospectively for PBDEs and HBCDD. • Regulations exist in North America to control PBDEs, but not HBCDD. • PBDEs decreased significantly since regulations were applied. • HBCDD was not detected pre-2003, but is now found in low concentrations.

  6. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  7. Birds of Sabaragamuwa University campus, Buttala, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Surasinghe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.

  8. Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological divergence is thought to be coupled with evolutionary radiations, yet the strength of this coupling is unclear. When birds diversified ecologically has received much less attention than their hotly debated crown divergence time. Here, we quantify how accurately skeletal morphology can predict ecology in living and extinct birds, and show that the earliest known assemblage of birds (= pygostylians) from the Jehol Biota (≈ 125 Ma) was substantially impoverished ecologically. The Jehol avifauna has few representatives of highly preservable ecomorphs (e.g. aquatic forms) and a notable lack of ecomorphological overlap with the pterosaur assemblage (e.g. no large or aerially foraging pygostylians). Comparisons of the Jehol functional diversity with modern and subfossil avian assemblages show that taphonomic bias alone cannot explain the ecomorphological impoverishment. However, evolutionary simulations suggest that the constrained ecological diversity of the Early Cretaceous pygostylians is consistent with what is expected from a relatively young radiation. Regardless of the proximate biological explanation, the anomalously low functional diversity of the Jehol birds is evidence both for ecological vacancies in Cretaceous ecosystems, which were subsequently filled by the radiation of crown Aves, and for discordance between taxonomic richness and ecological diversity in the best-known Mesozoic ecosystem. PMID:24870044

  9. Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Wild Birds from Northern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourdain, E.; Olsen, B.; Lundkvist, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šikutová, Silvie; Waldenström, J.; Karlsson, M.; Wahlström, M.; Jozan, M.; Falk, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2011), s. 77-79 ISSN 1530-3667 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Antibodies * Migratory birds * Sweden * West Nile Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2011

  10. Prevalence and control of H7 avian influenza viruses in birds and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, E M; Veits, J; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-05-01

    The H7 subtype HA gene has been found in combination with all nine NA subtype genes. Most exhibit low pathogenicity and only rarely high pathogenicity in poultry (and humans). During the past few years infections of poultry and humans with H7 subtypes have increased markedly. This review summarizes the emergence of avian influenza virus H7 subtypes in birds and humans, and the possibilities of its control in poultry. All H7Nx combinations were reported from wild birds, the natural reservoir of the virus. Geographically, the most prevalent subtype is H7N7, which is endemic in wild birds in Europe and was frequently reported in domestic poultry, whereas subtype H7N3 is mostly isolated from the Americas. In humans, mild to fatal infections were caused by subtypes H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 and H7N9. While infections of humans have been associated mostly with exposure to domestic poultry, infections of poultry have been linked to wild birds or live-bird markets. Generally, depopulation of infected poultry was the main control tool; however, inactivated vaccines were also used. In contrast to recent cases caused by subtype H7N9, human infections were usually self-limiting and rarely required antiviral medication. Close genetic and antigenic relatedness of H7 viruses of different origins may be helpful in development of universal vaccines and diagnostics for both animals and humans. Due to the wide spread of H7 viruses and their zoonotic importance more research is required to better understand the epidemiology, pathobiology and virulence determinants of these viruses and to develop improved control tools.

  11. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented 137 Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (T e ) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot T e was nearly four times longer than T e for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. T e could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. No evidence of transmission of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans after unprotected contact with infected wild swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallensten, A; Salter, M; Bennett, S; Brown, I; Hoschler, K; Oliver, I

    2010-02-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 remains a public health threat as long as it circulates in wild and domestic birds. Information on the transmissibility of H5N1 HPAI from wild birds is needed for evidence-based public health advice. We investigated if transmission of H5N1 HPAI had taken place in people that had unprotected contact with infected wild mute swans during an incident at the Abbotsbury Swannery in Dorset, England. Thirteen people who had been exposed to infected swans were contacted and actively followed up for symptoms. Serology was taken after 30 days. We did not find evidence of transmission of H5N1 HPAI to humans during the incident. The incident provided a rare opportunity to study the transmissibility of the virus from wild birds to humans.

  13. Birds of a feather? Food and agricultural risk governance of avian influenza in different EU Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    From 2005 onwards, highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu) spread towards and eventually within Europe via different border-crossing flows, including those of wild birds and agricultural trade. Fear existed that via such movements, the virus would disseminate into and across territorially-based

  14. Novel Reassortant Influenza A(H5N8) Viruses among Inoculated Domestic and Wild Ducks, South Korea, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jeong, Jipseol; Choi, Jun-Gu; Jeong, Joojin; Moon, Oun-Kyong; Yoon, Hachung; Cho, Youngmi; Kang, Young-Myong; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2015-01-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza, caused by a novel reassortant influenza A (H5N8) virus, occurred among poultry and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis in and mode of transmission of this virus among domestic and wild ducks. Three of the viruses had similar pathogenicity among infected domestic ducks: the H5N8 viruses were moderately pathogenic (0%–20% mortality rate); in wild mallard ducks, the H5N8 and H5N1 viruses did not cause severe illness or death; viral replication and shedding were greater in H5N8-infected mallards than in H5N1-infected mallards. Identification of H5N8 viruses in birds exposed to infected domestic ducks and mallards indicated that the viruses could spread by contact. We propose active surveillance to support prevention of the spread of this virus among wild birds and poultry, especially domestic ducks. PMID:25625281

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Ferreira, Vivian Lindmayer; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia) living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144) and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7%) presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae) and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae). The birds' weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%). The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  16. Fluid dynamics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse: three-dimensional unsteady computations with fin deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurti, Ravi; Sandberg, William C; Löhner, Rainald; Walker, Jeffrey A; Westneat, Mark W

    2002-10-01

    Many fishes that swim with the paired pectoral fins use fin-stroke parameters that produce thrust force from lift in a mechanism of underwater flight. These locomotor mechanisms are of interest to behavioral biologists, biomechanics researchers and engineers. In the present study, we performed the first three-dimensional unsteady computations of fish swimming with oscillating and deforming fins. The objective of these computations was to investigate the fluid dynamics of force production associated with the flapping aquatic flight of the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius. For this computational work, we used the geometry of the wrasse and its pectoral fin, and previously measured fin kinematics, as the starting points for computational investigation of three-dimensional (3-D) unsteady fluid dynamics. We performed a 3-D steady computation and a complete set of 3-D quasisteady computations for a range of pectoral fin positions and surface velocities. An unstructured, grid-based, unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive remeshing was then used to compute the unsteady flow about the wrasse through several complete cycles of pectoral fin oscillation. The shape deformation of the pectoral fin throughout the oscillation was taken from the experimental kinematics. The pressure distribution on the body of the bird wrasse and its pectoral fins was computed and integrated to give body and fin forces which were decomposed into lift and thrust. The velocity field variation on the surface of the wrasse body, on the pectoral fins and in the near-wake was computed throughout the swimming cycle. We compared our computational results for the steady, quasi-steady and unsteady cases with the experimental data on axial and vertical acceleration obtained from the pectoral fin kinematics experiments. These comparisons show that steady state computations are incapable of describing the fluid dynamics of flapping fins. Quasi-steady state computations, with correct incorporation of

  17. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolated from mammals and birds from Guwahati city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafruza S Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding alpha (α toxin. Of the 102 samples collected from mammals and birds, both domestic and captive wild, 48 were found to be positive for Clostridium perfringens. Most of the mammal isolates (84.38% appeared to have been collected from clinically affected animals, while 33.33% of the bird samples were from clinically affected and 21.43% from apparently healthy birds infected with C. perfringens. Isolates revealed high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin. Among the isolated C. perfringens, 30 (62.50% showed DNase production. Hemolytic activity was recorded in 14 (24.16% of the isolates and 28 (58.33% showed phospholipase C production. All the phospholipase C positive isolates revealed the presence of cpa gene encoding α toxin.

  18. Territorial defense of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Pycnonotidae, in a semi-wild habitat of the bird farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunthorn Sotthibandhu

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The territorial behavior of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, was studied in the semiwild habitat of a bird farm compound in the District of Chana, Songkhla Province, the south of Thailand. The male and female birds were bred and reared in the farm till they reached maturity following which they were released to the wild. A mating pair was later formed and their territory established in the farm area. A decoy was used to simulate a natural intruder to the defended area. Ten test stations were sited in the four cardinal points of the compass and with reference to the farmhouse. The experiments were conducted during the pre-nesting and nesting periods. It was found that territorial boundary was marked by the resident male’s aggressive calls and threat displays to the decoy. The territory covered an area of approximately 0.3 hectare in which it was used for foraging and nesting. The size remained the same in both pre-nesting and nesting periods, but the territorial behavior during the nesting period was evidently more vigorous than that in the pre-nesting period. The intensities of territorial behavior had been hypothesized to be associated with diurnal foraging rhythms. But the finding was contradictory to this prediction. There was no significant difference in the intensity of territorial behavior (P > 0.05 at the three time regimes in the morning, at noon, and in the afternoon. It was suggested that the resident bird’s aggressive behavior might be associated with the degree of hunger pang.

  19. Gender Patterns in Bird-related Recreation in the USA and UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show inter-related trends in both adult and youth populations in developed nations: a shift away from nature-based recreation, an overall decline in physical activity, and increasing obesity. For this study we examined gender patterns in a nature-based activity, observing wild birds, popular in two developed nations, the USA and UK. We collated data from several organizations and categorized data sources as representing activities that involve varying degrees of competitiveness and acting authoritatively. Patterns were consistent with the hypotheses that gender differences in preferred types of bird-related recreation reflected well documented gender-specific differences in preferences for competition and propensity to act authoritatively. Observing birds encompassed both a recreational hobby, "bird watching," that was female biased in the USA, and a competitive sport, "birding," that was heavily male biased among adults, but not youth, in both the USA and UK. Because of differences in gender participation in bird-related activities, fostering both competitive and noncompetitive bird-related activities is necessary to increase the likelihood of bringing larger segments of the population into nature-based recreation.

  20. Labriform propulsion in fishes: kinematics of flapping aquatic flight in the bird wrasse Gomphosus varius (Labridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker; Westneat

    1997-01-01

    backwards motion of the fin at slow speeds generates a small upward component during slow swimming. Both the alternating sign of the hydrodynamic angle of attack and the observed reduced frequencies suggest that unsteady effects are important in G. varius aquatic flight, especially at low speeds. This study provides a framework for the comparison of aquatic flight by fishes with aerial flight by birds, bats and insects.

  1. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  2. Acute oral toxicity of chemicals in terrestrial life stages of amphibians: Comparisons to birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Mark; Finnegan, Meaghean; Weltje, Lennart; Kosmala-Grzechnik, Sylwia; Gross, Melanie; Wheeler, James R

    2016-10-01

    Amphibians are currently the most threatened and rapidly declining group of vertebrates and this has raised concerns about their potential sensitivity and exposure to plant protection products and other chemicals. Current environmental risk assessment procedures rely on surrogate species (e.g. fish and birds) to cover the risk to aquatic and terrestrial life stages of amphibians, respectively. Whilst a recent meta-analysis has shown that in most cases amphibian aquatic life stages are less sensitive to chemicals than fish, little research has been conducted on the comparative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages. Therefore, in this paper we address the questions "What is the relative sensitivity of terrestrial amphibian life stages to acute chemical oral exposure when compared with mammals and birds?" and "Are there correlations between oral toxicity data for amphibians and data for mammals or birds?" Identifying a relationship between these data may help to avoid additional vertebrate testing. Acute oral amphibian toxicity data collected from the scientific literature and ecotoxicological databases were compared with toxicity data for mammals and birds. Toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages are generally sparse, as noted in previous reviews. Single-dose oral toxicity data for terrestrial amphibian life stages were available for 26 chemicals and these were positively correlated with LD50 values for mammals, while no correlation was found for birds. Further, the data suggest that oral toxicity to terrestrial amphibian life stages is similar to or lower than that for mammals and birds, with a few exceptions. Thus, mammals or birds are considered adequate toxicity surrogates for use in the assessment of the oral exposure route in amphibians. However, there is a need for further data on a wider range of chemicals to explore the wider applicability of the current analyses and recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phi 6 and Phi 8 as Potential Surrogates for Avian Influenza Viruses in Persistence Studies in Water - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses, and water is known to play an important role in the transmission of virus within this reservoir system. Despite its recognized importance, we have very little understanding of what factors enhance or limit...

  4. Phi 6 and Phi 8 as Potential Surrogates for Avian Influenza Viruses in Persistence Studies in Water-Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses, and water is known to play an important role in the transmission of virus within this reservoir system. Despite its recognized importance, we have very little understanding of what factors enhance or limit...

  5. Characterization of a novel influenza A virus hemagglutinin subtype (H16) obtained from black-headed gulls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); V.J. Munster (Vincent); A. Wallensten (Anders); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); S. Herfst (Sander); D.J. Smith (Derek James); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); B. Olsen (Björn); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn wild aquatic birds and poultry around the world, influenza A viruses carrying 15 antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 antigenic subtypes of neuraminidase (NA) have been described. Here we describe a previously unidentified antigenic subtype of HA (H16), detected in viruses

  6. Low heritability of nest construction in a wild bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Pauliina; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E

    2017-10-01

    In birds and other taxa, nest construction varies considerably between and within populations. Such variation is hypothesized to have an adaptive (i.e. genetic) basis, but estimates of heritability in nest construction are largely lacking. Here, we demonstrate with data collected over 10 years from 1010 nests built by blue tits in nest-boxes that nest size (height of nest material) and nest composition (proportion of feathers in the nest) are repeatable but only weakly (12-13%) heritable female traits. These findings imply that nest construction may evolve but only if subjected to strong and consistent selection pressures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Camardese, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The pH of lake water is often inversely correlated with concentrations of trace metals in the water column. Concentrations of Al, Cd, Ca, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, and Zn were compared in water, plants, and aquatic insects from three acidified (pH 5.0) and three nonacidified (pH 6.5) constructed wetlands. Concentrations of Zn in water and bur-reed (Sparganium americanum) were higher in acidified wetlands than in nonacidified wetlands. Floating nonrooted plants contained mean concentrations of Fe, Mg, and Mn that were higher than recommended maximum levels for poultry feed. The mean concentrations of all metals in insects were below recommended maximum levels for poultry feed and below levels that cause toxic effects in wild birds. Smaller than expected increases of metal concentrations in the water of acidified wetlands were probably due to limited mobilization of metals from the sediments and insignificant changes in sedimentation of aqueous metals. Calcium was lower in acidified than in nonacidified wetland water, but the Ca content of insects and bur-reed was not lower. Low concentrations of Ca in aquatic insects from both groups of wetlands indicate that calcium-rich crustaceans and mollusks are probably important to female waterfowl and their young during the spring, when invertebrates make up the majority of the diet. Although toxic effects from metal ingestion seem to be unlikely consequences of wetland acidification, the adverse effect of low pH on the occurrence of crustaceans and mollusks could threaten egg production and development of young.

  8. Using the Neptune project to benefit Australian aquatic animal health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, M; Ernst, I; Adlard, R D

    2015-06-29

    Diseases of aquatic animals have had, and continue to have, a significant impact on aquatic animal health. In Australia, where fisheries and aquaculture are important industries, aquatic species have been subject to serious disease outbreaks, including pilchard herpesvirus, the cause of one of the largest wild fish kills ever recorded. At the same time, there is a consensus that Australia's parasite fauna are largely unknown, and that aquatic animal health information is difficult to access. Managing aquatic animal diseases is challenging because they may be entirely new, their hosts may be new to aquaculture, and specialist expertise and basic diagnostic tools may be lacking or absent. The Neptune project was created in response to these challenges, and it aims to increase awareness of aquatic animal diseases, improve disease management, and promote communication between aquatic animal health professionals in Australia. The project consists of an online database, a digital microscopy platform containing a whole-slide image library, a community space, and online communications technology. The database contains aquatic animal health information from published papers, government reports, and other sources, while the library contains slides of key diseases both endemic and exotic to Australia. These assets make Neptune a powerful resource for researchers, students, and biosecurity officials.

  9. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends on the virus strain and species of bird, and varies from a subclinical to a highly pathogenic form with up to 100 % mortality within 48 hours. AI is of high economic importance for the poultry production wo...

  10. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Johnson, James R; Gordon, David M

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Evaluation and Comparison of QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 Multispectral Imagery for Mapping Iberian Wild Pear Trees (Pyrus bourgaeana, Decne in a Mediterranean Mixed Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Arenas-Castro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of images with very high spatial and spectral resolution from airborne sensors or those aboard satellites is opening new possibilities for the analysis of fine-scale vegetation, such as the identification and classification of individual tree species. To evaluate the potential of these images, a study was carried out to compare the spatial, spectral and temporal resolution between QuickBird and ADS40-SH52 imagery, in order to discriminate and identify, within the mixed Mediterranean forest, individuals of the Iberian wild pear (Pyrus bourgaeana. This is a typical species of the Mediterranean forest, but its biology and ecology are still poorly known. The images were subjected to different correction processes and data were homogenized. Vegetation classes and individual trees were identified on the images, which were classified from two types of supervised classification (Maximum Likelihood and Support Vector Machines on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The classification values were satisfactory. The classifiers were compared, and Support Vector Machines was the algorithm that provided the best results in terms of overall accuracy. The QuickBird image showed higher overall accuracy (86.16% when the Support Vector Machines algorithm was applied. In addition, individuals of Iberian wild pear were discriminated with probability of over 55%, when the Maximum Likelihood algorithm was applied. From the perspective of improving the sampling effort, these results are a starting point for facilitating research on the abundance, distribution and spatial structure of P. bourgaeana at different scales, in order to quantify the conservation status of this species.

  12. Competition for the fish - fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals and birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Sture; Bergström, Ulf; Bonsdorff, E.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of fish eating mammals (primarily seals) and birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that their consumption reduces fish stocks and has negative impact on the fishery. Based primarily on published data on fisheries’ landings and abundances, consumption and diets...... to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production...... of birds and seals around year 2010, we compare consumption of commercial fish species by seals (1*105 metric tons per year) and birds (1*105 tons) to the catch in the commercial and recreational fishery (7*105 tons), and when applicable at the geographical resolution of ICES subdivisions. The large...

  13. The use of birds as pets in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Clarà, Blanca; Toledo, Víctor M; Espejel, Ileana

    2017-06-13

    The use of birds as pets has been a historical tradition in Mexico since prehispanic times. It has survived through bird traders, called pajareros, which is a local name given to the trade (derived from pájaro, the Spanish word for bird). However, the trade of birds has not been sufficiently described; therefore, the goal of this paper is to analyze the bird trade in Mexico using the components of an ethnoecology scheme known as kosmos-corpus-praxis complex. Qualitative research techniques were used, including ethnographic immersion, participative research, and interviews of 79 pajareros in 22 localities in nine Mexican states. The activity of the pajareros occurs within their households, with each member having distinct roles. The roles involved in bird trading are capturing, acclimation, maintenance, and sale. Their assignment depends on gender, age, and residential location (rural or urban). Beyond their households, the pajareros are well organized in trade unions and are represented by a leader, who acts as an intermediate between them and the government officers who are involved in the authorization of federal permits. The pajareros use 96 species of birds, most of which are native to Mexico. Practicing the trade requires highly specific knowledge of the biology, ecology, habitat, nutrition, diseases, and behavior of the birds, as well as the abiotic components of their environment, such as climatology and geography. The cosmovision of pajarero households is embedded in their identity, making them proud of their trade. Our paper provides the first comprehensive description of the pajarero trade, showing evidence of local communitarian management in the places where the wild birds are captured.

  14. Rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Marketa; Literak, Ivan; Chevez, Luis; Martins, Thiago F; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-09-01

    Ticks were collected from captive reptiles, wild birds, and incidentally from humans at two locations in Honduras and part of these were tested for the presence of Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction. The following species of ticks were found: Amblyomma dissimile on Iguanidae reptiles, Amblyomma longirostre and Amblyomma nodosum on birds, and Amblyomma mixtum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) on humans. A. dissimile was infected with Rickettsia sp. strain Colombianensi. Both A. longirostre and A. mixtum were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in ticks from reptiles, birds and humans in Honduras. New host - Amblyomma tick associations are documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Urbanization affects neophilia and risk-taking at bird-feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Møller, Anders Pape; Morelli, Federico; Biaduń, Waldemar; Brauze, Tomasz; Ciach, Michał; Czechowski, Paweł; Czyż, Stanisław; Dulisz, Beata; Goławski, Artur; Hetmański, Tomasz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Mitrus, Cezary; Myczko, Łukasz; Nowakowski, Jacek J.; Polakowski, Michał; Takacs, Viktoria; Wysocki, Dariusz; Zduniak, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Urban environments cover vast areas with a high density of humans and their dogs and cats causing problems for exploitation of new resources by wild animals. Such resources facilitate colonization by individuals with a high level of neophilia predicting that urban animals should show more neophilia than rural conspecifics. We provided bird-feeders across urban environments in 14 Polish cities and matched nearby rural habitats, testing whether the presence of a novel item (a brightly coloured green object made out of gum with a tuft of hair) differentially delayed arrival at feeders in rural compared to urban habitats. The presence of a novel object reduced the number of great tits Parus major, but also the total number of all species of birds although differentially so in urban compared to rural areas. That was the case independent of the potentially confounding effects of temperature, population density of birds, and the abundance of cats, dogs and pedestrians. The number of great tits and the total number of birds attending feeders increased in urban compared to rural areas independent of local population density of birds. This implies that urban birds have high levels of neophilia allowing them to readily exploit unpredictable resources in urban environments.

  16. Principles and methods of using wild animals in bioindication of global radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.E.; Krivolutskij, D.A.; Fedorov, E.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Ryabtsev, I.A.; Usachev, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Wild animals (mammals), birds, reptiles, amphibians, land and soil invertebrates) in natural ecosystems accumulate the easily detected radionuclide quantities. The technique for estimation of radionuclide content in the organism of animals are considered. It is suggested to use wild animals for studying biogenic migration of radionuclides by food chains in ecosystems in global monitoring of medium contamination, particularly on biosphers preserves

  17. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  19. Birds and fish as bioindicators of tourist disturbance in springs in semi-arid regions in Mexico: a basis for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio-Núñez, J.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourist disturbance in semi–arid springs was analysed; birds and fish were selected as bioindicators. Media Luna spring is the biggest and most spatially complex system in the region, with the highest biodiversity levels and tourist use. Areas with the highest bird species richness and abundances showed highest structural heterogeneity and least direct human impact. No differences in species richness of fish were observed between sectors and the most abundant species were found in the sectors least perturbed by human activity. Factors that explained the bird distribution were the species´ tolerance to the effects of direct tourism (noise and direct presence of people and habitat quality, mainly riparian vegetation. Aquatic vegetation condition was very important for fish. Six bird species and two fish species were relevant as indicators of the habitat quality related to human impact. Anthropic disturbance such as tree plantation favoured some bird species, whereas aquatic vegetation removal was favourable for some fish species, such as the endemic Cichlasoma bartoni, however, both types of disturbance were unfavourable for other species; riparian vegetation removal was negative for both groups. Controlled tourism promotes good conditions for C. bartoni establishment. Efficient conservation measures such as limiting touristic distribution are necessary for all species, especially for the fish community, in order to conserve biodiversity in general.

  20. Thiamine deficiency: a viable hypothesis for paralytic syndrome in Baltic birds. Commentary on Sonne et al., 2012. A review of the factors causing paralysis in wild birds: implications for the paralytic syndrome observed in the Baltic Sea. Science of the Total Environment 416:32-39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Kraft, Clifford E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent assessment of hypotheses presented by Balk et al. (2009) regarding the etiology of a paralytic disease inflicting bird populations in Northern Europe, Sonne et al. (2012) “call for a major coordinated effort on research…” to “… integrate clinical, physiological, ecological and demographic investigations at all levels to better dissect the causes, the effects on ecosystems and potential impact on affected populations.” Further, they offer, “This should be undertaken before thiamine deficiency can be considered to constitute a serious problem to e.g. the Baltic ecosystems.” While we agree that holistic approaches to environmental research and management are essential, our experience suggests that waiting for definitive results from long-term research and monitoring programs prior to “consideration” of thiamine deficiency as a major factor in the paralytic disease observed in wild bird populations would hinder the ability of natural resource managers to understand and mitigate declining trends in avian population abundance.

  1. Effects of drainage-basin geomorphology on insectivorous bird abundance in temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoya; Urabe, Jotaro; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2010-10-01

    Interfaces between terrestrial and stream ecosystems often enhance species diversity and population abundance of ecological communities beyond levels that would be expected separately from both the ecosystems. Nevertheless, no study has examined how stream configuration within a watershed influences the population of terrestrial predators at the drainage-basin scale. We examined the habitat and abundance relationships of forest insectivorous birds in eight drainage basins in a cool temperate forest of Japan during spring and summer. Each basin has different drainage-basin geomorphology, such as the density and frequency of stream channels. In spring, when terrestrial arthropod prey biomass is limited, insectivorous birds aggregated in habitats closer to streams, where emerging aquatic prey was abundant. Nevertheless, birds ceased to aggregate around streams in summer because terrestrial prey became plentiful. Watershed-scale analyses showed that drainage basins with longer stream channels per unit area sustained higher densities of insectivorous birds. Moreover, such effects of streams on birds continued from spring through summer, even though birds dispersed out of riparian areas in the summer. Although our data are from only a single year, our findings imply that physical modifications of stream channels may reduce populations of forest birds; thus, they emphasize the importance of landscape-based management approaches that consider both stream and forest ecosystems for watershed biodiversity conservation. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  3. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  4. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Hale, Robert C.; Watts, Bryan D.; La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen; Mojica, Elizabeth K.

    2010-01-01

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for ΣPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  5. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  6. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  7. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  8. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  9. Sleep alterations in mammals: did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Vibha; Jha, Sushil K

    2012-12-01

    Sleep has been studied widely in mammals and to some extent in other vertebrates. Higher vertebrates such as birds and mammals have evolved an inimitable rapid eye movement (REM) sleep state. During REM sleep, postural muscles become atonic and the temperature regulating machinery remains suspended. Although REM sleep is present in almost all the terrestrial mammals, the aquatic mammals have either radically reduced or completely eliminated REM sleep. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water. The amount of REM sleep is highest in terrestrial mammals, significantly reduced in semi-aquatic mammals and completely absent or negligible in aquatic mammals. The aquatic mammals are obligate swimmers and have to surface at regular intervals for air. Also, these animals live in thermally challenging environments, where the conductive heat loss is approximately ~90 times greater than air. Therefore, they have to be moving most of the time. As an adaptation, they have evolved unihemispheric sleep, during which they can rove as well as rest. A condition that immobilizes muscle activity and suspends the thermoregulatory machinery, as happens during REM sleep, is not suitable for these animals. It is possible that, in accord with Darwin's theory, aquatic mammals might have abolished REM sleep with time. In this review, we discuss the possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals.

  10. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  11. PRESENCE OF TRICHINELLA BRITOVI IN WILD BOAR IN THE MARCHE REGION REGULARLY SLAUGHTERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Di Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a nematode belonging to the genus Trichinella. Numerous mammal species as well as birds and crocodiles can harbour the parasite worldwide, but the wild cycle is mainly maintained by wild carnivores. Human represents only a possible host and the parasite is exclusively transmitted through consumption of undercooked or raw meat. In Italy, pork, wild boar meat and horse meat are the main sources for human infection. This article describe a presence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar in the Marche region regularly slaughtered. These case confirms the occurrence of Trichinella britovi in wild boar and the important role of slaughterhouse in epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic diseases.

  12. The application of epidemiology in aquatic animal health -opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over recent years the growth in aquaculture, accompanied by the emergence of new and transboundary diseases, has stimulated epidemiological studies of aquatic animal diseases. Great potential exists for both observational and theoretical approaches to investigate the processes driving emergence but, to date, compared to terrestrial systems, relatively few studies exist in aquatic animals. Research using risk methods has assessed routes of introduction of aquatic animal pathogens to facilitate safe trade (e.g. import risk analyses) and support biosecurity. Epidemiological studies of risk factors for disease in aquaculture (most notably Atlantic salmon farming) have effectively supported control measures. Methods developed for terrestrial livestock diseases (e.g. risk-based surveillance) could improve the capacity of aquatic animal surveillance systems to detect disease incursions and emergence. The study of disease in wild populations presents many challenges and the judicious use of theoretical models offers some solutions. Models, parameterised from observational studies of host pathogen interactions, have been used to extrapolate estimates of impacts on the individual to the population level. These have proved effective in estimating the likely impact of parasite infections on wild salmonid populations in Switzerland and Canada (where the importance of farmed salmon as a reservoir of infection was investigated). A lack of data is often the key constraint in the application of new approaches to surveillance and modelling. The need for epidemiological approaches to protect aquatic animal health will inevitably increase in the face of the combined challenges of climate change, increasing anthropogenic pressures, limited water sources and the growth in aquaculture. Table of contents 1 Introduction 4 2 The development of aquatic epidemiology 7 3 Transboundary and emerging diseases 9 3.1 Import risk analysis (IRA) 10 3.2 Aquaculture and disease emergence 11 3.3 Climate

  13. Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K.; Spottiswoode, Claire N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal camouflage is a longstanding example of adaptation. Much research has tested how camouflage prevents detection and recognition, largely focusing on changes to an animal's own appearance over evolution. However, animals could also substantially alter their camouflage by behaviourally choosing appropriate substrates. Recent studies suggest that individuals from several animal taxa could select backgrounds or positions to improve concealment. Here, we test whether individual wild animals choose backgrounds in complex environments, and whether this improves camouflage against predator vision. We studied nest site selection by nine species of ground-nesting birds (nightjars, plovers and coursers) in Zambia, and used image analysis and vision modeling to quantify egg and plumage camouflage to predator vision. Individual birds chose backgrounds that enhanced their camouflage, being better matched to their chosen backgrounds than to other potential backgrounds with respect to multiple aspects of camouflage. This occurred at all three spatial scales tested (a few cm and five meters from the nest, and compared to other sites chosen by conspecifics), and was the case for the eggs of all bird groups studied, and for adult nightjar plumage. Thus, individual wild animals improve their camouflage through active background choice, with choices highly refined across multiple spatial scales. PMID:28890937

  14. Improvement of individual camouflage through background choice in ground-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Troscianko, Jolyon; Wilson-Aggarwal, Jared K; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2017-09-01

    Animal camouflage is a longstanding example of adaptation. Much research has tested how camouflage prevents detection and recognition, largely focusing on changes to an animal's own appearance over evolution. However, animals could also substantially alter their camouflage by behaviourally choosing appropriate substrates. Recent studies suggest that individuals from several animal taxa could select backgrounds or positions to improve concealment. Here, we test whether individual wild animals choose backgrounds in complex environments, and whether this improves camouflage against predator vision. We studied nest site selection by nine species of ground-nesting birds (nightjars, plovers and coursers) in Zambia, and used image analysis and vision modeling to quantify egg and plumage camouflage to predator vision. Individual birds chose backgrounds that enhanced their camouflage, being better matched to their chosen backgrounds than to other potential backgrounds with respect to multiple aspects of camouflage. This occurred at all three spatial scales tested (a few cm and five meters from the nest, and compared to other sites chosen by conspecifics), and was the case for the eggs of all bird groups studied, and for adult nightjar plumage. Thus, individual wild animals improve their camouflage through active background choice, with choices highly refined across multiple spatial scales.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Subtype H11N9 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Shorebirds in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Hurtado

    Full Text Available Migratory aquatic birds play an important role in the maintenance and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV. Many species of aquatic migratory birds tend to use similar migration routes, also known as flyways, which serve as important circuits for the dissemination of AIV. In recent years there has been extensive surveillance of the virus in aquatic birds in the Northern Hemisphere; however in contrast only a few studies have been attempted to detect AIV in wild birds in South America. There are major flyways connecting South America to Central and North America, whereas avian migration routes between South America and the remaining continents are uncommon. As a result, it has been hypothesized that South American AIV strains would be most closely related to the strains from North America than to those from other regions in the world. We characterized the full genome of three AIV subtype H11N9 isolates obtained from ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres on the Amazon coast of Brazil. For all gene segments, all three strains consistently clustered together within evolutionary lineages of AIV that had been previously described from aquatic birds in North America. In particular, the H11N9 isolates were remarkably closely related to AIV strains from shorebirds sampled at the Delaware Bay region, on the Northeastern coast of the USA, more than 5000 km away from where the isolates were retrieved. Additionally, there was also evidence of genetic similarity to AIV strains from ducks and teals from interior USA and Canada. These findings corroborate that migratory flyways of aquatic birds play an important role in determining the genetic structure of AIV in the Western hemisphere, with a strong epidemiological connectivity between North and South America.

  16. Characterization of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from wild and captive birds in the winter season of 2016-2017 in Northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Haga, Atsushi; Iwata, Ritsuko; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Suzuki, Mizuho; Kikutani, Yuto; Kida, Hiroshi; Onuma, Manabu; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2017-09-01

    On 15 November 2016, a black swan that had died in a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, was strongly suspected to have highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI); an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms were reported throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan were further characterized. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene showed that the H5N6 viruses isolated in northern Japan clustered into Group C of Clade 2.3.4.4 together with other isolates collected in Japan, Korea and Taiwan during the winter season of 2016-2017. The antigenicity of the Japanese H5N6 isolate differed slightly from that of HPAIVs isolated previously in Japan and China. The virus exhibited high pathogenicity and a high replication capacity in chickens, whereas virus growth was slightly lower in ducks compared with that of an H5N8 HPAIV isolate collected in Japan in 2014. Comprehensive analyses of Japanese isolates, including those from central, western, and southern Japan, as well as rapid publication of this information are essential for facilitating greater control of HPAIVs. © 2017 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Trans-generational effects on ageing in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Charmantier, A.; Verhulst, S.; Sheldon, B. C.

    Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits

  18. Genetic relatedness among wild, domestic and Brazilian fighting roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FP Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Except for the meat- and egg-type strains used in commercial poultry farms in Brazil, there are no scientific reports about the origin of birds from the genus Gallus that have been introduced in this country with domestication or fighting purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the position of the Brazilian Game Bird in the phylogenetic tree of the genus Gallus by nucleotide sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. The results indicate that fighting roosters comprise two different clusters within the species Gallus gallus domesticus. One of the clusters is related to the wild ancestors, while the other one is more related to the birds raised by the poultry industry. In conclusion, Brazilian fighting roosters have originated from the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus and belong to the subspecies Gallus gallus domesticus.

  19. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seem...

  20. Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevon L. Fuller; Sassan S. Saatchi; Emily E. Curd; Erin Toffelmier; Henri A. Thomassen; Wolfgang Buermann; David F. DeSante; Mark P. Nott; James F. Saracco; C. J. Ralph; John D. Alexander; John P. Pollinger; Thomas B. Smith.

    2010-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important public health issue because pandemic influenza viruses in people have contained genes from viruses that infect birds. The H5 and H7 AIV subtypes have periodically mutated from low pathogenicity to high pathogenicity form. Analysis of the geographic distribution of AIV can identify areas where reassortment events might occur...

  1. Circadian flight schedules in night-migrating birds caught on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppack, Timothy; Becker, Simon F; Becker, Philipp J J

    2008-12-23

    Many species of migratory birds migrate in a series of solitary nocturnal flights. Between flights, they stop to rest and refuel for the next segment of their journey. The mechanism controlling this behaviour has long remained elusive. Here, we show that wild-caught migratory redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) are consistent in their flight scheduling. An advanced videographic system enabled us to determine the precise timing of flight activity in redstarts caught at a northern European stopover site during their return trip from Africa. Birds were held captive for three days in the absence of photoperiodic cues (constant dim light) and under permanent food availability. Despite the absence of external temporal cues, birds showed clear bimodal activity patterns: intense nocturnal activity alternating with diurnal foraging and resting periods. The onset of their migratory activity coincided with the time of local sunset and was individually consistent on consecutive nights. The data demonstrate that night-migrating birds are driven by autonomous circadian clocks entrained by sunset cues. This timekeeping system is probably the key factor in the overall control of nocturnal songbird migration.

  2. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  3. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of ichthyophagous bird assemblage around western Mediterranean open-sea cage fish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, Felipe; Eguía-Martínez, Sergio; Cerezo-Valverde, Jesús; García-García, Benjamín

    2018-06-14

    Ichthyophagous birds aggregate at cage fish farms attracted by caged and associated wild fish. Spatio-temporal variability of such birds was studied for a year through seasonal visual counts at eight farms in the western Mediterranean. Correlation with farm and location descriptors was assessed. Considerable spatio-temporal variability in fish-eating bird density and assemblage structure was observed among farms and seasons. Bird density increased from autumn to winter, with the great cormorant being the most abundant species, also accounting largely for differences among farms. Grey heron and little egret were also numerous at certain farms during the coldest seasons. Cattle egret was only observed at one farm. No shags were observed during winter. During spring and summer, bird density decreased markedly and only shags and little egrets were observed at only a few farms. Season and distance from farms to bird breeding/wintering grounds helped to explain some of the spatio-temporal variability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of pyrazine odor on avoidance learning and memory in wild robins Erithacus rubecula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. SIDDALL, Nicola M. MARPLES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic insects advertise their defended state to potential predators using warning displays. Frequently these displays use cues through more than one sensory modality, and combine color, smell and sound to produce a multimodal warning display. Signalling through more than one sensory pathway may enhance the rate of avoidance learning, and the memorability of the learned avoidance. A common insect warning odor, pyrazine, has previously been shown to increase the rate of learned avoidance of unpalatable yellow prey by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus, and the odor also improved memory of this learned avoidance. However, to date no research has examined this response to pyrazine odor using wild birds under natural conditions. This study used wild robins (Erithacus rubecula to investigate whether wild birds avoided yellow baits that smelled of pyrazine more strongly than those presented with no odor. The results provide some evidence that pyrazine odor does increase the level of protection an aposematic insect gains from a wild avian predator, but that the effect of pyrazine on learned avoidance was much weaker than was found with domestic chicks [Current Zoology 57 (2: 208–214, 2011].

  6. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Houston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Methods Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc. and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Results Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. Discussion

  7. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek D; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A; Gauger, Phillip C; Marks, David R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc.) and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. These results suggest that even though influenza A viruses

  8. Experimental transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus by west African wild ground-feeding birds to Hyalomma marginatum rufipes ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, H G; Cornet, J P; Camicas, J L

    1994-06-01

    Hyalomma (H.) marginatum rufipes ticks commonly infest birds and are potential vectors of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in west Africa. An experimental model for investigating the role of birds in the CCHF virus transmission cycle was developed. Following CCHF virus inoculation, antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in one red-beaked hornbill and one glossy starling, but not in two laughing doves and six domestic chickens. None of the birds showed a detectable viremia. Hyalomma marginatum rufipes larvae were placed on three red-beaked hornbills and one glossy starling. These birds were then inoculated with CCHF virus (10(1.5) 50% mouse intracerebral lethal doses). Virus transmission to larvae or nymphs was obtained and seroconversions in birds were recorded. Virus was also detected in 90% of the individually tested nymphs, as well as in adults. The virus was then successfully transmitted by adult ticks to rabbits and the engorged females were allowed to oviposit. Progeny larvae were placed on another group of birds and one of three birds showed seroconversion. The cycle of transmission of virus between ticks and aviremic ground-feeding birds represent a potential reservoir and amplification mechanism of CCHF virus in west Africa.

  9. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  10. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J D Natusch

    Full Text Available Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds. These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season. Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  11. Communally Nesting Migratory Birds Create Ecological Hot-Spots in Tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natusch, Daniel J D; Lyons, Jessica A; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Large numbers of metallic starlings (Aplonis metallica) migrate annually from New Guinea to the rainforests of tropical Australia, where they nest communally in single emergent trees (up to 1,000 birds). These aggregations create dense and species-rich faunal "hot-spots", attracting a diverse assemblage of local consumers that utilise this seasonal resource. The starlings nested primarily in poison-dart trees (Antiaris toxicaria) near the rainforest-woodland boundary. Surveys underneath these colonies revealed that bird-derived nutrients massively increased densities of soil invertebrates and mammals (primarily wild pigs) beneath trees, year-round. Flying invertebrates, nocturnal birds, reptiles, and amphibians congregated beneath the trees when starlings were nesting (the wet-season). Diurnal birds (primarily cockatoos and bush turkeys) aggregated beneath the trees during the dry-season to utilise residual nutrients when the starlings were not nesting. The abundance of several taxa was considerably higher (to > 1000-fold) under colony trees than under nearby trees. The system strikingly resembles utilisation of bird nesting colonies by predators in other parts of the world but this spectacular system has never been described, emphasizing the continuing need for detailed natural-history studies in tropical Australia.

  12. The environmental dependence of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression occurs when the offspring produced as a result of matings between relatives show reduced fitness, and is generally understood as a consequence of the elevated expression of deleterious recessive alleles. How inbreeding depression varies across environments is of importance for the evolution of inbreeding avoidance behaviour, and for understanding extinction risks in small populations. However, inbreeding-by-environment (IxE interactions have rarely been investigated in wild populations.We analysed 41 years of breeding events from a wild great tit (Parus major population and used 11 measures of the environment to categorise environments as relatively good or poor, testing whether these measures influenced inbreeding depression. Although inbreeding always, and environmental quality often, significantly affected reproductive success, there was little evidence for statistically significant I x E interactions at the level of individual analyses. However, point estimates of the effect of the environment on inbreeding depression were sometimes considerable, and we show that variation in the magnitude of the I x E interaction across environments is consistent with the expectation that this interaction is more marked across environmental axes with a closer link to overall fitness, with the environmental dependence of inbreeding depression being elevated under such conditions. Hence, our analyses provide evidence for an environmental dependence of the inbreeding x environment interaction: effectively an I x E x E.Overall, our analyses suggest that I x E interactions may be substantial in wild populations, when measured across relevant environmental contrasts, although their detection for single traits may require very large samples, or high rates of inbreeding.

  13. Interactions between Behaviour and Genetics in Wild and Domestic Bird Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Oers, van K.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits can be favoured by both natural and artificial selection, if they result in increased fitness or productivity, and therefore play an important role in both wild and domestic populations. Here, we review how personality traits affect and are affected by natural and artificial

  14. Improving aquatic warbler population assessments by accounting for imperfect detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs designed to assess changes in population size over time need to account for imperfect detection and provide estimates of precision around annual abundance estimates. Especially for species dependent on conservation management, robust monitoring is essential to evaluate the effectiveness of management. Many bird species of temperate grasslands depend on specific conservation management to maintain suitable breeding habitat. One such species is the Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola, which breeds in open fen mires in Central Europe. Aquatic Warbler populations have so far been assessed using a complete survey that aims to enumerate all singing males over a large area. Because this approach provides no estimate of precision and does not account for observation error, detecting moderate population changes is challenging. From 2011 to 2013 we trialled a new line transect sampling monitoring design in the Biebrza valley, Poland, to estimate abundance of singing male Aquatic Warblers. We surveyed Aquatic Warblers repeatedly along 50 randomly placed 1-km transects, and used binomial mixture models to estimate abundances per transect. The repeated line transect sampling required 150 observer days, and thus less effort than the traditional 'full count' approach (175 observer days. Aquatic Warbler abundance was highest at intermediate water levels, and detection probability varied between years and was influenced by vegetation height. A power analysis indicated that our line transect sampling design had a power of 68% to detect a 20% population change over 10 years, whereas raw count data had a 9% power to detect the same trend. Thus, by accounting for imperfect detection we increased the power to detect population changes. We recommend to adopt the repeated line transect sampling approach for monitoring Aquatic Warblers in Poland and in other important breeding areas to monitor changes in population size and the effects of

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144 and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7% presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae. The birds’ weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%. The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  16. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  17. Occurrence of antibiotics in water, sediments, aquatic plants, and animals from Baiyangdian Lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, in the water, sediments, and biota samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 132 samples were collected in 2008 and 2010, and laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the lake. Sulfonamides were the dominant antibiotics in the water (0.86-1563 ng L(-1)), while quinolones were prominent in sediments (65.5-1166 μg kg(-1)) and aquatic plants (8.37-6532 μg kg(-1)). Quinolones (17.8-167 μg kg(-1)) and macrolides [from below detection limit (BDL) to 182 μg kg(-1)] were often found in aquatic animals and birds. Salvinia natans exhibited the highest bioaccumulation capability for quinolones among three species of aquatic plants. Geographical differences of antibiotic concentrations were greatly due to anthropogenic activities. Sewage discharged from Baoding City was likely the main source of antibiotics in the lake. Risk assessment of antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that algae and aquatic plants might be at risk in surface water, while animals were likely not at risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  19. The evolution of coloniality in birds in relation to food, habitat, predation, and life-history traits: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, C; Danchin, E; de Fraipont, M

    1998-06-01

    Coloniality in birds has been intensively studied under the cost and benefit approach, but no general conclusion can be given concerning its evolutionary function. Here, we report on a comparative analysis carried out on 320 species of birds using the general method of comparative analysis for discrete variables and the contrast method to analyze the evolution of coloniality. Showing a mean of 23 convergences and 10 reversals, coloniality appears to be a rather labile trait. Colonial breeding appears strongly correlated with the absence of feeding territory, the aquatic habitat, and nest exposure to predators but was not correlated with changes in life-history traits (body mass and clutch size). The correlation of coloniality with the aquatic habitat is in fact explained by a strong correlation with the marine habitat. Unexpectedly, we found that the evolution toward a marine habitat in birds was contingent on coloniality and that coloniality evolved before the passage to a marine life. These results-along with the lack of transitions from the nonmarine to marine habitat in solitary species and the precedence of the loss of feeding territoriality on the passage to a marine life-contradict most of the hypotheses classically accepted to explain coloniality and suggest that we use a different framework to study this evolutionary enigma.

  20. Personality and innate immune defenses in a wild bird: Evidence for the pace-of-life hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Hall, Michelle L; Buttemer, William A; Matson, Kevin D; Gonҫalves da Silva, Anders; Mulder, Raoul A; Peters, Anne

    2017-02-01

    We tested the two main evolutionary hypotheses for an association between immunity and personality. The risk-of-parasitism hypothesis predicts that more proactive (bold, exploratory, risk-taking) individuals have more vigorous immune defenses because of increased risk of parasite exposure. In contrast, the pace-of-life hypothesis argues that proactive behavioral styles are associated with shorter lifespans and reduced investment in immune function. Mechanistically, associations between immunity and personality can arise because personality differences are often associated with differences in condition and stress responsiveness, both of which are intricately linked with immunity. Here we investigate the association between personality (measured as proactive exploration of a novel environment) and three indices of innate immune function (the non-specific first line of defense against parasites) in wild superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus. We also quantified body condition, hemoparasites (none detected), chronic stress (heterophil:lymphocyte ratio) and circulating corticosterone levels at the end of the behavioral test (CORT, in a subset of birds). We found that fast explorers had lower titers of natural antibodies. This result is consistent with the pace-of-life hypothesis, and with the previously documented higher mortality of fast explorers in this species. There was no interactive effect of exploration score and duration in captivity on immune indices. This suggests that personality-related differences in stress responsiveness did not underlie differences in immunity, even though behavioral style did modulate the effect of captivity on CORT. Taken together these results suggest reduced constitutive investment in innate immune function in more proactive individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  2. Spatial modeling of wild bird risk factors to investigate highly pathogenic A(H5N1) avian influenza virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Xiao, Xianming; Ellis, Erie C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the longest-persisting avian influenza viruses in history, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A(H5N1), continues to evolve after 18 years, advancing the threat of a global pandemic. Wild waterfowl (family Anatidae), are reported as secondary transmitters of HPAIV, and primary reservoirs for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, yet spatial inputs for disease risk modeling for this group have been lacking. Using GIS and Monte Carlo simulations, we developed geospatial indices of waterfowl abundance at 1 and 30 km resolutions and for the breeding and wintering seasons for China, the epicenter of H5N1. Two spatial layers were developed: cumulative waterfowl abundance (WAB), a measure of predicted abundance across species, and cumulative abundance weighted by H5N1 prevalence (WPR), whereby abundance for each species was adjusted based on prevalence values then totaled across species. Spatial patterns of the model output differed between seasons, with higher WAB and WPR in the northern and western regions of China for the breeding season and in the southeast for the wintering season. Uncertainty measures indicated highest error in southeastern China for both WAB and WPR. We also explored the effect of resampling waterfowl layers from 1 km to 30 km resolution for multi-scale risk modeling. Results indicated low average difference (less than 0.16 and 0.01 standard deviations for WAB and WPR, respectively), with greatest differences in the north for the breeding season and southeast for the wintering season. This work provides the first geospatial models of waterfowl abundance available for China. The indices provide important inputs for modeling disease transmission risk at the interface of poultry and wild birds. These models are easily adaptable, have broad utility to both disease and conservation needs, and will be available to the scientific community for advanced modeling applications.

  3. Recombinant Goose Circoviruses Circulating in Domesticated and Wild Geese in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stenzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs (n = 40 are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland. In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gopło Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser, three wild Greylag geese (A. anser, three bean geese (A. fabalis, and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons. These genomes share 83–95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp and replication associated protein (rep gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.

  4. A Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Influenza A H5N1 and H7N9 Infection in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, C; Rahman, B; Heywood, A E; MacIntyre, C R

    2017-06-01

    Despite a much higher rate of human influenza A (H7N9) infection compared to influenza A (H5N1), and the assumption that birds are the source of human infection, detection rates of H7N9 in birds are lower than those of H5N1. This raises a question about the role of birds in the spread and transmission of H7N9 to humans. We conducted a meta-analysis of overall prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 in different bird populations (domestic poultry, wild birds) and different environments (live bird markets, commercial poultry farms, wild habitats). The electronic database, Scopus, was searched for published papers, and Google was searched for country surveillance reports. A random effect meta-analysis model was used to produce pooled estimates of the prevalence of H5N1 and H7N9 for various subcategories. A random effects logistic regression model was used to compare prevalence rates between H5N1 and H7N9. Both viruses have low prevalence across all bird populations. Significant differences in prevalence rates were observed in domestic birds, farm settings, for pathogen and antibody testing, and during routine surveillance. Random effects logistic regression analyses show that among domestic birds, the prevalence of H5N1 is 47.48 (95% CI: 17.15-133.13, P bird outbreaks), the prevalence of H5N1 is still higher than H7N9 with an OR of 43.02 (95% CI: 16.60-111.53, P birds are postulated to be the source. Much lower rates of H7N9 in birds compared to H5N1 raise doubts about birds as the sole source of high rates of human H7N9 infection. Other sources of transmission of H7N9 need to be considered and explored. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Derek D.; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W.; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A.; Gauger, Phillip C.; Marks, David R.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human ...

  6. Captive-bred neotropical birds diagnosed with Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Novaes, Ricardo; Pires, Marcus Sandes; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Bergamo do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina

    2018-02-01

    Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avium in addition to 12 genotypes of unknown species status. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank. A total of 85 fecal samples were collected from wild captive-bred birds: 48 of family Psittacidae and 37 of family Ramphastidae. Initially, a search for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was conducted using the centrifugal-flotation in saturated sugar solution technique, after that, the collected samples were analyzed microscopically. Cryptosporidium infections were only detected in 24.32% of samples belonging to the family Ramphastidae. DNA was extracted from positive samples and molecular diagnostics was applied targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III was diagnosed in this study more closely related to the gastric species. This is the first record of Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III in order Piciformes and family Ramphastidae, where three host species (Ramphastus toco, Ramphastus tucanus, and Pteroglossus bailloni) were positive for the etiologic agent. Based on the molecular data obtained, these wild birds raised in captivity do not represent a source of human cryptosporidiosis, considering that Cryptosporidium Avian genotype III does not constitute a zoonosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Désirée S; Mushtaq, Memoona; Johansson, Karl-Erik; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Waldenström, Jonas; Andersson, Dan I; Broman, Tina; Berg, Charlotte; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox), and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus), three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum), and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi) sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills), and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills). Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species 'B. pulli' and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to human strains were found. None of the tested

  8. Intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira colonise wild birds in the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée S. Jansson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The genus Brachyspira contains well-known enteric pathogens of veterinary significance, suggested agents of colonic disease in humans, and one potentially zoonotic agent. There are recent studies showing that Brachyspira are more widespread in the wildlife community than previously thought. There are no records of this genus in wildlife from the southern Atlantic region and Antarctica. Our aim was therefore, to determine whether intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira colonise marine and coastal birds in this region. Method: Faecal samples were collected from marine and coastal birds in the southern Atlantic region, including sub-Antarctic islands and Antarctica, in 2002, 2009, and 2012, with the aim to isolate and characterise zoonotic agents. In total, 205 samples from 11 bird species were selectively cultured for intestinal spirochaetes of genus Brachyspira. To identify isolates to species level, they were subjected to phenotyping, species-specific polymerase chain reactions, sequencing of partial 16S rRNA, NADH oxidase (nox, and tlyA genes, and phylogenetic analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed. Results: Fourteen unique strains were obtained from 10 birds of three species: four snowy sheathbills (Chionis albus, three kelp geese (Chloephaga hybrida subsp. malvinarum, and three brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus subsp. lonnbergi sampled on the Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego in Argentina, South Georgia, South Shetland Islands, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Five Brachyspira strains were closely related to potentially enteropathogenic Brachyspira sp. of chickens: B. intermedia (n=2, from snowy sheathbills, and B. alvinipulli (n=3, from a kelp goose and two snowy sheathbills. Three strains from kelp geese were most similar to the presumed non-pathogenic species ‘B. pulli’ and B. murdochii, whereas the remaining six strains could not be attributed to currently known species. No isolates related to

  9. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  10. Findings from the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds and poultry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious disease that can affect all bird species. The clinical signs include respiratory disease, lethargy, drop in egg production, neurological signs, hemorrhages in shanks, swollen wattles, combs and eyes, and mortality. The severity of disease depends...

  11. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from wild kelp gulls in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Olsen, Björn; Geurts, Yvon; Artursson, Karin; Berg, Charlotte; Mevius, Dik J.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health concern due to limited treatment options. Here, we report on the occurrence and the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from wild birds (kelp gulls).

  12. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  13. Experimental demonstration of a parasite-induced immune response in wild birds: Darwin's finches and introduced nest flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Jennifer A H; Owen, Jeb P; Knutie, Sarah A; Aguilar, Maria A; Clayton, Dale H

    2013-08-01

    Ecological immunology aims to explain variation among hosts in the strength and efficacy of immunological defenses. However, a shortcoming has been the failure to link host immune responses to actual parasites under natural conditions. Here, we present one of the first experimental demonstrations of a parasite-induced immune response in a wild bird population. The recently introduced ectoparasitic nest fly Philornis downsi severely impacts the fitness of Darwin's finches and other land birds in the Galápagos Islands. An earlier study showed that female medium ground finches (Geospiza fortis) had P. downsi-binding antibodies correlating with presumed variation in fly exposure over time. In the current study, we experimentally manipulated fly abundance to test whether the fly does, in fact, cause changes in antibody levels. We manipulated P. downsi abundance in nests and quantified P. downsi-binding antibody levels of medium ground finch mothers, fathers, and nestlings. We also quantified host behaviors, such as preening, which can integrate with antibody-mediated defenses against ectoparasites. Philornis downsi-binding antibody levels were significantly higher among mothers at parasitized nests, compared to mothers at (fumigated) nonparasitized nests. Mothers with higher antibody levels tended to have fewer parasites in their nests, suggesting that antibodies play a role in defense against parasites. Mothers showed no behavioral changes that would enhance the effectiveness of the immune response. Neither adult males, nor nestlings, had P. downsi-induced immunological or behavioral responses that would enhance defense against flies. None of the parasitized nests fledged any offspring, despite the immune response by mothers. Thus, this study shows that, while the immune response of mothers appeared to be defensive, it was not sufficient to rescue current reproductive fitness. This study further shows the importance of testing the fitness consequences of immune

  14. A point mutation in the polymerase protein PB2 allows a reassortant H9N2 influenza isolate of wild-bird origin to replicate in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Islam T.M.; Ma, Eric J.; Meixell, Brandt; Hill, Nichola J.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Albrecht , Randy A.; Bahl, Justin; Runstadler, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    H9N2 influenza A viruses are on the list of potentially pandemic subtypes. Therefore, it is important to understand how genomic reassortment and genetic polymorphisms affect phenotypes of H9N2 viruses circulating in the wild bird reservoir. A comparative genetic analysis of North American H9N2 isolates of wild bird origin identified a naturally occurring reassortant virus containing gene segments derived from both North American and Eurasian lineage ancestors. The PB2 segment of this virus encodes 10 amino acid changes that distinguish it from other H9 strains circulating in North America. G590S, one of the 10 amino acid substitutions observed, was present in ~ 12% of H9 viruses worldwide. This mutation combined with R591 has been reported as a marker of pathogenicity for human pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses. Screening by polymerase reporter assay of all the natural polymorphisms at these two positions identified G590/K591 and S590/K591 as the most active, with the highest polymerase activity recorded for the SK polymorphism. Rescued viruses containing these two polymorphic combinations replicated more efficiently in MDCK cells and they were the only ones tested that were capable of establishing productive infection in NHBE cells. A global analysis of all PB2 sequences identified the K591 signature in six viral HA/NA subtypes isolated from several hosts in seven geographic locations. Interestingly, introducing the K591 mutation into the PB2 of a human-adapted H3N2 virus did not affect its polymerase activity. Our findings demonstrate that a single point mutation in the PB2 of a low pathogenic H9N2 isolate could have a significant effect on viral phenotype and increase its propensity to infect mammals. However, this effect is not universal, warranting caution in interpreting point mutations without considering protein sequence context.

  15. Mercury contamination, a potential threat to the globally endangered aquatic warbler Acrocephalus paludicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Aneta Dorota; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Jiguet, Frédéric; Polkowska, Żaneta; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2017-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is considered a global concern for humans and wildlife, and although the number of studies dealing with that issue continues to increase, some taxonomic groups such as small passerine birds are largely understudied. In this paper, concentration of mercury in the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) feathers, a globally threatened passerine species, was examined. The concentration differences between two ages and sexes were investigated. The comparison of feathers taken on autumn migrants of two age categories act as a comparison of the species' exposure within the two different areas (European breeding or African wintering grounds). The average Hg concentration for all sampled individuals [2.32 μg/g dw (range 0.38-12.76)] is relatively high, compared with values found in other passerine species. An age difference was found, with first-year individuals displaying higher mercury concentrations than adults. This indicates that birds are exposed to mercury pollution during the breeding season, i.e., in the continental floodplains of eastern Europe. The average Hg concentration in feathers grown on the breeding grounds was 3.88 ± 2.59 μg/g dw, closer to the critical value of 5 μg/g dw, which is considered to impair the health of individuals. The findings suggest that mercury pollution may constitute a threat so far neglected for the endangered aquatic warbler.

  16. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  17. Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, S; Chambers, D B; Lowe, L M; Bontoux, J G

    1999-09-01

    Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media (water, sediments, and aquatic organisms) of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed (whole body) dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 microGy h(-1). These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations (about 400 microGy h(-1)), and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations (about 100 microGy h(-1)). As a result, chronic levels of radioactivity, artificial and natural, measured in aquatic media downstream of Marcoule are unlikely to result in adverse health impacts on the categories and species of aquatic organisms studied. Thus, based on the screening level analysis discussed in this paper, a more detailed evaluation of the dose rates does not appear to be warranted.

  18. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, Andrey; Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds.

  19. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  20. Effects of exotic fish farms on bird communities in lake and marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jaime E.; Arriagada, Aldo M.; Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Camus, Patricio A.; Ávila-Thieme, M. Isidora

    2013-08-01

    Salmon farming is a widespread activity around the world, also known to promote diverse environmental effects on aquatic ecosystems. However, information regarding the impact of salmon farming on bird assemblages is notably scarce. We hypothesize that salmon farming, by providing food subsidies and physical structures to birds, will change their local community structure. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a seasonal monitoring of bird richness, abundance, and composition at paired salmon pen and control plots in two marine and two lake sites in southern Chile, from fall 2002 to summer 2004. Overall, salmon farming had no significant effects on species richness, but bird abundance was significantly and noticeably higher in salmon pens than in controls. Such aggregation was mainly accounted for by the trophic guilds of omnivores, diving piscivores, carrion eaters, and perching piscivores, but not by invertebrate feeders, herbivores, and surface feeders. Species composition was also significantly and persistently different between salmon pens and controls within each lake or marine locality. The patterns described above remained consistent across environment types and seasons indicating that salmon farming is changing the community structure of birds in both lake and marine habitats by promoting functional and aggregation responses, particularly by favoring species with broader niches. Such local patterns may thus anticipate potential threats from the ongoing expansion of the salmon industry to neighboring areas in Chile, resulting in regional changes of bird communities, toward a less diverse one and dominated by opportunistic, common, and generalist species such as gulls, vultures, and cormorants.

  1. Restoration of a wild grey partridge shoot: a major development in the Sussex study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of wild grey partridge management has been known for a generation. This includes controlling nest predators, providing nesting cover, having sufficient insect food for chicks and appropriate rates of shooting. More recently, measures such as providing food for adult birds and habitats for protection from birds of prey have also been considered important. Habitat provision can be expensive, but in the UK costs can be partially recovered through governmental agri–environment schemes. The landowner still needs to pay for the essential gamekeeper. Since 2003/04, one part of the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s (GWCT Sussex Study area has put these principles of environmental management into practice with the aim of restoring a wild grey partridge shoot to this part of Southern England. Results have been impressive, with the spring pair density increasing from 0.3 pairs/100 ha in 2003 to nearly 20 pairs/100 ha in 2010 on an area of just over 10 km2. Over the past two years a wild grey partridge shoot has taken place, and the landowner and his team have gained national recognition for their conservation work.

  2. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  3. Predictive framework for estimating exposure of birds to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Arnold, Kathryn E.; Lane, Julie M.; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Rattner, Barnett A.; Boxall, Allistair B.A.

    2017-01-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, and uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. Because many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Comparison of the different steps in the framework against experimental data for the scenario where birds are feeding on a WWTP contaminated with fluoxetine showed that estimated concentrations in wastewater treatment works were lower than measured concentrations; concentrations in food could be reasonably estimated if experimental bioaccumulation data are available; and read-across from rodent data worked better than human to bird read-across. The framework provides adequate predictions of plasma concentrations and of elimination behavior in birds but yields poor predictions of distribution in tissues. The approach holds promise, but it is important that we improve our understanding of the physiological similarities and differences between wild birds and domesticated laboratory mammals used in pharmaceutical efficacy/safety trials, so that the wealth of data available can be applied more effectively in ecological risk assessments.

  4. Every partridge counts, successful techniques used in the captive conservation breeding programme for wild grey partridge in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1998 and 2001 the last remaining wild grey partridge (Perdix perdix population in Ireland faced imminent extinction with an estimated spring population of 4–6 pairs, and an autumn population of 22–24 birds. A captive breeding programme began in 2002 with two pairs of grey partridge. In the most successful year in 2010, 39 pairs produced a total of 510 chicks. Average chick survival rate was 65.13%. At 88.9 the highest chick survival rate was achieved in 2011. Chick survival of parent–reared birds in captivity is defined by the number of juveniles surviving at age six weeks: similar to estimations used for wild populations of grey partridge. Family coveys were released in late summer to early autumn. In most instances the entire family cohort was released as one unit. However, in coveys of twenty or above, an average of five parent–reared poults were held back as breeding stock for the following year. In early spring of the following year, birds held back were paired with single males or females trapped from the wild. The techniques we used were traditional and labour intensive but highly effective. We recommend that other grey partridge recovery projects should consider captive breeding using the methods employed in this programme to compliment other game management methods used.

  5. Causes of morbidity in wild raptor populations admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain from 1995-2007: a long term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity studies complement the understanding of hazards to raptors by identifying natural or anthropogenic factors. Descriptive epidemiological studies of wildlife have become an important source of information about hazards to wildlife populations. On the other hand, data referenced to the overall wild population could provide a more accurate assessment of the potential impact of the morbidity/mortality causes in populations of wild birds. The present study described the morbidity causes of hospitalized wild raptors and their incidence in the wild populations, through a long term retrospective study conducted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre of Catalonia (1995-2007). Importantly, Seasonal Cumulative Incidences (SCI) were calculated considering estimations of the wild population in the region and trend analyses were applied among the different years. A total of 7021 birds were analysed: 7 species of Strigiformes (n = 3521) and 23 of Falconiformes (n = 3500). The main causes of morbidity were trauma (49.5%), mostly in the Falconiformes, and orphaned/young birds (32.2%) mainly in the Strigiformes. During wintering periods, the largest morbidity incidence was observed in Accipiter gentillis due to gunshot wounds and in Tyto alba due to vehicle trauma. Within the breeding season, Falco tinnunculus (orphaned/young category) and Bubo bubo (electrocution and metabolic disorders) represented the most affected species. Cases due to orphaned/young, infectious/parasitic diseases, electrocution and unknown trauma tended to increase among years. By contrast, cases by undetermined cause, vehicle trauma and captivity decreased throughout the study period. Interestingly, gunshot injuries remained constant during the study period. Frequencies of morbidity causes calculated as the proportion of each cause referred to the total number of admitted cases, allowed a qualitative assessment of hazards for the studied populations. However, cumulative incidences based on

  6. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  7. The Implications of Ranaviruses to European farmed and wild freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    The present thesis explores the implications of ranaviruses to European farmed and wild freshwater fish. The work presented was carried out as a part of the EU project “Risk assessment of new and emerging systemic iridoviral diseases for European fish and aquatic ecosystems” which was initiated...... in 2005 as a reaction to the speculation that ranaviruses might pose a serious threat to both farmed and wild-living freshwater fish and amphibians within the European community. In the present thesis, the purpose is to determine the implications of ranaviruses to European freshwater farmed and wild......-living fish. The following specific objectives are addressed: Objective 1: To determine the susceptibility of selected European freshwater fish to a panel of ranaviruses Objective 2: To determine whether ornamental fish are susceptible to or can be carriers of ranaviruses Objective 3: To develop a model...

  8. Quail and other short-lived birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M A

    2001-04-01

    Japanese quail are small galliforms that are migratory and generally live 2 to 3years in the wild. Although there is evidence for other environmental cues, they primarily respond to long daylength for regulation of reproduction. In contrast to the Common Tern, a long-lived sea bird that shows little evidence of reproductive aging, Japanese quail follow a well-defined process of aging with evidence of declining function in reproductive, metabolic, and sensory systems. Our studies focus on neuroendocrine changes associated with reproductive aging in the Japanese quail, with emphasis on the male in order to study both endocrine and behavioral components of reproduction and the process of reproductive aging.

  9. Approaching birds with drones: first experiments and ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Elisabeth; Lescroël, Amélie; Duriez, Olivier; Boguszewski, Guillaume; Grémillet, David

    2015-02-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles, commonly called drones, are being increasingly used in ecological research, in particular to approach sensitive wildlife in inaccessible areas. Impact studies leading to recommendations for best practices are urgently needed. We tested the impact of drone colour, speed and flight angle on the behavioural responses of mallards Anas platyrhynchos in a semi-captive situation, and of wild flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) and common greenshanks (Tringa nebularia) in a wetland area. We performed 204 approach flights with a quadricopter drone, and during 80% of those we could approach unaffected birds to within 4 m. Approach speed, drone colour and repeated flights had no measurable impact on bird behaviour, yet they reacted more to drones approaching vertically. We recommend launching drones farther than 100 m from the birds and adjusting approach distance according to species. Our study is a first step towards a sound use of drones for wildlife research. Further studies should assess the impacts of different drones on other taxa, and monitor physiological indicators of stress in animals exposed to drones according to group sizes and reproductive status. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited and endangered and threatened species; designated ports of..., Birds, and Insects § 12.26 Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and... crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of...

  11. Coadministration of Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing GM-CSF with Inactivated H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Increased the Immune Responses and Protective Efficacy Against a Wild Bird Source of H5N1 Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangwei; Wang, Xinglong; Jia, Yanqing; Wang, Chongyang; Tang, Qiuxia; Han, Qingsong; Xiao, Sa; Yang, Zengqi

    2017-10-01

    Wild birds play a key role in the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV). There is a continual urgent requirement for AIV vaccines to address the ongoing genetic changes of AIV. In the current study, we trialed a novel AIV vaccine against the wild bird source of H5N1 type AIV with recombinant adenovirus expressing granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. A total of 150-day-old commercial chicks, with AIV-maternal-derived antibody, were divided into 6 groups. The primary vaccination was performed at day 14 followed by a subsequent boosting and intramuscular challenge on day 28 and 42, respectively. Recombinant GM-CSF (rGM-CSF) expressed by adenovirus, named as rAd-GM-CSF, raised the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers (log 2 ) against AIV from 7.0 (vaccinate with inactivated vaccine alone) to 8.4 after booster immunization. Moreover, the rGM-CSF addition markedly increased the expression of interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and major histocompatibility complex-II in the lungs, compared with those immunized with inactivated vaccine alone on day 29, that is, 18 h post booster immunization. Following challenge, chicks inoculated with the inactivated AIV vaccine and rAd-GM-CSF together exhibited mild clinical signs and 62% survivals compared to 33% in the group immunized with inactivated AIV vaccine alone. Higher level of HI titers, immune related molecule expressions, and protection ratio demonstrates a good potential of rGM-CSF in improving humoral and cell mediated immune responses of inactivated AIV vaccines.

  12. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds. PMID:29492036

  13. Detailed description of the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csörgő Tibor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper acts as an introduction to a series that will describe the exploratory analyses of migration phenology and morphometrics of the most common passerine species at the Ócsa Bird Ringing Station. This station is situated in the Ócsa Landscape Protection Area that belongs to the Duna–Ipoly National Park, Hungary. The area is somewhat cooler and more humid than the surrounding agricultural fields and tree plantations, covered by a mosaic of diverse hygrophilous vegetation patches. Bird trapping is mostly based on Japanese mist-net lines crossing different plant communities. During the period of 1984–2015, a total of 422,862 birds were trapped and ringed here, while 202,739 local, 1,235 within country, and 443 foreign recaptures were also recorded. Each bird is characterized by the following data: location and time of capture, species, age, sex, scores of fat, pectoral muscle, wing tip abrasion, and moult, length of wing, 3rd primary, and tail, and body mass. After subjected to a rigorous quality check, digital data are deposited in the archive of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, and the EURING data base. From time to time, other research projects also utilized the accessibility of wild birds captured here, thus collection of blood samples, ecto- and endoparasites was carried out at the station. The relatively long time span, large number of species and individuals, and the readily available environmental (weather, vegetation, etc. data makes the avian data collected here a suitable base for studies of various disciplines like capture methodology, habitat preferences, breeding, migration, and wintering, effects of weather and climate change, and epidemiology of viruses and parasites.

  14. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avians are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, ant...

  15. Nest site preference depends on the relative density of conspecifics and heterospecifics in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M.; Kromhout Van Der Meer, Iris M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social learning allows animals to eavesdrop on ecologically relevant knowledge of competitors in their environment. This is especially important when selecting a habitat if individuals have relatively little personal information on habitat quality. It is known that birds can use both

  16. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  17. Incidence of Avian Influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria: The Epidemiology, Economic Losses and the Possible Role of Wild Birds in the Transmission of the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ja`Afar-Furo, M. R.; Balla, H. G.; Tahir, A. S.; Haskainu, C.

    Reducing the huge economic losses due to diseases in poultry as the second largest industry in Nigeria after oil means improving the protein intake of the majority. Similarly, this will also promotes a steady income for the teeming farmers. This study investigated the incidence of the lethal avian influenza in Adamawa State, Nigeria, with particular emphasis on the socio-economic and cultural activities of the poultry farmers, economic losses and the possible role of wild birds in the transmission of the disease. Data were collected from 316 and 458 direct and indirect respondents, respectively, from 6 affected villages and a town in 2 Local Government Areas (LGAs): Girei and Yola-North. Results revealed that a larger (25.71%) proportion of the respondents fell within the age range of 31-40 years, with majority (54.91%) as females. While the bulk (54.65%) of the respondents were illiterates, 95.47% of the direct respondents derived their incomes from crop production, whereas 59.17% of the indirect respondents from livestock rearing. About 26,049 birds worth N13, 454,800.00 was cumulative economic loss incurred by the poultry farmers, whereas that of the government was put at N1, 119,781.10. Of the mortalities experienced in the wildlife before the outbreak of the disease, Bubulcus ibis (64.29) and Tadarida nigeriae (86.36) were the highest. The study recommends a massive rural extension on Poultry Production with absolute biosecurity, involving all stakeholders (Veterinary Surgeons, Animal Scientists/health workers, wildlife specialists, Agricultural Economists, Information Officers etc.) in a collaborative form for high synergistic effects.

  18. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Kimberlee Beckmen,; Gay Sheffield,; Kathy Kuletz,; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  19. Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Wild Bird-Origin H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimin Gao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2014, new infections of H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV in humans and domestic poultry have caused considerable economic losses in the poultry industry and posed an enormous threat to human health worldwide. In previous research using gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we reported that H5N6 AIV isolated in February 2015 (ZH283 in Pallas’s sandgrouse was highly similar to that isolated in a human in December 2015 (A/Guangdong/ZQ874/2015, whereas a virus (i.e., SW8 isolated in oriental magpie-robin in 2014 was highly similar to that of A/chicken/Dongguan/2690/2013 (H5N6. However, the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and host immune-related response of chickens infected by those wild bird-origin H5N6 AIVs remain unknown. In response, we examined the viral distribution and mRNA expression profiles of immune-related genes in chickens infected with both viruses. Results showed that the H5N6 AIVs were highly pathogenic to chickens and caused not only systemic infection in multiple tissues, but also 100% mortality within 3–5 days post-infection. Additionally, ZH283 efficiently replicated in all tested tissues and transmitted among chickens more rapidly than SW8. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that following infection with H5N6, AIVs immune-related genes remained active in a tissue-dependent manner, as well as that ZH283 induced mRNA expression profiles such as TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-8, and MHC-II to a greater extent than SW8 in the tested tissues of infected chickens. Altogether, our findings help to illuminate the pathogenesis and immunologic mechanisms of H5N6 AIVs in chickens.

  20. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  1. North Atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar T.; Ip, Hon S.; Jónsson, Jón E.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Enomoto, Shinichiro; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Lin, Xudong; Federova, Nadia; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Wentworth, David E.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) in wild birds has been of increasing interest over the last decade due to the emergence of AIVs that cause significant disease and mortality in both poultry and humans. While research clearly demonstrates that AIVs can move across the Pacific or Atlantic Ocean, there has been no data to support the mechanism of how this occurs. In spring and autumn of 2010 and autumn of 2011 we obtained cloacal swab samples from 1078 waterfowl, gulls, and shorebirds of various species in southwest and west Iceland and tested them for AIV. From these, we isolated and fully sequenced the genomes of 29 AIVs from wild caught gulls (Charadriiformes) and waterfowl (Anseriformes) in Iceland. We detected viruses that were entirely (8 of 8 genomic segments) of American lineage, viruses that were entirely of Eurasian lineage, and viruses with mixed American-Eurasian lineage. Prior to this work only 2 AIVs had been reported from wild birds in Iceland and only the sequence from one segment was available in GenBank. This is the first report of finding AIVs of entirely American lineage and Eurasian lineage, as well as reassortant viruses, together in the same geographic location. Our study demonstrates the importance of the North Atlantic as a corridor for the movement of AIVs between Europe and North America.

  2. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  3. IncA/C Plasmid Carrying bla(NDM-1), bla(CMY-16), and fosA3 in a Salmonella enterica Serovar Corvallis Strain Isolated from a Migratory Wild Bird in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Guerra, B; Schmoger, S; Fischer, J; Helmuth, R; Zong, Z; García-Fernández, A; Carattoli, A

    2015-10-01

    A Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis strain was isolated from a wild bird in Germany. This strain carried the IncA/C2 pRH-1238 plasmid. Complete sequencing of the plasmid was performed, identifying the blaNDM-1, blaCMY-16, fosA3, sul1, sul2, strA, strB, aac(6')-Ib, aadA5, aphA6, tetA(A), mphA, floR, dfrA7, and merA genes, which confer clinically relevant resistance to most of the antimicrobial classes, including β-lactams with carbapenems, fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, co-trimoxazole, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The strain likely originated from the Asiatic region and was transferred to Germany through the Milvus migrans migratory route. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  5. Predictive framework for estimating exposure of birds to pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G; Arnold, Kathryn E; Lane, Julie M; Bergström, Ed; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Rattner, Barnett A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2017-09-01

    We present and evaluate a framework for estimating concentrations of pharmaceuticals over time in wildlife feeding at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The framework is composed of a series of predictive steps involving the estimation of pharmaceutical concentration in wastewater, accumulation into wildlife food items, and uptake by wildlife with subsequent distribution into, and elimination from, tissues. Because many pharmacokinetic parameters for wildlife are unavailable for the majority of drugs in use, a read-across approach was employed using either rodent or human data on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Comparison of the different steps in the framework against experimental data for the scenario where birds are feeding on a WWTP contaminated with fluoxetine showed that estimated concentrations in wastewater treatment works were lower than measured concentrations; concentrations in food could be reasonably estimated if experimental bioaccumulation data are available; and read-across from rodent data worked better than human to bird read-across. The framework provides adequate predictions of plasma concentrations and of elimination behavior in birds but yields poor predictions of distribution in tissues. The approach holds promise, but it is important that we improve our understanding of the physiological similarities and differences between wild birds and domesticated laboratory mammals used in pharmaceutical efficacy/safety trials, so that the wealth of data available can be applied more effectively in ecological risk assessments. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2335-2344. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Estimated Number of Birds Killed by House Cats (Felis catus in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blancher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predation by house cats (Felis catus is one of the largest human-related sources of mortality for wild birds in the United States and elsewhere, and has been implicated in extinctions and population declines of several species. However, relatively little is known about this topic in Canada. The objectives of this study were to provide plausible estimates for the number of birds killed by house cats in Canada, identify information that would help improve those estimates, and identify species potentially vulnerable to population impacts. In total, cats are estimated to kill between 100 and 350 million birds per year in Canada (> 95% of estimates were in this range, with the majority likely to be killed by feral cats. This range of estimates is based on surveys indicating that Canadians own about 8.5 million pet cats, a rough approximation of 1.4 to 4.2 million feral cats, and literature values of predation rates from studies conducted elsewhere. Reliability of the total kill estimate would be improved most by better knowledge of feral cat numbers and diet in Canada, though any data on birds killed by cats in Canada would be helpful. These estimates suggest that 2-7% of birds in southern Canada are killed by cats per year. Even at the low end, predation by house cats is probably the largest human-related source of bird mortality in Canada. Many species of birds are potentially vulnerable to at least local population impacts in southern Canada, by virtue of nesting or feeding on or near ground level, and habitat choices that bring them into contact with human-dominated landscapes where cats are abundant. Because cat predation is likely to remain a primary source of bird mortality in Canada for some time, this issue needs more scientific attention in Canada.

  7. Whole genome sequencing of genotype VI Newcastle disease viruses from formalin-fixed paraffinembedded tissues from wild pigeons reveals continuous evolution and previously unrecognized genetic diversity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and can cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated from Columbiform birds in the United States. Complete genomic characterization of t...

  8. EL MODO DE VIDA LACUSTRE: ETNOGRAFÍA DE LAS CUENCAS LACUSTRES DE MICHOACÁN (Ethnographic Perspectives on the Aquatic Lifeway in Michoacan, Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamérica fue la única civilización en el mundo antiguo que careció de fuentes importantes de proteína animal como el ganado, los cerdos y los borregos. Por lo tanto, las abundantes especies acuáticas (peces, aves, reptiles, anfibios, insectos y plantas, entre otros tuvieron un papel estratégico en la dieta y la economía de la mayoría de las culturas mesoamericanas, incluyendo a los tarascos. Este estudio de actividades de subsistencia (pesca, caza, recolección y manufactura en los lagos de Cuitzeo y Pátzcuaro (Michoacán, México enfatiza la relevancia de la etnografía, la arqueología y la etnohistoria como herramientas para entender el modo de vida lacustre tradicional de los tarascos; que vivían en un entorno dominado por lagos, ríos, pantanos y otros paisajes acuáticos. ENGLISH: Mesoamerica was the only civilization in the ancient world that lacked major domesticated sources of animal protein, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep. Therefore, the abundant wild aquatic species (fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, and plants, among others had a strategic role in the diet and economy of most Mesoamerican cultures, including the Tarascans. This study of subsistence activities (fishing, hunting, gathering, and manufacture around the Cuitzeo and Pátzcuaro lakes (Michoacán, Mexico underscores the value of ethnography, archaeology, and ethnohistory as tools for understanding the traditional aquatic lifeway of the Tarascans; who lived in an environment dominated by lakes, rivers, marshes and other wetlands.

  9. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  10. Going cheap: determinants of bird price in the Taiwanese pet market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan; Cassey, Phillip; Vall-Llosera, Miquel; Blackburn, Tim M

    2015-01-01

    International wildlife trade is the largest emerging source of vertebrate invasive alien species. In order to prevent invasions, it is essential to understand the mechanics of trade and, in particular, which traded species are most likely to be released or escape into the wild. A species' economic value is a key factor, because we expect cheaper species to be less assiduously secured against escaping, and more likely to be deliberately released. Here, we investigate determinants of the price of species in the Taiwanese bird trade. Taiwan is an international hub for bird trade, and several native species are threatened by alien bird species. We investigated the relationship between the traded species sale price in Taiwan and the species availability for trade (the number of birds for sale, geographic range size and their origin, conservation and CITES status) and traits (body size, coloration, song attractiveness). We used phylogenetic generalized least squares models, with multi-model inference, to assess the variables that are best related to the price of birds in the Taiwanese pet trade. We found that species available for sale in larger numbers, native to Taiwan, not globally endangered, and small-bodied are all relatively cheaper, as too are species lacking yellow coloration and without attractive songs. Our models of price revealed high levels of phylogenetic correlation, and hence that closely related species tended to be sold for similar prices. We suggest that, on the basis of price, native species are more likely to be deliberately or accidentally released than alien species. Nevertheless, our survey of bird shops recorded 160 species alien to Taiwan (7,631 individuals), several of which are for sale cheaply and in large numbers. Alien bird species in trade therefore present an ongoing, non-trivial invasion risk on the island.

  11. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  12. Dose reconstruction for birds species exposed to ionizing radiations highlights risk for species reproducing in the Fukushima Prefecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Guillermin, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Sternalski, A.; Bonzom, J.M.; Garnier-Laplace, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Brown, J.E. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Giraudeau, M. [Arizona state university (United States)

    2014-07-01

    soil contamination was also considered by using a geo-database gathering all the measurements published on internet within the Fukushima surroundings. Given these factors, the total dose was assessed for each bird species for a time period expanding from March 2011 to March 2013, resulting from the addition of external and internal dose. The results of this dose reconstruction show that several bird species were exposed to radiological doses greater than those considered safe for ecosystems (0.24 mGy/day). Additionally, we demonstrate that spatial variation of contamination is more significant than the species effect. The life style of bird species was also taken into account using their major living habitats (aquatic, aerial, ground), leading to a lower contamination of aquatic birds in comparison to other birds species. The effect of life stage was low over the two-year contamination period considered, even if a lower dose was predicted in the birds contaminated from the egg stage. Combining all the up-to-date knowledge on bird and medium contamination, our study led to the conclusion that some of the bird species reproducing in the Fukushima prefecture have been exposed to radioactivity levels liable to induce effects. Such effect assessments are the focus of on-going research programs (FREEBIRD, COMET). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Are we going about chemical risk assessment for the aquatic environment the wrong way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Sumpter, John P

    2016-07-01

    The goal of protecting the aquatic environment through testing thousands of chemicals against hundreds of aquatic species with thousands of endpoints while also considering mixtures is impossible given the present resources. Much of the impetus for studies on micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, came from the topic of endocrine disruption in wild fish. But despite concern over reductions in fish fertility, there is little evidence that fish populations are in peril. Indeed, fish biologists suggest that many cyprinid populations have been recovering for the past 30 to 40 yr. The central assumption, key to current risk assessment, that effects observed in the laboratory or predicted by models are readily transferrable to the population level, is therefore questionable. The neglect in monitoring wildlife populations is the key weakness in environmental protection strategies. If we do not know whether aquatic wildlife species are declining or increasing, how valuable are our other ecotoxicological activities? Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1609-1616. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  15. Hunting with lead: association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Blumenthal, Wendy; Kennedy, Chinaro; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Pickard, Stephen; Flanders, W Dana; Loringer, Kelly; Kruger, Kirby; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jean Brown, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Wild game hunting is a popular activity in many regions of the United States. Recently, the presence of lead fragments in wild game meat, presumably from the bullets or shot used for hunting, has raised concerns about health risks from meat consumption. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (PbB) and wild game consumption. We recruited 742 participants, aged 2-92 years, from six North Dakota cities. Blood lead samples were collected from 736 persons. Information on socio-demographic background, housing, lead exposure source, and types of wild game consumption (i.e., venison, other game such as moose, birds) was also collected. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the association between PbB and wild game consumption. Most participants reported consuming wild game (80.8%) obtained from hunting (98.8%). The geometric mean PbB were 1.27 and 0.84 microg/dl among persons who did and did not consume wild game, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, persons who consumed wild game had 0.30 microg/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.44 microg/dl) higher PbB than persons who did not. For all game types, recent (game consumption was associated with higher PbB. PbB was also higher among those who consumed a larger serving size (> or = 2 oz vs. game' consumption only. Participants who consumed wild game had higher PbB than those who did not consume wild game. Careful review of butchering practices and monitoring of meat-packing processes may decrease lead exposure from wild game consumption.

  16. Positioning of aquatic animals based on time-of-arrival and random walk models using YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Økland, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic positional telemetry offers vast opportunities to study in vivo behaviour of wild animals, but there is room for improvement in the data quality provided by current procedures for estimating positions. Here we present a novel positioning method called YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver...

  17. Wake Characteristics of a Flapping Wing Optimized for both Aerial and Aquatic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Kotidis, Miranda; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Multiple aquatic bird species (including murres, puffins, and other auks) employ a single actuator to propel themselves in two different fluid media: both flying and swimming using primarily their flapping wings. This impressive design compromise could be adopted by engineered implementations of dual aerial/aquatic robotic platforms, as it offers an existence proof for favorable flow physics. We discuss one realization of a 3D flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing oscillates by the root and employs an active in-line motion degree-of-freedom. An experiment-coupled optimization routine generates the wing trajectories, controlling the unsteady forces throughout each flapping cycle. We elucidate the wakes of these wing trajectories using dye visualization, correlating the wake vortex structures with simultaneous force measurements. After optimization, the wing generates the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media, and furthermore, demonstrate improved control over the unsteady wake.

  18. Causes of Morbidity in Wild Raptor Populations Admitted at a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Spain from 1995-2007: A Long Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A.; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2011-01-01

    Background Morbidity studies complement the understanding of hazards to raptors by identifying natural or anthropogenic factors. Descriptive epidemiological studies of wildlife have become an important source of information about hazards to wildlife populations. On the other hand, data referenced to the overall wild population could provide a more accurate assessment of the potential impact of the morbidity/mortality causes in populations of wild birds. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study described the morbidity causes of hospitalized wild raptors and their incidence in the wild populations, through a long term retrospective study conducted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre of Catalonia (1995–2007). Importantly, Seasonal Cumulative Incidences (SCI) were calculated considering estimations of the wild population in the region and trend analyses were applied among the different years. A total of 7021 birds were analysed: 7 species of Strigiformes (n = 3521) and 23 of Falconiformes (n = 3500). The main causes of morbidity were trauma (49.5%), mostly in the Falconiformes, and orphaned/young birds (32.2%) mainly in the Strigiformes. During wintering periods, the largest morbidity incidence was observed in Accipiter gentillis due to gunshot wounds and in Tyto alba due to vehicle trauma. Within the breeding season, Falco tinnunculus (orphaned/young category) and Bubo bubo (electrocution and metabolic disorders) represented the most affected species. Cases due to orphaned/young, infectious/parasitic diseases, electrocution and unknown trauma tended to increase among years. By contrast, cases by undetermined cause, vehicle trauma and captivity decreased throughout the study period. Interestingly, gunshot injuries remained constant during the study period. Conclusions/Significance Frequencies of morbidity causes calculated as the proportion of each cause referred to the total number of admitted cases, allowed a qualitative assessment of hazards for

  19. Nematodes of the genus Amidostomum (Railliet et Henry, 1909) in wild ducks (Anatinae) of North-western Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavetska, K.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed to quantify infections with nematodes of the genus Amidostomum in wild ducks of north-western Poland. The birds examined (282 individuals re-presenting 16 species) belonged to three, ecologically different, tribes: the Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini. The 923 individuals of

  20. Spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadamichi Morisaka

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ejaculation, which is defined as the release of seminal fluids without apparent sexual stimulation, has been documented in boreoeutherian mammals. Here we report spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus, and present a video of this rare behavior. This is the first report of spontaneous ejaculation by an aquatic mammal, and the first video of this behavior in animals to be published in a scientific journal.

  1. Wild birds and silage as reservoirs of Listeria in the agricultural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, D R

    1985-12-01

    A method for the isolation of listeria which enabled a more rapid detection of the organism was used to examine samples of silage and bird faeces. Faecal samples indicated that seagulls feeding at sewage works had a higher rate of carriage than those elsewhere. Faecal samples from rooks generally suggested a low incidence of listeria except on one occasion when eight of twenty samples contained Listeria monocytogenes: this coincided with the nesting season and the peak period for listeriosis in sheep. The incidence of L. monocytogenes in clamp silages ranged from 2.5-5.9%, but in samples of big bale silages the incidence was 22.2% and, when mouldy samples were selected, 44%.

  2. Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Kira; Brown, Holly; Nemeth, Nicole; Poulson, Rebecca; Casalena, Mary Jo; Johnson, Joshua B; Brown, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys. Fifty wild turkeys were submitted for necropsy due to nodular skin lesions on unfeathered skin of the head. Of these, five had similar skin lesions on the unfeathered legs and 26 had plaques on the mucosa of the oropharynx or esophagus. Representative skin, oropharyngeal, and esophageal lesions from all birds were examined with cytology and histopathology. Skin lesions on the head of each bird were also tested for avian pox virus via PCR. Histopathology and PCR were equally sensitive in diagnosing avian pox from skin lesions on the head. There were no significant differences between cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of avian pox from skin lesions on the head (sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 100.0%), legs (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 100.0%), or from lesions in the oropharynx and esophagus (sensitivity of 62.5%). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PCR and cytology for diagnosis of pox viral skin lesions of the head. Relative to PCR detection of avian pox virus, cytology had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 90.0%. These results suggest that cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of avian pox in wild turkeys.

  3. Evidence that life history characteristics of wild birds influence infection rates and exposure to influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Terenzi, John; Sedinger, James S.; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on life history characteristics, temporal, and age-related effects influencing the frequency of occurrence of avian influenza (AI) viruses in four species of migratory geese breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Emperor geese (Chen canagica), cackling geese (Branta hutchinsii), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and black brant (Branta bernicla), were all tested for active infection of AI viruses upon arrival in early May, during nesting in June, and while molting in July and August, 2006–2010 (n = 14,323). Additionally, prior exposure to AI viruses was assessed via prevalence of antibodies from sera samples collected during late summer in 2009 and 2010. Results suggest that geese are uncommonly infected by low pathogenic AI viruses while in Alaska. The percent of birds actively shedding AI viruses varied annually, and was highest in 2006 and 2010 (1–3%) and lowest in 2007, 2008, and 2009 (95% for emperor geese, a species that spends part of its life cycle in Asia and is endemic to Alaska and the Bering Sea region, compared to 40–60% for the other three species, whose entire life cycles are within the western hemisphere. Birds little past exposure to AI viruses, although antibodies were detected in samples from 5-week old birds in 2009. Seroprevalence of known age black brant revealed that no birds <4 years old had seroconverted, compared to 49% of birds ≥4 years of age.

  4. Blood lead concentrations in wild birds from a polluted mining region at Villa de La Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Vargas, Leonardo; Mejia-Saavedra, Jose J; Monzalvo-Santos, Karina; Puebla-Olivares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the concentrations of lead in bird blood samples from a mining region in central Mexico and to compare concentrations among several different feeding guilds. The study took place in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in a region known as "Villa de la Paz." This is one of the most intensely exploited mining regions in central Mexico and has been actively mined for over four centuries. Lead concentrations from bird blood samples taken from four polluted sites were significantly higher than those from a control, unpolluted site (F = 6.3, P birds from a highly polluted site were higher than those from a site that has intermediate pollution levels (P birds had significantly lower lead concentrations compared to granivores, frugivores-insectivores, and omnivores (F = 4.86, P = 0.004), and a large proportion of all individuals had blood lead concentrations indicative of low, sub-lethal toxic effects. Finally, in two polluted sites, remarkably small numbers of insectivore-frugivores, and granivores were trapped, and in one polluted site a large number of insectivores was trapped (X(2) = 29.9, P = 0.03), and no differences in proportions of migrants and non-migrants were found among sampling sites (X(2) = 0.6, P = 0.96). To date, it has not been determined to what extent constant exposure to these levels of pollution can influence health at the individual level, lifespan, and, therefore, population demography of birds from this region.

  5. Transfer of radionuclides at the uranium and thorium decay chains in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.

    1987-04-01

    This report examines the transfer of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay chains (U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, Th-230, Po-210 and Pb-210) through the aquatic and terrestrial environment. This transfer is characterized by a transfer coefficient; environmental and experimental factors which cause this coefficient to vary are presented and discussed in this report. Furthermore, based on a literature survey, the report indicates the range of coefficients found for the aquatic sector (that is, sediment and freshwater and marine organisms) and for the terrestrial sector (that is, plants and domestic and wild animals). Afterwards, generalisations are formulated on the transfer of the different radionuclides through the multiple environmental compartments. 75 refs

  6. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  7. Wound-healing ability is conserved during periods of chronic stress and costly life history events in a wild-caught bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRant, S E; de Bruijn, R; Tran, M N; Romero, L M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions. To determine whether corticosterone correlated with wound healing rates before starting chronic stress, we measured baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and two estimates of corticosterone release and regulation, negative feedback (using dexamethasone injection), and maximal capacity of the adrenals to secrete corticosterone (using adrenocorticotropin hormone [ACTH] injection). After 8days of exposure to chronic stress, we wounded both control and chronically stressed birds and monitored healing daily. We monitored nighttime heart rate, which strongly correlates with energy expenditure, and body mass throughout the study. Measures of corticosterone did not differ with molt status. Contrary to work on lizards and small mammals, all birds, regardless of stress or molt status, fully-healed wounds at similar rates. Although chronic stress did not influence healing rates, individuals with low baseline corticosterone or strong negative feedback had faster healing rates than individuals with high baseline corticosterone or weak negative feedback. In addition, wound healing does appear to be linked to energy expenditure and body mass. Non-molting, chronically stressed birds decreased nighttime heart rate during healing, but this pattern did not exist in molting birds. Additionally, birds of heavier body mass at the start of

  8. Metabolic routing of dietary nutrients in birds: effects of diet quality and macronutrient composition revealed using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David W; McWilliams, Scott R

    2006-01-01

    During fall migration many songbirds switch from consuming primarily insects to consuming mostly fruit. Fruits with more carbohydrates and less protein may be sufficient to rebuild expended fat stores, but such fruits may be inadequate to replace catabolized protein. We manipulated the concentrations and isotopic signatures of macronutrients in diets fed to birds to study the effects of diet quality on metabolic routing of dietary nutrients. We estimated that approximately 45% and 75%, respectively, of the carbon in proteinaceous tissue of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets came from nonprotein dietary sources. In contrast, we estimated that approximately 100% and 20%-80%, respectively, of the nitrogen in proteinaceous tissues of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets was attributable to dietary protein. Thus, the routing and assimilation of dietary carbon and nitrogen differed depending on diet composition. As a result, delta (15)N of tissues collected from wild animals that consume high-quality diets may reliably indicate the dietary protein source, whereas delta (13)C of these same tissues is likely the product of metabolic routing of carbon from several macronutrients. These results have implications for how isotopic discrimination is best estimated and how we can study macronutrient routing in wild animals.

  9. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  10. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.L.; Pollock, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds

  11. Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Andrea; Beyrand, Vincent; Voeten, Dennis F. A. E.; Fernandez, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul; Stein, Koen; Barsbold, Rinchen; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav; Currie, Philip J.; Godefroit, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Maniraptora includes birds and their closest relatives among theropod dinosaurs. During the Cretaceous period, several maniraptoran lineages diverged from the ancestral coelurosaurian bauplan and evolved novel ecomorphologies, including active flight, gigantism, cursoriality and herbivory. Propagation X-ray phase-contrast synchrotron microtomography of a well-preserved maniraptoran from Mongolia, still partially embedded in the rock matrix, revealed a mosaic of features, most of them absent among non-avian maniraptorans but shared by reptilian and avian groups with aquatic or semiaquatic ecologies. This new theropod, Halszkaraptor escuilliei gen. et sp. nov., is related to other enigmatic Late Cretaceous maniraptorans from Mongolia in a novel clade at the root of Dromaeosauridae. This lineage adds an amphibious ecomorphology to those evolved by maniraptorans: it acquired a predatory mode that relied mainly on neck hyperelongation for food procurement, it coupled the obligatory bipedalism of theropods with forelimb proportions that may support a swimming function, and it developed postural adaptations convergent with short-tailed birds.

  12. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Ian A.; Whittington, Richard J.; Caraguel, Charles G. B.

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons...... studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines......-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species....

  13. (Highly pathogenic) Avian Influenza as a zoonotic agent

    OpenAIRE

    Kalthoff , Donata; Globig , Anja; Beer , Martin

    2010-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic agents challenging the world every year afresh are influenza A viruses. In the past, human pandemics caused by influenza A viruses had been occurring periodically. Wild aquatic birds are carriers of the full variety of influenza virus A subtypes, and thus, most probably constitute the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. Whereas avian influenza viruses in their natural avian reservoir are generally of low pathogenicity (LPAIV), some have gained virulence b...

  14. Differential timing and latitudinal variation in sex ratio of Aquatic Warblers during the autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chrostek, Małgorzata E.; Jiguet, Frédéric; Martínez, Carlos Zumalacárregui; Miguélez, David; Neto, Júlio M.

    2017-12-01

    Differential migration has been extensively reported in spring, but less so in autumn, particularly in relation to sex in monomorphic bird species. Here, we analysed the autumn passage of a monomorphic, globally threatened passerine, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola throughout Western Europe, with regard to age and sex. We showed that, overall, adults migrated earlier than first-year birds, and males migrated earlier than females during the autumn migration. This may be caused by an overall social dominance of adults over immatures, and differentiated migration strategy of males and females. In addition, we found male-skewed sex proportions, with a tendency to an equalised ratio in more southern stopover sites. This may indicate a male bias in the global population or different migration strategies of the sexes. Differential migration may cause the age and sex classes to be exposed differently to various threats affecting demographic structure of the species.

  15. RISK FACTORS FOR AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS (LPDV) IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN NEW YORK STATE, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Whipps, Christopher M

    2017-07-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution. We tested wild turkey bone marrow samples (n=2,538) obtained from hunter-harvested birds in New York State from 2012 to 2014 for LPDV infection. Statewide prevalence for those 3 yr was 55% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 53-57%. We evaluated a suite of demographic, anthropogenic, and land cover characteristics with logistic regression to identify potential predictors for infection based on odds ratio (OR). Age (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.13-0.19) and sex (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.03-1.24) were strong predictors of LPDV infection, with juveniles less likely to test positive than adults, and females more likely to test positive than males. The number of birds released during the state's 40-yr translocation program (OR=0.993, 95% CI=0.990-0.997) and the ratio of agriculture to forest cover (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03-1.19) were also predictive of LPDV infection. Prevalence distribution was analyzed using dual kernel density smoothing to produce a risk surface map, combined with Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and the Anselin Local Moran's I to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of high or low prevalence. These methods revealed the prevalence of LPDV was high (>50%) throughout New York State, with regions of variation and several significant clusters. We revealed new information about the risk factors and distribution of LPDV in New

  16. Sustaining America's Aquatic Biodiversity. Aquatic Insect Biodiversity and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Voshell, J. Reese

    2005-01-01

    Provides a description of the structure and appearance of aquatic insects, how they live and reproduce, the habitats they live in, how to collect them, why they are of importance, and threats to their survival; document also includes a brief illustrated summary of the eight major groups of aquatic insects and web links to more information. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.

  17. 76 FR 79203 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Exclusive License: Avian Influenza Vaccines for Domesticated Poultry/Wild Birds To Be Provided to the... serotypes H5N1, H1N1, H3N2, and H3N8 for poultry, swine and equine. Particularly one vaccine, a trivalent... influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine recipients, with the following...

  18. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  19. Nesting tree characteristics of heronry birds of urban ecosystems in peninsular India: implications for habitat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshnath, Ramesh; Sinu, Palatty Allesh

    2017-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems, particularly the mangrove forest, are the primary wild habitat of heronry birds. However, urban ecosystems have become a favorite breeding habitat of these birds. To provide inputs into the habitat management for conservation of these birds, we investigated the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nesting trees of heronry birds in the urban environment of the North Kerala region of peninsular India. Census on nesting trees was done in 3 major microhabitats of the urban ecosystem: avenues of national highways and towns, nonresidential plots, and residential areas apart from the mangrove islets in the peri-urban locality. The study found that 174 trees of 22 species hosted 1,928 heronry bird nests in the urban habitats; mangrove forests, although plentiful in the study area, hosted only about 20% of the total nests encountered in the study. Rain trees Samanea saman (43.7%) were the most available nesting tree. The greatest number of nests and nesting trees were encountered on the roads of urban areas, followed by nonresidential areas and residential areas. The differences in the observed frequencies of nesting trees in 3 microhabitats and in 3 types of roads (national highways > state highways > small pocket road) were significant. Canopy spread, girth size, and quality of the trees predicted the tree selection of the heronry birds in urban environments. Therefore, we recommend proper management and notification of the identified nesting trees as protected sites for the conservation of herorny birds.

  20. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  1. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  2. A simplified field protocol for genetic sampling of birds using buccal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.; McDearman, Will; Walters, Jeffrey R.; Haig, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    DNA sampling is an essential prerequisite for conducting population genetic studies. For many years, blood sampling has been the preferred method for obtaining DNA in birds because of their nucleated red blood cells. Nonetheless, use of buccal swabs has been gaining favor because they are less invasive yet still yield adequate amounts of DNA for amplifying mitochondrial and nuclear markers; however, buccal swab protocols often include steps (e.g., extended air-drying and storage under frozen conditions) not easily adapted to field settings. Furthermore, commercial extraction kits and swabs for buccal sampling can be expensive for large population studies. We therefore developed an efficient, cost-effective, and field-friendly protocol for sampling wild birds after comparing DNA yield among 3 inexpensive buccal swab types (2 with foam tips and 1 with a cotton tip). Extraction and amplification success was high (100% and 97.2% respectively) using inexpensive generic swabs. We found foam-tipped swabs provided higher DNA yields than cotton-tipped swabs. We further determined that omitting a drying step and storing swabs in Longmire buffer increased efficiency in the field while still yielding sufficient amounts of DNA for detailed population genetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. This new field protocol allows time- and cost-effective DNA sampling of juveniles or small-bodied birds for which drawing blood may cause excessive stress to birds and technicians alike.

  3. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutner, V.; Becker, P.H.; Liordos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g -1 dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g -1 dw), Σ HCHs (47 ng g -1 dw) and HCB (116 ng g -1 dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas Σ PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g -1 dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and Σ DDTs/ΣPCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g -1 dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g -1 dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: → Mercury, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. → More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. → Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). → Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  4. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutner, V., E-mail: vgoutner@bio.auth.gr [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Becker, P.H., E-mail: peter.becker@ifv-vogelwarte.de [Institute of Avian Research ' Vogelwarte Helgoland' , An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Liordos, V., E-mail: liordos@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g{sup -1} dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g{sup -1} dw), {Sigma} HCHs (47 ng g{sup -1} dw) and HCB (116 ng g{sup -1} dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas {Sigma} PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g{sup -1} dw). {beta}-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and {Sigma} DDTs/{Sigma}PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g{sup -1} dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g{sup -1} dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mercury, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. {yields} More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. {yields} Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). {yields} Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  5. Ecological relationships between feather mites (Acari and wild birds of Emberizidae (Aves in a fragment of Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyra-Neves Rachel M. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate feather mites on birds of the Family Emberizidae, to collect data on the ecological ectoparasite-host relationship and infestation level. A sum of 94 birds of 9 species was captured at the Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassú, Pernambuco, Brazil, from August 1996 to July 1997. Five genera of mites from the superfamily Analgoidea were identified: Analges Nitzsch, 1818; Mesalgoides Gaud & Atyeo, 1967; Pterodectes Robin, 1877; Proctophyllodes Robin, 1877 and Trouessartia Canestrini, 1899. Among the 94 birds examined, 92 (97,87% were infested. Regarding the prevalence, it was observed that the genera with higher percentage were, respectively, Pterodectes (88,04%, Proctophyllodes (56,52% and Trouessartia (45,65%.

  6. BIRDS AS A MODEL TO STUDY ADULT NEUROGENESIS: BRIDGING EVOLUTIONARY, COMPARATIVE AND NEUROETHOLOGICAL APPROCHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARNEA, ANAT; PRAVOSUDOV, VLADIMIR

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades evidence has demonstrated that adult neurogenesis is a well-preserved feature throughout the animal kingdom. In birds, ongoing neuronal addition occurs rather broadly, to a number of brain regions. This review describes adult avian neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment, discusses factors that regulate these processes, and touches upon the question of their genetic control. Several attributes make birds an extremely advantageous model to study neurogenesis. First, song learning exhibits seasonal variation that is associated with seasonal variation in neuronal turnover in some song control brain nuclei, which seems to be regulated via adult neurogenesis. Second, food-caching birds naturally use memory-dependent behavior in learning locations of thousands of food caches scattered over their home ranges. In comparison with other birds, food-caching species have relatively enlarged hippocampi with more neurons and intense neurogenesis, which appears to be related to spatial learning. Finally, migratory behavior and naturally occurring social systems in birds also provide opportunities to investigate neurogenesis. Such diversity of naturally-occurring memory-based behaviors, combined with the fact that birds can be studied both in the wild and in the laboratory, make them ideal for investigation of neural processes underlying learning. This can be done by using various approaches, from evolutionary and comparative to neuroethological and molecular. Finally, we connect the avian arena to a broader view by providing a brief comparative and evolutionary overview of adult neurogenesis and by discussing the possible functional role of the new neurons. We conclude by indicating future directions and possible medical applications. PMID:21929623

  7. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C.; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  8. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  9. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and...

  10. Nutrient composition and physicochemical characteristics in the destination sites of migratory water birds: a case study at the selected locations of seashores and lakes in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Augustine

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity in aquatic systems are indirectly controlled by their nutrient dynamics. The abundance of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons depends on the availability of nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and silicates since these are the building blocks for their further growth. The phytoplanktons act as prey for the next higher trophic level including various fishes and other small organisms. One of the factors that enchant the migratory birds at some particular locations is the availability of the species of organisms that they prey on. In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the nutrient dynamics of selected tropical aquatic systems in order to correlate the arrival of migratory birds at those locations. Water samples are collected from coastal region of Aleppey, Purakkad and Koonthankulam Bird Sancturay. The latter two sites are the important destination of many migratory water birds including Pallus Gull, Heuglins Gull, Bar-headed goose, Comb Duck and Spot Billed Pelican. The samples are analyzed chemically to trace the nutrient compositions and the related chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, primary productivity, chloride, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in the composition of phosphate, organic matter content and salinity. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the biodiversity of these locations with the chemical parameters and the prevailing nutrient compositions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9943 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 68-77

  11. Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Fox, Thomas A O; Zwueste, Danielle M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Rats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.

  12. Mortality in captive wild-caught horned puffin chicks (Fratercula corniculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocidlowski, M E; Cornish, T E; Loomis, M R; Stoskopf, M K

    1997-09-01

    Sixteen horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata) and six parakeet auklet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula) chicks of various prefledging ages were caught in Alaska and transported to the North Carolina Zoological Park (USA) in August 1995. Six of the 16 puffin chicks died within a 5-day period beginning 2 days after their arrival into quarantine at the zoo. The birds that died were collected at a young age, weighed 45.4-65.7 g, and had been fed a diet of thawed frozen ocean silversides (Atherinidae) that was not supplemented with vitamins. Clinical signs were nonspecific, and gross necropsies, insecticide toxicology screens, and bacterial cultures were unremarkable. Microscopic examination of tissues from five of the six birds showed myocardial necrosis and degeneration suggestive of vitamin E deficiency and intestinal protozoa resembling Microsporidia. The mortality pattern and histopathologic lesions observed in this case support the use of selective age capture and vitamin supplementation for wild alcid chick collection.

  13. Metal and Isotope Analysis of Bird Feathers in a Contaminated Estuary Reveals Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, and Potential Toxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einoder, L D; MacLeod, C K; Coughanowr, C

    2018-07-01

    The Derwent estuary, in south east Tasmania, is highly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly due to past industrial pollution. This study sought to determine the extent of contamination, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the resident bird community and therefore to infer the potential for adverse effects in birds. Thirteen metals were measured from breast feathers (n = 51 individuals) of eight sympatric species of aquatic bird. Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes were used to identify dietary sources of contaminants, trophic level, and potential biomagnification through food chains. Generalised linear models revealed that metal burdens were often poorly correlated with δ 13 C, indicating their uptake from a range of freshwater, brackish, and marine carbon sources-not surprising due to widespread contamination across the tidal estuary. Feather mercury increased significantly with trophic level (inferred from δ 15 N). White-bellied Sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster samples contained 240 times more mercury than feral Goose Anser cygnoides. Feather arsenic and copper concentrations were significantly higher in birds feeding lower in the food chain. For several piscivorous species, both chick and adults were sampled revealing significantly higher feather mercury, zinc, and selenium in adults. Feathers from birds found dead along the banks of the estuary had significantly higher lead loads than from live birds, and numerous individuals had levels of mercury, zinc, and lead above toxic thresholds reported in other studies. These results highlight the need to include biota from higher trophic levels in contaminant monitoring programs to understand fully the fate and broader implications of contaminants in the environment.

  14. Listening to Birds in the Anthropocene: The Anxious Semiotics of Sound in a Human-Dominated World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehouse, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ever since Rachel Carson predicted a “silent spring” environmentalists have been carefully and anxiously listening to birds. More recently the musician and scientist Bernie Krause has examined the effects of human activity on avian soundscapes throughout the world. He argues that human activities cause ecological and sonic disruptions that really are rendering the world silent or discordant, submerging the “animal orchestra” beneath noise. A healthy natural environment can be heard, according to Krause, in a rich and harmonious soundscape that has evolved over millions of years. The loss of wildness thus elicits a loss of harmony. I consider these Anthropocene interpretations of silence, noise and dissonance by comparing the environmentalist concerns of Krause with responses to the Listening to Birds project—an anthropological investigation of bird sounds. These responses emphasise the significance of bird sounds for people’s sense of place, time and season and the longing that many have for their own lives to resonate with the birds around them. I argue that this has less to do with desires to hear harmony in pristine nature but with developing relations of companionship with birds living alongside humans. While listening to birds can still iconically and indexically ground people, signs of absence and change can precipitate anxieties that stem from the ambiguities implicit in the Anthropocene’s formulation of human relations with other species. Using narratives and field recordings I explore the anxious semiotics of listening to birds in the Anthropocene by drawing on Kohn’s recent arguments on the semiotics of more-than-human relations and Ingold’s understanding of the world as a meshwork.

  15. Serological and microbial survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B A; Thomas, C B; Yuill, T M

    1992-01-01

    From 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (M. gallopavo intermedia, M. gallopavo merriami and M. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) (n = 724), M. synoviae (MS) (n = 461) and M. meleagridis (MM) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) assay. Subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for antibody to MG (n = 664) and MS (n = 403). Attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas by swabbing the trachea and cloaca of 190 live wild turkeys and from various tissues (sinus, nasal turbinates, trachea, lung, ovaries and oviduct) from 76 turkeys at necropsy. Isolates were identified using an immunobinding assay. Seroprevalence of MG, MS and MM in the RPA test was highly variable among years and geographic sites, ranging from 0 to 85%, 0 to 87%, and 0 to 83%, respectively, for each mycoplasma species. Of the 724 wild turkey sera tested, 200 (28%) were positive using the RPA assay, while only 20 (3%) of 664 sera tested using the HI assay were positive (at a titer greater than/= 1:80) for antibody to MG. Of the 461 sera tested 178 (39%) were RPA positive for MS, whereas none of the 403 samples tested by HI were positive for MS. Antibody to MM was detected in 72 (20%) of 354 turkey sera tested by RPA. Mycoplasmas were cultured from 81 (30%) of 266 wild turkeys, including 48 that were sampled live and 33 that were examined by necropsy. Mycoplasmas were isolated from every population in which culture was attempted. M. gallopavonis (MGP) was isolated from 37 (46%) of 81 birds which yielded mycoplasma, representing seven of 12 populations sampled. MG was isolated from lower respiratory tissues of one Rio Grande wild turkey trapped in Texas. M. synoviae was isolated from five of 16 Merriam's wild turkeys trapped in Arizona. Sera of birds from which MG or MS was isolated were positive to the respective

  16. Qualitative-quantitative characteristic of bird community of middle course alluvium of the Vah River (Piestany - Nove Mesto); Kvalitativno-kvantitativna charakteristika ornitocenoz aluvia stredneho toku Vahu (Piestany - Nove Mesto nad Vahom)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Topercer, J. [Botanicka zahrada Univerzity Komenskeho v Bratislave, pracovisko Blatnica, 03815 Blatnica pri Martine (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The research focuses on the analysis of structure and dynamics of bird communities in two transects on the Vah river alluvium between cities Piestany and Nove Mesto nad Vahom. The research is aimed on the analysis of species composition, distribution and multitude of aquatic and wetland birds, on the analysis of their seasonal dynamics, inter-annual variability in species composition, diversity and others indicators of birds in these transects. The secondary aim is to find out the main types of disturbances, their intensity, antropogenous effects and others chosen environment variables in these transects of Vah river alluvium. We will utilize statistical analyses from these environmental variables and explain their impact on bird communities of this area. From these findings suitable management measures for the conservation or improvement of conservation status of target species will be derived. (authors)

  17. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  18. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mukhin

    Full Text Available Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1 the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1, (2 the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3 the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1 the markedly reduced mobility and (2 the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1 influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better

  19. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  20. Outcome following inhalation anesthesia in birds at a veterinary referral hospital: 352 cases (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Amanda B; Hofmeister, Erik H; Divers, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the outcome in birds undergoing inhalation anesthesia and identify patient or procedure variables associated with an increased likelihood of anesthesia-related death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 352 birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia. PROCEDURES Medical records of birds that underwent inhalation anesthesia from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014, at a single veterinary referral hospital were reviewed. Data collected included date of visit, age, species, sex, type (pet, free ranging, or wild kept in captivity), body weight, body condition score, diagnosis, procedure, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, premedication used for anesthesia, drug for anesthetic induction, type of maintenance anesthesia, route and type of fluid administration, volumes of crystalloid and colloid fluids administered, intraoperative events, estimated blood loss, duration of anesthesia, surgery duration, recovery time, recovery notes, whether birds survived to hospital discharge, time of death, total cost of hospitalization, cost of anesthesia, and nadir and peak values for heart rate, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide, concentration of inhaled anesthetic, and body temperature. Comparisons were made between birds that did and did not survive to hospital discharge. RESULTS Of 352 birds, 303 (86%) were alive at hospital discharge, 12 (3.4%) died during anesthesia, 15 (4.3%) died in the intensive care unit after anesthesia, and 22 (6.3%) were euthanatized after anesthesia. Overall, none of the variables studied were associated with survival to hospital discharge versus not surviving to hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results confirmed previous findings that indicated birds have a high mortality rate during and after anesthesia, compared with mortality rates published for dogs and cats.

  1. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  2. Evaluation of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of avian influenza virus subtype H5 antibodies in zoo birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Andersen, Jannie Holmegaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test is the current gold standard for detecting antibodies to avian influenza virus (AIV). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been explored for use in poultry and certain wild bird species because of high efficiency and lower cost. This study com...

  3. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5 days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  5. Biological effects of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds used as disinfectants for seed-grain on domestic and wild life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejning, S

    1971-01-01

    A short survey of the harmful effects of methyl and ethyl mercury on wild and domestic life and on man since the introduction of these compounds in plant protection is given. The biological effects of methyl mercury in birds are illustrated by experiments in hens concerning its accumulation in their organs and plumage, its elimination in eggs and excrements and its influence on the health of the birds, their laying habits and egg production including the occurrence of embryonic damages and the hatchability. Attention is drawn to the ability of methyl mercury to cause genetical disorders. 14 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  7. Gene loss, adaptive evolution and the co-evolution of plumage coloration genes with opsins in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Rui; Khan, Imran; Johnson, Warren E; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhang, Guojie; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-10-06

    The wide range of complex photic systems observed in birds exemplifies one of their key evolutionary adaptions, a well-developed visual system. However, genomic approaches have yet to be used to disentangle the evolutionary mechanisms that govern evolution of avian visual systems. We performed comparative genomic analyses across 48 avian genomes that span extant bird phylogenetic diversity to assess evolutionary changes in the 17 representatives of the opsin gene family and five plumage coloration genes. Our analyses suggest modern birds have maintained a repertoire of up to 15 opsins. Synteny analyses indicate that PARA and PARIE pineal opsins were lost, probably in conjunction with the degeneration of the parietal organ. Eleven of the 15 avian opsins evolved in a non-neutral pattern, confirming the adaptive importance of vision in birds. Visual conopsins sw1, sw2 and lw evolved under negative selection, while the dim-light RH1 photopigment diversified. The evolutionary patterns of sw1 and of violet/ultraviolet sensitivity in birds suggest that avian ancestors had violet-sensitive vision. Additionally, we demonstrate an adaptive association between the RH2 opsin and the MC1R plumage color gene, suggesting that plumage coloration has been photic mediated. At the intra-avian level we observed some unique adaptive patterns. For example, barn owl showed early signs of pseudogenization in RH2, perhaps in response to nocturnal behavior, and penguins had amino acid deletions in RH2 sites responsible for the red shift and retinal binding. These patterns in the barn owl and penguins were convergent with adaptive strategies in nocturnal and aquatic mammals, respectively. We conclude that birds have evolved diverse opsin adaptations through gene loss, adaptive selection and coevolution with plumage coloration, and that differentiated selective patterns at the species level suggest novel photic pressures to influence evolutionary patterns of more-recent lineages.

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tissues of birds at Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul D.; Giesy, John P.; Newsted, John L.; Verbrugge, David A.; Beaver, Donald L.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lodge, Keith B.; Niemi, Gerald J.

    1993-01-01

    The environment has become contaminated with complex mixtures of planar, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and structurally similar compounds. Because the potencies of individual congeners to cause the same adverse effects vary greatly and the relative as well as absolute concentrations of individual PCH vary among samples from different locations, it is difficult to assess the toxic effects of these mixtures on wildlife. These compounds can cause a number of adverse effects, however, because the toxic effects which occur at ecologically-relevant concentrations such as embryo-lethality and birth defects appear to be mediated through the same mechanism, the potency of individual congeners can be reported relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) which is the most toxic congener in the PCH class. The concentations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD Equivalents (TCDD-EQ) were determined in the tissues of aquatic and terrestrial birds of Green Bay, Wisconsin by the H4IIE bioassay system and compared toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) with the concentration predicted by the use of toxic equivalency factors applied to concentrations of PCH, which were determined by instrumental analyses. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ ranged from 0.52 to 440 ng/kg, wet weight. The greatest concentrations occurred in the fish-eating birds. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ, which were determined by the two methods were significantly correlated, but the additive model which used the TEFs with concentrations of measured PCB, PCDD and PCDF congeners underestimated the concentrations of TCDD-EQ measured by the H4IIE bioassay by an average of 57%. This is thought to be due to contributions from un-quantified PCH, which are known to occur in the environment. Of the quantified PCH congeners, PCDD and PCDF contributed a small portion of the TCDD-EQ in the aquatic birds, while most of the

  9. Stress associated with group living in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Nuria; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Lemus, Jesús A; Blanco, Guillermo; Mueller, Thomas; Heinrich, Bernd; Donázar, José A

    2011-08-23

    Many long-lived avian species adopt life strategies that involve a gregarious way of life at juvenile and sub-adult stages and territoriality during adulthood. However, the potential associated costs of these life styles, such as stress, are poorly understood. We examined the effects of group living, sex and parasite load on the baseline concentration of faecal stress hormone (corticosterone) metabolites in a wild population of common ravens (Corvus corax). Corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in non-breeding gregarious ravens than in territorial adults. Among territorial birds, males showed higher stress levels than their mates. Parasite burdens did not affect hormone levels. Our results suggest a key role of the social context in the stress profiles of the two population fractions, and that group living may be more energetically demanding than maintaining a territory. These findings have implications for understanding hormonal mechanisms under different life styles and may inspire further research on the link between hormone levels and selective pressures modulating gregarious and territorial strategies in long-lived birds. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  10. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of