WorldWideScience

Sample records for wide earth unbribable

  1. Iluminator of the wide earth; Unbribable judge; Strong weapon of the Gods: Intuitive ontology and divine epithets in Assyro-Babylonian religious texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A characteristic feature of Assyro-Babylonian religion was the repeated use of conventionalized phrases to address and describe the gods. Often, religious texts such as prayers and ritual incantations consisted of little more than the heaping up of such epithets. If the gods were indeed culturally...

  2. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  3. Radar Images of the Earth and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.; Freeman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a center of planetary exploration, and its involvement in studying the earth from space is given. Remote sensing, radar maps, land topography, snow cover properties, vegetation type, biomass content, moisture levels, and ocean data are items discussed related to earth orbiting satellite imaging radar. World Wide Web viewing of this content is discussed.

  4. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng; Deng, Rui; Lin, Weinan; Tian, Yufeng; Peng, Haiyang; Yi, Jiabao; Yao, Bin; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  5. Electrostatic tuning of Kondo effect in a rare-earth-doped wide-band-gap oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongfeng

    2013-04-29

    As a long-lived theme in solid-state physics, the Kondo effect reflects the many-body physics involving the short-range Coulomb interactions between itinerant electrons and localized spins in metallic materials. Here we show that the Kondo effect is present in ZnO, a prototypical wide-band-gap oxide, doped with a rare-earth element (Gd). The localized 4f electrons of Gd ions do not produce remanent magnetism, but interact strongly with the host electrons, giving rise to a saturating resistance upturn and negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures. Furthermore, the Kondo temperature and resistance can be electrostatically modulated using electric-double-layer gating with liquid ionic electrolyte. Our experiments provide the experimental evidence of tunable Kondo effect in ZnO, underscoring the magnetic interactions between localized and itinerant electrons and the emergent transport behaviors in such doped wide-band-gap oxides.

  6. A Wide Field Auroral Imager (WFAI for low Earth orbit missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Bannister

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of the solar wind interaction with Earth's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system requires an ability to observe the charged particle environment and auroral activity from the same platform, generating particle and photon image data which are matched in time and location. While unambiguous identification of the particles giving rise to the aurora requires a Low Earth Orbit satellite, obtaining adequate spatial coverage of aurorae with the relatively limited field of view of current space bourne auroral imaging systems requires much higher orbits. A goal for future satellite missions, therefore, is the development of compact, wide field-of-view optics permitting high spatial and temporal resolution ultraviolet imaging of the aurora from small spacecraft in low polar orbit. Microchannel plate optics offer a method of achieving the required performance. We describe a new, compact instrument design which can observe a wide field-of-view with the required spatial resolution. We report the focusing of 121.6 nm radiation using a spherically-slumped, square-pore microchannel plate with a focal length of 32 mm and an F number of 0.7. Measurements are compared with detailed ray-trace simulations of imaging performance. The angular resolution is 2.7±0.2° for the prototype, corresponding to a footprint ~33 km in diameter for an aurora altitude of 110 km and a spacecraft altitude of 800 km. In preliminary analysis, a more recent optic has demonstrated a full width at half maximum of 5.0±0.3 arcminutes, corresponding to a footprint of ~1 km from the same spacecraft altitude. We further report the imaging properties of a convex microchannel plate detector with planar resistive anode readout; this detector, whose active surface has a radius of curvature of only 100 mm, is shown to meet the spatial resolution and sensitivity requirements of the new wide field auroral imager (WFAI.

  7. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  8. Effective Integration of the World-Wide Web in Earth Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Bruce; Bednarz, Sarah; Boyd, Tom; Blake, Sally; Harder, Vicki; Sutter, Marilyn

    The earth sciences is an evolving set of disciplines encompassing more than 30 specialties; however, earth scientists continue to be trained within the traditional disciplinary structure. Earth science education should focus not only on student acquisition and retention of factual knowledge, but also on the development of higher-order skills…

  9. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  10. A program wide framework for evaluating data driven teaching and learning - earth analytics approaches, results and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gold, A. U.

    2017-12-01

    There is a deluge of earth systems data available to address cutting edge science problems yet specific skills are required to work with these data. The Earth analytics education program, a core component of Earth Lab at the University of Colorado - Boulder - is building a data intensive program that provides training in realms including 1) interdisciplinary communication and collaboration 2) earth science domain knowledge including geospatial science and remote sensing and 3) reproducible, open science workflows ("earth analytics"). The earth analytics program includes an undergraduate internship, undergraduate and graduate level courses and a professional certificate / degree program. All programs share the goals of preparing a STEM workforce for successful earth analytics driven careers. We are developing an program-wide evaluation framework that assesses the effectiveness of data intensive instruction combined with domain science learning to better understand and improve data-intensive teaching approaches using blends of online, in situ, asynchronous and synchronous learning. We are using targeted online search engine optimization (SEO) to increase visibility and in turn program reach. Finally our design targets longitudinal program impacts on participant career tracts over time.. Here we present results from evaluation of both an interdisciplinary undergrad / graduate level earth analytics course and and undergraduate internship. Early results suggest that a blended approach to learning and teaching that includes both synchronous in-person teaching and active classroom hands-on learning combined with asynchronous learning in the form of online materials lead to student success. Further we will present our model for longitudinal tracking of participant's career focus overtime to better understand long-term program impacts. We also demonstrate the impact of SEO optimization on online content reach and program visibility.

  11. Personal, Informal and Relatable: Engaging Wide Audiences in Climate Science with Nasa's Earth Right Now Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Shaftel, H.; Jackson, R.

    2014-12-01

    There is no such thing as a non-scientist, but there are some who have yet to acknowledge their inner science spark. Aiming to ignite and fan the flame of curiosity, promote dialogue and attempt to make climate science personal and relevant to everyday life, NASA's Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ and Earth Right Now campaign http://www.nasa.gov/content/earth-right-now/ partnered together this year to launch the Earth Right Now blog http://climate.nasa.gov/blog. It quickly became one of the most popular blogs in all of NASA social media, receiving thousands of likes per week, and frequent comments as well as thoughtful and respectful discussions about climate change. Social media platforms such as blogs have become popular vehicles for engaging large swaths of the public in new exciting ways. NASA's Earth Right Now blog has become a powerful platform for engaging both scientists and the science-curious in constructive, fruitful conversations about the complex topic of climate science. We continue to interact and have ongoing dialogue with our readers by making the scientific content both accessible and engaging for diverse populations.

  12. Crystal-field investigations of rare-earth-doped wide band gap semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Muller, S; Wahl, U

    Crystal field investigations play a central role in the studies of rare earth doped semiconductors. Optical stark level spectroscopy and lattice location studies of radioactive rare earth isotopes implanted at ISOLDE have provided important insight into these systems during the last years. It has been shown that despite a major site preference of the probe atoms in the lattice, several defect configurations do exist. These sites are visible in the optical spectra but their origin and nature aren't deducible from these spectra alone. Hyperfine measurements on the other hand should reveal these defect configurations and yield the parameters necessary for a description of the optical properties at the atomic scale. In order to study the crystal field with this alternative approach, we propose a new concept for perturbed $\\gamma\\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC) experiments at ISOLDE based on digital signal processing in contrast to earlier analog setups. The general functionality of the spectrometer is explained ...

  13. The Brazilian wide field imaging camera (WFI) for the China/Brazil earth resources satellite: CBERS 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaduto, L. C. N.; Carvalho, E. G.; Modugno, R. G.; Cartolano, R.; Evangelista, S. H.; Segoria, D.; Santos, A. G.; Stefani, M. A.; Castro Neto, J. C.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the optical system developed for the Wide Field imaging Camera - WFI that will be integrated to the CBERS 3 and 4 satellites (China Brazil Earth resources Satellite). This camera will be used for remote sensing of the Earth and it is aimed to work at an altitude of 778 km. The optical system is designed for four spectral bands covering the range of wavelengths from blue to near infrared and its field of view is +/-28.63°, which covers 866 km, with a ground resolution of 64 m at nadir. WFI has been developed through a consortium formed by Opto Electrônica S. A. and Equatorial Sistemas. In particular, we will present the optical analysis based on the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) obtained during the Engineering Model phase (EM) and the optical tests performed to evaluate the requirements. Measurements of the optical system MTF have been performed using an interferometer at the wavelength of 632.8nm and global MTF tests (including the CCD and signal processing electronic) have been performed by using a collimator with a slit target. The obtained results showed that the performance of the optical system meets the requirements of project.

  14. Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, easy-to-follow book teaches young readers about Earth as one of the eight planets in our solar system in astronomical terms. With accessible text, it provides the fundamental information any student needs to begin their studies in astronomy, such as how Earth spins and revolves around the Sun, why it's uniquely suitable for life, its physical features, atmosphere, biosphere, moon, its past, future, and more. To enhance the learning experience, many of the images come directly from NASA. This straightforward title offers the fundamental information any student needs to sp

  15. New in-flight calibration adjustment of the Nimbus 6 and 7 earth radiation budget wide field of view radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. L.; House, F. B.; Ardanuy, P. E.; Jacobowitz, H.; Maschhoff, R. H.; Hickey, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    In-flight calibration adjustments are developed to process data obtained from the wide-field-of-view channels of Nimbus-6 and Nimbus-7 after the failure of the Nimbus-7 longwave scanner on June 22, 1980. The sensor characteristics are investigated; the satellite environment is examined in detail; and algorithms are constructed to correct for long-term sensor-response changes, on/off-cycle thermal transients, and filter-dome absorption of longwave radiation. Data and results are presented in graphs and tables, including comparisons of the old and new algorithms.

  16. Nimbus 7 earth radiation budget wide field of view climate data set improvement. II - Deconvolution of earth radiation budget products and consideration of 1982-1983 El Nino event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanuy, Phillip E.; Hucek, Richard R.; Groveman, Brian S.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1987-01-01

    A deconvolution technique is employed that permits recovery of daily averaged earth radiation budget (ERB) parameters at the top of the atmosphere from a set of the Nimbus 7 ERB wide field of view (WFOV) measurements. Improvements in both the spatial resolution of the resultant fields and in the fidelity of the time averages is obtained. The algorithm is evaluated on a set of months during the period 1980-1983. The albedo, outgoing long-wave radiation, and net radiation parameters are analyzed. The amplitude and phase of the quasi-stationary patterns that appear in the spatially deconvolved fields describe the radiation budget components for 'normal' as well as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode years. They delineate the seasonal development of large-scale features inherent in the earth's radiation budget as well as the natural variability of interannual differences. These features are underscored by the powerful emergence of the 1982-1983 ENSO event in the fields displayed. The conclusion is that with this type of resolution enhancement, WFOV radiometers provide a useful tool for the observation of the contemporary climate and its variability.

  17. THE FLAT TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE SUPER-EARTH GJ1214b FROM WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Désert, Jean-Michel; Irwin, Jonathan; Miller-Ricci Kempton, Eliza; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nutzman, Philip; McCullough, Peter R.; Burke, Christopher J.; Homeier, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the observational advantage offered by its tiny M dwarf host, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) grism measurements of the transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b. These are the first published WFC3 observations of a transiting exoplanet atmosphere. After correcting for a ramp-like instrumental systematic, we achieve nearly photon-limited precision in these observations, finding the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b to be flat between 1.1 and 1.7 μm. Inconsistent with a cloud-free solar composition atmosphere at 8.2σ, the measured achromatic transit depth most likely implies a large mean molecular weight for GJ1214b's outer envelope. A dense atmosphere rules out bulk compositions for GJ1214b that explain its large radius by the presence of a very low density gas layer surrounding the planet. High-altitude clouds can alternatively explain the flat transmission spectrum, but they would need to be optically thick up to 10 mbar or consist of particles with a range of sizes approaching 1 μm in diameter.

  18. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  19. Electric resistivity distribution in the Earth's crust and upper mantle for the southern East European Platform and Crimea from area-wide 2D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Igor M.; Tarasov, Viktor N.

    2018-03-01

    Previously obtained magnetotelluric 2D models for 30 profiles made it possible to create an overview model of electric resistivity for the territory between 28°E and 36°E and between 44.5°N and 52.5°N. It allows us to distinguish a number of low resistivity objects (LRO) with resistivities lower than 100 Ω m the Earth's crust and mantle. Two regional conductivity anomalies are traced. The Kirovograd conductivity anomaly extends south to the Crimea mountains. A new regional conductivity anomaly (Konkskaya) can be distinguished along the southern slope of the Ukrainian Shield from 29° to 34°E. In addition, many local LROs have been identified. According to the modeling results, the local low resistivity objects on the East European Platform appear along fault zones activated during last 5-7 M years and the model suggests their relation to known zones of graphitization and polymetallic ore deposits. Local LROs in the Dnieper-Donets Basin correlate with the main oil and natural gas fields in this area. The depth of the anomalous objects amounts to 5-22 km. This is consistent with the hypotheses that hydrocarbon deposits are related to generation and transport zones of carbon-bearing fluids.

  20. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth germanates attract close attention both as an independent class of compounds and analogues of a widely spread class of natural and synthetic minerals. The methods of rare earth germanate synthesis (solid-phase, hydrothermal) are considered. Systems on the basis of germanium and rare earth oxides, phase diagrams, phase transformations are studied. Using different chemical analysese the processes of rare earth germanate formation are investigated. IR spectra of alkali and rare earth metal germanates are presented, their comparative analysis being carried out. Crystal structures of the compounds, lattice parameters are studied. Fields of possible application of rare earth germanates are shown

  1. Kepler Mission: A Wide-FOV Photometer Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  2. Bioactivity of Gradient Rare Earths Bioceramic Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding%宽带激光熔覆梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 汪震

    2012-01-01

    To decrease thermal crack and to raise bonding strength between substrate and bioceramic coating during laser cladding, a kind of gradient rare earths bioceramics coating is designed. And the rare earth active gradient bioceramic coating with HA and β-TCP on Ti allloy was prepared by using wide-band laser cladding technique. The surface morphologies and microstructure were analyzed by OM, SEM and XRD; the bioceramic coating was immersed in SBF to examine its bioactivity ; and the corrosion resistance of bioceramic was examed by the Electrochemical Analyzer. Results show that the rare earth active bioceramic gradient coatings which have excellent chemical metallurgy bonding at the interface consists of substrate, alloying layer and bioceramic coating. When content of Nd2O3 is up to 0.6wt.%, the amount of HA+β — TCP catalyzed during wide-band laser cladding becomes largest. Bioactivity and corrosion resistance of bioceramic coating is dependent on the amount of HA + β—TCP catalyzed. The largest amount of apatite formed on the surface of gradient bioceramic coating is complied with 0.6wt.% Nd2O3. At the same time, the corrosion resistence is best.%为了减少激光熔覆过程中基材与生物陶瓷涂层之间的热裂纹,提高涂层与基材的结合强度,设计了一种梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层,采用宽带激光熔覆技术,在TC4钛合金表面制备了含HA+β-TCP活性相的稀土活性梯度生物陶瓷复合涂层.利用SEM、XRD分析手段对涂层形貌、相组成进行了研究;通过模拟体液(SBF)浸泡实验(浸泡7、14 d)考察了生物陶瓷涂层的生物活性;利用电化学分析仪测试了生物活性陶瓷涂层的耐腐蚀性.结果表明,当稀土氧化物Nd2O3添加量为w(Nd2O3) =0.6%时,宽带激光熔覆过程中催化合成HA +3-TCP活性相的数量最多,具有优异的表面形貌;当稀土氧化物Nd2O3添加量为w(Nd2O3)=0.6%时,梯度稀土生物陶瓷涂层在SBF中浸泡不同时间点后表面沉

  3. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  4. Rare earths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranstone, D A

    1979-01-01

    Rare earth elements are commonly extracted from the minerals monazite, bastnaesite, and xenotine. New uses for these elements are constantly developing; they have found applications in glass polishing, television tube phosphors, high-strength low-alloy steels, magnets, catalysts, refractory ceramics, and hydrogen sponge alloys. In Canada, rare earths have been produced as byproducts of the uranium mining industry, but there was no production of rare earths in 1978 or 1979. The world sources of and markets for the rare earth elements are discussed.

  5. Rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The conference was held from September 12 to 13, 1984 in Jetrichovice, Czechoslovakia. The participants heard 16 papers of which 4 were inputted in INIS. These papers dealt with industrial separation processes of rare earths, the use of chemical methods of separation from the concentrate of apatite and bastnesite, the effect of the relative permittivity of solvents in the elution of rare earth elements from a cation exchanger, and the determination of the content of different rare earth elements using X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. (E.S.)

  6. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  7. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  8. The interaction of a magnetic cloud with the Earth - Ionospheric convection in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for a wide range of quasi-steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Hairston, M. R.; Greenspan, M. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations are presented of the ionospheric convection in cross sections of the polar cap and auroral zone as part of the study of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the magnetic cloud of January 13-15, 1988. For strongly northward IMF, the convection in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a two-cell convection pattern comfined to high latitudes with sunward flow over the pole. The strength of the flows is comparable to that later seen under southward IMF. Superimposed on this convection pattern there are clear dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with a one-cell convection component whose sense depends on the polarity of the magnetic cloud's large east-west magnetic field component. When the cloud's magnetic field turns southward, the convection is characterized by a two-cell pattern extending to lower latitude with antisunward flow over the pole. There is no evident interhemispheric difference in the structure and strength of the convection. Superimposed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the flow patterns are observed which are only in part attributable to the east-west component of the magnetic field.

  9. Digital Earth - A sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavir

    2014-02-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth.

  10. Earth thermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, M

    1960-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the Earth are described, including terrestrial heat flow, internal temperatures and thermal history. The value of the geothermal gradient has been considered to be 3/sup 0/C/100 m but measured values are slightly different. The values of terrestrial heat flow are relatively constant and are calculated be about 2.3 x 10 to the minus 6 cal/cm/sup 2/ sec (2.3 HFU). The Earth's internal temperature can be calculated from the adiabatic temperature gradient of adiabatic expansion. Using Simon's equation No. 9, a value of 2100-2500/sup 0/C is obtained, this is much lower than it was previously thought to be. The value of 2.3 HFU can easily be obtained from this internal temperature figure.

  11. China's rare-earth industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas. The 15 lanthanide elements-lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium (atomic numbers 57-71)-were originally known as the rare earths from their occurrence in oxides mixtures. Recently, some researchers have included two other elements-scandium and yttrium-in their discussion of rare earths. Yttrium (atomic number 39), which lies above lanthanum in transition group III of the periodic table and has a similar 3+ ion with a noble gas core, has both atomic and ionic radii similar in size to those of terbium and dysprosium and is generally found in nature with lanthanides. Scandium (atomic number 21) has a smaller ionic radius than yttrium and the lanthanides, and its chemical behavior is intermediate between that of aluminum and the lanthanides. It is found in nature with the lanthanides and yttrium. Rare earths are used widely in high-technology and clean-energy products because they impart special properties of magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are also used in weapon systems to obtain the same properties.

  12. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  13. The Earth's Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, scientists have been able to monitor our changing planet in ways never before possible. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, has given researchers an unprecedented view of the biological engine that drives life on Earth-the countless forms of plants that cover the land and fill the oceans. 'There is no question the Earth is changing. SeaWiFS has enabled us, for the first time, to monitor the biological consequences of that change-to see how the things we do, as well as natural variability, affect the Earth's ability to support life,' said Gene Carl Feldman, SeaWiFS project manager at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. SeaWiFS data, based on continuous daily global observations, have helped scientists make a more accurate assessment of the oceans' role in the global carbon cycle. The data provide a key parameter in a number of ecological and environmental studies as well as global climate-change modeling. The images of the Earth's changing land, ocean and atmosphere from SeaWiFS have documented many previously unrecognized phenomena. The image above shows the global biosphere from June 2002 measured by SeaWiFS. Data in the oceans is chlorophyll concentration, a measure of the amount of phytoplankton (microscopic plants) living in the ocean. On land SeaWiFS measures Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, an indication of the density of plant growth. For more information and images, read: SeaWiFS Sensor Marks Five Years Documenting Earth'S Dynamic Biosphere Image courtesy SeaWiFS project and copyright Orbimage.

  14. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  15. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  16. Earth current monitoring circuit for inductive loads

    CERN Document Server

    Montabonnet, V; Thurel, Y; Cussac, P

    2010-01-01

    The search for higher magnetic fields in particle accelerators increasingly demands the use of superconducting magnets. This magnet technology has a large amount of magnetic energy storage during operation at relatively high currents. As such, many monitoring and protection systems are required to safely operate the magnet, including the monitoring of any leakage of current to earth in the superconducting magnet that indicates a failure of the insulation to earth. At low amplitude, the earth leakage current affects the magnetic field precision. At a higher level, the earth leakage current can additionally generate local losses which may definitively damage the magnet or its instrumentation. This paper presents an active earth fault current monitoring circuit, widely deployed in the converters for the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets. The circuit allows the detection of earth faults before energising the circuit as well as limiting any eventual earth fault current. The electrical stress...

  17. RoboEarth: connecting robots worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweigle, O.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; D'Andrea, R.; Häussermann, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present the core concept and the benefits of an approach called RoboEarth which will be highly beneficial for future robotic applications in science and industry. RoboEarth is a world-wide platform which robots can use to exchange position and map information as well as

  18. Effect of Different Nd2O3 Contents on Performances of Rare Earth Active Bioceramic Gradient Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding%Nd2O3含量对宽带激光熔覆生物活性稀土梯度涂层性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪震; 刘其斌; 肖明; 杨邦成

    2011-01-01

    为了减少激光熔覆过程中基材与生物陶瓷涂层之间的热应力,提高涂层与基材的结合强度,设计了一种稀土活性生物梯度陶瓷涂层,采用宽带激光熔覆技术,在TC4合金上制备了含HA+β-TCP稀土活性梯度生物陶瓷复合涂层.利用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)、模拟体液(SBF)以及电化学分析仪等手段对涂层组织结构、生物活性及耐腐蚀性进行了研究.结果表明,生物活性稀土梯度涂层分为基材、合金化层以及生物陶瓷层3个层次,且各梯度层之间均为良好的化学冶金结合;稀土氧化物Nd2 O3在宽带激光熔覆生物陶瓷的过程中具有催化合成HA+β-TCP的作用,且当Nd2 O3质量分数为0.6% 时,催化合成HA+β-TCP的量最多;当Nd2 O3质量分数为0.4% ~0.6% 时,涂层的耐腐蚀性最好且涂层表面沉积的磷灰石相的量最多,具有最佳的生物活性.%To decrease the thermal stress and raise the bonding strength between substrate and bioceramic coating during laser cladding, a rare earth active bioceramic gradient coating is designed. The rare earth active gradient bioceramic coating with HA and β-TCP on TC4 allloy is prepared by using wide-band laser cladding technique. The microstructure, bioactivity and corrosion resistance of bioceramic coating are analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), simulated body fluid (SBF), and electrochemical analyzer. The experimental results show that the bioactive rare earth gradient coating which has excellent chemical metallurgy bonding at the interface consists of substrate, alloying layer and bioceramic coating. Nd2O3 plays an important role in synthesizing HA and β-TCP during wide-band laser cladding. When the mass fraction of Nd2O3 is up to 0.6%, the amount of HA+β-TCP catalyzed during wide-band laser cladding becomes the largest. When the mass fraction of Nd2O3 is 0.4 % ~ 0.6 %, the corrosion resistance of bioceramic coating is

  19. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  20. Rare earth industries: Downstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The value chain of the rare earths business involves mining, extraction, processing, refining and the manufacture of an extensive range of downstream products which find wide applications in such industries including aerospace, consumer electronics, medical, military, automotive, renewable wind and solar energy and telecommunications. In fact the entire gamut of the high-tech industries depends on a sustainable supply of rare earths elements. The explosive demand in mobile phones is an excellent illustration of the massive potential that the rare earths business offers. In a matter of less than 20 years, the number of cell phones worldwide has reached a staggering 5 billion. Soon, going by the report of their growth in sales, the world demand for cell phones may even exceed the global population. Admittedly, the rare earths business does pose certain risks. Top among the risks are the health and safety risks. The mining, extraction and refining of rare earths produce residues and wastes which carry health and safety risks. The residues from the extraction and refining are radioactive, while their effluent waste streams do pose pollution risks to the receiving rivers and waterways. But, as clearly elaborated in a recent report by IAEA experts, there are technologies and systems available to efficiently mitigate such risks. The risks are Rare Earth manageable. However, it is crucial that the risk and waste management procedures are strictly followed and adhered to. This is where effective monitoring and surveillance throughout the life of all such rare earths facilities is crucial. Fortunately, Malaysia's regulatory standards on rare earths follow international standards. In some areas, Malaysia's regulatory regime is even more stringent than the international guidelines. (author)

  1. Extraction of rare earths from iron-rich rare earth deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaka, K.; Thobadi, I.C.; Pawlik, C.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth metals are classified as critical metals by the United Nations, as they have found wide application in the fabrication of magnets, particularly those used in green energy technologies which mitigate global warming. Processing of ores containing rare earth elements is complex, and differs according to the nature of each ore. In the conventional process, run of mine (ROM) ores are processed in a physical separation plant to produce a concentrate from which rare earth elements are ext...

  2. Earth mortars and earth-lime renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth surface coatings play a decorative architectural role, apart from their function as wall protection. In Portuguese vernacular architecture, earth mortars were usually applied on stone masonry, while earth renders and plasters were used on indoors surface coatings. Limestone exists only in certain areas of the country and consequently lime was not easily available everywhere, especially on granite and schist regions where stone masonry was a current building technique. In the central west coast of Portugal, the lime slaking procedure entailed slaking the quicklime mixed with earth (sandy soil, in a pit; the resulting mixture would then be combined in a mortar or plaster. This was also the procedure for manufactured adobes stabilized with lime. Adobe buildings with earth-lime renderings and plasters were also traditional in the same region, using lime putty and lime wash for final coat and decoration. Classic decoration on earth architecture from the 18th-19th century was in many countries a consequence of the François Cointeraux (1740-1830 manuals - Les Cahiers d'Architecture Rurale" (1793 - a French guide for earth architecture and building construction. This manual arrived to Portugal in the beginning of XIX century, but was never translated to Portuguese. References about decoration for earth houses were explained on this manual, as well as procedures about earth-lime renders and ornamentation of earth walls; in fact, these procedures are exactly the same as the ones used in adobe buildings in this Portuguese region. The specific purpose of the present paper is to show some cases of earth mortars, renders and plasters on stone buildings in Portugal and to explain the methods of producing earth-lime renders, and also to show some examples of rendering and coating with earth-lime in Portuguese adobe vernacular architecture.

  3. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  4. Rare earth industry in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Rare Earths (RE) comprises of 17 elements i.e. elements from atomic No. 57-71 (lanthanide series) along with yttrium (atomic No. 39) and scandium (atomic No. 21). They exhibit special electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. The first 7 elements in the lanthanide series from atomic Nos. 57 to 63 (La to Eu) are called Light Rare Earths (LRE), while the remaining elements from atomic Nos. 64 to 71 (Gd to Lu) are grouped as Heavy Rare Earths (HRE). Scandium and Yttrium have properties similar to HRE. The concentration of the REs in the earth's crust is as high as some other elements including that of copper. The only difference is that REs do not occur as separate minerals amenable for easy exploration and mining and are widely distributed across the earth's surface, hence they are called as REs. Resources In India, monazite has been the principal source of RE. It occurs in association with other heavy minerals, such as ilmenite, rutile, zircon etc. in the beach sands and inland placer deposits. The monazite content in this assemblage varies from negligible quantity to as high as 5%. As per AMD resource estimation, the reported resource of monazite in India is about 11.93 million tons which corresponds with about 6.9 million tons of RE oxides. Although India possesses large deposits of monazite, the heavier RE are not present in sufficient quantities in this mineral. (author)

  5. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the…

  6. Rare earth sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komissarova, L.N.; Shatskij, V.M.; Pokrovskij, A.N.; Chizhov, S.M.; Bal'kina, T.I.; Suponitskij, Yu.L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of experimental works on the study of synthesis conditions, structure and physico-chemical properties of rare earth, scandium and yttrium sulfates, have been generalized. Phase diagrams of solubility and fusibility, thermodynamic and crystallochemical characteristics, thermal stability of hydrates and anhydrous sulfates of rare earths, including normal, double (with cations of alkali and alkaline-earth metals), ternary and anion-mixed sulfates of rare earths, as well as their adducts, are considered. The state of ions of rare earths, scandium and yttrium in aqueous sulfuric acid solutions is discussed. Data on the use of rare earth sulfates are given

  7. A Summary of - An Earth-to-Deep Space Communications System with Adaptive Tilt and Scintillation Correction Using Near-Earth Relay Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Yeh, C.; Wilson, K. E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical telecommunication will be the next technology for wide-band Earth/space communication. Uncompensated propagation through the Earth's atmosphere (e.g., scintillation and wavefront tilt) fundamentally degrade communication to distant spcaecraft.

  8. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  9. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  10. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  12. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  13. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  14. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  15. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  16. Digital Earth – A sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahavir

    2014-01-01

    All life, particularly human, cannot be sustainable, unless complimented with shelter, poverty reduction, provision of basic infrastructure and services, equal opportunities and social justice. Yet, in the context of cities, it is believed that they can accommodate more and more people, endlessly, regardless to their carrying capacity and increasing ecological footprint. The 'inclusion', for bringing more and more people in the purview of development is often limited to social and economic inclusion rather than spatial and ecological inclusion. Economic investment decisions are also not always supported with spatial planning decisions. Most planning for a sustainable Earth, be at a level of rural settlement, city, region, national or Global, fail on the capacity and capability fronts. In India, for example, out of some 8,000 towns and cities, Master Plans exist for only about 1,800. A chapter on sustainability or environment is neither statutorily compulsory nor a norm for these Master Plans. Geospatial technologies including Remote Sensing, GIS, Indian National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI), Indian National Urban Information Systems (NUIS), Indian Environmental Information System (ENVIS), and Indian National GIS (NGIS), etc. have potential to map, analyse, visualize and take sustainable developmental decisions based on participatory social, economic and social inclusion. Sustainable Earth, at all scales, is a logical and natural outcome of a digitally mapped, conceived and planned Earth. Digital Earth, in fact, itself offers a platform to dovetail the ecological, social and economic considerations in transforming it into a sustainable Earth

  17. Earth Rotation Dynamics: Review and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Modem space geodetic measurement of Earth rotation variations, particularly by means of the VLBI technique, has over the years allowed studies of Earth rotation dynamics to advance in ever-increasing precision, accuracy, and temporal resolution. A review will be presented on our understanding of the geophysical and climatic causes, or "excitations", for length-of-day change, polar motion, and nutations. These excitations sources come from mass transports that constantly take place in the Earth system comprised of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, mantle, and the cores. In this sense, together with other space geodetic measurements of time-variable gravity and geocenter motion, Earth rotation variations become a remote-sensing tool for the integral of all mass transports, providing valuable information about the latter on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Future prospects with respect to geophysical studies with even higher accuracy and resolution will be discussed.

  18. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes. More details...

  19. The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-07-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  1. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  2. Electromagneticwaves caused by tectonic earth movement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to large earthquakes the Earth sends out transient signals, sometimes strong, more often subtle and fleeting. These signals may consist of local magnetic field variations, electromagnetic emissions over a wide range of frequencies, a variety of atmospheric and ionospheric phenomena. Great uncertainty exists as to the ...

  3. Elementary children’s retrodictive reasoning about earth science

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew H. Schneps; Julie C. Libarkin

    2012-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not ...

  4. Earth Science Literacy: Building Community Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M.; Ladue, N.; Budd, D.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R.; Ross, R.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

    2008-12-01

    During 2008, the Earth Sciences Literacy Initiative (ESLI) constructed a framework of earth science "Big Ideas" and "Supporting Concepts". Following the examples of recent literacy efforts in the ocean, atmosphere and climate research communities, ESLI has distilled the fundamental understandings of the earth science community into a document that all members of the community will be able to refer to when working with educators, policy-makers, the press and members of the general public. This document is currently in draft form for review and will be published for public distribution in 2009. ESLI began with the construction of an organizing committee of a dozen people who represent a wide array of earth science backgrounds. This group then organized and ran two workshops in 2008: a 2-week online content workshop and a 3-day intensive writing workshop. For both workshops, participants were chosen so as to cover the full breadth of earth science related to the solid earth, surficial processes, and fresh-water hydrology. The asynchronous online workshop included 350 scientists and educators participating from around the world and was a powerful way to gather ideas and information while retaining a written record of all interactions. The writing workshop included 35 scientists, educators and agency representatives to codify the extensive input of the online workshop. Since September, 2008, drafts of the ESLI literacy framework have been circulated through many different channels to make sure that the document accurately reflects the current understandings of earth scientists and to ensure that it is widely accepted and adopted by the earth science communities.

  5. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  6. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  7. Rare earth octacyanomolybdates(4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskaya, D.I.; Sergeeva, A.N.; Pisak, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Optimal conditions for synthesis of rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) of the Ln 4 [Mo(CN) 8 ] 3 xnH 2 O composition (where Ln is a rare-earth element, other than Pr, Pm, Lu, Tb) have been worked out. The synthesis has been accomplished by neutralization with octacianomolybdic acid with rare-earth carbonates. The composition and structure of the compounds synthesized have been studied by infrared-spectroscopy. It has been established that rare-earth octacyanomolybdates(4) form three isostructural groups

  8. Capturing near-Earth asteroids around Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Zaki; Lamb, Christopher A.; Ross, Shane D.

    2012-12-01

    The list of detected near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is constantly growing. NEAs are likely targets for resources to support space industrialization, as they may be the least expensive source of certain needed raw materials. The limited supply of precious metals and semiconducting elements on Earth may be supplemented or even replaced by the reserves floating in the form of asteroids around the solar system. Precious metals make up a significant fraction NEAs by mass, and even one metallic asteroid of ˜1km size and fair enrichment in platinum-group metals would contain twice the tonnage of such metals already harvested on Earth. There are ˜1000 NEAs with a diameter of greater than 1 km. Capturing these asteroids around the Earth would expand the mining industry into an entirely new dimension. Having such resources within easy reach in Earth's orbit could provide an off-world environmentally friendly remedy for impending terrestrial shortages, especially given the need for raw materials in developing nations. In this paper, we develop and implement a conceptually simple algorithm to determine trajectory characteristics necessary to move NEAs into capture orbits around the Earth. Altered trajectories of asteroids are calculated using an ephemeris model. Only asteroids of eccentricity less than 0.1 have been studied and the model is restricted to the ecliptic plane for simplicity. We constrain the time of retrieval to be 10 years or less, based on considerations of the time to return on investment. For the heliocentric phase, constant acceleration is assumed. The acceleration required for transporting these asteroids from their undisturbed orbits to the sphere of influence of the Earth is the primary output, along with the impulse or acceleration necessary to effect capture to a bound orbit once the Earth's sphere of influence is reached. The initial guess for the constant acceleration is provided by a new estimation method, similar in spirit to Edelbaum's. Based on the

  9. Emerging industrial processes for low grade rare earth mineral concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldenhoff, Karin; Ho, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Historically rare earth recovery has mainly been derived from the processing of monazite, bastnasite and xenotime containing ores amenable to beneficiation, yielding high grade mineral concentrates. A notable exception is the recovery of heavy rare earths from ionic clays in Southern China. Recently, projects are being proposed to treat a range of mineral concentrates which tend to be lower grade with wide ranging modal mineralogy for rare earths and associated gangue minerals. This has a significant impact on processing routes. This paper discusses processes proposed for emerging rare earth producers and how different projects have responded to particular challenges including: Control of phosphorous due to the presence of xenotime or monazite type minerals; Control of phosphorous due to the presence of rare earth containing apatite; Rare earth recovery from polymetallic ores; Control of radionuclides in rare earth processing, etc.

  10. The Effect of Different Nd2O3 Contents on Biocompatibility of Rare Earths Active Bioceramic Gradient Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding%Nd2O3含量对宽带激光熔覆生物活性稀土梯度涂层生物相容性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永福; 王毅; 汪震

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, as to problem on bioceramic coating at present, a kind of gradient bioceramic coating is designed, the rare earths active gradient bioceramic coating with HA and β-TCP on TC4 titanium alloy was prepared by using wide-band laser cladding technique, the microstructure of gradient bioceramic coating was studied with the help of XRD、SEM. The method was to culture osteoblast on gradient bioceramic coating in vitro. Nd2O3 plays an important role in inducing to synthesize HA and β-TCP during laser cladding . When the content of Nd2O3 reaches to 0.6wt.%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the most; At the same time, Nd2O3 plays an important role to Coating morpholgies; the coating containing Nd2O3 has no toxic effect.%针对目前生物活性陶瓷涂层存在的问题,设计了一种梯度涂层,采用宽带激光熔覆技术,通过加入不同含量的稀土氧化物Nd2O3来提高激光熔覆生物陶瓷涂层的生物相容性,在Ti-6Al-4V合金表面制备了含HA+β-TCP的稀土活性梯度陶瓷涂层.利用SEM、XRD对活性涂层组织结构进行了研究.采用体外人成骨细胞与材料共培养的方法,对梯度活性陶瓷涂层进行了细胞形态实验.结果表明:Nd2O3含量的不同,对涂层催化效果不一样,使得复合涂层呈现形态各异的表面特征,但涂层表面都具有一定的粗糙度,将增加生物陶瓷涂层与骨组织的生物相容性;稀土氧化物Nd2O3在激光熔覆生物陶瓷过程中具有催化合成HA+β-TCP的作用,当w(Nd2O3)=0.6%时,诱导合成HA+β-TCP的数量最多;含稀土氧化物Nd2O3的涂层对成骨细胞无毒副作用,当w(Nd2O3=0.6%时染色呈正常梭形状态的细胞数目最多,具有最佳的生物相容性.

  11. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  12. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  13. Cross-Cutting Interoperability in an Earth Science Collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Ramachandran, Rahul; Kuo, Kuo-Sen

    2011-01-01

    An Earth Science Collaboratory is: A rich data analysis environment with: (1) Access to a wide spectrum of Earth Science data, (3) A diverse set of science analysis services and tools, (4) A means to collaborate on data, tools and analysis, and (5)Supports sharing of data, tools, results and knowledge

  14. Examining the Features of Earth Science Logical Reasoning and Authentic Scientific Inquiry Demonstrated in a High School Earth Science Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Do-Yong; Park, Mira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inquiry features demonstrated in the inquiry tasks of a high school Earth Science curriculum. One of the most widely used curricula, Holt Earth Science, was chosen for this case study to examine how Earth Science logical reasoning and authentic scientific inquiry were related to one another and how…

  15. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  16. Earth and Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosygin, Yu A

    1986-12-01

    Rocks, the age of which according to certain data exceeds considerably the recognized age of the Earth and approximates the age of the Universe, have been detected on the Earth. There is a necessity to coordinate the geological data with cosmological structures.

  17. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  18. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  19. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  20. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  1. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  2. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  3. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  4. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!

  5. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  6. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  7. Rare earth germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar', I.A.; Vinogradova, N.V.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of structural chemistry and general regularities controlling formation reactions of compounds and phases in melts, solid and gaseous states, recent achievements in the chemistry of rare earth germanates are generalized. Methods of synthesizing germanates, systems on the base of germanium oxides and rare earths are considered. The data on crystallochemical characteristics are tabulated. Individual compounds of scandium germanate are also characterized. Processes of germanate formation using the data of IR-spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis are studied. The structure and morphotropic series of rare earth germanates and silicates are determined. Fields of their present and possible future application are considered

  8. Project Earth Science

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Project Earth Science: Astronomy, Revised 2nd Edition, involves students in activities that focus on Earth's position in our solar system. How do we measure astronomical distances? How can we look back in time as we gaze across vast distances in space? How would our planet be different without its particular atmosphere and distance to our star? What are the geometries among Earth, the Moon, and the Sun that yield lunar phases and seasons? Students explore these concepts and others in 11 teacher-tested activities.

  9. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  10. Earth before life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  11. Weaving a wide net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Linda

    2002-10-01

    SUMMARY Any single approach tostudents' heterosexism and homophobia, however well conceived and executed, is most successful when supported by an integrated campus approach to the problem. Taking as a model the multifaceted efforts at California State University, Fresno-a large public institution located in what can be considered the state's Bible Belt-this essay discusses the strengths and logistics of a campus-wide program to address homophobia and alleviate LGBTQ students' feelings of alienation from the institution and their oppression in society. The efforts of CSUF take place at a number of different levels-classroom, academic department, student services, faculty networking-and can be considered a successful work in progress.

  12. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  13. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  14. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  15. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  16. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  17. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  18. Near Earth Asteroid Scout

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, or NEA Scout, is a 6U CubeSat developed jointly between NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA...

  19. Gambling with the earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Muir, H

    2000-01-01

    The probability that dangerous Earth-devouring particles will be born at a new accelerator in the US may be tiny, but scientists have played down the devastating potential costs in their risk assessments according to a physicist (1 page).

  20. Jupiter and planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of Jupiter and Earth are discussed along with their atmospheres, the radiation belts around both planets, natural satellites, the evolution of life, and the Pioneer 10. Educational study projects are also included

  1. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  2. Earliest life on earth

    CERN Document Server

    Golding, Suzanne D

    2010-01-01

    This volume integrates the latest findings on earliest life forms, identified and characterized in some of the oldest rocks on Earth. It places emphasis on the integration of analytical methods with observational techniques and experimental simulations.

  3. U.S. Geological Survey World Wide Web Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) invites you to explore an earth science virtual library of digital information, publications, and data. The USGS World Wide Web sites offer an array of information that reflects scientific research and monitoring programs conducted in the areas of natural hazards, environmental resources, and cartography. This list provides gateways to access a cross section of the digital information on the USGS World Wide Web sites.

  4. Wide area monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental sampling can be used to complement the safeguarding of nuclear material, especially in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities. Routine monitoring of nuclear installations has provided valuable information about the fate of key signature materials within different environmental settings. The approach collates information regarding the generation of individual radiochemical signatures within different nuclear processes, the potential for release of these signatures to the environment and, the chemical form and mobility of the signatures in environmental media along which the material could migrate. Meteorological, geological and hydrological information is used to determine where to sample, what to sample, and how often to sample to provide the greatest likelihood for detection. Multiple strategies can be used to implement wide area monitoring for safeguards purposes. The most complex, and expensive of these, involves establishing extensive networks of fixed location sampling sites. The sites would be operated continuously, and would be instrumented with automated sampling, analysis, and communication equipment to relay information regarding potential anomalies to control centers in near-real time. Alternative strategies can be used to supplement fixed location monitoring equipment, especially in regions that cannot support (financially or logistically) the fixed stations. Through combinations of these various strategies, using a variety of environmental media to monitor a region, we believe that a competent network, one with a quantifiable probability for detecting undeclared nuclear activities, can be designed. While this approach cannot and should not replace other inspection and monitoring activities, it can potentially contribute valuable information to an international safeguards system. (author)

  5. Rare earths: harvesting basic research for technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagatap, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, rare earths are increasingly becoming a versatile platform for basic research that presents enormous technological potentials. A variety of nano-sized inorganic matrices varying from oxides, phosphates, gallates and aluminates, tungstates, stannates, vanadates to fluorides doped with different lanthanide ions have been synthesized and their optical properties have been investigated in the Chemistry Group, BARC. Another interesting application is laser cooling of solids using rare earth doped glasses with potential applications in remote cooling of electronic devices. Combining the luminescence properties of rare earths with photonic crystals is yet another potent area with wide ranging applications. In this presentation we provide an overview of these developments with examples from the R and D programs of the Chemistry Group, BARC

  6. Collaborative Design of World Wide Web Pages: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Paige G; Musser, Linda R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of the collaborative design of an earth science World Wide Web page at Pennsylvania State University highlights the role of librarians. Discusses the original Web site and links, planning, the intended audience, and redesign and recommended changes; and considers the potential contributions of librarians. (LRW)

  7. Optimal Safety EarthingEarth Electrode Sizing Using A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a deterministic approach in the sizing of earth electrode using the permissible touch voltage criteria is presented. The deterministic approach is effectively applied in the sizing of the length of earth rod required for the safe earthing of residential and facility buildings. This approach ensures that the earthing ...

  8. Wide Awake Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Borchgrevink, Grethe E; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-09-01

    "Wide awake hand surgery", where surgery is performed in local anaesthesia with adrenaline, without sedation or a tourniquet, has become widespread in some countries. It has a number of potential advantages and we wished to evaluate it among our patients. All 122 patients treated by this method during one year were evaluated by the surgeons and the patients on a numerical scale from 0 (best/least) to 10 (worst/most). Theatre time was compared to that recorded for a year when regional or general anaesthesia had been used. The patients' mean score for the general care they had received was 0.1 (SD 0.6), for pain during lidocaine injection 2.4 (SD 2.2), for pain during surgery 0.9 (SD 1.5), and for other discomfort during surgery 0.5 (SD 1.4). Eight reported that they would want general anaesthesia if they were to be operated again. The surgeons' mean evaluation of bleeding during surgery was 1.6 (SD 1.8), oedema during surgery 0.4 (SD 1.1), general disadvantages with the method 1.0 (SD 1.6) and general advantages 6.5 (SD 4.3). The estimation of advantages was 9.9 (DS 0.5) for tendon suture. 28 patients needed intra-operative additional anaesthesia. The proportion was lower among trained hand surgeons and fell significantly during the study period. Non-surgical theatre time was 46 (SD 15) minutes during the study period and 55 (SD 22) minutes during the regional/general period (p theatre.

  9. Substorms in the earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetospheres are plasma regions of large scale in space dominated by magnetic field effects. The earth, and many planets in our solar system, are known to have magnetospheric regions around them. Magnetospheric substorms represent the intense, rapid dissipation of energy that has been extracted from the solar wind and stored temporarily in the terrestrial magnetotail. In this paper a widely, but not universally, accepted model of substorms is described. The energy budgets, time scales, and conversion efficiencies for substorms are presented. The primary forms of substorm energy dissipation are given along with the average levels of the dissipation. Aspects of particle acceleration and precipitation, Joule heating mechanisms, ring current formation, and plasmoid escape are illustrated based on in situ observations taken from the large available data base. A brief description is given of possible analogues of substorm-like behavior in other astrophysical systems. 27 references, 12 figures

  10. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-01-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system

  11. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2002-04-01

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system.

  12. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  13. The earth's hydrological cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnet, R-M; Calisto, M; Destouni, G; Gurney, R; Johannessen, J; Kerr, Y; Lahoz, WA; Rast, M

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present form and influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to ~ 25 kg/m2, or the ...

  14. Modeling the earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, D. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  15. The Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  16. Rare earths and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coqblin, B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reviews the different properties of rare-earths and actinides, either as pure metals or as in alloys or compounds. Three different cases are considered: (i) First, in the case of 'normal' rare-earths which are characterized by a valence of 3, we discuss essentially the magnetic ordering, the coexistence between superconductivity and magnetism and the properties of amorphous rare-earth systems. (ii) Second, in the case of 'anomalous' rare-earths, we distinguish between either 'intermediate-valence' systems or 'Kondo' systems. Special emphasis is given to the problems of the 'Kondo lattice' (for compounds such as CeAl 2 ,CeAl 3 or CeB 6 ) or the 'Anderson lattice' (for compounds such as TmSe). The problem of neutron diffraction in these systems is also discussed. (iii) Third, in the case of actinides, we can separate between the d-f hybridized and almost magnetic metals at the beginning of the series and the rare-earth like the metals after americium. (orig.)

  17. Rare earth elements and permanent magnets (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Peter C.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth (RE) magnets have become virtually indispensible in a wide variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive, electronics, medical, and military. RE elements are essential ingredients in these high performance magnets based on intermetallic compounds RECo5, RE2TM17 (TM: transition metal), and RE2TM14B. Rare earth magnets are known for their superior magnetic properties—high induction, and coercive force. These properties arise due to the extremely high magnetocrystalline anisotropy made possible by unique 3d-4f interactions between transition metals and rare earths. For more than 40 years, these magnets remain the number one choice in applications that require high magnetic fields in extreme operating conditions—high demagnetization forces and high temperature. EEC produces and specializes in RECo5 and RE2TM17 type sintered magnets. Samarium and gadolinium are key RE ingredients in the powder metallurgical magnet production processes which include melting, crushing, jet milling, pressing, sintering, and heat treating. The magnetic properties and applications of these magnets will be discussed. We will also briefly discuss the past, current, and future of the permanent magnet business. Currently, over 95% of all pure rare earth oxides are sourced from China, which currently controls the market. We will provide insights regarding current and potential new magnet technologies and designer choices, which may mitigate rare earth supply chain issues now and into the future.

  18. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division`s research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth`s crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required.

  19. Electromagnetic behaviour of the earth and planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Forecast problems of global warming, rising sea-levels, UV enhancement, and solar disruptions of power grids and satellite communications, have been widely discussed. Added to these calamities is the steady decay of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield against high energy particles. A system of solar-induced aperiodic electromagnetic resonances, referred to here as the Debye resonances, is resurrected as the preferred basis for describing the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets. Debye's two basic solutions to the spherical vector wave equation provide foundations for electromagnetic modes of the terrestrial and gaseous planets respectively in contrast with the separate electric and magnetic approaches usually taken. For those engaged in radiation protection issues, this paper provides the first published account of how the Sun apparently triggers an Earth magnetic shield against its own harmful radiation. Disturbances from the Sun - which are random in terms of polarity, polarisation, amplitude, and occurrence - are considered here to trigger the Debye modes and generate observed planetary electric and magnetic fields. Snapping or reconnection of solar or interplanetary field lines, acting together with the newly conceived magnetospheric transmission lines of recent literature, is suspected as the excitation mechanism. Virtual replacement of free space by plasma, places the electromagnetic behaviour of the Earth and planets under greatly enhanced control from the Sun. From a radiation protection viewpoint, modal theory based on solar-terrestrial coupling provides a new insight into the origin of the Earth's magnetic radiation shield, greater understanding of which is essential to development of global cosmic radiation protection strategies. Should man-made influences unduly increase conductivities of the Earth's magnetosphere, planet Earth could be left with no magnetic radiation shield whatsoever. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection

  20. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Summaries of the highlights of programs in the Earth Sciences Division are presented under four headings; Geosciences, Geothermal Energy Development, Nuclear Waste Isolation, and Marine Sciences. Utilizing both basic and applied research in a wide spectrum of topics, these programs are providing results that will be of value in helping to secure the nation's energy future. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each project for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. Earth's Trojan asteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Martin; Wiegert, Paul; Veillet, Christian

    2011-07-27

    It was realized in 1772 that small bodies can stably share the same orbit as a planet if they remain near 'triangular points' 60° ahead of or behind it in the orbit. Such 'Trojan asteroids' have been found co-orbiting with Jupiter, Mars and Neptune. They have not hitherto been found associated with Earth, where the viewing geometry poses difficulties for their detection, although other kinds of co-orbital asteroid (horseshoe orbiters and quasi-satellites) have been observed. Here we report an archival search of infrared data for possible Earth Trojans, producing the candidate 2010 TK(7). We subsequently made optical observations which established that 2010 TK(7) is a Trojan companion of Earth, librating around the leading Lagrange triangular point, L(4). Its orbit is stable over at least ten thousand years.

  2. How Big is Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  3. Teaching earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha, Tau Rho; Diggles, Michael F.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains 17 teaching tools: 16 interactive HyperCard 'stacks' and a printable model. They are separated into the following categories: Geologic Processes, Earthquakes and Faulting, and Map Projections and Globes. A 'navigation' stack, Earth Science, is provided as a 'launching' place from which to access all of the other stacks. You can also open the HyperCard Stacks folder and launch any of the 16 stacks yourself. In addition, a 17th tool, Earth and Tectonic Globes, is provided as a printable document. Each of the tools can be copied onto a 1.4-MB floppy disk and distributed freely.

  4. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  5. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  6. The Earth's Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere is an inner part of the magneteosphere. It is located just outside the upper ionosphere located in Earth's atmosphere. It is a region of dense, cold plasma that surrounds the Earth. Although plasma is found throughout the magnetosphere, the plasmasphere usually contains the coldest plasma. Here's how it works: The upper reaches of our planet's atmosphere are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun, and they are ionized with electrons that are freed from neutral atmospheric particles. The results are electrically charged negative and positive particles. The negative particles are electrons, and the positive particles are now called ions (formerly atoms and molecules). If the density of these particles is low enough, this electrically charged gas behaves differently than it would if it were neutral. Now this gas is called plasma. The atmospheric gas density becomes low enough to support the conditions for a plasma around earth at about 90 kilometers above Earth's surface. The electrons in plasma gain more energy, and they are very low in mass. They move along Earth's magnetic field lines and their increased energy is enough to escape Earth's gravity. Because electrons are very light, they don't have to gain too much kinetic energy from the Sun's ultraviolet light before gravity loses its grip on them. Gravity is not all that holds them back, however. As more and more electrons begin to escape outward, they leave behind a growing net positive electric charge in the ionosphere and create a growing net negative electric charge above the ionosphere; an electric field begins to develop (the Pannekoek-Rosseland E-field). Thus, these different interacting charges result in a positively charged ionosphere and negatively charged region of space above it. Very quickly this resulting electric field opposed upward movement of the electrons out of the ionosphere. The electrons still have this increased energy, however, so the electric field doesn't just

  7. Rare earths: critical elements for various applications and challenges in their separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Chakravartty, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    High purity rare earths oxides, metal and alloys find wide applications in high tech area such as nuclear energy, permanent magnets, materials for storing hydrogen, phosphors, laser, etc. Rare earths consists a group of 15 elements from La to Lu in the periodic table and it also includes Sc and Y. Due to similar chemical nature owing to common oxidation state of +3, rare earths are very difficult to separate from each other. They have very low separation factors with acidic extractants like D2EHPA and EHEHPA and hence require large number of stages in various cascade of extraction process. Monazite (a source of rare earths, thorium and uranium) is processed at IREL to separate rare earths from thorium and uranium. The rare earths are fractionated into three groups namely light rare earths (LRE), middle rare earths (MRE) and heavy rare earths (HRE) by solvent extraction method employing EHEHPA as extractant

  8. A rocky composition for an Earth-sized exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Johnson, John Asher; Winn, Joshua N; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A; Fulton, Benjamin J; Sinukoff, Evan; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2013-11-21

    Planets with sizes between that of Earth (with radius R Earth symbol) and Neptune (about 4R Earth symbol) are now known to be common around Sun-like stars. Most such planets have been discovered through the transit technique, by which the planet's size can be determined from the fraction of starlight blocked by the planet as it passes in front of its star. Measuring the planet's mass--and hence its density, which is a clue to its composition--is more difficult. Planets of size 2-4R Earth symbol have proved to have a wide range of densities, implying a diversity of compositions, but these measurements did not extend to planets as small as Earth. Here we report Doppler spectroscopic measurements of the mass of the Earth-sized planet Kepler-78b, which orbits its host star every 8.5 hours (ref. 6). Given a radius of 1.20 ± 0.09 R Earth symbol and a mass of 1.69 ± 0.41 R Earth symbol, the planet's mean density of 5.3 ± 1.8 g cm(-3) is similar to Earth's, suggesting a composition of rock and iron.

  9. "Galileo Calling Earth..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This guide presents an activity for helping students understand how data from the Galileo spacecraft is sent to scientists on earth. Students are asked to learn about the concepts of bit-rate and resolution and apply them to the interpretation of images from the Galileo Orbiter. (WRM)

  10. Bones of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The film "Bones of the Earth" (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014) is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective…

  11. Our bubbling Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In several places on earth large volumes of gas are seen to escape. These gases are usually dominated by CO2. The emissions are associated with volcanic activity, and are attributed to magma degassing. It will be shown that in the case of Milos this explanation is unacceptable for quantitative

  12. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  13. Earth as art 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-03-29

    Landsat 8 is the latest addition to the long-running series of Earth-observing satellites in the Landsat program that began in 1972. The images featured in this fourth installment of the Earth As Art collection were all acquired by Landsat 8. They show our planet’s diverse landscapes with remarkable clarity.Landsat satellites see the Earth as no human can. Not only do they acquire images from the vantage point of space, but their sensors record infrared as well as visible wavelengths of light. The resulting images often reveal “hidden” details of the Earth’s land surface, making them invaluable for scientific research.As with previous Earth As Art exhibits, these Landsat images were selected solely for their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation—only for your viewing pleasure. What do you see in these unique glimpses of the Earth’s continents, islands, and coastlines?

  14. Google Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Secrest, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Google Earth has made a wealth of aerial imagery available online at no cost to users. We examine some of the potential uses of that data in illustrating basic physics and astronomy, such as finding the local magnetic declination, using landmarks such as the Washington Monument and Luxor Obelisk as gnomons, and showing how airport runways get…

  15. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  16. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  17. Earth Science Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, William C.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is a list of over 50 commonly held misconceptions based on a literature review found in students and adults. The list covers earth science topics such as space, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the cryosphere. (KR)

  18. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  19. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  20. The radioactive earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant, J.A.; Saunders, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium are the main elements contributing to natural terrestrial radioactivity. The isotopes 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K decay with half-lives so long that significant amounts remain in the earth, providing a continuing source of heat. The slow decay of these isotopes also provides the basis for radiometric age dating and isotopic modelling of the evolution of the earth and its crust. There is a complex interplay between their heat production and the processes involved in crust formation. Phenomena such as volcanism, earthquakes, and large-scale hydrothermal activity associated with ore deposition reflect the dissipation of heat energy from the earth, much of which is derived from natural radioactivity. The higher levels of radioactive elements during the early history of the earth resulted in higher heat flow. All three of the radioactive elements are strongly partitioned into the continental crust, but within the crust their distribution is determined by their different chemical properties. The behaviour of U, which has two commonly occurring oxidation states, is more complex than that of Th and K. Uranium deposits are diverse, and are mostly associated with granites, acid volcanics, or detrital sedimentary rocks. The most important U deposits economically are unconformity-type ores of Proterozoic age, in which U is enriched by up to 5 x 10 6 with respect to bulk earth values. In some cases natural radioactivity can be of environmental concern. The most significant risk is posed by accumulations of radon, the gaseous daughter product of U. (author)

  1. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  2. Elementary Children’s Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. LIBARKIN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5 about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a wide array of earth science concepts, from rock formation to the Earth’s interior. We analyzed interview data primarily to determine whether or not young children are capable of inferring understanding of the past based on present-day observation (retrodictive reasoning in the context of Earth science. This work provides a basis from which curricula for teaching earth and environmental sciences can emerge, and suggests that new studies into the retrodictive reasoning abilities of young children are needed, including curricula that encourage inference of the past from modern observations.

  3. Near-Earth Object (NEO) Hazard Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental problem regarding NEO hazards is that the Earth and other planets, as well as their moons, share the solar system with a vast number of small planetary bodies and orbiting debris. Objects of substantial size are typically classified as either comets or asteroids. Although the solar system is quite expansive, the planets and moons (as well as the Sun) are occasionally impacted by these objects. We live in a cosmic shooting gallery where collisions with Earth occur on a regular basis. Because the number of smaller comets and asteroids is believed to be much greater than larger objects, the frequency of impacts is significantly higher. Fortunately, the smaller objects, which are much more numerous, are usually neutralized by the Earth's protective atmosphere. It is estimated that between 1000 and 10,000 tons of debris fall to Earth each year, most of it in the form of dust particles and extremely small meteorites. With no atmosphere, the Moon's surface is continuously impacted with dust and small debris. On November 17 and 18, 1999, during the annual Leonid meteor shower, several lunar surface impacts were observed by amateur astronomers in North America. The Leonids result from the Earth's passage each year through the debris ejected from Comet Tempel-Tuttle. These annual showers provide a periodic reminder of the possibility of a much more consequential cosmic collision, and the heavily cratered lunar surface acts a constant testimony to the impact threat. The impact problem and those planetary bodies that are a threat have been discussed in great depth in a wide range of publications and books, such as The Spaceguard Survey , Hazards Due to Comets and Asteroids, and Cosmic Catastrophes. This paper gives a brief overview on the background of this problem and address some limitations of ground-based surveys for detection of small and/or faint near-Earth objects.

  4. Visualizing Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.; Stibbon, E.; Harris, R.

    2016-12-01

    Earth materials are fundamental to art. They are pigments, they are clay, they provide form and color. Earth scientists, however, rarely attempt to make the physical properties of Earth materials visible through art, and similarly many artists use Earth materials without fully understanding their physical and chemical properties. Here we explore the intersection between art and science through study of the physical properties of Earth materials as characterized in the laboratory, and as transferred to paper using different techniques and suspending media. One focus of this collaboration is volcanic ash. Ash is interesting scientifically because its form provides information on the fundamental processes that drive volcanic eruptions, and determines its transport properties, and thus its potential to affect populations far downwind of the volcano. Ash properties also affect its behavior as an art material. From an aesthetic point of view, ash lends a granular surface to the image; it is also uncontrollable, and thus requires engagement between artist and medium. More fundamentally, using ash in art creates an exchange between the medium and the subject matter, and imparts something of the physical, visceral experience of volcanic landscapes to the viewer. Another component of this work uses powdered rock as a printing medium for geologic maps. Because different types of rock create powders with different properties (grain size distributions and shapes), the geology is communicated not only as color, but also by the physical characteristics of the material as it interacts with the paper. More importantly, the use of actual rocks samples as printing material for geologic maps not only makes a direct connection between the map and the material it represents, but also provides an emotional connection between the map, the viewer and the landscape, its colors, textures and geological juxtapositions. Both case studies provide examples not only of ways in which artists can

  5. Towards earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wortche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-01-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection.

  6. Inaugeral lecture - Meteorite impacts on Earth and on the Earth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is some controversial evidence for the theory that the first life on Earth itself may have been transported here on meteorites from Mars. The possibility of a major meteorite impact on Earth in the near future emphasizes the dramatic nature of these recent discoveries, which are having deep impacts in the Earth sciences ...

  7. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  8. Physics of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Frank D.; Davis, Paul M.

    he fourth edition of Physics of the Earth maintains the original philosophy of this classic graduate textbook on fundamental solid earth geophysics, while being completely revised, updated, and restructured into a more modular format to make individual topics even more accessible. Building on the success of previous editions, which have served generations of students and researchers for nearly forty years, this new edition will be an invaluable resource for graduate students looking for the necessary physical and mathematical foundations to embark on their own research careers in geophysics. Several completely new chapters have been added and a series of appendices, presenting fundamental data and advanced mathematical concepts, and an extensive reference list, are provided as tools to aid readers wishing to pursue topics beyond the level of the book. Over 140 student exercises of varying levels of difficulty are also included, and full solutions are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521873628.

  9. Alkaline earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The beryllium ion has a relatively small ionic radius. As a consequence of this small size, its hydrolysis reactions begin to occur at a relatively low pH. To determine the stability and solubility constants, however, the Gibbs energy of the beryllium ion is required. In aqueous solution calcium, like the other alkaline earth metals, only exists as a divalent cation. The size of the alkaline earth cations increases with increasing atomic number, and the calcium ion is bigger than the magnesium ion. The hydrolysis of barium(II) is weaker than that of strontium(II) and also occurs in quite alkaline pH solutions, and similarly, only the species barium hydroxide has been detected. There is only a single experimental study on the hydrolysis of radium. As with the stability constant trend, it would be expected that the enthalpy of radium would be lower than that of barium due to the larger ionic radius.

  10. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  11. Earth Sciences Division annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This Annual Report presents summaries of selected representative research activities grouped according to the principal disciplines of the Earth Sciences Division: Reservoir Engineering and Hydrogeology, Geology and Geochemistry, and Geophysics and Geomechanics. Much of the Division's research deals with the physical and chemical properties and processes in the earth's crust, from the partially saturated, low-temperature near-surface environment to the high-temperature environments characteristic of regions where magmatic-hydrothermal processes are active. Strengths in laboratory and field instrumentation, numerical modeling, and in situ measurement allow study of the transport of mass and heat through geologic media -- studies that now include the appropriate chemical reactions and the hydraulic-mechanical complexities of fractured rock systems. Of particular note are three major Division efforts addressing problems in the discovery and recovery of petroleum, the application of isotope geochemistry to the study of geodynamic processes and earth history, and the development of borehole methods for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface using seismic and electromagnetic waves. In 1989 a major DOE-wide effort was launched in the areas of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. Many of the methods previously developed for and applied to deeper regions of the earth will in the coming years be turned toward process definition and characterization of the very shallow subsurface, where man-induced contaminants now intrude and where remedial action is required

  12. Earth before life

    OpenAIRE

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Results Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome i...

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility and earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque Henao, Alan; Casas Ospina, Favio

    2001-01-01

    It is such the increment of applications of electric and electronic equipment in the modern companies that the lack of control of the electromagnetic perturbations, brings, get big losses and difficulties in the normal operations. The paper contribute to ago with base in the challenges that day-by-day are confronting, where the settings to earth, to be the foundation of the electric building, are fundamental for a good coexistence among the different equipment s

  14. Earth-ionosphere cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, A.; Polk, C.

    1976-01-01

    To analyze ELF wave propagation in the earth-ionosphere cavity, a flat earth approximation may be derived from the exact equations, which are applicable to the spherical cavity, by introducing a second-order or Debye approximation for the spherical Hankel functions. In the frequency range 3 to 30 Hz, however, the assumed conditions for the Debye approximation are not satisfied. For this reason an exact evaluation of the spherical Hankel functions is used to study the effects of the flat earth approximation on various propagation and resonance parameters. By comparing the resonance equation for a spherical cavity with its flat earth counterpart and by assuming that the surface impedance Z/sub i/ at the upper cavity boundary is known, the relation between the eigenvalue ν and S/sub v/, the sine of the complex angle of incidence at the lower ionosphere boundary, is established as ν(ν + 1) = (kaS/sub v/) 2 . It is also shown that the approximation ν(ν + 1) approximately equals (ν + 1/2) 2 which was used by some authors is not adequate below 30 Hz. Numerical results for both spherical and planar stratification show that (1) planar stratification is adequate for the computation of the lowest three ELF resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz; (2) planar stratification will lead to errors in cavity Q and wave attenuation which increase with frequency; (3) computation of resonance frequencies to within 0.1 Hz requires the extension of the lower boundary of the ionosphere to a height where the ratio of conduction current to displacement current, (sigma/ωepsilon 0 ), is less than 0.3; (4) atmospheric conductivity should be considered down to ground level in computing cavity Q and wave attenuation

  15. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; D& #x27; Urso, Brian R [Clinton, TN

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  16. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  17. Characterising Super-Earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of Super-Earths has formally begun with the detection of transiting low-mass exoplanets CoRoT-7b and GJ 1214b. In the path of characterising super-Earths, the first step is to infer their composition. While the discovery data for CoRoT-7b, in combination with the high atmospheric mass loss rate inferred from the high insolation, suggested that it was a rocky planet, the new proposed mass values have widened the possibilities. The combined mass range 1−10 M⊕ allows for a volatile-rich (and requires it if the mass is less than 4 M⊕ , an Earth-like or a super-Mercury-like composition. In contrast, the radius of GJ 1214b is too large to admit a solid composition, thus it necessarily to have a substantial gas layer. Some evidence suggests that within this gas layer H/He is a small but non-negligible component. These two planets are the first of many transiting low-mass exoplanets expected to be detected and they exemplify the limitations faced when inferring composition, which come from the degenerate character of the problem and the large error bars in the data.

  18. Afganistan and rare earths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian M. Dobrescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On our planet, over a quarter of new technologies for the economic production of industrial goods, are using rare earths, which are also called critical minerals and industries that rely on these precious items being worth of an estimated nearly five trillion dollars, or 5 percent of world gross domestic product. In the near future, competition will increase for the control of rare earth minerals embedded in high-tech products. Rare minerals are in the twenty-first century what oil accounted for in the twentieth century and coal in the nineteenth century: the engine of a new industrial revolution. Future energy will be produced increasingly by more sophisticated technological equipment based not just on steel and concrete, but incorporating significant quantities of metals and rare earths. Widespread application of these technologies will result in an exponential increase in demand for such minerals, and what is worrying is that minerals of this type are almost nowhere to be found in Europe and in other industrialized countries in the world, such as U.S. and Japan, but only in some Asian countries, like China and Afghanistan.

  19. Recent Advances in Geospatial Visualization with the New Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. C.; Poyart, E.; Yan, S.; Sargent, R.

    2017-12-01

    Google Earth's detailed, world-wide imagery and terrain data provide a rich backdrop for geospatial visualization at multiple scales, from global to local. The Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an open standard that has been the primary way for users to author and share data visualizations in Google Earth. Despite its ease of use and flexibility for relatively small amounts of data, users can quickly run into difficulties and limitations working with large-scale or time-varying datasets using KML in Google Earth. Recognizing these challenges, we present our recent work toward extending Google Earth to be a more powerful data visualization platform. We describe a new KML extension to simplify the display of multi-resolution map tile pyramids - which can be created by analysis platforms like Google Earth Engine, or by a variety of other map tile production pipelines. We also describe how this implementation can pave the way to creating novel data visualizations by leveraging custom graphics shaders. Finally, we present our investigations into native support in Google Earth for data storage and transport formats that are well-suited for big raster and vector data visualization. Taken together, these capabilities make it easier to create and share new scientific data visualization experiences using Google Earth, and simplify the integration of Google Earth with existing map data products, services, and analysis pipelines.

  20. The ongoing educational anomaly of earth science placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Metzger, E.P.; Stoffer, P.

    2003-01-01

    The geosciences have traditionally been viewed with less "aCademic prTstige" than other science curricula. Among the results of this perception are depressed K-16 enrollments, Earth Science assignments to lower-performing students, and relegation of these classes to sometimes under-qualified educators, all of which serve to confirm the widely-held misconceptions. An Earth Systems course developed at San Jos??e State University demonstrates the difficulty of a standard high school Earth science curriculum, while recognizing the deficiencies in pre-college Earth science education. Restructuring pre-college science curricula so that Earth Science is placed as a capstone course would greatly improve student understanding of the geosciences, while development of Earth systems courses that infuse real-world and hands-on learning at the college level is critical to bridging the information gap for those with no prior exposure to the Earth sciences. Well-crafted workshops for pre-service and inservice teachers of Earth Science can heIp to reverse the trends and unfortunate "sTatus" in geoscience education.

  1. Who Uses Earth Observations? User Types in Group on Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    How can we communicate concepts in the physical sciences unless we know our audience? The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) User Interface Committee (UIC) has a responsibility within GEO to support and advocate for the user community in the development of Global Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS) and related work. As part of its efforts, the UIC has been working on developing a taxonomy that can be used to characterize the broad spectrum of users of GEOSS and its data, services, and applications. The user type taxonomy is designed to be broad and flexible but aims at describing the needs of the users GEOSS is going to serve. These user types represent a continuum of users of Earth observations from research through to decision support activities, and it includes organizations that use GEOSS as a tool to provide data and services for customers and consumers of the information. The classification scheme includes factors about skills and capacity for using Earth observations, sophistication level, spatial resolution, latency, and frequency of data. As part of the effort to develop a set of User Types, the GEO UIC foresees that those inside and outside GEO can use the typologies to understand how to engage users at a more effective level. This talk presents the GEOSS User Type taxonomy, explaining the development and highlights of key feedback. The talk will highlight possible ways to use the User Type taxonomy to communicate concepts and promote the use of Earth observations to a wide variety of users.

  2. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers (TWINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Blake, B.; Burch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is a revolutionary new mission designed to stereoscopically image the magnetosphere in charge exchange neutral atoms for the first time. The authors propose to fly two identical TWINS instruments as a mission of opportunity on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination US Government spacecraft. Because the spacecraft are funded independently, TWINS can provide a vast quantity of high priority science observations (as identified in an ongoing new missions concept study and the Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap) at a small fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. Because stereo observations of the near-Earth space environs will provide a particularly graphic means for visualizing the magnetosphere in action, and because of the dedication and commitment of the investigator team to the principles of carrying space science to the broader audience, TWINS will also be an outstanding tool for public education and outreach

  3. International Conference and Advanced School Planet Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltsch, Rolf; Pinto, Alberto; Viana, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this volume is research carried out as part of the program Mathematics of Planet Earth, which provides a platform to showcase the essential role of mathematics in addressing problems of an economic and social nature and creating a context for mathematicians and applied scientists to foster mathematical and interdisciplinary developments that will be necessary to tackle a myriad of issues and meet future global economic and social challenges. Earth is a planet with dynamic processes in its mantle, oceans and atmosphere creating climate, causing natural disasters, and influencing fundamental aspects of life and life-supporting systems. In addition to these natural processes, human activity has developed highly complex systems, including economic and financial systems; the World Wide Web; frameworks for resource management, transportation, energy production and utilization; health care delivery, and social organizations. This development has increased to the point where it impacts the stability and ...

  4. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors: A Year 3 Update

    OpenAIRE

    Udomprasert, Patricia S; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Wong, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    We give a brief overview of some key features of WorldWide Telescope and its Ambassadors Program, and we describe two goals for expanding the program in the coming year: scaling up training efforts; and developing “plug and play” Visualization Lab modules that teach key Earth and Space Science concepts to students while emphasizing important scientific processes and skills. We discuss several different ways that members of the astronomy education and outreach community can incorporate WWT-bas...

  5. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskovic, Colette

    2017-09-19

    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  6. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  7. Bones of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Correa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The film Bones of the Earth (Riglin, Cunninham & Correa, 2014 is an experience in collective inquiry and visual creation based on arts-based research. Starting from the meeting of different subjectivities and through dialogue, planning, shooting and editing, an audiovisual text that reconstructs a reflexive process of collective creation is built. A sense of community, on-going inquiry, connections and social commitment inform the creative process. As a result, the video’s nearly five intense minutes are a metaphor for the search for personal meaning, connection with nature and intersubjective positioning in a world that undergoes constant change.

  8. The Solid Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, C. M. R.

    2005-02-01

    The second edition of this acclaimed textbook has been brought fully up-to-date to reflect the latest advances in geophysical research. It is designed for students in introductory geophysics courses who have a general background in the physical sciences, including introductory calculus. New to this edition are a section of color plates and separate sections on the earth's mantle and core. The book also contains an extensive glossary of terms, and includes numerous exercises for which solutions are available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org. First Edition Hb (1990): 0-521-37025-6 First Edition Pb (1990): 0-521-38590-3

  9. Between Earth and Sky

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    to rescue architecture from the sterile impasse of late-modernism. In his works the basic elements of lived space become present: the earth, the sky and the `between` of human existence." Jørn Utzon's architecture ranges from the modest to the monumental; from the Kingo courtyard houses, the finest...... of form, material and function, motivated by social values. To this essentially regional response, Utzon combines a fascination for the architectural legacies of foreign cultures. These influences include the architecture of the ancient Mayan civilisation, as well as the Islamic world, China and Japan...

  10. Climate in Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  11. Earth's ozone layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasa, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper contain the actual results of investigations of the influence of the human activity on the Earth's ozone layer. History of the ozone measurements and of the changes in its concentrations within the last few years are given. The influence of the trace gases on both local and global ozone concentrations are discussed. The probable changes of the ozone concentrations are presented on the basis of the modelling investigations. The effect of a decrease in global ozone concentration on human health and on biosphere are also presented. (author). 33 refs, 36 figs, 5 tabs

  12. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2004-03-01

    A comprehensive mine-wide, two-way wireless voice and data communication system for the underground mining industry was developed. The system achieves energy savings through increased productivity and greater energy efficiency in meeting safety requirements within mines. The mine-wide system is comprised of two interfaced subsystems: a through-the-earth communications system and an in-mine communications system. The mine-wide system permits two-way communication among underground personnel and between underground and surface personnel. The system was designed, built, and commercialized. Several systems are in operation in underground mines in the United States. The use of these systems has proven they result in considerable energy savings. A system for tracking the location of vehicles and people within the mine was also developed, built and tested successfully. Transtek's systems are being used by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in their underground mine rescue team training program. This project also resulted in a spin-off rescue team lifeline and communications system. Furthermore, the project points the way to further developments that can lead to a GPS-like system for underground mines allowing the use of autonomous machines in underground mining operations, greatly reducing the amount of energy used in these operations. Some products developed under this program are transferable to applications in fields other than mining. The rescue team system is applicable to use by first responders to natural, accidental, or terrorist-caused building collapses. The in-mine communications system can be installed in high-rise buildings providing in-building communications to security and maintenance personnel as well as to first responders.

  13. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M sun . The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at ∼ sun . We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses ∼ sun appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  14. Modeling Earth Albedo for Satellites in Earth Orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan; Bak, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many satellite are influences by the Earthøs albedo, though very few model schemes exist.in order to predict this phenomenon. Earth albedo is often treated as noise, or ignored completely. When applying solar cells in the attitude hardware, Earth albedo can cause the attitude estimate to deviate...... with as much as 20 deg. Digital Sun sensors with Earth albedo correction in hardware exist, but are expensive. In addition, albedo estimates are necessary in thermal calculations and power budgets. We present a modeling scheme base4d on Eartht reflectance, measured by NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer......, in which the Earth Probe Satellite has recorded reflectivity data daily since mid 1996. The mean of these data can be used to calculate the Earth albedo given the positions of the satellite and the Sun. Our results show that the albedo varies highly with the solar angle to the satellite's field of view...

  15. Extraction studies on rare earths using dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitha, M.; Singh, D.K.; Kotekar, M.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earths are widely used in phosphor materials, magnetic substances, alloys, catalyst, lasers, superconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and in nuclear applications. The high value of these elements depends on their effective separation into high purity compounds. The separation into individual rare earths is very difficult to achieve, due to the very low separation factors between two adjacent rare earths arising due to similar chemical properties. Taking the advantage of variation in basicity, the separation is generally accomplished by solvent extraction or ion exchange. There are several references on the separation of rare earth in different media employing various types of extractants such as 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethyhexylphosphonic acid (EHEHPA) and di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) which have been widely used for the separation and purification of rare earths. Dinonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) is an organo phosphorus extractant (pKa = 2.54) and is an aromatic analogue of D2EHPA, which extracts metal ion by cation exchange mechanism. DNPPA was explored to recover rare earths from phosphate media such as wet process phosphoric acid and merchant grade acid. However, there is no information available in literature on DNPPA for RE extraction from chloride medium. Therefore, an attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the feasibility of using DNPPA for extraction of La(III), Dy(III) and Y(III) from chloride medium

  16. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  17. Mapping Earth's electromagnetic dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.

    2017-12-01

    The form of a magnetotelluric impedance tensor, obtained for a given geographic site through simultaneous measurement of geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation, is affected by electrical conductivity structure beneath the measurement site. Building on existing methods for characterizing the symmetry of magnetotelluric impedance tensors, a simple scalar measure is developed for measuring the (frequency dependent) proportion of the impedance tensor that is not just a one-dimensional (1D) function of depth ("non-1D-ness"). These measures are applied to nearly 1000 impedance tensors obtained during magnetotelluric surveys, those for the continental United States and obtained principally through the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project. Across geomagnetic/geoelectric variational periods ranging from 30 s to 3,000 s, corresponding to crustal and upper mantle depths, it is shown that local Earth structure is very often not simply 1D-depth-dependent - often less than 50% of magnetotelluric impedance is 1D. For selected variational frequencies, non-1D-ness is mapped and the relationship between electromagnetic dimensionality and known geological and tectonic structures is discussed. The importance of using realistic surface impedances to accurately evaluate magnetic-storm geoelectric hazards is emphasized.

  18. Is dying the earth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Garzon, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    December 21 of 1968, on board the capsule Apollo 8, three astronauts, James A. Lovell, Frank Borman and William Anders, went toward what would be the first orbital flight around the moon. That experience like Lovell said, it makes us realize the insignificant that we are in comparison with the vastness of the universe. With the revolution lovelockiane, the life doesn't already consist on a group of organisms only adapted to its atmosphere by a certain action for external laws. The terrestrial environment, instead of being a physical world regulated by own autonomous laws, is part of an evolutionary system that contains the life and that it should to the phenomena vital part of its rules, its mechanisms and components. The alive beings connected to each other and to the atmosphere they manufacture and they maintain of continuous their atmosphere forming an everything at planetary level, according to Ricard Guerrero (1988). The theory of the earth then, he says, it has found their owner Darwin in James lovelock. The document treats topics like the science concept that it is the life, the earth and the contemporary environment

  19. School, Earth and Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Anna; Grieco, Giovanni; Oneta, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Geology needs to be explained and narrated to the people, focusing on the goal of making that big change of mindset that will allow individuals and the entire community to tune into the timing and the ways in which the Earth evolves. In order to achieve these important goals it is necessary to educate children from an early age so that they learn to live an environmentally friendly life. With the project "School, Earth and imagination" we introduce, with a fun and new way, notions and topics in geological and environmental sciences in schools at all levels with the final goal of improving both knowledge and sensibility for these topics into the community. Through this project we start from the children (kindergarten and primary school, ages between 3 and 8 years) because they are the foundation of our society, and without foundations nothing can be built. The "School, Earth and imagination" project wants to give the children a real opportunity to approach reality and in general the surrounding environment, for the first time even before the traditional scholastic experience, with a scientific point of view, experimenting some basic physical concepts like temperature, weight, hardness and so on directly through their body. The project is structured and developed in modules that provide a high flexibility in order to meet needs and requirements of different schools in different situations. Each module is part of the journey of Mariolino, a character that represents a very curious child who introduces basic concepts associating them to geological processes. The Journey of Mariolino, as each module, follows an insistent scheme that starts from the presentation of the problem, follows with its discussion through direct questions and ends with experimentation of the hypotheses that children have proposed to validate the solution of the problem. Each module is independent and never ends without giving children a solution and is always structured with a practical activity

  20. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  1. The computational challenges of Earth-system science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alan; Steenman-Clark, Lois

    2002-06-15

    The Earth system--comprising atmosphere, ocean, land, cryosphere and biosphere--is an immensely complex system, involving processes and interactions on a wide range of space- and time-scales. To understand and predict the evolution of the Earth system is one of the greatest challenges of modern science, with success likely to bring enormous societal benefits. High-performance computing, along with the wealth of new observational data, is revolutionizing our ability to simulate the Earth system with computer models that link the different components of the system together. There are, however, considerable scientific and technical challenges to be overcome. This paper will consider four of them: complexity, spatial resolution, inherent uncertainty and time-scales. Meeting these challenges requires a significant increase in the power of high-performance computers. The benefits of being able to make reliable predictions about the evolution of the Earth system should, on their own, amply repay this investment.

  2. World resources and the development of the earth's surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, A.; Ishihara, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-01-01

    This text is an examination of economic (or ore) geology, and engineering geology. Using case studies of Japan and continental North America, this work presents a geological and geochemical summary of ore-forming processes along with discussions of basic principles and approaches to modern engineering geology. Emphasizes the relationship between fossil fuel resources and the evolution of the Earth's crust. Contents - WORLD RESOURCES. The Geochemistry of Metallogenesis. The Geochemistry of Fossil Fuel Deposit. Global Evolution and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. The Development of Continents and Island Arcs and the Formation of Mineral Deposits. DEVELOPMENT OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE. Development of the Earth's Surface and Engineering Geology. Engineering Geology Methods. Features of the Ground and Bedrock in Japan. Engineering Geology - A Case Study. Geology and the Environment - Case Studies. INDEX. Principal World-Wide Metal Deposits (inside front cover). Principal World-Wide Coal, Petroleum and Uranium Deposits (inside back cover)

  3. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  4. Earth-approaching asteroids: Populations, origin, and compositional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Helin, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    Origin, physical properties, and discovery history of smaller asteroids are reviewed. They appear to link the main belt objects, namely the comets and meteorites. Physical observations suggest that a wide variety of compositional types are represented among the near-earth asteroids; the apparent rarity of carbonaceous objects is stated.

  5. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in EarthSciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them.The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has beenrecently released ...

  6. Rare earth superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of recent experiments on the magnetism of rare earth superlattices. Early experiments in this field were concerned mainly with systems formed by combining a magnetic and a non-magnetic element in a superlattice structure. From results gathered on a variety of systems it has been established that the propagation of magnetic order through the non-magnetic spacer can be understood mostly on the basis of an RKKY-like model, where the strength and range of the coupling depends on the details of the conduction electron susceptibility of the spacer. Recent experiments on more complex systems indicate that this model does not provide a complete description. Examples include superlattices where the constituents can either be both magnetic, adopt different crystal structures (Fermi surfaces), or where one of the constituents has a non-magnetic singlet ground state. The results from such systems are presented and discussed in the context of the currently accepted model. (au)

  7. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...... research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and space observations, and on state-of-the-art empirical models and physics-based simulations. Thus, it provides an in-depth overview over recent achievements, current limitations and challenges, and future opportunities in the field of geomagnetism and space sciences....

  8. Rare earth (3) pivalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Zoan An' Tu; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; Troyanov, S.I.; Rykov, A.N.; Korenev, Yu.M.

    1994-01-01

    Depending on synthesis conditions rare earth pivalates can be obtained in the form of either adducts NPiv·HPiv or hydrates MPiv 3 ·mH 2 O. Adducts are the most stable form of pivalates. Heating of adducts result in formation of corresponding MPiv 3 . MPiv 3 ·nHPiv compounds are characterized by IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis data. Behaviour of MPiv 3 was studied in the regime of vacuum sublemation. Using mass spectroscopy of NdPiv 3 it was shown that gaseous phase above MPiv 3 had complex composition and contained ligomer fragments. X-ray structure analysis of [NdPiv 3 ·3HPiv] was conducted

  9. One Day on Earth

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with the CineGlobe Film Festival, the One Day on Earth global film project invites you to share your story of scientific inspiration, scientific endeavors and technological advancement on 11 November 2011 (11.11.11).   Technology in the 21st century continuously inspires us to re-imagine the world. From outer-space to cyberspace, new ideas that we hope will improve the lives of future generations keep us in a state of change. However, these new technologies may alter the nature of our shared existence in ways not yet known. On 11.11.11, we invite you to record the exciting ways that science is a part of your life, together with people around the world who will be documenting their lives on this day of global creation. See www.onedayonearth.org for details on how to participate.

  10. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  11. Earth's early biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding our own early biosphere is essential to our search for life elsewhere, because life arose on Earth very early and rocky planets shared similar early histories. The biosphere arose before 3.8 Ga ago, was exclusively unicellular and was dominated by hyperthermophiles that utilized chemical sources of energy and employed a range of metabolic pathways for CO2 assimilation. Photosynthesis also arose very early. Oxygenic photosynthesis arose later but still prior to 2.7 Ga. The transition toward the modern global environment was paced by a decline in volcanic and hydrothermal activity. These developments allowed atmospheric O2 levels to increase. The O2 increase created new niches for aerobic life, most notably the more advanced Eukarya that eventually spawned the megascopic fauna and flora of our modern biosphere.

  12. The earth and the moon

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The moon is the only body in the solar system outside of the Earth that has been visited by humans. More than 440 pounds of lunar material are brought by NASA and Soviet space missions to Earth for study. The information gleaned about the moon from this relatively small pile of rocks is mind-boggling and stands as the greatest proof that Martian planetary science would be greatly enhanced by returning samples to Earth. Compositional studies of lunar rocks show that the moon and the Earth are made of similar material, and because lunar material has not been reworked through erosion and plate te

  13. Theory of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is an isolated, cooling planet that obeys the 2nd law. Interior dynamics is driven from the top, by cold sinking slabs. High-resolution broad-band seismology and geodesy has confirmed that mantle flow is characterized by narrow downwellings and ~20 broad slowly rising updrafts. The low-velocity zone (LVZ) consists of a hot melange of sheared peridotite intruded with aligned melt-rich lamellae that are tapped by intraplate volcanoes. The high temperature is a simple consequence of the thermal overshoot common in large bodies of convecting fluids. The transition zone consists of ancient eclogite layers that are displaced upwards by slabs to become broad passive, and cool, ridge feeding updrafts of ambient mantle. The physics that is overlooked in canonical models of mantle dynamics and geochemistry includes; the 2nd law, convective overshoots, subadiabaticity, wave-melt interactions, Archimedes' principle, and kinetics (rapid transitions allow stress-waves to interact with melting and phase changes, creating LVZs; sluggish transitions in cold slabs keep eclogite in the TZ where it warms up by extracting heat from mantle below 650 km, creating the appearance of slab penetration). Canonical chemical geodynamic models are the exact opposite of physics and thermodynamic based models and of the real Earth. A model that results from inverting the assumptions regarding initial and boundary conditions (hot origin, secular cooling, no external power sources, cooling internal boundaries, broad passive upwellings, adiabaticity and whole-mantle convection not imposed, layering and self-organization allowed) results in a thick refractory-yet-fertile surface layer, with ancient xenoliths and cratons at the top and a hot overshoot at the base, and a thin mobile D" layer that is an unlikely plume generation zone. Accounting for the physics that is overlooked, or violated (2nd law), in canonical models, plus modern seismology, undermines the assumptions and conclusions of these

  14. Integrated Instrument Simulator Suites for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanelli, Simone; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Matsui, Toshihisa; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Butler, Carolyn; Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Niamsuwan, Noppasin; Johnson, Michael P.; Jacob, Joseph C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System Simulators Suite (NEOS3) is a modular framework of forward simulations tools for remote sensing of Earth's Atmosphere from space. It was initiated as the Instrument Simulator Suite for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (ISSARS) under the NASA Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program of the Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) to enable science users to perform simulations based on advanced atmospheric and simple land surface models, and to rapidly integrate in a broad framework any experimental or innovative tools that they may have developed in this context. The name was changed to NEOS3 when the project was expanded to include more advanced modeling tools for the surface contributions, accounting for scattering and emission properties of layered surface (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, snow and ice, subsurface layers). NEOS3 relies on a web-based graphic user interface, and a three-stage processing strategy to generate simulated measurements. The user has full control over a wide range of customizations both in terms of a priori assumptions and in terms of specific solvers or models used to calculate the measured signals.This presentation will demonstrate the general architecture, the configuration procedures and illustrate some sample products and the fundamental interface requirements for modules candidate for integration.

  15. Copernicus: a quantum leap in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the most ambitious, most comprehensive Earth observation system world-wide. It aims at giving decision-makers better information to act upon, at global, continental, national and regional level. The European Union (EU) leads the overall programme, while the European Space Agency (ESA) coordinates the space component. Similar to meteorology, satellite data is combined with data from airborne and ground sensors to provide a holistic view of the state of the planet. All these data are fed into a range of thematic information services designed to benefit the environment and to support policy-makers and other stakeholders to make decisions, coordinate policy areas, and formulate strategies relating to the environment. Moreover, the data will also be used for predicting future climate trends. Never has such a comprehensive Earth-observation based system been in place before. It will be fully integrated into an informed decision making process, thus enabling economic and social benefits through better access to information globally. A key feature of Copernicus is the free and open data policy of the Sentinel satellite data. This will enable that Earth observation based information enters completely new domains of daily life. High quality, regularly updated satellite observations become available for basically everyone. To ensure universal access new ground segment and data access concepts need to be developed. As more data are made available, better decisions can made, more business will be created and science and research can be achieved through the upcoming Sentinel data.

  16. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  17. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  18. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  19. Robust Visible and Infrared Light Emitting Devices Using Rare-Earth-Doped GaN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steckl, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth (RE) dopants (such as Er, Eu, Tm) in the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) GaN are investigated for the fabrication of robust visible and infrared light emitting devices at a variety of wavelengths...

  20. ''Meteor'' radio/television satellites for study of earth's natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, A S; Tuchin, Yu M

    1981-01-01

    Two types of wide sweep multi-zonal scanning devices are included in the Meteor units, including radio-transmitting, and memory units. Data is transmitted within the wave range assigned to meteorologic earth satellites.

  1. Wide gap semiconductor microwave devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V V; Aroutiounian, V M

    2007-01-01

    A review of properties of wide gap semiconductor materials such as diamond, diamond-like carbon films, SiC, GaP, GaN and AlGaN/GaN that are relevant to electronic, optoelectronic and microwave applications is presented. We discuss the latest situation and perspectives based on experimental and theoretical results obtained for wide gap semiconductor devices. Parameters are taken from the literature and from some of our theoretical works. The correspondence between theoretical results and parameters of devices is critically analysed. (review article)

  2. Rare earths 1998 market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  3. Dartmouth College Earth Sciences Mobile Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E. E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Dade, W. B.; Sonder, L. J.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kelly, M. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Chipman, J. W.; Mikucki, J.; Posmentier, E. S.; Moore, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    For the last 50 years the Department of Earth Sciences at Dartmouth College has offered a term-long, undergraduate field program, informally called "the Stretch". A student typically enrolls during fall quarter of his or her junior year soon after choosing a major or minor. The program thus provides valuable field context for courses that a student will take during the remainder of his or her undergraduate career. Unlike many traditional field camps that focus on one particular region, the Stretch is a mobile program that currently travels through Western North America, from the Canadian Rockies to the Grand Canyon. The program spans two and a half months, during which time undergraduates, graduate TAs, and faculty live, work, and learn collaboratively. Dartmouth College faculty members sequentially teach individual 1- to 2-week segments that focus on their interests and expertise; currently, there are a total of eight segments led by eleven faculty members. Consequently, topics are diverse and include economic geology, geobiology, geomorphology, glaciology, glacial geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structure and tectonics, and volcanology. The field localities are equally varied, including the alpine glaciers of western Alberta, the national parks of Montana, Wyoming and Utah, the eastern Sierra Nevada, the southern Great Basin, and highlight such classic geological field locales as Sheep Mountain in Wyoming's Bighorn Basin, Death Valley, and the Grand Canyon. Overall, the program aims to: 1) give students a broad perspective on the timing and nature of the processes that resulted in the landscape and underlying geology of western North America; and 2) introduce students to a wide variety of geological environments, field techniques, and research equipment. Students emerge from the program with wide-ranging exposure to active research questions as well as a working knowledge of core field skills in the earth sciences. Stretch students

  4. WCS Challenges for NASA's Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, S.; Swentek, L.; Khan, A.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to ensure that data in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is available to a wide variety of users through the tools of their choice, NASA continues to focus on exposing data and services using standards based protocols. Specifically, this work has focused recently on the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Experience has been gained in data delivery via GetCoverage requests, starting out with WCS v1.1.1. The pros and cons of both the version itself and different implementation approaches will be shared during this session. Additionally, due to limitations with WCS v1.1.1's ability to work with NASA's Earth science data, this session will also discuss the benefit of migrating to WCS 2.0.1 with EO-x to enrich this capability to meet a wide range of anticipated user needs This will enable subsetting and various types of data transformations to be performed on a variety of EOS data sets.

  5. Testing Reproducibility in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M. A.; Dudill, A. R.; Frey, P.; Venditti, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Reproducibility represents how closely the results of independent tests agree when undertaken using the same materials but different conditions of measurement, such as operator, equipment or laboratory. The concept of reproducibility is fundamental to the scientific method as it prevents the persistence of incorrect or biased results. Yet currently the production of scientific knowledge emphasizes rapid publication of previously unreported findings, a culture that has emerged from pressures related to hiring, publication criteria and funding requirements. Awareness and critique of the disconnect between how scientific research should be undertaken, and how it actually is conducted, has been prominent in biomedicine for over a decade, with the fields of economics and psychology more recently joining the conversation. The purpose of this presentation is to stimulate the conversation in earth sciences where, despite implicit evidence in widely accepted classifications, formal testing of reproducibility is rare.As a formal test of reproducibility, two sets of experiments were undertaken with the same experimental procedure, at the same scale, but in different laboratories. Using narrow, steep flumes and spherical glass beads, grain size sorting was examined by introducing fine sediment of varying size and quantity into a mobile coarse bed. The general setup was identical, including flume width and slope; however, there were some variations in the materials, construction and lab environment. Comparison of the results includes examination of the infiltration profiles, sediment mobility and transport characteristics. The physical phenomena were qualitatively reproduced but not quantitatively replicated. Reproduction of results encourages more robust research and reporting, and facilitates exploration of possible variations in data in various specific contexts. Following the lead of other fields, testing of reproducibility can be incentivized through changes to journal

  6. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  7. Energy conservation in the earth's crust and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yao; Mu, Xinzhi

    2013-02-01

    Among various matters which make up the earth's crust, the thermal conductivity of coal, oil, and oil-gas, which are formed over a long period of geological time, is extremely low. This is significant to prevent transferring the internal heat of the earth to the thermal insulation of the surface, cooling the surface of the earth, stimulating biological evolution, and maintaining natural ecological balance as well. Fossil energy is thermal insulating layer in the earth's crust. Just like the function of the thermal isolation of subcutaneous fatty tissue under the dermis of human skin, it keeps the internal heat within the organism so it won't be transferred to the skin's surface and be lost maintaining body temperature at low temperatures. Coal, oil, oil-gas, and fat belong to the same hydrocarbons, and the functions of their thermal insulation are exactly the same. That is to say, coal, oil, and oil-gas are just like the earth's "subcutaneous fatty tissue" and objectively formed the insulation protection on earth's surface. This paper argues that the human large-scale extraction of fossil energy leads to damage of the earth's crust heat-resistant sealing, increasing terrestrial heat flow, or the heat flow as it is called, transferring the internal heat of the earth to Earth's surface excessively, and causing geotemperature and sea temperature to rise, thus giving rise to global warming. The reason for climate warming is not due to the expansion of greenhouse gases but to the wide exploitation of fossil energy, which destroyed the heat insulation of the earth's crust, making more heat from the interior of the earth be released to the atmosphere. Based on the energy conservation principle, the measurement of the increase of the average global temperature that was caused by the increase of terrestrial heat flow since the Industrial Revolution is consistent with practical data. This paper illustrates "pathogenesis" of climate change using medical knowledge. The

  8. Next-generation digital earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodchild, M.F.; Guo, H.; Annoni, A.; Bian, L.; Bie, de K.; Campbell, F.; Craglia, M.; Ehlers, M.; Genderen, van J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, C.; Woodgate, P.

    2012-01-01

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google

  9. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  10. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  11. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  12. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  13. Teaching Waves with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Google Earth is a huge source of interesting illustrations of various natural phenomena. It can represent a valuable tool for science education, not only for teaching geography and geology, but also physics. Here we suggest that Google Earth can be used for introducing in an attractive way the physics of waves. (Contains 9 figures.)

  14. World Wide Web Homepage Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Michael L.

    This paper examines hypermedia design and draws conclusions about how educational research and theory applies to various aspects of World Wide Web (WWW) homepage design. "Hypermedia" is defined as any collection of information which may be textual, graphical, visual, or auditory in nature and which may be accessed via a nonlinear route.…

  15. The World Wide Web Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago the author wrote in one of the first widely-cited academic articles, Educational Researcher, about the educational role of the web. He argued that educators must be able to demonstrate that the web (1) can increase access to learning, (2) must not result in higher costs for learning, and (3) can lead to improved learning. These…

  16. Thermodynamics of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, Frank D

    2010-01-01

    Applications of elementary thermodynamic principles to the dynamics of the Earth lead to robust, quantitative conclusions about the tectonic effects that arise from convection. The grand pattern of motion conveys deep heat to the surface, generating mechanical energy with a thermodynamic efficiency corresponding to that of a Carnot engine operating over the adiabatic temperature gradient between the heat source and sink. Referred to the total heat flux derived from the Earth's silicate mantle, the efficiency is 24% and the power generated, 7.7 x 10 12 W, causes all the material deformation apparent as plate tectonics and the consequent geological processes. About 3.5% of this is released in seismic zones but little more than 0.2% as seismic waves. Even major earthquakes are only localized hiccups in this motion. Complications that arise from mineral phase transitions can be used to illuminate details of the motion. There are two superimposed patterns of convection, plate subduction and deep mantle plumes, driven by sources of buoyancy, negative and positive respectively, at the top and bottom of the mantle. The patterns of motion are controlled by the viscosity contrasts (>10 4 : 1) at these boundaries and are self-selected as the least dissipative mechanisms of heat transfer for convection in a body with very strong viscosity variation. Both are subjects of the thermodynamic efficiency argument. Convection also drives the motion in the fluid outer core that generates the geomagnetic field, although in that case there is an important energy contribution by compositional separation, as light solute is rejected by the solidifying inner core and mixed into the outer core, a process referred to as compositional convection. Uncertainty persists over the core energy balance because thermal conduction is a drain on core energy that has been a subject of diverse estimates, with attendant debate over the need for radiogenic heat in the core. The geophysical approach to

  17. Rotation of a Moonless Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Barnes, Jason W.; Chambers, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We numerically explore the obliquity (axial tilt) variations of a hypothetical moonless Earth. Previous work has shown that the Earth's Moon stabilizes Earth's obliquity such that it remains within a narrow range, between 22.1 deg and 24.5 deg. Without lunar influence, a frequency-map analysis by Laskar et al. showed that the obliquity could vary between 0 deg. and 85 deg. This has left an impression in the astrobiology community that a large moon is necessary to maintain a habitable climate on an Earth-like planet. Using a modified version of the orbital integrator mercury, we calculate the obliquity evolution for moonless Earths with various initial conditions for up to 4 Gyr. We find that while obliquity varies significantly more than that of the actual Earth over 100,000 year timescales, the obliquity remains within a constrained range, typically 20-25 deg. in extent, for timescales of hundreds of millions of years. None of our Solar System integrations in which planetary orbits behave in a typical manner show obliquity accessing more than 65% of the full range allowed by frequency-map analysis. The obliquities of moonless Earths that rotate in the retrograde direction are more stable than those of pro-grade rotators. The total obliquity range explored for moonless Earths with rotation periods shorter than 12 h is much less than that for slower-rotating moonless Earths. A large moon thus does not seem to be needed to stabilize the obliquity of an Earth-like planet on timescales relevant to the development of advanced life.

  18. Changes in earth's dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2006-11-01

    The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more.

  19. When the earth shudders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltese, G.

    The enormous damage that can be caused by earthquakes (500,000 deaths in Tangshan, China, 1976) makes the art and science of earthquake predicting one of the principal objectives of modern geophysics. In this review of the state-of-the-art in earthquake predicting, brief notes are given on several topics: plate tectonics theory, geographic distribution of earthquakes, elastic potential energy storage of rocks, seismic wave typology, comparison of Mercalli and Richter scales, pre-warning signs in nature (strange behaviour of animals, preliminary reduction of seismic wave velocity, variations in local micro-seismicity and physical properties of rocks, etc.), comparison of earthquake energy release models, historical origin of the science of earthquake predicting, implication of fault slip rates and earthquake recurrence models to probabilistic seismic hazard estimates, the time element in prediction making, analysis of examples of correct predictions, pattern recognition instrumentation, earthquake intensity control through fluid injection, correlations between water reservoir level and seismicity, the creation of government programs for the monitoring of the earth's crust and seismic data acquisition, comparison of earthquake prediction and preparedness approaches in Japan and the USA.

  20. Our sustainable Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbach, Raymond L

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as oceans are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880, and can be associated with the industrial revolution. The climactic consequences of this human dominated increase in atmospheric CO 2 define a geologic epoch that has been termed the 'Anthropocene.' The issue is whether this is a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. Eight 'myths' that posit the former are examined in light of known data. The analysis strongly suggests the latter. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO 2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. Two examples of economically sustainable CO 2 emission reduction demonstrate that technological innovation has the potential to maintain our standard of living while stabilizing global temperatures.

  1. Space sickness on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  2. Honeywell's Compact, Wide-angle Uv-visible Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, D.; Billing-Ross, J.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell is currently developing the Earth Reference Attitude Determination System (ERADS). ERADS determines attitude by imaging the entire Earth's limb and a ring of the adjacent star field in the 2800-3000 A band of the ultraviolet. This is achieved through the use of a highly nonconventional optical system, an intensifier tube, and a mega-element CCD array. The optics image a 30 degree region in the center of the field, and an outer region typically from 128 to 148 degrees, which can be adjusted up to 180 degrees. Because of the design employed, the illumination at the outer edge of the field is only some 15 percent below that at the center, in contrast to the drastic rolloffs encountered in conventional wide-angle sensors. The outer diameter of the sensor is only 3 in; the volume and weight of the entire system, including processor, are 1000 cc and 6 kg, respectively.

  3. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth has global meaning for a life on the Earth. The world geophysical science explains: - occurrence of a magnetic field of the Earth it is transformation of kinetic energy of movements of the fused iron in the liquid core of Earth - into the magnetic energy; - the warming up of a kernel of the Earth occurs due to radioactive disintegration of elements, with excretion of thermal energy. The world science does not define the reasons: - drift of a magnetic dipole on 0,2 a year to the West; - drift of lithospheric slabs and continents. The author offers: an alternative variant existing in a world science the theories "Geodynamo" - it is the theory « the Magnetic field of the Earth », created on the basis of physical laws. Education of a magnetic field of the Earth occurs at moving the electric charge located in a liquid kernel, at rotation of the Earth. At calculation of a magnetic field is used law the Bio Savara for a ring electric current: dB = . Magnetic induction in a kernel of the Earth: B = 2,58 Gs. According to the law of electromagnetic induction the Faradey, rotation of a iron kernel of the Earth in magnetic field causes occurrence of an electric field Emf which moves electrons from the center of a kernel towards the mantle. So of arise the radial electric currents. The magnetic field amplifies the iron of mantle and a kernel of the Earth. As a result of action of a radial electric field the electrons will flow from the center of a kernel in a layer of an electric charge. The central part of a kernel represents the field with a positive electric charge, which creates inverse magnetic field Binv and Emfinv When ?mfinv = ?mf ; ?inv = B, there will be an inversion a magnetic field of the Earth. It is a fact: drift of a magnetic dipole of the Earth in the western direction approximately 0,2 longitude, into a year. Radial electric currents a actions with the basic magnetic field of a Earth - it turn a kernel. It coincides with laws

  4. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  5. Wide range neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yorimasa; Fukushima, Toshiki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a wide range neutron-flux monitor adapted such that the flux monitoring function and alarming function can automatically by shifted from pulse counting system to cambel method system. Constitution: A wide range neutron-flux monitor comprises (la) pulse counting system and (lb) cambel-method system for inputting detection signals from neutron detectors and separating them into signals for the pulse measuring system and the cambel measuring system, (2) overlap detection and calculation circuit for detecting the existence of the overlap of two output signals from the (la) and (lb) systems, and (3) trip circuit for judging the abnormal state of neutron detectors upon input of the detection signals. (Seki, T.)

  6. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  7. NCenter wide band neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutte, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    This memo describes the physical properties of the currently operating N-Center wide band neutrino beam---commonly called the triplet train, following a past tradition of a triplet lens configuration. In reality, in order to gain a larger momentum acceptance and to minimize the angular divergence of the beam, a quadruplet beam (4 lenses) employing point-to-parallel optics at a central momentum of 300 GeV was built. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Wide range neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todt, W.H. Sr.

    1978-01-01

    A neutron detection system for reactor control is described which is operable over a wide range of neutron flux levels. The system includes a fission type ionization chamber neutron detector, means for gamma and alpha signal compensation, and means for operating the neutron detector in the pulse counting mode for low neutron flux levels, and in the direct current mode for high neutron flux levels

  9. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  10. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  11. Multi-source Geospatial Data Analysis with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Google Earth Engine platform is a cloud computing environment for data analysis that combines a public data catalog with a large-scale computational facility optimized for parallel processing of geospatial data. The data catalog is a multi-petabyte archive of georeferenced datasets that include images from Earth observing satellite and airborne sensors (examples: USGS Landsat, NASA MODIS, USDA NAIP), weather and climate datasets, and digital elevation models. Earth Engine supports both a just-in-time computation model that enables real-time preview and debugging during algorithm development for open-ended data exploration, and a batch computation mode for applying algorithms over large spatial and temporal extents. The platform automatically handles many traditionally-onerous data management tasks, such as data format conversion, reprojection, and resampling, which facilitates writing algorithms that combine data from multiple sensors and/or models. Although the primary use of Earth Engine, to date, has been the analysis of large Earth observing satellite datasets, the computational platform is generally applicable to a wide variety of use cases that require large-scale geospatial data analyses. This presentation will focus on how Earth Engine facilitates the analysis of geospatial data streams that originate from multiple separate sources (and often communities) and how it enables collaboration during algorithm development and data exploration. The talk will highlight current projects/analyses that are enabled by this functionality.https://earthengine.google.org

  12. World wide developments in shortwall and wide web mining techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, T

    1975-11-01

    The paper describes the progress to date with continuous pillar extraction, and how the typical longwall powered support has been modified to be both strong enough and stable enough to provide roof support for very wide webs. It also describes the operating systems which have been specially designed. The next stages of development are discussed, particularly the provision of continuous conveyor haulage in place of the present-day shuttle car. The author suggests that marrying American coal-getting technology and British roof support technology might increase productivity.

  13. Optical Characterization of Rare Earth-doped Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hommerich, Uwe

    1999-01-01

    ...+) PL intensity under below gap excitation. Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) studies revealed that oxygen/carbon introduces a broad below gap PLE band, which provides an efficient pathway for E(3+) excitation...

  14. Deep and wide gaps by super Earths in low-viscosity discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Sivan; Sari, Re'em

    2018-06-01

    Planets can open cavities (gaps) in the protoplanetary gaseous discs in which they are born by exerting gravitational torques. Viscosity counters these torques and limits the depletion of the gaps. We present a simple one-dimensional scheme to calculate the gas density profile inside gaps by balancing the gravitational and viscous torques. By generalizing the results of Goodman & Rafikov (2001), our scheme properly accounts for the propagation of angular momentum by density waves. This method allows us to easily study low-viscosity discs, which are challenging for full hydrodynamical simulations. We complement our numerical integration by analytical equations for the gap's steady-state depth and width as a function of the planet's to star's mass ratio μ, the gas disc's aspect ratio h, and its Shakura & Sunyaev viscosity parameter α. Specifically, we focus on low-mass planets (μ < μth ≡ h3) and identify a new low-viscosity regime, α < h(μ/μth)5, in which the classical analytical scaling relations are invalid. Equivalently, this low-viscosity regime applies to every gap that is depleted by more than a factor of (μth/μ)3 relative to the unperturbed density. We show that such gaps are significantly deeper and wider than previously thought, and consequently take a longer time to reach equilibrium.

  15. Radiation environment of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The radiation environment of the earth consists of natural and artificial radiation. This paper explains the distribution and some exposure examples of natural radiation and the relation between life and natural radiation. The earth was born before about 46 hundreds of millions of years. In the present earth, there are some natural radiations with long half-life originated by the earth. They are 232 Th (141 hundreds of millions of years of half-life), 238 U (45 hundreds of millions of years of half-life) and 40 K (13 hundreds of millions of years of half-life). Natural radiation (α-, β-, and γ-ray) from natural radionuclides exists everywhere in the earth. Natural radio nuclides are heat source of the earth, which is about 0.035 μcal/g/y. γ-ray from them is called as ''the earth's crust γ-ray'', which is about 55 nGy/h average of the world and about 50 nGy/h in Japan. The distribution of γ-ray is depended on the kinds of soil and rock. 222 Rn and 230 Rn are rare gases and the concentration of them in a room is larger than outside. Natural radiations originated from the cosmos are proton, ionizing components, neutron component with muon and electron, 3 H, 14 C and 10 Be. Effect of cosmic rays on birth of life, change of temperature, amount of cloud and ultra resistant cell are stated. (S.Y.)

  16. Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.

  17. Our Sustainable Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Raymond L.

    2013-03-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that the Earth has been warming monotonically since 1980. Transient to equilibrium temperature changes take centuries to develop, as the upper levels of the ocean are slow to respond to atmospheric temperature changes. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations, from ice core and observatory measurements, display consistent increases from historical averages, beginning in about 1880. They can be associated with the use of coal ecause of the spread of the industrial revolution from Great Britain to the European continent and beyond. The climactic consequence of this human-dominated increase in atmospheric CO2 has been suggested to define a geologic epoch, termed the ``Anthropocene.'' This could be a short term, relatively minor change in global climate, or an extreme deviation that lasts for thousands of years. In order to stabilize global temperatures, sharp reductions in CO2 emissions are required: an 80% reduction beginning in 2050. U.S. emissions have declined sharply recently because of market conditions leading to the substitution of natural gas for coal for electricity generation. Whether this is the best use for this resource may be questioned, but it nevertheless reduces CO2 production by 67% from a coal-fired power plant, well on the way to the 80% reduction required for global temperature stabilization. Current methods for CO2 capture and storage are not cost effective, and have been slow (if not absent) to introduce at scale. This paper describes research into some potentially economically feasible approaches: cost-effective capture and storage of CO2 from injection of flue gas into subterranean methane-saturated aquifers at the surface; fuels from sunlight without CO2 production; and large-scale electrical energy storage for intermittent (and even constant) electricity generating sources.

  18. Earth - South America (first frame of Earth Spin Movie)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color image of the Earth was obtained by Galileo at about 6:10 a.m. Pacific Standard Time on Dec. 11, 1990, when the spacecraft was about 1.3 million miles from the planet during the first of two Earth flybys on its way to Jupiter. The color composite used images taken through the red, green and violet filters. South America is near the center of the picture, and the white, sunlit continent of Antarctica is below. Picturesque weather fronts are visible in the South Atlantic, lower right. This is the first frame of the Galileo Earth spin movie, a 500- frame time-lapse motion picture showing a 25-hour period of Earth's rotation and atmospheric dynamics.

  19. EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Benjamin W.; Goldblatt, Colin

    2018-01-01

    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth's biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and prov...

  20. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  1. The earth's shape and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, G D; Wilson, J T

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp

  2. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  3. Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Novascone, Stephen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Wright, Jerry P [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-09-27

    Earth analysis methods, subsurface feature detection methods, earth analysis devices, and articles of manufacture are described. According to one embodiment, an earth analysis method includes engaging a device with the earth, analyzing the earth in a single substantially lineal direction using the device during the engaging, and providing information regarding a subsurface feature of the earth using the analysis.

  4. Safety aspects in rare earths recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recovery of rare earths involves mining of beach sands, mineral separation to obtain monazite and its chemical processing to obtain rare earth composites. The composites are then subjected to further chemical treatment to obtain individual rare earths. Although the separated out rare earths are not radioactive, the process for recovery of rare earths involve both radiological as well as conventional hazards. This paper highlights the safety aspects in the mining, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite to obtain rare earths

  5. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.

    1980-01-01

    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  6. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  7. Children's knowledge of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia

    2011-03-01

    Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.

  8. Encyclopedia of earth system science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nierenberg, William Aaron

    1992-01-01

    .... The very diversity of the articles attests to the complexity of earth system science as a unique interdisciplinary venture to place humanity in a position to move wisely to protect the global habitat...

  9. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  10. Earth Science Education in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    1999-05-01

    The earth sciences are taught in twelve universities in Morocco and in three other institutions. In addition there are three more earth science research institutions. Earth science teaching has been taking place since 1957. The degree system is a four-year degree, split into two two-year blocks and geology is taught within the geology-biology programme for the first part of the degree. 'Classical' geology is taught in most universities, although applied geology degrees are also on offer in some universities. Recently-formed technical universities offer a more innovative approach to Earth Science Education. Teaching is in French, although school education is in Arabic. There is a need for a reform of the curriculum, although a lead is being taken by the technical universities. A new geological mapping programme promises new geological and mining discoveries in the country and prospects of employment for geology graduates.

  11. The Search for Another Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    /fulltext/reso/021/07/0641-0652. Keywords. Stars, planets, planetary systems, detection. Abstract. Is there life anywhere else in the vast cosmos?Are there planets similar to the Earth? For centuries,these questions baffled ...

  12. Earth Charter and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter presents Earth Charter, where are listed the principles in 4 sections: 1) respect and take care of the life community; 2) environmental integrity; social and economic welfare; 4) democracy, no-violence and peace

  13. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  14. A umbrella for the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzig, R.

    2009-01-01

    In front of the global warming threat, the 'geo-engineers' foresee some solutions to change the climate of the Earth, like for instance, by hiding part of the solar radiation. Among the solutions one can notice: the injection of sulfur dioxide in the stratosphere, the artificial generation of clouds using sea fog generators, or the putting into orbit of disc-shape screens creating a 100000 km x 12000 km elliptical 'umbrella' between the sun and the Earth. (J.S.)

  15. Rare earth metal alloy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, I.R.; Evans, J.M.; Nyholm, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth metal alloy magnets and to methods for their production. The technique is based on the fact that rare earth metal alloys (for e.g. cerium or yttrium) which have been crumbled to form a powder by hydride formation and decomposition can be used for the fabrication of magnets without the disadvantages inherent in alloy particle size reduction by mechanical milling. (UK)

  16. Rare-earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  17. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  18. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  19. Next-generation Digital Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Michael F; Guo, Huadong; Annoni, Alessandro; Bian, Ling; de Bie, Kees; Campbell, Frederick; Craglia, Max; Ehlers, Manfred; van Genderen, John; Jackson, Davina; Lewis, Anthony J; Pesaresi, Martino; Remetey-Fülöpp, Gábor; Simpson, Richard; Skidmore, Andrew; Wang, Changlin; Woodgate, Peter

    2012-07-10

    A speech of then-Vice President Al Gore in 1998 created a vision for a Digital Earth, and played a role in stimulating the development of a first generation of virtual globes, typified by Google Earth, that achieved many but not all the elements of this vision. The technical achievements of Google Earth, and the functionality of this first generation of virtual globes, are reviewed against the Gore vision. Meanwhile, developments in technology continue, the era of "big data" has arrived, the general public is more and more engaged with technology through citizen science and crowd-sourcing, and advances have been made in our scientific understanding of the Earth system. However, although Google Earth stimulated progress in communicating the results of science, there continue to be substantial barriers in the public's access to science. All these factors prompt a reexamination of the initial vision of Digital Earth, and a discussion of the major elements that should be part of a next generation.

  20. Advancing the fundamental sciences: proceedings of the Forest Service National Earth Sciences Conference, San Diego, CA, 18-22 October 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Furniss; Catherine F. Clifton; Kathryn L. Ronnenberg

    2007-01-01

    This conference was attended by nearly 450 Forest Service earth scientists representing hydrology, soil science, geology, and air. In addition to active members of the earth science professions, many retired scientists also attended and participated. These 60 peer-reviewed papers represent a wide spectrum of earth science investigation, experience, research, and...

  1. Redox reactions in rare earth chloride molten electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhlov, V.A.; Novoselova, A.V.; Nikolaeva, E.V.; Tkacheva, O.Yu.; Salyulev, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Rare earth (REM, Ln) solutions in chloride melts including MCI+LnCl 3 mixtures, where M - alkali metals, were investigated by potentiometry, voltammetry, conductometry in wide concentration and temperature intervals. Findings present complete and trusty information on the valent state of rare earths, structure and composition of complex ions affecting essentially on properties of electrolytes. It is demonstrated that the coexistence of rare earth ions with different oxidation level formed as a result of possible redox reactions: 2Ln 3+ + Ln ↔3Ln 2+ , Ln 2+ + Ln↔2Ln + and nM + + Ln↔nM + Ln n+ appears sharply in thermodynamic and transport properties of molten Ln-LnCl 3 and Ln-LnCl 3 -MCl systems [ru

  2. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  3. Near-Earth Object Survey Simulation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Shantanu P.; Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, Davide

    2017-10-01

    There is a significant interest in Near-Earth objects (NEOs) because they pose an impact threat to Earth, offer valuable scientific information, and are potential targets for robotic and human exploration. The number of NEO discoveries has been rising rapidly over the last two decades with over 1800 being discovered last year, making the total number of known NEOs >16000. Pan-STARRS and the Catalina Sky Survey are currently the most prolific NEO surveys, having discovered >1600 NEOs between them in 2016. As next generation surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed Near-Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) become operational in the next decade, the discovery rate is expected to increase tremendously. Coordination between various survey telescopes will be necessary in order to optimize NEO discoveries and create a unified global NEO discovery network. We are collaborating on a community-based, open-source software project to simulate asteroid surveys to facilitate such coordination and develop strategies for improving discovery efficiency. Our effort so far has focused on development of a fast and efficient tool capable of accepting user-defined asteroid population models and telescope parameters such as a list of pointing angles and camera field-of-view, and generating an output list of detectable asteroids. The software takes advantage of the widely used and tested SPICE library and architecture developed by NASA’s Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (Acton, 1996) for saving and retrieving asteroid trajectories and camera pointing. Orbit propagation is done using OpenOrb (Granvik et al. 2009) but future versions will allow the user to plug in a propagator of their choice. The software allows the simulation of both ground-based and space-based surveys. Performance is being tested using the Grav et al. (2011) asteroid population model and the LSST simulated survey “enigma_1189”.

  4. Earth-Base: A Free And Open Source, RESTful Earth Sciences Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor, P.; Heim, N. A.; Peters, S. E.; McClennen, M.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes the motivation, concept, and architecture behind Earth-Base, a web-based, RESTful data-management, analysis and visualization platform for earth sciences data. Traditionally web applications have been built directly accessing data from a database using a scripting language. While such applications are great at bring results to a wide audience, they are limited in scope to the imagination and capabilities of the application developer. Earth-Base decouples the data store from the web application by introducing an intermediate "data application" tier. The data application's job is to query the data store using self-documented, RESTful URIs, and send the results back formatted as JavaScript Object Notation (JSON). Decoupling the data store from the application allows virtually limitless flexibility in developing applications, both web-based for human consumption or programmatic for machine consumption. It also allows outside developers to use the data in their own applications, potentially creating applications that the original data creator and app developer may not have even thought of. Standardized specifications for URI-based querying and JSON-formatted results make querying and developing applications easy. URI-based querying also allows utilizing distributed datasets easily. Companion mechanisms for querying data snapshots aka time-travel, usage tracking and license management, and verification of semantic equivalence of data are also described. The latter promotes the "What You Expect Is What You Get" (WYEIWYG) principle that can aid in data citation and verification.

  5. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  6. EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by

  7. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    1999-01-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-α A )/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when α A →1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit

  8. Improving the wide resonance approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboustta, Mohamed A.; Martinez, Aquilino S

    1999-03-01

    A resonance is considered wide if its practical width, in energy, exceeds the average energy loss per collision, E(1-{alpha}{sub A})/2, of the absorbing material. When the mass number, A, is taken infinite, the scattering produces only a change in the direction of motion of the neutron and not in its energy. Based on this assumption, the integral in the slowing-down equation describing the contribution of the resonant absorber is evaluated by taking its limit when {alpha}{sub A}{yields}1. This work questions the necessity to take such a limit and shows that it is still possible to obtain a simple and more accurate expression for the integral without taking such limit.

  9. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  10. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , ∼ 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ''Sun-Earth Connections'' science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science

  11. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.

    1995-05-01

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  12. Foucault and the rotation of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommeria, Joël

    2017-11-01

    In February 1851, Léon Foucault published in the Comptes rendus his famous pendulum experiment performed at the "Observatoire de Paris". This ended two centuries of quest for an experimental demonstration of Earth rotation. One month later, the experiment was reproduced at larger scale in the Panthéon and, as early as the summer of 1851, it was being repeated in many places across the world. The next year, Foucault invented the gyroscope to get a still more direct proof of Earth rotation. The theory relied on the masterpiece treatise of Laplace on celestial mechanics, published in 1805, which already contained the mathematical expression of the force that would be discovered by Gustave Coriolis 30 years later. The idea of a fictitious inertial force proposed by Coriolis prevailed by the end of 19th century, as it was conceptually simpler than Laplace's approach. The full theory of the Foucault pendulum, taking into account its unavoidable imperfections, was not obtained until three decades later by Kamerlingh Onnes, the future discoverer of liquid helium and superconductivity. Today, Foucault's exceptional creativity is still a source of inspiration for research and the promotion of science through experimental proofs widely available to the public.

  13. Earth observation open science and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubrecht, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. Over  the  past  decades,  rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such  as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to monitor our planet and transforming the  way we access, process and exploit Earth Observation data from satellites. This book reviews these megatrends and their implications for the Earth Observation community as well as the wider data economy. It provides insight into new paradigms of Open Science and Innovation applied to space data, which are characterized by openness, access to large volume of complex data, wide availability of new community tools, new techniques for big data analytics such as Artificial Intelligence, unprecedented level of computing power, and new types of collaboration among researchers, innovators, entrepreneurs and citizen scientists. In addition, this book aims to provide reade...

  14. Nuclear methods: applications to Earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The discovery of radioactivity phenomenon occurred almost 100 years ago, in 1896, and constituted the base for new perspectives in many disciplines, including the Earth sciences. The initial works in this field, during the first quarter of the Century, established that the series of radioactive decay of long lifetime Uranium 238, Uranium 235 and Thorium 232 present radioactive isotopes of several elements which are physically and chemically different. The chemical differentiation of the Earth during its evolution has concentrated in the crust the major part of the radioactive materials. The application of radioactive in balance which occur as a consequence of chemical and physical differences, has evolve quickly, and the utilization of natural radioactive isotopes can be detach in two major headings: geologic clocks and tracers. The applications cover a wide spectra of geological, oceanographical, volcanic, hydrological, paleoclimatic and archaeological problems. In this paper, a description of radioactive phenomenon is presented, as well as the chemical and physical properties of the natural radioactive elements, the measurement methods and, finally, some examples of the uses in chronology and as radioactive tracers will be presented, doing an emphasis of some results obtained in Mexico. (Author)

  15. A Governance Roadmap and Framework for EarthCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    EarthCube is a process and an outcome, established to transform the conduct of research through the development of community-guided cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences as the prototype for potential deployment across all domain sciences. EarthCube aims to create a knowledge management system and infrastructure that integrates all Earth system and human dimensions data in an open transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube requires broad community participation in concept, framework, and implementation and must not be hindered by rigid preconceptions. We discovered widely varying interpretations, expectations, and assumptions about governance among EarthCube participants. Our definition of governance refers to the processes, structure and organizational elements that determine, within an organization or system of organizations, how power is exercised, how stakeholders have their say, how decisions are made, and how decision makers are held accountable. We have learned, from historic infrastructure case studies, background research on governance and from community feedback during this roadmap process, that other types of large-scale, complex infrastructures, including the Internet, have no central control, administration, or management. No national infrastructure that we examined is governed by a single entity, let alone a single governance archetype. Thus we feel the roadmap process must accommodate a governance system or system of systems that may have a single governing entity, particularly at the start, but can evolve into a collective of governing bodies as warranted, in order to be successful. A fast-track process during Spring, 2012 culminated in a Governance Roadmap delivered to an NSF-sponsored charrette in June with an aggressive timetable to define and implement a governance structure to enable the elements of EarthCube to become operational expeditiously. Our goal is to help ensure the realization of this infrastructure sooner, more efficiently, and

  16. Towards Big Earth Data Analytics: The EarthServer Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Big Data in the Earth sciences, the Tera- to Exabyte archives, mostly are made up from coverage data whereby the term "coverage", according to ISO and OGC, is defined as the digital representation of some space-time varying phenomenon. Common examples include 1-D sensor timeseries, 2-D remote sensing imagery, 3D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geology data, and 4-D x/y/z/t atmosphere and ocean data. Analytics on such data requires on-demand processing of sometimes significant complexity, such as getting the Fourier transform of satellite images. As network bandwidth limits prohibit transfer of such Big Data it is indispensable to devise protocols allowing clients to task flexible and fast processing on the server. The EarthServer initiative, funded by EU FP7 eInfrastructures, unites 11 partners from computer and earth sciences to establish Big Earth Data Analytics. One key ingredient is flexibility for users to ask what they want, not impeded and complicated by system internals. The EarthServer answer to this is to use high-level query languages; these have proven tremendously successful on tabular and XML data, and we extend them with a central geo data structure, multi-dimensional arrays. A second key ingredient is scalability. Without any doubt, scalability ultimately can only be achieved through parallelization. In the past, parallelizing code has been done at compile time and usually with manual intervention. The EarthServer approach is to perform a samentic-based dynamic distribution of queries fragments based on networks optimization and further criteria. The EarthServer platform is comprised by rasdaman, an Array DBMS enabling efficient storage and retrieval of any-size, any-type multi-dimensional raster data. In the project, rasdaman is being extended with several functionality and scalability features, including: support for irregular grids and general meshes; in-situ retrieval (evaluation of database queries on existing archive structures, avoiding data

  17. Smarter Earth Science Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The explosive growth in Earth observational data in the recent decade demands a better method of interoperability across heterogeneous systems. The Earth science data system community has mastered the art in storing large volume of observational data, but it is still unclear how this traditional method scale over time as we are entering the age of Big Data. Indexed search solutions such as Apache Solr (Smiley and Pugh, 2011) provides fast, scalable search via keyword or phases without any reasoning or inference. The modern search solutions such as Googles Knowledge Graph (Singhal, 2012) and Microsoft Bing, all utilize semantic reasoning to improve its accuracy in searches. The Earth science user community is demanding for an intelligent solution to help them finding the right data for their researches. The Ontological System for Context Artifacts and Resources (OSCAR) (Huang et al., 2012), was created in response to the DARPA Adaptive Vehicle Make (AVM) programs need for an intelligent context models management system to empower its terrain simulation subsystem. The core component of OSCAR is the Environmental Context Ontology (ECO) is built using the Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) (Raskin and Pan, 2005). This paper presents the current data archival methodology within a NASA Earth science data centers and discuss using semantic web to improve the way we capture and serve data to our users.

  18. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshen, J. [Lucent Technologies (United States); Drake, G. [New Mexico Dept. of Corrections, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Spencer, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  19. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  20. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  1. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  2. Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun-Earth

  3. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  4. Revolutions that made the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...

  5. An abundance of small exoplanets around stars with a wide range of metallicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Johansen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of the host stars of 226 small exoplanet candidates discovered by NASAs Kepler mission, including objects that are comparable in size to the terrestrial planets in the Solar System. We find that planets with radii less than four Earth radii form around host stars with a wide range of metallicities (but...

  6. Free oscillation of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abedini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available   This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth.   We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.

  7. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  8. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  9. Setting to earth for computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego V, Luis Eduardo; Montana Ch, Johny Hernan; Tovar P, Andres Fernando; Amortegui, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    The program GMT allows the analysis of setting to earth for tensions DC and AC (of low frequency) of diverse configurations composed by cylindrical electrodes interconnected, in a homogeneous land or stratified (two layers). This analysis understands among other aspects: calculation of the setting resistance to earth, elevation of potential of the system (GPR), calculation of current densities in the conductors, potentials calculation in which point on the land surface (profile and surfaces), tensions calculation in passing and of contact, also, it carries out the interpretation of resistivity measures for Wenner and Schlumberger methods, finding a model of two layers

  10. Unit 148 - World Wide Web Basics

    OpenAIRE

    148, CC in GIScience; Yeung, Albert K.

    2000-01-01

    This unit explains the characteristics and the working principles of the World Wide Web as the most important protocol of the Internet. Topics covered in this unit include characteristics of the World Wide Web; using the World Wide Web for the dissemination of information on the Internet; and using the World Wide Web for the retrieval of information from the Internet.

  11. Rare earths and rare earth alloys electrolytic preparation process and device for this process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, F.; Barthole, G.

    1986-01-01

    Electrolysis of a molten salt of rare earth or rare earth alloy for preparation of the metal or alloy is described. The molten salt bath comprises at least a rare earth chloride, at least an alkaline or alkaline earth chloride and at least an alkaline or alkaline earth fluoride [fr

  12. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  13. Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

  14. The solar wind and the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, I.; Kamide, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The sun constantly emits an enormous amount of radiation into space. This energy emission consists of three modes. Almost all the energy is emitted in the form of familiar sunlight but sun also emits X-rays, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and UV radiation, which is absorbed above the earth's stratosphere, as a second mode of solar energy. The sun has made another important mode of energy emission in which the energy is carried out by charged particles. These particles have a bery wide range of energies, from less than 1 keV to more than 1 GeV. Because of this wide range, it is convenient to group them into two components: particles, with energies greater than 10 keV and the lower-energy particles. The former are generally referred to as solar portions or solar cosmic rays; their emission is associated with active features on the sun. Low-energy particles constitute plasma which is called the solar wind

  15. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  16. Terrestrial planet formation in the presence of migrating super-Earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izidoro, André; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.

    2014-01-01

    Super-Earths with orbital periods less than 100 days are extremely abundant around Sun-like stars. It is unlikely that these planets formed at their current locations. Rather, they likely formed at large distances from the star and subsequently migrated inward. Here we use N-body simulations to study the effect of super-Earths on the accretion of rocky planets. In our simulations, one or more super-Earths migrate inward through a disk of planetary embryos and planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk. We tested a wide range of migration speeds and configurations. Fast-migrating super-Earths (τ mig ∼ 0.01-0.1 Myr) only have a modest effect on the protoplanetary embryos and planetesimals. Sufficient material survives to form rocky, Earth-like planets on orbits exterior to the super-Earths'. In contrast, slowly migrating super-Earths shepherd rocky material interior to their orbits and strongly deplete the terrestrial planet-forming zone. In this situation any Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone are extremely volatile-rich and are therefore probably not Earth-like.

  17. The Greatest Show on Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: life on earth had evolved ... over long epochs, the pace of change was infinitesimal. ... Thanks to the work of the Japanese theoreti- cian Motoo ... pleasure-minus-expenditure balance is posi- tive. This way of ...

  18. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  19. Earth Day 2012: Greening Government

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-19

    This podcast describes sustainability efforts at CDC in relation to Earth Day celebrations and details agency greenhouse gas reduction strategies and successes.  Created: 4/19/2012 by Office of the Chief Operating Officer (OCOO)/ Chief Sustainability Office (CSO).   Date Released: 4/23/2012.

  20. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  1. Studying the Earth from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Space age technology contains a key to increased knowledge about the Earth's resources; this key is remote sensing detecting the nature or condition of something without actually touching it. An early and still most useful form of remote sensing is photography which records the

  2. A journey through Earth climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Brunet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The author proposes a history of climates all along Earth's history, describes how cold and warm periods have been alternating during these billions of years. He also tries to highlight lessons learned from this long evolution of climate in order to better understand the current global warming. He discusses whether this disruption is unique in Earth's history, and how it threatens our environment and therefore our survival. The chapters describe how Earth could escape a global glaciation, the thermal regulation by greenhouse effect gases in a world without oxygen, the empowerment of oxygen and the first thermal accident, a new oxygenated and warm world, the second accident or how Earth entered and escaped from periods of total glaciation, the possible stabilisation, the succession of deregulations, crisis and extinctions, the slow way down to the cold, the various paleo-indicators during the Quaternary, the high frequency oscillations of climate during the last million of years, and the uncertain projections

  3. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  4. The Earth as a Polder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the resources of the earth as a whole will .... tion of land and underground water sources as a ... oil; the different visions and desires of old and .... the world, one showing its political hot spots, ... Guns, Germs, and Steel, and The Rise and.

  5. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  6. Lessons from Earth's Deep Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    Earth is a repository of data on climatic changes from its deep-time history. Article discusses the collection and study of these data to predict future climatic changes, the need to create national study centers for the purpose, and the necessary cooperation between different branches of science in climatic research.

  7. Refresher Course on Earth Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information and Announcements ... Introduction: Geoscience education in India is in the throes of a serious crisis and any paradigm ... considerations: geology needs to be taught as an earth system science, linked with cognate ... viable and employment-generating management of natural resources: the global trend of.

  8. Paleoseismology: evidence of earth activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 5 (2016), 1467-1469 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Paleoseismology * Colluvial wedge * White Creek Fault _ * Greendale Fault * San Andreas Fault * Paganica Fault Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.283, year: 2016

  9. The two earths of Eratosthenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Christián Carlos; Evans, James

    2015-03-01

    In the third century B.C.E., Eratosthenes of Cyrene made a famous measurement of the circumference of the Earth. This was not the first such measurement, but it is the earliest for which significant details are preserved. Cleomedes gives a short account of Eratosthenes' method, his numerical assumptions, and the final result of 250,000 stades. However, many ancient sources attribute to Eratosthenes a result of 252,000 stades. Historians have attempted to explain the second result by supposing that Eratosthenes later made better measurements and revised his estimate or that the original result was simply rounded to 252,000 to have a number conveniently divisible by 60 or by 360. These explanations are speculative and untestable. However, Eratosthenes' estimates of the distances of the Sun and Moon from the Earth are preserved in the doxographical literature. This essay shows that Eratosthenes' result of 252,000 stades for the Earth's circumference follows from a solar distance that is attributed to him. Thus it appears that Eratosthenes computed not only a lower limit for the size of the Earth, based on the assumption that the Sun is at infinity, but also an upper limit, based on the assumption that the Sun is at a finite distance. The essay discusses the consequences for our understanding of his program.

  10. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  11. Rare earths: occurrence, production and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.K.S.; Mukherjee, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    The mining and processing of rare earth minerals, particularly of monazite, began in a modest way in 1880s for commercialized production of mantle for gas lighting. For all major applications up to mid-twentieth century- production of lighter flints, misch metal as a metallurgical alloying agent, colouring, decolourizing and polishing agents for glass, petroleum cracking catalysts and arc-carbons, unseparated or partially separated rare earths were adequate. These applications continue till today. With the development and industrial application of powerful techniques like ion exchange and solvent extraction for the separation of rare earths, the decades after 1960 saw increasing utilization of the specific properties of the individual rare earths. Some of these advanced technological applications include: special glass for optical systems including camera lenses, phosphors for colour television, cathode ray tubes and fluorescent lighting, X-ray intensification screens, high intensity permanent magnets, electro optical devices, lasers, hydrogen storage materials, hydride rechargeable batteries, photomagnetic data storage systems, autoexhaust catalysts, special ceramics of unusual toughness, artificial diamonds and nonpoisonous plastic colorants. The topics covered in the book include rare earths: their story identity, rare earth resources, processing of ores and recovery of mixed rare earths products, separation and purification of rare earths, nonmetallic applications of rare earths, rare earth metals: production and applications, rare earth alloys and their applications, analysis of rare earth, processing of rare earth resources in India by Indian Rare Earth Ltd. and availability and market conditions

  12. Development of an earth pressure model for design of earth retaining structures in piedmont soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that earth pressure in Piedmont residual soils is typically over estimated. Such estimates of earth pressure impact the design of earth retaining structures used on highway projects. Thus, the development of an appropriate...

  13. Behaviour of Rare Earth Elements during the Earth's core formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Pierre; Bouhifd, Mohamed Ali; Boyet, Maud; Hammouda, Tahar; Manthilake, Geeth

    2017-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are classified in the refractory group, which means that they have a high temperature condensation and their volatility-controlled fractionation is limited to high-temperature processes. Anomalies have been measured for Eu, Yb and Sm, which are the REE with the lowest condensation temperatures in CAIs and chondrules (e.g. [1]). REE are particularly abundant in the sulfides of enstatite chondrites, 100 to 1000 times the CI value [e.g. 2,3], proving that these elements are not strictly lithophile under extremely reducing conditions. However by investigating experimentally the impact of Earth's core formation on the behavior of Sm and Nd, we have shown the absence of fractionation between Sm and Nd during the segregation of the metallic phase [4]. Recently, Wohlers and Wood [5] proposed that Nd and Sm could be fractionated in presence of a S-rich alloy phase. However, their results were obtained at pressure and temperature conditions below the plausible conditions of the Earth's core formation. Clearly, large pressure range needs to be covered before well-constrained model can be expected. Furthermore, our preliminary metal-silicate partitioning results show that Ce and Eu have higher metal/silicate partition coefficients than their neighboring elements, and that the presence of sulphur enhances the relative difference between partition coefficients. In this presentation, we will present and discuss new metal-silicate partition coefficients of all REE at a deep magma ocean at pressures ranging from those of the uppermost upper mantle ( 5 GPa) to a maximum pressure expected in the range of 20 GPa, temperatures ranging from 2500 to about 3000 K, and oxygen fugacities within IW-1 to IW-5 (1 to 5 orders of magnitude lower than the iron-wüstite buffer). We will discuss the effect of S, as well as the effect of H2O on the behaviour of REE during the Earth's core formation: recent models suggest that contrary to currently accepted beliefs, the

  14. WAVE TECTONICS OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Yu. Tveretinova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Earth's lithosphere, wavy alternation of positive and negative heterochronous structures is revealed; such structures are variable in ranks and separated by vergence zones of fractures and folds. In the vertical profile of the lithosphere, alternating are layers characterized by relatively plastic or fragile rheological properties and distinguished by different states of stress. During the Earth’s evolution, epochs of compression and extension are cyclically repeated, including planetary-scale phenomena which are manifested by fluctuating changes of the planet’s volume. Migration of geological and geophysical (geodynamic processes takes place at the Earth's surface and in its interior. The concept of the wave structure and evolution of the Earth's lithosphere provides explanations to the abovementioned regularities. Wavy nature of tectonic structures of the lithosphere, the cyclic recurrence of migration and geological processes in space and time can be described in terms of the multiple-order wave geodynamics of the Earth's lithosphere that refers to periodical variations of the state of stress. Effects of structure-forming tectonic forces are determined by «interference» of tangential and radial stresses of the Earth. The tangential stresses, which occur primarily due to the rotational regime of the planet, cause transformations of the Earth’s shape, redistributions of its substance in depths, the westward drift of the rock mass in its upper levels, and changes of structural deformation plans. The radial stresses, which are largely impacted by gravity, determine the gravitational differentiation of the substance, vertical flattening and sub-horizontal flow of the rock masses, and associated fold-rupture deformation. Under the uniform momentum geodynamic concept proposed by [Vikulin, Tveritinova, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008], it is possible to provide consistent descriptions of seismic and volcanic, tectonic and geological processes

  15. EarthCube - Earth System Bridge: Spanning Scientific Communities with Interoperable Modeling Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, S. D.; DeLuca, C.; Gochis, D. J.; Arrigo, J.; Kelbert, A.; Choi, E.; Dunlap, R.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand and predict environmental hazards of weather/climate, ecology and deep earth processes, geoscientists develop and use physics-based computational models. These models are used widely both in academic and federal communities. Because of the large effort required to develop and test models, there is widespread interest in component-based modeling, which promotes model reuse and simplified coupling to tackle problems that often cross discipline boundaries. In component-based modeling, the goal is to make relatively small changes to models that make it easy to reuse them as "plug-and-play" components. Sophisticated modeling frameworks exist to rapidly couple these components to create new composite models. They allow component models to exchange variables while accommodating different programming languages, computational grids, time-stepping schemes, variable names and units. Modeling frameworks have arisen in many modeling communities. CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System) serves the academic earth surface process dynamics community, while ESMF (Earth System Modeling Framework) serves many federal Earth system modeling projects. Others exist in both the academic and federal domains and each satisfies design criteria that are determined by the community they serve. While they may use different interface standards or semantic mediation strategies, they share fundamental similarities. The purpose of the Earth System Bridge project is to develop mechanisms for interoperability between modeling frameworks, such as the ability to share a model or service component. This project has three main goals: (1) Develop a Framework Description Language (ES-FDL) that allows modeling frameworks to be described in a standard way so that their differences and similarities can be assessed. (2) Demonstrate that if a model is augmented with a framework-agnostic Basic Model Interface (BMI), then simple, universal adapters can go from BMI to a

  16. The Journal of Earth System Science Education: Peer Review for Digital Earth and Digital Library Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource

  17. Two main and a new type rare earth elements in Mg alloys: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys stand for the lightest structure engineering materials. Moreover, the strengthening of Mg alloys in ductility, toughness and corrosion predominates their wide applications. With adding rare earth elements in Mg, the mechanical properties will be improved remarkably, especially their plasticity and strength. A brief overview of the addition of rare earth elements for Mg alloys is shown. The basic mechanisms of strengthening Mg alloys with rare earth elements are reviewed, including the solid solution strengthening, grain refinement and long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase. Furthermore, the available rare earth elements are summarized by type, chemical or physical effects and other unique properties. Finally, some challenge problems that the research is facing and future expectations of ra-re-earth Mg alloys are stated and discussed.

  18. Crystal field symmetry and magnetic interactions in rare earth-silver amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappa, Catherine.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made of the following rare earth based amorphous alloys: Ndsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Prsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Gdsub(x)Agsub(100-x), Tlsub(x)Agsub(100-x). In rare earth based amorphous alloys, the symmetrical distribution of the crystal field is very wide and hence not very sensitive to the content of the alloys. The existence of preponderant negative magnetic interactions leads to an upset magnetic order, the magnetization of a small volume not being nil. The magnetic behaviour of alloys with a small concentration of rare earths is governed by the existence of clusters of statistical origin, within which a rare earth ion has at least one other rare earth ion in the position of first neighbour. The presence of a high anisotropy at low temperatures make the magnetic interactions between clusters inoperative [fr

  19. Integrating EarthScope Research and Education on a National Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Wallace, M. K.; Boyd, T.; Richard, G.; Ellins, K.; Meertens, C.; Semken, S.; Taber, J.; Benthien, M.; Wald, L.; Marvinney, R.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope's education and outreach mission is to ensure the EarthScope experiment creates as its legacy a public more knowledgeable and understanding of the scientific and societal contributions made by the EarthScope experiment and Earth science. It will fulfill this commitment by developing and disseminating products that utilize the data, models, technology and discoveries of EarthScope and that support existing education and outreach programs. EarthScope EON will carry out educational activities ranging from research experiences for students in grades K-16 to professional development for technical professionals and educators in both formal (e.g. K-20 classrooms) and informal (e.g. museums and parks) venues. It will also provide a wide range of outreach activities from organizing town halls or other local meetings in advance of an instrument deployment, to developing radio, print and video materials that inform the public about the EarthScope experiment and discoveries. The EarthScope Education and Outreach Network (EON) will be facilitated and coordinated through a national center; however, the bulk of the effort will be distributed among local EON alliances of various sizes designed to respond quickly and to meet the specific needs in a region. This allows EarthScope EON to provide customized services that engage culturally, economically and geographically diverse audiences at the national and local scales. The network will be built through national and local partnerships with existing science education and outreach programs at colleges, universities, research facilities and professional societies within the EarthScope community as well as relevant programs at museums and parks, state geologic surveys and emergency management agencies, and K-12 schools. These partnerships will allow EON to use existing resources, networks and expertise to gear up quickly and efficiently. As EON develops, it will reciprocate by contributing new resources and expertise to the

  20. Theoretical and Computational Studies of Rare Earth Substitutes: A Test-bed for Accelerated Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, Lorin X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Hard permanent magnets in wide use typically involve expensive Rare Earth elements. In this effort, we investigated candidate permanent magnet materials which contain no Rare Earths, while simultaneously exploring improvements in theoretical methodology which enable the better prediction of magnetic properties relevant for the future design and optimization of permanent magnets. This included a detailed study of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies, and the use of advanced simulation tools to better describe magnetic properties at elevated temperatures.

  1. Xe isotopic constraints on cycling of deep Earth volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The modern deep Earth volatile budget reflects primordial volatiles delivered during accretion, radiogenic ingrowth of volatile species (e.g., 40Ar produced by 40K decay), outgassing in association with mantle processing, and regassing via subduction. The noble gases are unique volatile tracers in that they are chemically inert, but are thought to be trapped within hydrous alteration phases in downwelling lithologies. Noble gases thus provide a tracer of volatile transport between the deep Earth and surface reservoirs. Constraints on the fluxes of noble gases between deep Earth and surface reservoirs over time can accordingly be used to provide insight into temperature conditions at subduction zones, limits on volatile cycling, and the evolving distribution of major volatile species in terrestrial reservoirs over time. Xe isotope systematics in mantle-derived rocks show that 80-90% of the mantle Xe budget is derived from recycling of atmospheric Xe, indicating that atmospheric Xe is retained in subducting slabs beyond depths of magma generation in subduction zones over Earth history. We present an integrated model of Xe cycling between the mantle and atmosphere in association with mantle processing over Earth history. We test a wide variety of outgassing and regassing rates and take the evolution of the atmospheric Xe isotopic composition [e.g., 1] into account. Models in which the deep Earth transitions from a net outgassing to net regassing regime best satisfy Xe isotopic constraints from mantle-derived rocks [2-6]. [1] Avice et al., 2017; Nature Communications, 8; [2] Mukhopadhyay, 2012, Nature 486, 101-104; [3] Parai et al., 2012, EPSL 359-360, 227-239; [4] Parai and Mukhopadhay, 2015, G-cubed 16, 719-735; [5] Peto et al., 2013, EPSL 369-370, 13-23; [6] Tucker et al., 2012, EPSL 355-356, 244-254.

  2. Magnetic Partitioning Nanofluid for Rare Earth Extraction from Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, Bernard P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, Praveen K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nune, Satish K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-08-21

    Rare earth metals are critical materials in a wide variety of applications in generating and storing renewable energy and in designing more energy efficient devices. Extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines is a very challenging problem due to the low concentrations of these elements and engineering challenges with traditional chemical separations methods involving packed sorbent beds or membranes that would impede large volumetric flow rates of geothermal fluids transitioning through the plant. We are demonstrating a simple and highly cost-effective nanofluid-based method for extracting rare earth metals from geothermal brines. Core-shell composite nanoparticles are produced that contain a magnetic iron oxide core surrounded by a shell made of silica or metal-organic framework (MOF) sorbent functionalized with chelating ligands selective for the rare earth elements. By introducing the nanoparticles at low concentration (≈0.05 wt%) into the geothermal brine after it passes through the plant heat exchanger, the brine is exposed to a very high concentration of chelating sites on the nanoparticles without need to pass through a large and costly traditional packed bed or membrane system where pressure drop and parasitic pumping power losses are significant issues. Instead, after a short residence time flowing with the brine, the particles are effectively separated out with an electromagnet and standard extraction methods are then applied to strip the rare earth metals from the nanoparticles, which are then recycled back to the geothermal plant. Recovery efficiency for the rare earths at ppm level has now been measured for both silica and MOF sorbents functionalized with a variety of chelating ligands. A detailed preliminary techno-economic performance analysis of extraction systems using both sorbents showed potential to generate a promising internal rate of return (IRR) up to 20%.

  3. EarthN: A new Earth System Nitrogen Model

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblatt, Colin; Johnson, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    The amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere, oceans, crust, and mantle have important ramifications for Earth’s biologic and geologic history. Despite this importance, the history and cycling of nitrogen in the Earth system is poorly constrained over time. For example, various models and proxies contrastingly support atmospheric mass stasis, net outgassing, or net ingassing over time. In addition, the amount available to and processing of nitrogen by organisms is intricately linked with and prov...

  4. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  5. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  6. Effect of Y2O3 Content on Microstructure of Gradient Bioceramic Composite Coating Produced by Wide-Band Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qibin; Zou Jianglong; Zheng Min; Dong Chuang

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate thermal stress and cracks in the process of laser cladding, a kind of bioceramic coating with gradient compositional design was prepared on the surface of Ti alloy by using wide-band laser cladding. And effect of Y2O3 content on gradient bioceramic composite coating was studied. The experimental results indicate that adding rare earth can refine grain. Different rare earth contents affect formation of HA and β-TCP in bioceramic coating. When the content of rare earth ranges from 0.4% to 0.6%, the active extent of rare earth in synthesizing HA and β-TCP is the best, which indicates that "monosodium glutamate" effect of rare earth plays a dominant role. However, when rare earth content is up to 0.8%, the amount of synthesizing HA and β-TCP in coating conversely goes down, which demonstrates that rare earth gradually losts its catalysis in manufacturing HA and β-TCP.

  7. Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.

    1975-01-01

    The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

  8. Early history of Earth's crust-mantle system inferred from hafnium isotopes in chondrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Haack, Henning; Rosing, M.

    2003-01-01

    for the chondrite-forming event. This ¿176 value indicates that Earth's oldest minerals were derived from melts of a mantle source with a time-integrated history of depletion rather than enrichment. The depletion event must have occurred no later than 320 Myr after planetary accretion, consistent with timing......The Lu to Hf decay series has been widely used to understand the nature of Earth's early crust-mantle system. The interpretation, however, of Lu-Hf isotope data requires accurate knowledge of the radioactive decay constant of Lu (¿176), as well as bulk-Earth reference parameters. A recent...

  9. Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation, the Directional Wide-Angle Range Finder (DWARF) is the creation of a laser range-finder with a wide field-of-view (FOV) and a directional...

  10. Formation of the wide asynchronous binary asteroid population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; McMahon, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new mechanism for the formation of the wide asynchronous binary population. These binary asteroids have wide semimajor axes relative to most near-Earth and main belt asteroid systems. Confirmed members have rapidly rotating primaries and satellites that are not tidally locked. Previously suggested formation mechanisms from impact ejecta, from planetary flybys, and directly from rotational fission events cannot satisfy all of the observations. The newly hypothesized mechanism works as follows: (1) these systems are formed from rotational fission, (2) their satellites are tidally locked, (3) their orbits are expanded by the binary Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (BYORP) effect, (4) their satellites desynchronize as a result of the adiabatic invariance between the libration of the secondary and the mutual orbit, and (5) the secondary avoids resynchronization because of the YORP effect. This seemingly complex chain of events is a natural pathway for binaries with satellites that have particular shapes, which define the BYORP effect torque that acts on the system. After detailing the theory, we analyze each of the wide asynchronous binary members and candidates to assess their most likely formation mechanism. Finally, we suggest possible future observations to check and constrain our hypothesis.

  11. Earth System Grid and EGI interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciazek, J.; Petitdidier, M.; Gemuend, A.; Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science data centers have developed a data grid called Earth Science Grid Federation (ESGF) to give the scientific community world wide access to CMIP5 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5) climate data. The CMIP5 data will permit to evaluate the impact of climate change in various environmental and societal areas, such as regional climate, extreme events, agriculture, insurance… The ESGF grid provides services like searching, browsing and downloading of datasets. At the security level, ESGF data access is protected by an authentication mechanism. An ESGF trusted X509 Short-Lived EEC certificate with the correct roles/attributes is required to get access to the data in a non-interactive way (e.g. from a worker node). To access ESGF from EGI (i.e. by earth science applications running on EGI infrastructure), the security incompatibility between the two grids is the challenge: the EGI proxy certificate is not ESGF trusted nor it contains the correct roles/attributes. To solve this problem, we decided to use a Credential Translation Service (CTS) to translate the EGI X509 proxy certificate into the ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate (the CTS will issue ESGF certificates based on EGI certificate authentication). From the end user perspective, the main steps to use the CTS are: the user binds his two identities (EGI and ESGF) together in the CTS using the CTS web interface (this steps has to be done only once) and then request an ESGF Short-Lived EEC certificate every time is needed, using a command-line tools. The implementation of the CTS is on-going. It is based on the open source MyProxy software stack, which is used in many grid infrastructures. On the client side, the "myproxy-logon" command-line tools is used to request the certificate translation. A new option has been added to "myproxy-logon" to select the original certificate (in our case, the EGI one). On the server side, MyProxy server operates in Certificate Authority mode, with a new module

  12. Life on Earth: From Chemicals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses experimental evidence for the existence of organic material in the solar system prior to the earth's formation. Indicates that the earth could have received much of its organic compounds from meteors falling on its primitive surface. (CC)

  13. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The alkaline earth borate glasses containing heavy metal oxides show good solubility of rare-earth ions. Glasses containing PbO exhibit low glass transition temperature (Tg) and high ..... These oxygen ions carry a partial negative charge and.

  14. Optical properties of alkaline earth borate glasses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... devices; radiation shields, surgical lasers and their glass ceramic counter ... Alkaline earth oxides improve glass forming capability while heavy metal ... reports on optical properties of MO-B2O3 glasses containing alkaline earth oxides.

  15. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  16. ``An Earth-Shaking Experience''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Joel

    2005-03-01

    Last month's annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco drew an estimated 11,000 scientists, teachers, journalists and geophysics groupies. The schedule of talks could be found in a bound volume as thick as a phone book. You never see a geophysicist in ordinary life, but apparently the world is crawling with them. They came to talk about everything from the ozone layer to the big wad of iron at the center of the Earth. Also about other planets. And magnetic fields. Solar wind. Water on Mars. To be at this convention was to be immersed to the eyebrows in scientific knowledge. It is intellectually fashionable to fetishize the unknown, but at AGU, a person will get the opposite feeling-that science is a voracious, relentless and tireless enterprise, and that soon there may not remain on this Earth an unturned stone.

  17. Tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The periodic variations of the earths' rotation resulting from the tidal deformation of the earth by the sun and moon were rederived including terms with amplitudes of 0.002 millisec and greater. The series applies to the mantle, crust, and oceans which rotate together for characteristic tidal periods; the scaling parameter is the ratio of the fraction of the Love number producing tidal variations in the moment of inertia of the coupled mantle and oceans (k) to the dimensionless polar moment of inertia of the coupled moments (C). The lunar laser ranging data shows that k/C at monthly and fortnightly frequencies equals 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 0.99 + or - 0.20 as compared to the theoretical value of 0.94 + or - 0.04.

  18. Solar influence on Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that variations in solar activity have had a significant influence on Earth's climate. However, the mechanisms responsible for a solar influence are still not known. One possibility is that atmospheric transparency is influenced by changing cloud properties...... and thereby influence the radiative properties of clouds. If the GCR-Cloud link is confirmed variations in galactic cosmic ray flux, caused by changes in solar activity and the space environment, could influence Earth's radiation budget....... via cosmic ray ionisation (the latter being modulated by solar activity). Support for this idea is found from satellite observations of cloud cover. Such data have revealed a striking correlation between the intensity of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and low liquid clouds (

  19. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  20. Rare earth industries: Upstream business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Evidently, many factors contribute to the rush to invest in the unprecedented revival of rare earths. One major reason has to do with the rapidly growing world demand. The other reason relates to the attractive price of rare earths which is projected to stay strong in the coming years. This is because supply is predicted to have difficulty keeping pace with demand. Experts believe a major driver of global rare earths demand is the forecasted expansion in the green economy. Climate change is a major driver of the green economy. With climate change, there is concern that the uncontrolled emission of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, can lead to catastrophic consequences for the world. This has been documented in countless studies and reports. Another important driver of the green economy is the growing shortfall in many resources. The world is now experiencing declines in key resources to meet a growing global demand. With more than 6 billion people now in the world and growing, the pressure exerted on global resources including energy, water and food is a major concern. Recent demand surge in China and India has dented the supply position of major world resources. The much quoted Stern Report from the UK has warned that, unless immediate steps are taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it may be a costly exercise to undertake the corrections later. Since energy use, especially fossil fuels, is a major contributor to climate change, greener options are being sought. Add to that the fact that the fossil energy resources of the world are declining, the need to seek alternatives becomes even more urgent. One option is to change to renewable energy sources. These include such potentials as solar, wind and biomass. Rare earths have somehow become a critical feature of the technologies in such renewable. Another option is to improve the efficient use of energy in transport, buildings and all the other energy intensive industries. Again the technologies in

  1. Earth-Space Link Attenuation Estimation via Ground Radar Kdp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Benjamin, Andrew L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.

  2. Uncovering the end uses of the rare earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Xiaoyue, E-mail: xiaoyue.du@empa.ch [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States); Graedel, T.E. [Yale University, 195 Prospect Street, New Haven CT 06511 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are a group of fifteen elements with unique properties that make them indispensable for a wide variety of emerging and conventional established technologies. However, quantitative knowledge of REE remains sparse, despite the current heightened interest in future availability of the resources. Mining is heavily concentrated in China, whose monopoly position and potential restriction of exports render primary supply vulnerable to short term disruption. We have drawn upon the published literature and unpublished materials in different languages to derive the first quantitative annual domestic production by end use of individual rare earth elements from 1995 to 2007. The information is illustrated in Sankey diagrams for the years 1995 and 2007. Other years are available in the supporting information. Comparing 1995 and 2007, the production of the rare earth elements in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. The information can provide a solid foundation for industries, academic institutions and governments to make decisions and develop strategies. - Highlights: • We have derived the first quantitative end use information of the rare earths (REE). • The results are for individual REE from 1995 to 2007. • The end uses of REE in China, Japan, and the US changed dramatically in quantities and structure. • This information can provide solid foundation for decision and strategy making.

  3. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  4. Earth's Paleomagnetosphere and Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Blackman, E. G.; Oda, H.; Bono, R. K.; Carroll-Nellenback, J.; Cottrell, R. D.; Nimmo, F.

    2017-12-01

    The geodynamo is thought to play an important role in protecting Earth's hydrosphere, vital for life as we know it, from loss due to the erosive potential of the solar wind. Here we consider the mechanisms and history of this shielding. A larger core dynamo magnetic field strength provides more pressure to abate the solar wind dynamic pressure, increasing the magnetopause radius. However, the larger magnetopause also implies a larger collecting area for solar wind flux during phases of magnetic reconnection. The important variable is not mass capture but energy transfer, which does not scale linearly with magnetosphere size. Moreover, the ordered field provides the magnetic topology for recapturing atmospheric components in the opposite hemisphere such that the net global loss might not be greatly affected. While a net protection role for magnetospheres is suggested, forcing by the solar wind will change with stellar age. Paleomagnetism utilizing the single silicate crystal approach, defines a relatively strong field some 3.45 billion years ago (the Paleoarchean), but with a reduced magnetopause of 5 Earth radii, implying the potential for some atmospheric loss. Terrestrial zircons from the Jack Hills (Western Australia) and other localities host magnetic inclusions, whose magnetization has now been recorded by a new generation of ultra-sensitive 3-component SQUID magnetometer (U. Rochester) and SQUID microscope (GSJ/AIST). Paleointensity data suggest the presence of a terrestrial dynamo and magnetic shielding for Eoarchean to Hadean times, at ages as old as 4.2 billion years ago. However, the magnetic data suggest that for intervals >100,000 years long, magnetopause standoff distances may have reached 3 to 4 Earth radii or less. The early inception of the geodynamo, which probably occurred shortly after the lunar-forming impact, its continuity, and an early robust hydrosphere, appear to be key ingredients for Earth's long-term habitability.

  5. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  6. Physics of the earth crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauterbach, R.

    1977-01-01

    This book deals in 12 chapters, amongst other things, with the subjects: Structure of the crust and the upper earth mantle, geology and geophysics of sea beds, satellite and aero-methods of geophysics, state of the art of geothermal research, geophysical potential fields and their anomalies, applied seismology, electrical methods of geophysics, geophysics in engineering and rock engineering, borehole geophysics, petrophysics, and geochemistry. (RW) [de

  7. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  8. Metallothermic reduction of rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rare earth oxides can be reduced to rare earth metals by a novel, high yield, metallothermic process. The oxides are dispersed in a suitable, molten, calcium chloride bath along with sodium metal. The sodium reacts with the calcium chloride to produce calcium metal which reduces the rare earth oxides to rare earth metals. The metals are collected in a discrete layer in the reaction vessel

  9. Rare earth-iron-boron premanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendehari, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnets containing added rare earth oxide, comprising the steps of: (a) mixing a particulate alloy containing at least one rare earth metal, iron, and boron with at least one particulate rare earth oxide; (b) aligning magnetic domains of the mixture in a magnetic field; (c) compacting the aligned mixture to form a shape; and (d) sintering the compacted shape

  10. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  11. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for the 3D Visualization of Integrated Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, David; Moreland, John; Baru, Chaitan; Crosby, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Data integration is increasingly important as we strive to combine data from disparate sources and assemble better models of the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. These data are often large, multi-dimensional, and subject to differing conventions for data structures, file formats, coordinate spaces, and units of measure. When visualized, these data require differing, and sometimes conflicting, conventions for visual representations, dimensionality, symbology, and interaction. All of this makes the visualization of integrated Earth science data particularly difficult. The OpenEarth Framework (OEF) is an open-source data integration and visualization suite of applications and libraries being developed by the GEON project at the University of California, San Diego, USA. Funded by the NSF, the project is leveraging virtual globe technology from NASA's WorldWind to create interactive 3D visualization tools that combine and layer data from a wide variety of sources to create a holistic view of features at, above, and beneath the Earth's surface. The OEF architecture is open, cross-platform, modular, and based upon Java. The OEF's modular approach to software architecture yields an array of mix-and-match software components for assembling custom applications. Available modules support file format handling, web service communications, data management, user interaction, and 3D visualization. File parsers handle a variety of formal and de facto standard file formats used in the field. Each one imports data into a general-purpose common data model supporting multidimensional regular and irregular grids, topography, feature geometry, and more. Data within these data models may be manipulated, combined, reprojected, and visualized. The OEF's visualization features support a variety of conventional and new visualization techniques for looking at topography, tomography, point clouds, imagery, maps, and feature geometry. 3D data such as

  12. Rare-earth doped boron nitride nanotubes: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de, E-mail: wellingtonmarcos@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen atoms with the chemical formula BN. This structure exists in various crystalline forms that are isoelectronic to a similarly structured carbon lattice. The hexagonal form (h-BN) corresponding to graphite is the most stable and soft among BN polymorph. However, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were first time synthesized in 1995 [1] and have a type of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Recently the BNNTs have attracted significant interest for scientific and technological applications due to their Wide bandgap. The Wide-bandgap semiconductors doped with rare-earth are considered as a new type of luminescent material, combining special Wide bandgap semiconducting properties with the rare-earth luminescence feature. BNNTs have a stable wide bandgap of 5.5 eV and super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make BNNTs an ideal nanosized luminescent material [2]. In this study, we report a simple and efficient route for the synthesis of BNNTs doped with samarium and europium. High quality BNNTs doped was produced via CVD technique using NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gases as source. Boron amorphous, catalyst and oxides rare-earth powder were used as precursor. Detailed studies involving energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were performed in order to characterize the BNNTs as grown. [1] Chopra, N. G.; Luyken, R. J. et al. Science, v. 269, p. 966-967, 1995. [2] Chen, H.; Chen, Y. et al. Adv. Matter. v. 19, p. 1845-1848, 2007. (author)

  13. Rare-earth doped boron nitride nanotubes: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Wellington Marcos; Sousa, Edesia Martins Barros de

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen atoms with the chemical formula BN. This structure exists in various crystalline forms that are isoelectronic to a similarly structured carbon lattice. The hexagonal form (h-BN) corresponding to graphite is the most stable and soft among BN polymorph. However, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were first time synthesized in 1995 [1] and have a type of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Recently the BNNTs have attracted significant interest for scientific and technological applications due to their Wide bandgap. The Wide-bandgap semiconductors doped with rare-earth are considered as a new type of luminescent material, combining special Wide bandgap semiconducting properties with the rare-earth luminescence feature. BNNTs have a stable wide bandgap of 5.5 eV and super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make BNNTs an ideal nanosized luminescent material [2]. In this study, we report a simple and efficient route for the synthesis of BNNTs doped with samarium and europium. High quality BNNTs doped was produced via CVD technique using NH 3 and N 2 gases as source. Boron amorphous, catalyst and oxides rare-earth powder were used as precursor. Detailed studies involving energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were performed in order to characterize the BNNTs as grown. [1] Chopra, N. G.; Luyken, R. J. et al. Science, v. 269, p. 966-967, 1995. [2] Chen, H.; Chen, Y. et al. Adv. Matter. v. 19, p. 1845-1848, 2007. (author)

  14. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  15. Rare earth niobate coordination polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Collin N.; Patel, Hiral; Fast, Dylan B.; Rohwer, Lauren E. S.; Reinheimer, Eric W.; Dolgos, Michelle; Graham, Matt W.; Nyman, May

    2018-03-01

    Rare-earth (RE) coordination polymers are infinitely tailorable to yield luminescent materials for various applications. Here we described the synthesis of a heterometallic rare-earth coordination compound ((CH3)2SO)3(RE)NbO(C2O4)3((CH3)2SO) = dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, (C2O2= oxalate), (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb). The structure was obtained from single crystal X-ray diffraction of the La analogue. The Nb˭O and DMSO terminal-bonding character guides assembly of an open framework structure with noncentrosymmetric RE-coordination geometry, and large spacing between the RE centers. A second structure was observed by PXRD for the smaller rare earths (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb); this structure has not yet been determined. The materials were further characterized using FTIR, and photoluminescence measurements. Characteristic excitation and emission transitions were observed for RE = Nd, Sm, Eu, and Tb. Quantum yield (QY) measurements were performed by exciting Eu and Tb analoges at 394 nm (QY 66%) and 464 nm (QY 71%) for Eu; and 370 nm (QY=40%) for Tb. We attribute the high QY and bright luminescence to two main structure-function properties of the system; namely the absence of water in the structure, and absence of concentration quenching.

  16. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  17. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, P.; Boyd, D. S.; Danson, F. M.; Donoghue, D. N. M.; Ferrier, G.; Galiatsatos, N.; Marsh, A.; Pope, A.; Ramirez, F. A.; Tate, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth Observation Technology Cluster is a knowledge exchange initiative, promoting development, understanding and communication about innovative technology used in remote sensing of the terrestrial or land surface. This initiative provides an opportunity for presentation of novel developments from, and cross-fertilisation of ideas between, the many and diverse members of the terrestrial remote sensing community. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster involves a range of knowledge exchange activities, including organisation of technical events, delivery of educational materials, publication of scientific findings and development of a coherent terrestrial EO community. The initiative as a whole covers the full range of remote sensing operation, from new platform and sensor development, through image retrieval and analysis, to data applications and environmental modelling. However, certain topical and strategic themes have been selected for detailed investigation: (1) Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles, (2) Terrestrial Laser Scanning, (3) Field-Based Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, (4) Hypertemporal Image Analysis, and (5) Circumpolar and Cryospheric Application. This paper presents general activities and achievements of the Earth Observation Technology Cluster, and reviews state-of-the-art developments in the five specific thematic areas.

  19. Process for lead removal from rare earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollat, A.; Sabot, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    An aqueous solution of rare earth chlorides and lead chlorides, with a chloride concentration of at least 2 moles/liter and a pH between 2 and 4, is extracted by an alkylphosphonic acid ester and rare earth(s) is (are) recovered from the organic phase [fr

  20. Dimension of the Earth's general ellipsoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Raděj, K.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2002), s. 31-41 ISSN 0167-9295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Earth's dimensions * Earth's ellipsoid * fundamental constants Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2002

  1. In the Red Shadow of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Hosokawa, Kazuyuki; Carroll, Joshua; Sawell, David; Wilson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A technique is described for calculating the brightness of the atmosphere of the Earth that shines into the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse making the Moon red. This "Rim of Fire" is due to refracted unscattered light from all the sunrises and sunsets rimming the Earth. In this article, a photograph of the totally eclipsed…

  2. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  3. Earth Systems Science: An Analytic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Fred N.; Nam, Younkeyong; Oughton, John

    2011-01-01

    Earth Systems Science (ESS) is emerging rapidly as a discipline and is being used to replace the older earth science education that has been taught as unrelated disciplines--geology, meteorology, astronomy, and oceanography. ESS is complex and is based on the idea that the earth can be understood as a set of interacting natural and social systems.…

  4. WAMDII: The Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of an effort to learn more about the upper atmosphere and how it is linked to the weather experienced each day, NASA and NRCC are jointly sponsoring the Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII) Mission. WAMDII will measure atmospheric temperature and wind speed in the upper atmosphere. In addition to providing data on the upper atmosphere, the wind speed and temperature readings WAMDII takes will also be highly useful in developing and updating computer simulated models of the upper atmosphere. These models are used in the design and testing of equipment and software for Shuttles, satellites, and reentry vehicles. In making its wind speed and temperature measurements, WAMDII examines the Earth's airglow, a faint photochemical luminescence caused by the influx of solar ultraviolet energy into the upper atmosphere. During periods of high solar flare activity, the amount of this UV energy entering the upper atmosphere increases, and this increase may effect airglow emissions.

  5. A Governance Roadmap and Framework for EarthCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Steering Committee, EarthCube

    2013-04-01

    EarthCube is a process and an outcome, established to transform the conduct of research through the development of community-guided cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences as the prototype for potential deployment across all domain sciences. EarthCube aims to create a knowledge management system and infrastructure that integrates all Earth system and human dimensions data in an open transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube requires broad community participation in concept, framework, and implementation and must not be hindered by rigid preconceptions. We discovered widely varying interpretations, expectations, and assumptions about governance among EarthCube participants. Our definition of governance refers to the processes, structure and organizational elements that determine, within an organization or system of organizations, how power is exercised, how stakeholders have their say, how decisions are made, and how decision makers are held accountable. We have learned, from historic infrastructure case studies, background research on governance and from community feedback during this roadmap process, that other types of large-scale, complex infrastructures, including the Internet, have no central control, administration, or management. No national infrastructure that we examined is governed by a single entity, let alone a single governance archetype. Thus we feel the roadmap process must accommodate a governance system or system of systems that may have a single governing entity, particularly at the start, but can evolve into a collective of governing bodies as warranted, in order to be successful. A fast-track process during Spring, 2012 culminated in a Governance Roadmap delivered to an NSF-sponsored charrette in June with an aggressive timetable to define and implement a governance structure to enable the elements of EarthCube to become operational expeditiously. Our goal is to help ensure the realization of this infrastructure sooner, more efficiently, and

  6. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  7. The Chinese Society of Rare Earth is Studying The Feasibility of Marketing Rare Earth Futures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Lin Donglu,secretary-general of the Chinese Society of Rare Earth recently said,the Chinese Society of Rare Earth undertook the research on subject of the National Social Science Fund Foundation on the reform of Chinese rare earth trading pricing mechanism on promoting RMB globalization,and is focusing on studying the feasibility of marketing rare earth futures variety.

  8. NOAA-9 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner offsets determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Lee M.; Paden, Jack; Lee, Robert B., III; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert S.; Tolson, Carol J.; Bolden, William C.

    1994-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments are designed to measure the components of the radiative exchange between the Sun, Earth and space. ERBE is comprised of three spacecraft, each carrying a nearly identical set of radiometers: a three-channel narrow-field-of-view scanner, a two-channel wide-field-of-view (limb-to-limb) non-scanning radiometer, a two-channel medium field-of view (1000 km) non-scanning radiometer, and a solar monitor. Ground testing showed the scanners to be susceptible to self-generated and externally generated electromagnetic noise. This paper describes the pre-launch corrective measures taken and the post-launch corrections to the NOAA-9 scanner data. The NOAA-9 scanner has met the mission objectives in accuracy and precision, in part because of the pre-launch reductions of and post-launch data corrections for the electromagnetic noise.

  9. Rare-earth magnet ingestion: a childhood danger reaches adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Beesan Shalabi; Sturm, Jesse J; Costello, Brian E

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of multiple magnets may cause serious gastrointestinal morbidity, such as pressure necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, or intestinal obstruction due to forceful attraction across bowel wall. Although the consequences of multiple magnet ingestion are well documented in young children, the current popularity of small, powerful rare-earth magnets marketed as "desk toys" has heightened this safety concern in all pediatric age groups. A recent US Consumer Product Safety Commission product-wide warning additionally reports the adolescent practice of using toy high-powered, ball-bearing magnets to simulate tongue and lip piercings, a behavior that may increase risk of inadvertent ingestion. We describe 2 cases of older children (male; aged 10 and 13 years, respectively) with unintentional ingestion of multiple rare-earth magnets. Health care providers should be alerted to the potential for misuse of these high-powered, ball-bearing magnets among older children and adolescents.

  10. Origin of the earth and moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the Earth's interior and its bearing on the Earth's origin are discussed. It seems likely that the terrestrial planets formed by the accretion of solid planetisimals from the nebula of dust and gas left behind during the formation of the Sun. The scenario proposed is simpler than others. New evidence based upon a comparison of siderophile element abundances in the Earth's mantle and in the Moon imply that the Moon was derived from the Earth's mantle after the Earth's core had segregated

  11. WIRELESS MINE-WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvi H. Meiksin

    2003-01-01

    We added data transmission to the through-the-earth communications system using quadrature synchronous detection. The results are adequate for computer-to-computer communication as well as for sensor data transmission. We added a feature to the in-mine communications system that allows a person to call an individual, rather than broadcasting, by dialing an identification number before speaking.

  12. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  13. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  14. Eutectic propeties of primitive Earth's magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Nigro, G.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Perillat, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the early Earth was partially molten (if not completely) due to the high energy dissipated by terrestrial accretion [1]. After core formation, subsequent cooling of the magma ocean has led to fractional crystallization of the primitive mantle. The residual liquid corresponds to what is now called the fertile mantle or pyrolite. Melting relations of silicates have been extensively investigated using the multi-anvil press, for pressures between 3 and 25 GPa [2,3]. Using the quench technique, it has been shown that the pressure affects significantly the solidus and liquidus curves, and most probably the composition of the eutectic liquid. At higher pressures, up to 65 GPa, melting studies were performed on pyrolite starting material using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique [4]. However, the quench technique is not ideal to define melting criteria, and furthermore these studies were limited in pressure range of investigation. Finally, the use of pyrolite may not be relevant to study the melting eutectic temperature. At the core-mantle boundary conditions, melting temperature is documented by a single data point on (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 olivine, provided by shock wave experiments at around 130-140 GPa [5]. These previous results present large uncertainties of ~1000 K. The aim of this study is to determine the eutectic melting temperature in the chemically simplified system composed of the two major lower mantle phases, the MgSiO3 perovskite and MgO periclase. We investigated melting in-situ using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell coupled with angle dispersive X-ray diffraction at the ID27 beamline of the ESRF [6]. Melting relations were investigated in an extended P-T range comparable to those found in the Earth's lower mantle, i.e. from 25 to 120 GPa and up to more than 5000 K. Melting was evidenced from (a) disappearance of one of the two phases in the diffraction pattern, (b) drastic changes of the diffraction image itself, and

  15. Earth Science Data for a Mobile Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Baize, R.; Oots, P.; Rogerson, T.; Crecelius, S.; Coleman, T.

    2012-12-01

    Earth science data access needs to be interoperable and automatic. Recently, increasingly savvy data users combined with more complex web and mobile applications have placed increasing demands on how this Earth science data is being delivered to educators and students. The MY NASA DATA (MND) and S'COOL projects are developing a strategy to interact with the education community in the age of mobile devices and platforms. How can we provide data and meaningful scientific experiences to educational users through mobile technologies? This initiative will seek out existing technologies and stakeholders within the Earth Science community to identify datasets that are relevant and appropriate for mobile application development and use by the educational community. Targeting efforts within the educational community will give the project a better understanding of the previous attempts at data/mobile application use in the classroom and its problems. In addition, we will query developers and data providers on what successes and failures they've experienced in trying to provide data for applications designed on mobile platforms. This feedback will be implemented in new websites, applications and lessons that will provide authentic scientific experiences for students and end users. We want to create tools that help sort through the vast amounts of NASA data, and deliver it to users automatically. NASA provides millions of gigabytes of data that is publicly available through a large number of services spread across the World Wide Web. Accessing and navigating this data can be time consuming and problematic with variety of file types and methods for accessing this data. The MND project, through its' Live Access Server system, provides selected datasets that are relevant and targets National Standards of Learning for educators to easily integrate into existing curricula. In the future, we want to provide desired data to users with automatic updates, anticipate future data queries

  16. The Earth: A Changing Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Núria; Màrquez, Conxita

    2013-04-01

    text: We describe a didactic unit that rises from our own living impression about our experience on the planet. Most of us feel the Earth to be a very static place. Rocks don't easily move and most landscapes always look the same over time. Anyone would say (the same way most scientists believed until the beginning of the last century) that our planet has always remained unchanged, never transformed. But then, all of a sudden, as a misfortune for so many humans, natural hazards appear on the scene: an earthquake causing so many disasters, a tsunami carrying away everything in its path, an eruption that can destroy huge surrounding areas but also bring new geographical relief. Science cannot remain oblivious to these events, we must wonder beyond. What does an earthquake mean? Why does it happen? What about an eruption? If it comes from the inside, what can we guess from it? Researching about all of these events, scientists have been able to arrive to some important knowledge of the planet itself: It has been possible to theorize about Earth's interior. It has also been confirmed that the planet has not always been the quiet and stable place we once thought. Continents, as Wegener supposed, do move about and the Tectonic Plates Theory, thanks to the information obtained through earthquakes and eruption, can provide some interesting explanations. But how do we know about our planet's past? How can we prove that the Earth has always been moving and that its surface changes? The Earth's rocks yield the answer. Rocks have been the only witnesses throughout millions of years, since the planet first came to existence. Let's learn how to read them… Shouldn't we realize that rocks are to Geology what books are to History? This discursive process has been distributed in four learning sequences: 1. Land is not as solid nor firm as it would seem, 2. The Earth planet: a puzzle, 3. The rocks also recycle , 4. Field trip to "Sant Miquel del Fai". The subjects take about 30

  17. Earthing the human body influences physiologic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol; Sokal, Pawel

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments: Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1-effect of earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2-effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3-effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4-effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5-effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium-phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

  18. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N = 84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N = 28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N = 12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N = 12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N = 32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins α1, α2, β, and γ increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  19. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  20. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1983-12-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl/sup -/ complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl/sup -/ versus F/sup -/ versus CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F/sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution.

  1. Rare earth element lithogeochemistry of granitoid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Fryer, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a monitor of the processes involved in the formation of granitoid mineral deposits the coherent group behaviour of the rare earth elements (REE) actively reflects changing fluid characteristics. For example, in the porphyry environment, magmatic-hydrothermal fluids produce potassic alteration with strong enrichment in the light rare earth elements, reflecting their high pH, low fluid/rock ratios, and the dominant role of Cl - complexing in metal (i.e. Cu, Au) transport. With increasing fluid/rock ratios and decreasing pH accompanying the progressive involvement of meteoric fluids (and the production of propylitic, argillic, and phyllic alteration) anionic species such as F - and CO 3 2- become important in metal (e.g. Mo, W) transport through complexing, and their activity in the hydrothermal fluids is illustrated by mobilization of the heavy rare earth elements. The relative involvement of Cl - versus F - versus CO 3 2- in metal transport in other granite-related systems can also be monitored through REE behaviour. Hence granitoid tin-tungsten mineralization and associated greisenization typically exhibit heavy rare earth enrichment and evidence the importance of F - and CO 3 2- in metal transport. Similarly, heavy rare earth element enrichment in hydrothermal uranium deposits can be related to the transport of uranium as carbonate complexes. REE are widely accepted as powerful tools in the study of rock petrogenesis, but their use has been neglected in the investigation of mineral deposits. The recognition of the systematic variation of REE distributions in granitoid mineral deposits suggests that the application of REE geochemistry, particularly when integrated with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, can provide l) an effective method for identifying the physiochemical controls of metal transport and 2) a useful criterion of elucidating metal distribution

  2. CLOUDS IN SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R., E-mail: mbarekro@grinnell.edu, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer and Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350–3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature–pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  3. EVEREST: Creating a Virtual Research Environment for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, H.

    2017-12-01

    There is an increasing trend towards researchers working together using common resources whilst being geographically dispersed. The EVER-EST project is developing a range of both generic and domain specific technologies, tailored to the needs of Earth Science (ES) communities, to create a virtual research environment (VRE) that supports this type of dynamic collaborative research. The EVER-EST VRE provides a suite of services to overcome the existing barriers to sharing of Earth Science data and information allowing researchers to discover, access, share and process heterogeneous data, algorithms, results and experiences within and across their communities, and with other domains beyond the Earth Sciences. Researchers will be able to seamlessly manage both the data and the scientific methods applied in their observations and modelling that lead to results that need to be attributable, validated and shared both within their communities and more widely in the form of scholarly communications.To ensure that the EVER-EST VRE meets the specific needs of the Earth Science domain, it is being developed and validated in consultation with four pre-selected virtual research communities (VRC) that include ocean observing, natural hazards, land monitoring and volcanic risk management. The requirements of these individual VRCs for data, software, best practice and community interaction are used to customise the VRE platform This user-centric approach allows the EVER-EST infrastructure to be assessed in terms of its capability to satisfy the heterogeneous needs of Earth Science communities for more effective collaboration, greater efficiency and increasingly innovative research. EVER-EST is a three year project funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no 674907.

  4. ON SUN-TO-EARTH PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Möstl, Christian; Bale, Stuart D.; Lin, Robert P.; Lugaz, Noé; Davies, Jackie A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts, and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast CMEs can be approximately formulated into three phases: an impulsive acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed propagation (or gradual deceleration); (2) the CMEs studied here are still accelerating even after the flare maximum, so energy must be continuously fed into the CME even after the time of the maximum heating and radiation has elapsed in the corona; (3) the rapid deceleration, presumably due to interactions with the ambient medium, mainly occurs over a relatively short timescale following the acceleration phase; and (4) CME-CME interactions seem a common phenomenon close to solar maximum. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations: (1) for the current cases, triangulation assuming a compact CME geometry is more reliable than triangulation assuming a spherical front attached to the Sun for distances below 50-70 solar radii from the Sun, but beyond about 100 solar radii we would trust the latter more; (2) a proper treatment of CME geometry must be performed in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, especially when the CME propagation direction is far away from the

  5. Introduction to the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-12

    The World Wide Web used to be nicknamed the 'World Wide Wait'. Now, thanks to high speed broadband connections, browsing the web has become a much more enjoyable and productive activity. Computers need to know where web pages are stored on the Internet, in just the same way as we need to know where someone lives in order to post them a letter. This section explains how the World Wide Web works and how web pages can be viewed using a web browser.

  6. Planet earth a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2012-01-01

    In this incredible expedition into the origins, workings, and evolution of our home planet, John Gribbin, bestselling author of In Search of Schrödinger's Cat, The Scientists, and In Search of the Multiverse, does what he does best: taking four and a half billion years of mind-boggling science and digging out the best bits. From the physics of Newton and the geology of Wegener, to the environmentalism of Lovelock, this is a must read for Earth's scientists and residents alike. Trained as an astrophysicist at Cambridge University, John Gribbin is currently Visiting Fellow in Astronomy at the University of Sussex, England.

  7. Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... are presented. In the Gd‐Y system, an antiphase domain structure develops for certain Y layer spacings, whereas modified helical moment configurations are found to occur in the other systems, some of which are commensurate with the chemical superlattice wavelength. References are made to theoretical interaction...

  8. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  9. Fire in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  10. Earth Sciences annual report, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, L.W.; Donohue, M.L.; Peterson, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    The Earth Sciences Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducts work in support of the Laboratory's energy, defense, and research programs. The Department is organized into ten groups. Five of these -- Nuclear Waste Management, Fossil Energy, Containment, Verification, and Research -- represent major programmatic activities within the Department. Five others -- Experimental Geophysics, Geomechanics, Geology/Geological Engineering, Geochemistry, and Seismology/Applied Geophysics -- are major disciplinary areas that support these and other laboratory programs. This report summarizes work carried out in 1987 by each group and contains a bibliography of their 1987 publications

  11. The role of Facilities in Engaging and Informing the Public of EarthScope Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Taber, J. J.; Berg, M.; Dorr, P. M.; McQuillan, P.; Olds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The IRIS and UNAVCO facilities play an important role in support of EarthScope through joint and independent education and outreach activities. These activities are focused on providing data and data products to a wide range of audiences, disseminating EarthScope science results through formal and informal venues, and informing the public of the broader impacts of EarthScope. The facilities are particularly well-suited for sustained engagement of multiple audiences over the decade-long course of EarthScope. One such example of a long-term effort was the Transportable Array student siting program, where over an 8 year period, students from about 55 institutions across the US and Canada conducted site reconnaissance and talked to landowners about EarthScope. Another activity focused on students was the development of a student intern program to support field engineering efforts during the construction of the Plate Boundary Observatory. Other ongoing activities include developing and maintaining relationships with media representatives and annual training of National Parks staff throughout the western U.S. The UNAVCO-IRIS partnership has been particularly valuable for EarthScope-related activities, where UNAVCO and IRIS work closely with the EarthScope National Office (ESNO) to bring EarthScope science to national, regional and local audiences within the EarthScope footprint. Collaborations have ranged across each group's products and services, including: EarthScope-focused teacher workshops, participation in EarthScope interpretive workshops for informal educators (led by ESNO), development of content for the IRIS Active Earth Monitor, preparing PBO-, USArray- and EarthScope-focused materials on topics such as Episodic Tremor and Slip for wider distribution through print, web, and mobile information technologies, and organizing research experiences for undergraduates on EarthScope-related topics. Other collaborations have focused on social media, and the development

  12. Wide-Field Imaging Using Nitrogen Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Dirk Robert (Inventor); Trusheim, Matthew Edwin (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen vacancies in bulk diamonds and nanodiamonds can be used to sense temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH. Unfortunately, conventional sensing techniques use gated detection and confocal imaging, limiting the measurement sensitivity and precluding wide-field imaging. Conversely, the present sensing techniques do not require gated detection or confocal imaging and can therefore be used to image temperature, pressure, electromagnetic fields, and pH over wide fields of view. In some cases, wide-field imaging supports spatial localization of the NVs to precisions at or below the diffraction limit. Moreover, the measurement range can extend over extremely wide dynamic range at very high sensitivity.

  13. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  14. Isotopes in the earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, Robert

    1988-01-01

    This book examines significant aspects of isotope applications in geology and geochemistry commencing with basic matters, such as atomic structure, stable nuclides and their fractionation, as well as the various decay modes of unstable nuclides. Modern mass spectrometry techniques including electrostatic tandem accelerators are followed by a review of radioisotope dating technology. The relatively new method using the rare earth elements samarium and neodymium are covered. Other geochronometers, applicable to both rocks and minerals not dateable otherwise, are included. A review is given of isotopes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere of the Earth. Those of oxygen and hydrogen together with the cosmogenic radionuclides tritium and radiocarbon are discussed in relation to the biosphere. The role of isotopes of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur is described and extended to fossil fuels and rocks as well as meteorites. Related themes such as Phanerozoic oceans, oceanic palaeothermometry, snow and ice stratigraphy and geothermal waters are covered. The field of isotopic palaeoecology is discussed. Radioactive wastes, their accumulation, dangers and disposal are investigated with especial reference to their environmental impacts.

  15. EarthServer - 3D Visualization on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Herzig, Pasquale; Bockholt, Ulrich; Jung, Yvonne; Behr, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    EarthServer (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program, is a project to enable the management, access and exploration of massive, multi-dimensional datasets using Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) query and processing language standards like WCS 2.0 and WCPS. To this end, a server/client architecture designed to handle Petabyte/Exabyte volumes of multi-dimensional data is being developed and deployed. As an important part of the EarthServer project, six Lighthouse Applications, major scientific data exploitation initiatives, are being established to make cross-domain, Earth Sciences related data repositories available in an open and unified manner, as service endpoints based on solutions and infrastructure developed within the project. Clients technology developed and deployed in EarthServer ranges from mobile and web clients to immersive virtual reality systems, all designed to interact with a physically and logically distributed server infrastructure using exclusively OGC standards. In this contribution, we would like to present our work on a web-based 3D visualization and interaction client for Earth Sciences data using only technology found in standard web browsers without requiring the user to install plugins or addons. Additionally, we are able to run the earth data visualization client on a wide range of different platforms with very different soft- and hardware requirements such as smart phones (e.g. iOS, Android), different desktop systems etc. High-quality, hardware-accelerated visualization of 3D and 4D content in standard web browsers can be realized now and we believe it will become more and more common to use this fast, lightweight and ubiquitous platform to provide insights into big datasets without requiring the user to set up a specialized client first. With that in mind, we will also point out some of the limitations we encountered using current web technologies. Underlying the EarthServer web client

  16. Terraforming the Planets and Climate Change Mitigation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, O. B.

    2008-12-01

    Hopefully, purposeful geo-engineering of the Earth will remain a theoretical concept. Of course, we have already inadvertently changed the Earth, and over geologic history life has left an indelible imprint on our planet. We can learn about geo-engineering schemes by reference to Earth history, for example climate changes after volcanic eruptions provide important clues to using sulfates to modify the climate. The terrestrial planets and Titan offer additional insights. For instance, Mars and Venus both have carbon dioxide dominated greenhouses. Both have more than 10 times as much carbon dioxide in their atmospheres as Earth, and both absorb less sunlight than Earth, yet one is much colder than Earth and one is much hotter. These facts provide important insights into carbon dioxide greenhouses that I will review. Mars cools dramatically following planet wide dust storms, and Titan has what is referred to as an anti- greenhouse climate driven by aerosols. These data can be used to reassure us that we can model aerosol caused changes to the climate of a planet, and also provide examples of aerosols offsetting a gas-driven greenhouse effect. People have long considered whether we might make the other planets habitable. While most of the schemes considered belong in the realm of science fiction, it is possible that some schemes might be practical. Terraforming brings to mind a number of issues that are thought provoking, but not so politically charged as geo-engineering. For example: What criteria define habitability, is it enough for people to live in isolated glass enclosures, or do we need to walk freely on the planet? Different creatures have different needs. Is a planet habitable if plants can thrive in the open, or do animals also need to be free? Are the raw materials present on any planet to make it habitable? If not, can we make the materials, or do we have to import them? Is it ethical to change a planetary climate? What if there are already primitive

  17. Contextualizing Earth Science Professional Development Courses for Geoscience Teachers in Boston: Earth Science II (Solid Earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M. S.; Kamerer, B.; Vugrin, M.; Miller, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earth Science II: The Solid Earth -- Earth History and Planetary Science -- is the second of two Earth Science courses, and one of eleven graduate level science Contextualized Content Courses (CCC), that have been developed by the Boston Science Partnership as part of an NSF-funded Math Science Partnership program. A core goal of these courses is to provide high level science content to middle and high school teachers while modeling good instructional practices directly tied to the Boston Public Schools and Massachusetts science curriculum frameworks. All of these courses emphasize hands-on, lab-based, inquiry-driven, student-centered lessons. The Earth Science II team aimed to strictly adhere to ABC (Activity Before Concept) and 5E/7E models of instruction, and limited lecture or teacher-centered instruction to the later “Explanation” stages of all lessons. We also introduced McNeill and Krajick’s Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER) model of scientific explanation for middle school classroom discourse, both as a powerful scaffold leading to higher levels of accountable talk in the classroom, and to model science as a social construct. Daily evaluations, dutifully filled out by the course participants and diligently read by the course instructors, were quite useful in adapting instruction to the needs of the class on a real-time basis. We find the structure of the CCC teaching teams - university-based faculty providing expert content knowledge, K-12-based faculty providing age appropriate pedagogies and specific links to the K-12 curriculum - quite a fruitful, two-way collaboration. From the students’ perspective, one of the most useful takeaways from the university-based faculty was “listening to experts model out loud how they reason,” whereas some of the more practical takeaways (i.e., lesson components directly portable to the classroom?) came from the K-12-based faculty. The main takeaways from the course as a whole were the promise to bring more hands

  18. UNH Data Cooperative: A Cyber Infrastructure for Earth System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, B. H.; Fekete, B. M.; Prusevich, A.; Gliden, S.; Magill, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth system scientists and managers have a continuously growing demand for a wide array of earth observations derived from various data sources including (a) modern satellite retrievals, (b) "in-situ" records, (c) various simulation outputs, and (d) assimilated data products combining model results with observational records. The sheer quantity of data, and formatting inconsistencies make it difficult for users to take full advantage of this important information resource. Thus the system could benefit from a thorough retooling of our current data processing procedures and infrastructure. Emerging technologies, like OPeNDAP and OGC map services, open standard data formats (NetCDF, HDF) data cataloging systems (NASA-Echo, Global Change Master Directory, etc.) are providing the basis for a new approach in data management and processing, where web- services are increasingly designed to serve computer-to-computer communications without human interactions and complex analysis can be carried out over distributed computer resources interconnected via cyber infrastructure. The UNH Earth System Data Collaborative is designed to utilize the aforementioned emerging web technologies to offer new means of access to earth system data. While the UNH Data Collaborative serves a wide array of data ranging from weather station data (Climate Portal) to ocean buoy records and ship tracks (Portsmouth Harbor Initiative) to land cover characteristics, etc. the underlaying data architecture shares common components for data mining and data dissemination via web-services. Perhaps the most unique element of the UNH Data Cooperative's IT infrastructure is its prototype modeling environment for regional ecosystem surveillance over the Northeast corridor, which allows the integration of complex earth system model components with the Cooperative's data services. While the complexity of the IT infrastructure to perform complex computations is continuously increasing, scientists are often forced

  19. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  20. a Walk Through Earth's Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, B. D.; Turrin, M.

    2012-12-01

    After "What is this rock?" the most common questions that is asked of Geologists is "How old is this rock/fossil?" For geologists considering ages back to millions of years is routine. Sorting and cataloguing events into temporal sequences is a natural tendency for all humans. In fact, it is an everyday activity for humans, i.e., keeping track of birthdays, anniversaries, appointments, meetings, AGU abstract deadlines etc… However, the time frames that are most familiar to the non scientist (seconds, minutes, hours, days, years) generally extend to only a few decades or at most centuries. Yet the vast length of time covered by Earth's history, 4.56 billion years, greatly exceeds these timeframes and thus is commonly referred to as "Deep Time". This is a challenging concept for most students to comprehend as it involves temporal and abstract thinking, yet it is key to their successful understanding of numerous geologic principles. We have developed an outdoor learning activity for general Introductory Earth Science courses that incorporates several scientific and geologic concepts such as: linear distance or stratigraphic thickness representing time, learning about major events in Earth's history and locating them in a scaled temporal framework, field mapping, abstract thinking, scaling and dimensional analysis, and the principles of radio isotopic dating. The only supplies needed are readily available in local hardware stores i.e. a 300 ft. surveyor's tape marked in feet, and tenths and hundredths of a foot, and the student's own introductory geology textbook. The exercise employs a variety of pedagogical learning modalities, including traditional lecture-based, the use of Art/Drawing, use of Visualization, Collaborative learning, and Kinesthetic and Experiential learning. Initially the students are exposed to the concept of "Deep Time" in a short conventional introductory lecture; this is followed by a 'field day'. Prior to the field exercise, students work with

  1. Role of natural radiation environment in earth sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Natural ionizing radiations play an important role in a wide spectrum of earth sciences, including meteorology, geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric physics, and atmospheric chemistry. The nature and distribution of ionizing radiation sources and natural radionuclides in the atmospheric environment are summarized. The present status of the use of natural radioactive tracers for atmospheric studies is discussed. The effect of ionization produced by natural radiation sources on atmospheric electricity, the relationship of electrical and meteorological variables, and the possible effects of man-made releases of 85 Kr are considered. Experimental evidence is presented for the production of condensation nuclei by the combined effects of radon and sulfur dioxide

  2. Subsurface contributions in epitaxial rare-earth silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebben, Olaf; Shvets, Igor V. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland); Cerda, Jorge I. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Chaika, Alexander N. [Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Metallic thin films of heavy rare-earth silicides epitaxially grown on Si(111) substrates have been widely studied in recent years because of their appealing properties: unusually low values of the Schottky barrier height, an abrupt interface, and a small lattice mismatch. Previous studies also showed that these silicides present very similar atomic and electronic structures. Here, we examine one of these silicides (Gd{sub 3}Si{sub 5}) using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) image simulations that go beyond the Tersoff-Hamann approach. These simulations strongly indicate an unusual STM depth sensitivity for this system.

  3. NASA's Earth Science Flight Program Meets the Challenges of Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianson, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Earth science flight program is a dynamic undertaking that consists of a large fleet of operating satellites, an array of satellite and instrument projects in various stages of development, a robust airborne science program, and a massive data archiving and distribution system. Each element of the flight program is complex and present unique challenges. NASA builds upon its successes and learns from its setbacks to manage this evolving portfolio to meet NASA's Earth science objectives. NASA fleet of 16 operating missions provide a wide range of scientific measurements made from dedicated Earth science satellites and from instruments mounted to the International Space Station. For operational missions, the program must address issues such as an aging satellites operating well beyond their prime mission, constellation flying, and collision avoidance with other spacecraft and orbital debris. Projects in development are divided into two broad categories: systematic missions and pathfinders. The Earth Systematic Missions (ESM) include a broad range of multi-disciplinary Earth-observing research satellite missions aimed at understanding the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced forces and changes. Understanding these forces will help determine how to predict future changes, and how to mitigate or adapt to these changes. The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program provides frequent, regular, competitively selected Earth science research opportunities that accommodate new and emerging scientific priorities and measurement capabilities. This results in a series of relatively low-cost, small-sized investigations and missions. Principal investigators whose scientific objectives support a variety of studies lead these missions, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, or solid Earth. This portfolio of missions and investigations provides opportunity for investment in innovative Earth science that enhances

  4. Google Earth: A Virtual Globe for Elementary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Judy; LaFontaine, Gus

    2009-01-01

    Originally called Earth Viewer in 2004, Google Earth was the first virtual globe easily available to the ordinary user of the Internet. Google Earth, at earth.google.com, is a free, 3-dimensional computer model of Earth, but that means more than just a large collection of pretty pictures. It allows the viewer to "fly" anywhere on Earth "to view…

  5. Low-energy near Earth asteroid capture using Earth flybys and aerobraking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Minghu; McInnes, Colin; Ceriotti, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Since the Sun-Earth libration points L1 and L2 are regarded as ideal locations for space science missions and candidate gateways for future crewed interplanetary missions, capturing near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) around the Sun-Earth L1/L2 points has generated significant interest. Therefore, this paper proposes the concept of coupling together a flyby of the Earth and then capturing small NEAs onto Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. In this capture strategy, the Sun-Earth circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is used to calculate target Lypaunov orbits and their invariant manifolds. A periapsis map is then employed to determine the required perigee of the Earth flyby. Moreover, depending on the perigee distance of the flyby, Earth flybys with and without aerobraking are investigated to design a transfer trajectory capturing a small NEA from its initial orbit to the stable manifolds associated with Sun-Earth L1/L2 periodic orbits. Finally, a global optimization is carried out, based on a detailed design procedure for NEA capture using an Earth flyby. Results show that the NEA capture strategies using an Earth flyby with and without aerobraking both have the potential to be of lower cost in terms of energy requirements than a direct NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby. Moreover, NEA capture with an Earth flyby also has the potential for a shorter flight time compared to the NEA capture strategy without the Earth flyby.

  6. Wireless Wide Area Networks for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prakash

    This paper considers a basic question that many schools districts face in attempting to develop affordable, expandable district-wide computer networks that are resistant to obsolescence: Should these wide area networks (WANs) employ wireless technology, stick to venerable hard-wired solutions, or combine both. This publication explores the…

  7. World-Wide Web: The Information Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berners-Lee, Tim; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the World-Wide Web (W3) project, which is designed to create a global information universe using techniques of hypertext, information retrieval, and wide area networking. Discussion covers the W3 data model, W3 architecture, the document naming scheme, protocols, document formats, comparison with other systems, experience with the W3…

  8. Reduction operator for wide-SIMDs reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waeijen, L.J.W.; She, D.; Corporaal, H.; He, Y.

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that wide Single Instruction Multiple Data architectures (wide-SIMDs) can achieve high energy efficiency, especially in domains such as image and vision processing. In these and various other application domains, reduction is a frequently encountered operation, where multiple input

  9. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  10. Michelson wide-field stellar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montilla, I.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to develop a system to permit wide field operation of Michelson Interferometers. A wide field of view is very important in applications such as the observation of extended or multiple objects, the fringe acquisition and/ or tracking on a nearby unresolved object, and

  11. Management van World-Wide Web Servers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hengstum, F.P.H.; Pras, Aiko

    1996-01-01

    Het World Wide Web is een populaire Internet toepassing waarmee het mogelijk is documenten aan willekeurige Internet gebruikers aan te bieden. Omdat hiervoor nog geen voorzieningen zijn getroffen, was het tot voor kort niet goed mogelijk het World Wide Web op afstand te beheren. De Universiteit

  12. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  13. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  14. Contributed Review: A review of the investigation of rare-earth dopant profiles in optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidiroglou, F.; Baxter, G. [Optical Technology Research Laboratory, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001 (Australia); Roberts, A. [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Rare-earth doped optical fibers have captivated the interest of many researchers around the world across the past three decades. The growth of this research field has been stimulated primarily through their application in optical communications as fiber lasers and amplifiers, although rare-earth doped optical fiber based devices are now finding important uses in many other scientific and industrial areas (for example, medicine, sensing, the military, and material processing). Such wide commercial interest has provided a strong incentive for innovative fiber designs, alternative glass compositions, and novel fabrication processes. A prerequisite for the ongoing progress of this research field is developing the capacity to provide high resolution information about the rare-earth dopant distribution profiles within the optical fibers. This paper constitutes a comprehensive review of the imaging techniques that have been utilized in the analysis of the distribution of the rare-earth ion erbium within the core of optical fibers.

  15. The Third Side of the Coin: Using Google Earth to Visualize Numismatic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Neumann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents one digital approach to ancient numismatics. The proposed methodology maps geo-referenced quantities of coin finds within the platform of Google Earth – a free virtual globe available through the Internet. Especially for the uninitiated scholar, Google Earth efficiently visualizes both the spatial and chronological distribution of thousands of coins and provides an intuitive and interactive space for exploring regional and empire-wide patterns in their movement. While the practical applications of this methodology are many, this article focuses on an ongoing study of Antioch-on-the-Orontes in northern Syria and its regional evolution after Roman annexation. This project draws upon Google Earth as an invaluable first step in synthesizing the wealth of disparate coin data available for the city. After outlining the methodology to achieve such a visualization, this article highlights several promising patterns revealed by Google Earth in the dataset.

  16. Earth System Monitoring Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Modern Earth System Monitoring represents a fundamental change in the way scientists study the Earth System.  In Oceanography, for the past two centuries, ships have provided the platforms for observing.  Expeditions on the continents and Earth’s poles are land-based analogues. Fundamental understanding of current systems, climate, natural hazards, and ecosystems has been greatly advanced. While these approaches have been remarkably successful, the need to establish measurements over time can only be made using Earth observations and observatories with exacting standards and continuous data.  The 19 peer-reviewed contributions in this volume provide early insights into this emerging view of Earth in both space and time in which change is a critical component of our growing understanding. Presents 19 authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Covers a wide range of data collection platforms, including satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and l...

  17. Rare earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanke, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The growth, structure and electronic properties of rare earth silicide nanowires are investigated on planar and vicinal Si(001) und Si(111) surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). On all surfaces investigated within this work hexagonal disilicides are grown epitaxially with a lattice mismatch of -2.55% up to +0.83% along the hexagonal a-axis. Along the hexagonal c-axis the lattice mismatch is essentially larger with 6.5%. On the Si(001)2 x 1 surface two types of nanowires are grown epitaxially. The socalled broad wires show a one-dimensional metallic valence band structure with states crossing the Fermi level. Along the nanowires two strongly dispersing states at the anti J point and a strongly dispersing state at the anti Γ point can be observed. Along the thin nanowires dispersing states could not be observed. Merely in the direction perpendicular to the wires an intensity variation could be observed, which corresponds to the observed spacial structure of the thin nanowires. The electronic properties of the broad erbium silicide nanowires are very similar to the broad dysprosium silicide nanowires. The electronic properties of the DySi 2 -monolayer and the Dy 3 Si 5 -multilayer on the Si(111) surface are investigated in comparison to the known ErSi 2 /Si(111) and Er 3 Si 5 /Si(111) system. The positions and the energetic locations of the observed band in the surface Brillouin zone will be confirmed for dysprosium. The shape of the electron pockets in the vector k parallel space is elliptical at the anti M points, while the hole pocket at the anti Γ point is showing a hexagonal symmetry. On the Si(557) surface the structural and electronic properties depend strongly on the different preparation conditions likewise, in particular on the rare earth coverage. At submonolayer coverage the thin nanowires grow in wide areas of the sample surface, which are oriented

  18. Exploring the Earth Using Deep Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraondo, P. R.; Evans, B. J. K.; Antony, J.

    2016-12-01

    Research using deep neural networks have significantly matured in recent times, and there is now a surge in interest to apply such methods to Earth systems science and the geosciences. When combined with Big Data, we believe there are opportunities for significantly transforming a number of areas relevant to researchers and policy makers. In particular, by using a combination of data from a range of satellite Earth observations as well as computer simulations from climate models and reanalysis, we can gain new insights into the information that is locked within the data. Global geospatial datasets describe a wide range of physical and chemical parameters, which are mostly available using regular grids covering large spatial and temporal extents. This makes them perfect candidates to apply deep learning methods. So far, these techniques have been successfully applied to image analysis through the use of convolutional neural networks. However, this is only one field of interest, and there is potential for many more use cases to be explored. The deep learning algorithms require fast access to large amounts of data in the form of tensors and make intensive use of CPU in order to train its models. The Australian National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) has recently augmented its Raijin 1.2 PFlop supercomputer with hardware accelerators. Together with NCI's 3000 core high performance OpenStack cloud, these computational systems have direct access to NCI's 10+ PBytes of datasets and associated Big Data software technologies (see http://geonetwork.nci.org.au/ and http://nci.org.au/systems-services/national-facility/nerdip/). To effectively use these computing infrastructures requires that both the data and software are organised in a way that readily supports the deep learning software ecosystem. Deep learning software, such as the open source TensorFlow library, has allowed us to demonstrate the possibility of generating geospatial models by combining information from

  19. Solvent extraction of rare earth elements by γ-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudha Vani, T.J.; Krishna Rao, K.S.V.; Krishna Reddy, L.; Jaya Rami Reddy, M.; Lee, Yong III

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) is a mine of new material and has very wide uses in industry. India has second largest abundant resources of rare earths and with its products and exports playing an important part in the world. REEs are important in nuclear energy programs, hence the separation and purification of rare earths is demanded. As well known, the separation between trivalent REEs is one of the most difficult tasks in separation chemistry due to their similar chemical properties. A large number of acidic and neutral organo-phosphorus and sulphur extractants have been widely employed industrially for the solvent extraction separation of REEs. However, these reagents display various shortcomings, such as poor selectivity, third phase formation, etc. In view of the ever increasing demand for high purity REEs as a group or from one another, there is a growing interest in the development of new and more selective solvent extraction reagents

  20. Magnetic Storms at Mars and Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup

    In analogy with magnetic storms at the Earth, periods of significantly enhanced global magnetic activity also exist at Mars. The extensive database of magnetic measurements from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), covering almost an entire solar cycle, is used in combination with geomagnetic activity...... indices at Earth to compare the occurrence of magnetic storms at Mars and Earth. Based on superposed epochs analysis the time-development of typical magnetic storms at Mars and Earth is described. In contradiction to storms at Earth, most magnetic storms at Mars are found to be associated...... with heliospheric current sheet crossings, where the IMF changes polarity. While most storms at the Earth occur due to significant southward excursions of the IMF associated with CMEs, at Mars most storms seem to be associated with the density enhancement of the heliospheric current sheet. Density enhancements...

  1. Earth's earliest biosphere: Its origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopf, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some of the subjects discussed are related to the early biogeologic history, the nature of the earth prior to the oldest known rock record, the early earth and the Archean rock record, the prebiotic organic syntheses and the origin of life, Precambrian organic geochemistry, the biochemical evolution of anaerobic energy conversion, the isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries, Archean stromatolites providing evidence of the earth's earliest benthos, Archean microfossils, the geologic evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth, and the environmental evolution of the Archean-Early Proterozoic earth. Other topics examined are concerned with geochemical evidence bearing on the origin of aerobiosis, biological and biochemical effects of the development of an aerobic environment, Early Proterozoic microfossils, the evolution of earth's earliest ecosystems, and geographic and geologic data for processed rock samples. Attention is given to a processing procedure for abiotic samples and calculation of model atmospheric compositions, and procedures of organic geochemical analysis

  2. Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

    Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

  3. Geohistory. Global evolution of the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozima, Minoru

    1987-01-01

    A full understanding of the earth's evolution can be achieved only by considering it as a continuous process starting with the birth of the solar system. This book traces the evolution of the earth, mainly on the basis of radiogenic isotopes from long half-life parent elements, and discusses it in terms of the latest developments in astrophysical theory, which impose unique constraints on the earth's origin and early evolution. By its 'historical' nature, geohistorical study also offers a unique approach to forecasting the future of the earth, yielding useful clues for the understanding of environmental problems, such as radioactive waste disposal. This book aims to provide an outline of global evolution of the planet earth for students of general science and for earth scientists.

  4. Raman scattering of rare earth hexaborides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, Norio; Hasegawa, Takumi; Udagawa, Masayuki; Iga, Fumitoshi; Kunii, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectra were measured for the rare-earth hexaborides RB 6 (R = Ce, Gd, or Dy). All Raman-active phonons due to B 6 vibrations were observed in the range 600 - 1400 cm -1 . Anomalous peaks were detected below 200 cm -1 , which correspond to vibrations of rare-earth ion excited by second-order Raman scattering process. The intensity and energy of the rare-earth mode decrease with decreasing temperature. This suggests that the rare-earth ion vibrates in a shallow and anharmonic potential due to the boron cage. Using the reported values of mean square displacement of rare-earth ion, we estimated the anharmonic contribution for the rare-earth vibrations.

  5. "Thinking about a Sustainable Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeshita, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    1.Introduction The Course of study for Junior high school teaching was changed in 2008 in Japan. We should especially mention about this change that ESD, "Education for Sustainable Development," was written as a point of view. ESD is a kind of educations that is studied with a target for a region and that aims at reorganize of consciousness through thinking of how to be a better region. ESD's view was written for Social studies, Science, Foreign Languages, Health and Physical Education, Home Economics and Technical Arts, and the Period for Integrated Studies. Of these subjects, Social studies are the one of core subjects. Social studies for Junior high school consist of Geography, History and Civics. "Problem of us and international society" is the last part of Civics. Teacher helps students to understand international society deeply and think about the role of our country for it. Students research many problems (global environment, resources and energy, poverty etc.) and organize their thoughts on how make a better society as a part of the human family. I taught them to think about how to solve many themes like religious problems, terrorism problems, the North-South problems, and resource and energy problems. It is my practice to let them think about what they should do to solve the global warming problem. 2.The truth of my class I pointed out to the students that the length of summer time in Japan is increasing, and we can anticipate it will continue to increase in the future. After that, I explained to them that occurrence of sudden, heavy downpour of rain is increasing and helped them understand the process of this kind of downpour through some diagrams and pictures. I helped them understand the context of this increase of the length of summer time and heavy downpour within the whole earth's ecosystem. Such increases as these things are causing global warming. I asked them to think about what are the possible problems if global warming progresses. The ideas the

  6. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  7. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  8. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  9. Solvent Extraction of Rare Earths by Di-2 Ethylhexyl Phosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinuttrakul, Wannee; Kranlert, Kannika; Kraikaew, Jarunee; Pongpansook, Surasak; Chayavadhanangkur, Chavalek; Kranlert, Kannika

    2004-10-01

    Solvent extraction has been widely applied for individual rare earth separation because the separation time is rapid and a large quantity of products is obtained. In this work, this technique was utilized to extract mixed rare earths, obtained from monazite digestion process. Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used as an extractant. The factors affected the extraction including HNO 3 concentration in mixed rare earth nitrate solution and the amount of D2EHPA were studied. The appropriate concentrations of HNO 3 and D2EHPA were found to be 0.01 and 1.5 M, respectively. From the result of equilibrium curve study, it was observed that heavy rare earths were extracted more efficient than light rare earths. A 6-stage continuous countercurrent solvent extraction was simulated for rare earth extraction. The optimum ratio of solvent to feed solution (S/F) was 2. Because of the high cost of D2EHPA, 1.0 M of D2EHPA was suitable for the rare earth extraction by the continuous countercurrent solvent extraction

  10. Can Earth Materials BE Adequately Covered in a - or Two-Semester Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; O'Brien, J.

    2007-12-01

    Traditional geology programs offer courses in mineralogy, optical mineralogy, igneous petrology, metamorphic petrology, sedimentology and economic geology. At many universities this suite of mineralogy/petrology courses has been supplanted by a one-semester or two-semester Earth Materials course. This interactive poster poses five questions to faculty and students related to the means by which Earth Materials can be delivered: 1) Available online syllabi demonstrate a wide variation in the topics addressed in Earth Materials courses; is there a standard core of key topics that must be covered and in what level of detail? 2) Can a one-semester or two- semester Earth Materials course adequately cover these topics? 3) Excellent textbooks exist in both mineralogy and in petrology; what textbooks, if any, adequately encompass Earth Materials? 4) How has the online environment changed the way in which we use textbooks in the classroom? 5) Given the evolution of geology programs, higher education and the global economy in the past twenty years, what additional changes can be anticipated with respect to delivery and demand of Earth Materials topics? Answers-- or at least related discussions-- to these questions are encouraged via verbal dialogue among participants and/or by comments written on the poster. Our goal is to solicit faculty, student and industry feedback to create a textbook, curricula and online materials that support an Earth Materials course.

  11. Application of 241Am EDXRF to the determination of rare earth samples of solvent extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Chunhua; Jia Jiangtao; Liao Chunsheng; Li Biaoguo

    1998-01-01

    A rapid energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) analysis system is established to determine rare earth concentrations. The characteristic K-shell series X-rays of rare earths were excited by a 1.1 x 10 9 Bq 241 Am radioisotope source. The spectra were recorded and analyzed using a multi-channel analyzer, employing a high-purity Ge detector. In this method, the Compton scattering peak, absorption of elements, and specific simplification are considered. Samples of light, middle and heavy rare earths during separation processes in both hydrochloride solution and rare earth loaded organic phases were analyzed off-line. Some comparative results measured by ICP are also given. The results show that the method can be used for a wide range of rare earth concentrations (0.1-300 g l -1 rare earth oxide). Being rapid, effective, precise and non-destructive, the method can be applied to on-line analysis to determine rare earth concentrations during separation by solvent extraction. (orig.)

  12. Rare earth industries: Strategies for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Evidently, many reports cite Malaysia as having reasonably substantial amounts of rare earths elements. In fact, based on the rare earths found in the residual tin deposits alone, Malaysia has about 30,000 tonnes. This does not take into account unmapped deposits which experts believe may offer more tonnages of rare earths. Brazil which is reported to have about 48,000 tonnes has announced plans to invest aggressively in the rare earths business. China has on record the largest reserves with about 36 million tonnes. This explains why China has invested heavily in the entire value chain of the rare earths business. Chinas committed investment in rare earths started many years ago when the country's foremost leaders proclaimed the strategic position of rare earths in the world economy. That forecast is now a reality where the rise in the green high-tech economy is seen driving global demand for rare earths in a big way. Malaysia needs to discover and venture into new economic growth areas. This will help fuel the country's drive to achieve a high income status by 2020 as articulated in the New Economic Model (NEM) and the many supporting Economic Transformation Plans that the Government has recently launched. Rare earths may be the new growth area for Malaysia. However, the business opportunities should not just be confined to the mining, extraction and production of rare earths elements alone if Malaysia is to maximise benefits from this industry. The industry's gold mine is in the downstream products. This is also the sector that China wants to expand. Japan which now controls about 50 % of the global market for downstream rare earths-based high-tech components is desperately looking for partners to grow their stake in the business. Malaysia needs to embark on the right strategies in order to build the rare earths industry in the country. What are the strategies? (author)

  13. Cosmology and the expanding Earth hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryon, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology is briefly presented, together with a recent conjecture that the initial matter in the universe might have been spontaneously created from nothing as a result of relativistic quantum physics. The possibility of Earth expansion from a continuing creation of matter is then considered. A critique is presented of efforts to relate Earth expansion to the Hubble expansion of the universe. Possible changes in Earth radius as a result of diminishing gravity are also discussed

  14. Rare earth - no case for government intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Zachmann

    2010-01-01

    China has officially restricted exports of rare earth for several years and announced this year it will further tighten exports. Rare earth is a group of 17 different metals, usually found clustered together. These metals have hundreds of different industry applications. For example, they are used in certain high capacity magnets, batteries and lasers. As the rare earth elements are used in sectors that are assumed to have an over-proportionate growth potential (eg. green-technology), policy ...

  15. Investigating Trojan Asteroids at the L4/L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K. K.; Graham, L. D.; Abell, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of Earth's Trojan asteroids will have benefits for science, exploration, and resource utilization. By sending a small spacecraft to the Sun-Earth L4 or L5 Lagrange points to investigate near-Earth objects, Earth's Trojan population can be better understood. This could lead to future missions for larger precursor spacecraft as well as human missions. The presence of objects in the Sun-Earth L4 and L5 Lagrange points has long been suspected, and in 2010 NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detected a 300 m object. To investigate these Earth Trojan asteroid objects, it is both essential and feasible to send spacecraft to these regions. By exploring a wide field area, a small spacecraft equipped with an IR camera could hunt for Trojan asteroids and other Earth co-orbiting objects at the L4 or L5 Lagrange points in the near-term. By surveying the region, a zeroth-order approximation of the number of objects could be obtained with some rough constraints on their diameters, which may lead to the identification of potential candidates for further study. This would serve as a precursor for additional future robotic and human exploration targets. Depending on the inclination of these potential objects, they could be used as proving areas for future missions in the sense that the delta-V's to get to these targets are relatively low as compared to other rendezvous missions. They can serve as platforms for extended operations in deep space while interacting with a natural object in microgravity. Theoretically, such low inclination Earth Trojan asteroids exist. By sending a spacecraft to L4 or L5, these likely and potentially accessible targets could be identified.

  16. Anisotropy in the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been found in many regions of the Earth's interior. Its presence in the Earth's crust has been known since the 19th century, and is due in part to the alignment of anisotropic crystals in rocks, and in part to patterns in the distribution of fractures and pores. In the upper mantle, seismic anisotropy was discovered 50 years ago, and can be attributed for the most part, to the alignment of intrinsically anisotropic olivine crystals during large scale deformation associated with convection. There is some indication for anisotropy in the transition zone, particularly in the vicinity of subducted slabs. Here we focus on the deep Earth - the lower mantle and core, where anisotropy is not yet mapped in detail, nor is there consensus on its origin. Most of the lower mantle appears largely isotropic, except in the last 200-300 km, in the D″ region, where evidence for seismic anisotropy has been accumulating since the late 1980s, mostly from shear wave splitting measurements. Recently, a picture has been emerging, where strong anisotropy is associated with high shear velocities at the edges of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the central Pacific and under Africa. These observations are consistent with being due to the presence of highly anisotropic MgSiO3 post-perovskite crystals, aligned during the deformation of slabs impinging on the core-mantle boundary, and upwelling flow within the LLSVPs. We also discuss mineral physics aspects such as ultrahigh pressure deformation experiments, first principles calculations to obtain information about elastic properties, and derivation of dislocation activity based on bonding characteristics. Polycrystal plasticity simulations can predict anisotropy but models are still highly idealized and neglect the complex microstructure of polyphase aggregates with strong and weak components. A promising direction for future progress in understanding the origin of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle

  17. Energy from heaven and earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Today, almost everybody is affected by problems relating to energy, above all the high cost of energy. Professor Dr. Edward Teller, one of the outstanding nuclear physicists of our time, has devoted many years of research work to investigate the various aspects of the energy shortage, and to find out appropriate ways and means of solving this problem. Following a series of lectures held in the USA and in Israel, he has now published a book entitled Energy from heaven and earth, which is also available in German under the title Energie fuer ein neues Jahrtausend. In the interview given here, Professor Teller explains some of the statements made in his book. (orig.) [de

  18. Earth System Science Education Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  19. Biological Extinction in Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, David M.

    1986-03-01

    Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction events. Most extinction episodes are biologically selective, and further analysis of the victims and survivors offers the greatest chance of deducing the proximal causes of extinction. A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor. Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses.

  20. Biological extinction in earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction events. Most extinction episodes are biologically selective, and further analysis of the victims and survivors offers the greatest chance of deducing the proximal causes of extinction. A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor. Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses.

  1. The Earth's mantle and geoneutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Giovanni; Fogli, Gian Luigi; Lisi, Eligio; Mantovani, Fabio; Rotunno, Anna Maria; Xhixha, Gerti

    2013-01-01

    The KamLAND and Borexino experiments have observed, each at ∼4σ level, signals of electron antineutrinos produced in the decay chains of thorium and uranium in the Earth's crust and mantle (Th and U geoneutrinos). Various pieces of geochemical and geophysical information allow an estimation of the crustal geoneutrino flux components with relatively small uncertainties. The mantle component may then be inferred by subtracting the estimated crustal flux from the measured total flux. We find that crust-subtracted signals show hints of a residual mantle component, emerging at ∼2.4σ level by combining the KamLAND and Borexino data. The inferred mantle flux, slightly favoring scenarios with relatively high Th and U abundances, within ∼1σ uncertainties is comparable to the predictions from recent mantle models

  2. Looking at the earth from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the scientific accomplishments attained in observing the earth from space are discussed. A brief overview of findings concerning the atmosphere, the oceans and sea ice, the solid earth, and the terrestrial hydrosphere and biosphere is presented, and six examples are examined in which space data have provided unique information enabling new knowledge concerning the workings of the earth to be derived. These examples concern stratospheric water vapor, hemispheric differences in surface and atmosphere parameters, Seasat altimeter mesoscale variability, variability of Antarctic sea ice, variations in the length of day, and spaceborne radar imaging of ancient rivers. Future space observations of the earth are briefly addressed.

  3. HABEBEE: habitability of eyeball-exo-Earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhausen, Daniel; Sapers, Haley; Citron, Robert; Bergantini, Alexandre; Lutz, Stefanie; Queiroz, Luciano Lopes; da Rosa Alexandre, Marcelo; Araujo, Ana Carolina Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Extrasolar Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf host stars may play a significant role in the discovery of habitable environments beyond Earth. Spectroscopic characterization of these exoplanets with respect to habitability requires the determination of habitability parameters with respect to remote sensing. The habitable zone of dwarf stars is located in close proximity to the host star, such that exoplanets orbiting within this zone will likely be tidally locked. On terrestrial planets with an icy shell, this may produce a liquid water ocean at the substellar point, one particular "Eyeball Earth" state. In this research proposal, HABEBEE: exploring the HABitability of Eyeball-Exo-Earths, we define the parameters necessary to achieve a stable icy Eyeball Earth capable of supporting life. Astronomical and geochemical research will define parameters needed to simulate potentially habitable environments on an icy Eyeball Earth planet. Biological requirements will be based on detailed studies of microbial communities within Earth analog environments. Using the interdisciplinary results of both the physical and biological teams, we will set up a simulation chamber to expose a cold- and UV-tolerant microbial community to the theoretically derived Eyeball Earth climate states, simulating the composition, atmosphere, physical parameters, and stellar irradiation. Combining the results of both studies will enable us to derive observable parameters as well as target decision guidance and feasibility analysis for upcoming astronomical platforms.

  4. New dynamic system suggested for earth expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    It is here suggested that there may have been much more radioactive materials in the deep interior of the earth than bitherto supposed. Trapped heat being generated in the interior would provide a mechanism for earth expansion. An assumption of heat generation in the deep interior of the earth of the order of 0,5 X 10-13 calories per second, per cubic centimeter, would provide sufficient thermal expansion to account for approximately 0.1 mm. change in the radius of the earth per year.

  5. Age of the earth and solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhes, G.

    1977-01-01

    The history of chemical element formation and radiochronology is given. The study of Pb isotope composition evolution enables to estimate the age of the earth. A series of galena of known ages was measured. By means of a model, it is possible to determine the initial isotope composition of Pb on the earth and the age of the earth. On the other hand, the analysis of stony meteorites provides a Pb isotope composition higher than the earth value. A comparison of the data shows a fundamental transition at 4.55 10 9 years [fr

  6. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  7. Probing Earth's State of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Maceira, M.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The state of stress in the Earth's crust is a fundamental physical property that controls both engineered and natural systems. Engineered environments including those for hydrocarbon, geothermal energy, and mineral extraction, as well those for storage of wastewater, carbon dioxide, and nuclear fuel are as important as ever to our economy and environment. Yet, it is at spatial scales relevant to these activities where stress is least understood. Additionally, in engineered environments the rate of change in the stress field can be much higher than that of natural systems. In order to use subsurface resources more safely and effectively, we need to understand stress at the relevant temporal and spatial scales. We will present our latest results characterizing the state of stress in the Earth at scales relevant to engineered environments. Two important components of the state of stress are the orientation and magnitude of the stress tensor, and a measure of how close faults are to failure. The stress tensor at any point in a reservoir or repository has contributions from both far-field tectonic stress and local density heterogeneity. We jointly invert seismic (body and surface waves) and gravity data for a self-consistent model of elastic moduli and density and use the model to calculate the contribution of local heterogeneity to the total stress field. We then combine local and plate-scale contributions, using local indicators for calibration and ground-truth. In addition, we will present results from an analysis of the quantity and pattern of microseismicity as an indicator of critically stressed faults. Faults are triggered by transient stresses only when critically stressed (near failure). We show that tidal stresses can trigger earthquakes in both tectonic and reservoir environments and can reveal both stress and poroelastic conditions.

  8. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  9. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  10. The Medical Geochemistry of Dusts, Soils, and Other Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ziegler, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    clusters either through dietary deficiency of essential elements or dietary excess of toxic elements. (28K)Figure 1. Potential human exposure routes within the earth's geochemical cycle can come from a wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources. This chapter focuses on a somewhat narrower area of medical geochemistry: the study of mechanisms of uptake of earth materials by humans and animals and their reactions to these materials. In order for earth materials to affect health, they must first interact with the body across key interfaces such as the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. In some way, all of these interfaces require the earth materials to interact chemically with water-based body fluids such as lung fluids, gastrointestinal fluids, saliva, or blood plasma.The primary goal of this chapter, co-authored by a geochemist and a toxicologist, is to provide both geochemists and scientists from health disciplines with an overview of the potential geochemical mechanisms by which earth materials can influence human health. It is clear that significant opportunities for advancement in this arena will require continued and increased research collaborations between geochemists and their counterparts in the health disciplines.

  11. Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget calibration history. Part 2: The Earth flux channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, H. Lee; Hucek, Douglas Richard R.; Ardanuy, Philip E.; Hickey, John R.; Maschhoff, Robert H.; Penn, Lanning M.; Groveman, Brian S.; Vallette, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Nine years (November 1978 to October 1987) of Nimbus-7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) products have shown that the global annual mean emitted longwave, absorbed shortwave, and net radiation were constant to within about + 0.5 W/sq m. Further, most of the small annual variations in the emitted longwave have been shown to be real. To obtain this measurement accuracy, the wide-field-of-view (WFOV) Earth-viewing channels 12 (0.2 to over 50 micrometers), 13 (0.2 to 3.8 micrometers), and 14 (0.7 to 2.8 micrometers) have been characterized in their satellite environment to account for signal variations not considered in the prelaunch calibration equations. Calibration adjustments have been derived for (1) extraterrestrial radiation incident on the detectors, (2) long-term degradation of the sensors, and (3) thermal perturbations within the ERB instrument. The first item is important in all the channels; the second, mainly in channels 13 and 14, and the third, only in channels 13 and 14. The Sun is used as a stable calibration source to monitor the long-term degradation of the various channels. Channel 12, which is reasonably stable to both thermal perturbations and sensor degradation, is used as a reference and calibration transfer agent for the drifting sensitivities of the filtered channels 13 and 14. Redundant calibration procedures were utilized. Laboratory studies complemented analyses of the satellite data. Two nearly independent models were derived to account for the thermal perturbations in channels 13 and 14. The global annual mean terrestrial shortwave and longwave signals proved stable enough to act as secondary calibration sources. Instantaneous measurements may still, at times, be in error by as much as a few Wm(exp -2), but the long-term averages are stable to within a fraction of a Wm(exp -2).

  12. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public

  13. Integrating Intelligent Systems Domain Knowledge Into the Earth Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güereque, M.; Pennington, D. D.; Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    High-volume heterogeneous datasets are becoming ubiquitous, migrating to center stage over the last ten years and transcending the boundaries of computationally intensive disciplines into the mainstream, becoming a fundamental part of every science discipline. Despite the fact that large datasets are now pervasive across industries and academic disciplines, the array of skills is generally absent from earth science programs. This has left the bulk of the student population without access to curricula that systematically teach appropriate intelligent-systems skills, creating a void for skill sets that should be universal given their need and marketability. While some guidance regarding appropriate computational thinking and pedagogy is appearing, there exist few examples where these have been specifically designed and tested within the earth science domain. Furthermore, best practices from learning science have not yet been widely tested for developing intelligent systems-thinking skills. This research developed and tested evidence based computational skill modules that target this deficit with the intention of informing the earth science community as it continues to incorporate intelligent systems techniques and reasoning into its research and classrooms.

  14. Soft X-rays from the sunlit earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.L.; Rugge, H.R.; Charles, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The HEAO-1 A-2 experiment low energy proportional counters have been used to measure the X-ray spectrum of the sunlit earth in the energy range 0.2 to 0.8 keV. The X-rays arise by coherent scattering of, or fluorescence of atmospheric constituents by, solar coronal X-rays incident on the atmosphere. Although the relative spectral contributions of the two processes depend upon the sun-earth-satellite geometry, fluorescent oxygen and nitrogen K X-ray emission is always important. The observed spectra were compared with calculations in order to derive the coronal temperature and emission measure, parameters that characterize the incident solar spectrum. These derived parameters agree well with the expected values for the nonflaring sun, and good agreement was obtained between measurements closely spaced in time but having a wide range of geometries and counting rates. Thus X-ray observations of the sunlit earth's atmosphere can be a useful monitor of solar activity for satellite-borne instrumentation unable to view the sun directly. The total measured fluorescent line flux agreed well with calculations, but the N:O line ratio did not. This disagreement is attributed to several causes which are discussed. (author)

  15. Biological and geophysical feedbacks with fire in the Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, S.; Lehmann, C. E. R.; Belcher, C. M.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R. A.; Daniau, A.-L.; Dexter, K. G.; Forrestel, E. J.; Greve, M.; He, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hoffmann, W. A.; Lamont, B. B.; McGlinn, D. J.; Moncrieff, G. R.; Osborne, C. P.; Pausas, J. G.; Price, O.; Ripley, B. S.; Rogers, B. M.; Schwilk, D. W.; Simon, M. F.; Turetsky, M. R.; Van der Werf, G. R.; Zanne, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Roughly 3% of the Earth’s land surface burns annually, representing a critical exchange of energy and matter between the land and atmosphere via combustion. Fires range from slow smouldering peat fires, to low-intensity surface fires, to intense crown fires, depending on vegetation structure, fuel moisture, prevailing climate, and weather conditions. While the links between biogeochemistry, climate and fire are widely studied within Earth system science, these relationships are also mediated by fuels—namely plants and their litter—that are the product of evolutionary and ecological processes. Fire is a powerful selective force and, over their evolutionary history, plants have evolved traits that both tolerate and promote fire numerous times and across diverse clades. Here we outline a conceptual framework of how plant traits determine the flammability of ecosystems and interact with climate and weather to influence fire regimes. We explore how these evolutionary and ecological processes scale to impact biogeochemical and Earth system processes. Finally, we outline several research challenges that, when resolved, will improve our understanding of the role of plant evolution in mediating the fire feedbacks driving Earth system processes. Understanding current patterns of fire and vegetation, as well as patterns of fire over geological time, requires research that incorporates evolutionary biology, ecology, biogeography, and the biogeosciences.

  16. The World Wide Web of War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Modern communications, combined with the near instantaneous publication of information on the World Wide Web, are providing the means to dramatically affect the pursuit, conduct, and public opinion of war on both sides...

  17. Nasa-wide Standard Administrative Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, P.

    1984-01-01

    Factors to be considered in developing agency-wide standard administrative systems for NASA include uniformity of hardware and software; centralization vs. decentralization; risk exposure; and models for software development.

  18. IOT Overview: Wide-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, F. J.

    The Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument at La Silla has been the workhorse of wide-field imaging instruments at ESO for several years. In this contribution I will summarize the issues relating to its productivity for the community both in terms of the quality and quantity of data that has come out of it. Although only surveys of limited scope have been completed using WFI, it is ESO's stepping-stone to the new generation of survey telescopes.

  19. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 first. Shims and washers on the wide quadrupoles (QFW, QDW; located in the lattice where dispersion was large) served mostly for corrections of those lattice parameters which were a function of momentum. After mounting shims and washers, the quadrupoles were measured to determine their magnetic centre and to catalogue the effect of washer constellations. Raymond Brown is busy measuring a wide quad.

  20. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  1. Emergency Medicine for medical students world wide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perinpam, Larshan; Thi Huynh, Anh-Nhi

    2015-01-01

    A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/......A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/...

  2. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  3. Web Coverage Service Challenges for NASA's Earth Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Simon; Khan, Abdul; Lynnes, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to ensure that data in NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is available to a wide variety of users through the tools of their choice, NASA continues to focus on exposing data and services using standards based protocols. Specifically, this work has focused recently on the Web Coverage Service (WCS). Experience has been gained in data delivery via GetCoverage requests, starting out with WCS v1.1.1. The pros and cons of both the version itself and different implementation approaches will be shared during this session. Additionally, due to limitations with WCS v1.1.1 ability to work with NASA's Earth science data, this session will also discuss the benefit of migrating to WCS 2.0.1 with EO-x to enrich this capability to meet a wide range of anticipated user's needs This will enable subsetting and various types of data transformations to be performed on a variety of EOS data sets.

  4. The "Earth Physics" Workshops Offered by the Earth Science Education Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Earth science has a part to play in broadening students' learning experience in physics. The Earth Science Education Unit presents a range of (free) workshops to teachers and trainee teachers, suggesting how Earth-based science activities, which show how we understand and use the planet we live on, can easily be slotted into normal science…

  5. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  6. Generating and Visualizing Climate Indices using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, T. A.; Guentchev, G.; Rood, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have largest impacts on regional and local scales. Relevant and credible climate information is needed to support the planning and adaptation efforts in our communities. The volume of climate projections of temperature and precipitation is steadily increasing, as datasets are being generated on finer spatial and temporal grids with an increasing number of ensembles to characterize uncertainty. Despite advancements in tools for querying and retrieving subsets of these large, multi-dimensional datasets, ease of access remains a barrier for many existing and potential users who want to derive useful information from these data, particularly for those outside of the climate modelling research community. Climate indices, that can be derived from daily temperature and precipitation data, such as annual number of frost days or growing season length, can provide useful information to practitioners and stakeholders. For this work the NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset was loaded into Google Earth Engine, a cloud-based geospatial processing platform. Algorithms that use the Earth Engine API to generate several climate indices were written. The indices were chosen from the set developed by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). Simple user interfaces were created that allow users to query, produce maps and graphs of the indices, as well as download results for additional analyses. These browser-based interfaces could allow users in low-bandwidth environments to access climate information. This research shows that calculating climate indices from global downscaled climate projection datasets and sharing them widely using cloud computing technologies is feasible. Further development will focus on exposing the climate indices to existing applications via the Earth Engine API, and building custom user interfaces for presenting climate indices to a diverse set of

  7. Seismic resistant design of a nuclear category I earth dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, N.R.; Ries, E.R.; Kissenpfennig, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    An integral part of many nuclear power plants is the ultimate heat sink (UHS); the purpose of which is to retain and deliver a supply of service water to the plant when water from the primary circulating water system is not available. The earth dam described herein is designed to retain the reservoir for the UHS of a nuclear power plant in Southern Europe. The usual pseudo-static analysis is only as good as the estimate for the seismic coefficient used to compute an equivalent horizontal static force on a potential sliding mass. In view of the earth dam considered herein, a more accurate computation of the seismic coefficients is to be made. A two-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis is made to predict the response of the earth dam to a Safe Shutdown Earthquake excitation which is in the form of a time history of accelerations appropriately deconvoluted from the surficial time history and applied at the base of the model. The material properties such as shear modulus and damping are adjusted to be compatible with the level of strain obtained. Thus, non-linear behavior of soil is considered in the analysis and a more realistic response is predicted. Acceleration and stress are determined throughout the dam and are used to compute a seismic coefficient for a pseudo-static stability analysis and the dynamic strength to stress ratios at several points in the body of the dam. The need to design the dam to resist a progressive erosion accident resulting from postulated concentrated leaks is discussed. This may be accomplished by providing a wide, well graded core protected by wide transition cores also heavily compacted

  8. A Miniature Wide Band Atomic Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Earth’s field. However, large sensitivities are obtainable in this regime, and the resulting sensors measure a vector component of the field. Thus...200 Tr an sm itt ed O pt ic al P ow er ( µ W ) Transverse Magnetic Feild , B0 (nT)   0 100 200 101 102 103 S en si tiv ity (fT /H z1 /2...this by computing the magnitude and phase of the sensitivity to noise for both the MF=3 and the MF=4 states and then adding as vectors . Because

  9. Check-Up of Planet Earth at the Turn of the Millennium: Contribution of EOS-Terra to a New Phase in Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram

    1999-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. In 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution of few kilometers on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical developments that brought to the Terra mission, its objectives and example of application to biomass burning.

  10. Torsional Oscillations of the Earths's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Boggs, Dale H.; Dickey, Jean O.

    1997-01-01

    Torsional oscillations of the Earth's liquid metallic outer core are investigated by diving the core into twenty imaginary e1qui-volume annuli coaxial with the axis of ratation of the Earth and determining temproal fluctuations in the axial component of angular memonetum of each annulus under the assumption of iso-rotation on cylindrical surfaces.

  11. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  12. Rare earth oxyhydrides and preparation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, H.

    1986-01-01

    Rare earth oxyhydrides of formula RE 1-q Th q Ni 5-p M p O x H y are claimed. RE is a rare earth, Th can be replaced by Yt, M is Cu, Mn, Al, Fe, Cr or Co, o O C and the hydrides are oxidized. They are catalysts for various chemical reactions [fr

  13. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann

    2008-01-01

    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  14. Ivestigating Earth Science in Urban Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreny, Anna; Siegel, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Schoolyards project is a two year partnership with a university Earth Science Department and the surrounding urban elementary schools. The goal of the project was to develop the capacity of elementary teachers to teach earth science lessons using their schoolyards and local parks as field sites. The university personnel developed lessons…

  15. Elementary Children's Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a…

  16. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  17. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  18. Theory of Rare-Earth Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A mean-field random alloy theory combined with a simple calculation of the exchange interaction J(c,Q) is shown to quantitatively account for the phase diagrams for alloys of rare-earth metals with Y, Lu, Sc, and other rare-earth metals. A concentration-dependent J(c,Q) explains the empirical 2...

  19. Rare Earth Elements Distribution in Beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gawish, H.K.; Nada, N.; Ghaly, W.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Laser ablation method is applied to a double focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to determine the rare earth element distribution in some selected beryl samples. White, green and blue beryl samples are selected from the Egyptian eastern desert. Distributions of chondrite- normalized plot for the rare earth element in the selected beryl samples are investigated

  20. Satellite to study earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Magnetic Field Satellite (Magsat) designed to measure the near earth magnetic field and crustal anomalies is briefly described. A scalar magnetometer to measure the magnitude of the earth's crustal magnetic field and a vector magnetometer to measure magnetic field direction as well as magnitude are included. The mission and its objectives are summarized along with the data collection and processing system.

  1. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  2. Venus tectonics: another Earth or another Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of presumably primordial large craters has led to the suggestion that Venus may have a thick lithosphere like that of Mars despite its similarities to Earth in size and density. However, crust and upper mantle temperatures on Venus are very likely higher than on Earth so that a dry Venus could have a lithosphere with a thickness similar to that of Earth. If a trace of volatiles is present in the mantle, the lithosphere of Venus could be thinner. Due to the absence of liquid water, erosion and deposition will be much slower on Venus than on Earth, favoring retention of primordial cratered surfaces on portions of the crust that have not been destroyed or buried by tectonic and volcanic activity. Geochemical models of solar system origin and petrological considerations suggest that K is about as abundant in Venus as in Earth. The abundance of 40 Ar in the atmosphere of Venus lies somewhere between the Earth value and one-tenth of the Earth value. Because erosional liberation of 40 Ar on Venus will be relatively inefficient, this range for 40 Ar abundance at least permits an active tectonic history, and if the 40 Ar abundance is towards the high end of the range, it may well require an active tectonic history. Thus we are not constrained to a Mars-like model of Venus tectonics by craters and possible mantle dryness; an Earth-like model is equally probable

  3. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  4. The Earth is a Planet Too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Brian

    2014-01-01

    When the solar system formed, the sun was 30 dimmer than today and Venus had an ocean. As the sun brightened, a runaway greenhouse effect caused the Venus ocean to boil away. At times when Earth was younger, the sun less bright, and atmospheric CO2 less, Earth froze over (snowball Earth). Earth is in the sweet spot today. Venus is closer to sun than Earth is, but cloud-covered Venus absorbs only 25 of incident sunlight, while Earth absorbs 70. Venus is warmer because it has a thick carbon dioxide atmosphere causing a greenhouse effect of several hundred degrees. Earth is Goldilocks choice among the planets, the one that is just right for life to exist. Not too hot. Not too cold. How does the Earth manage to stay in this habitable range? Is there a Gaia phenomenon keeping the climate in bounds? A nice idea, but it doesnt work. Today, greenhouse gas levels are unprecedented compared to the last 450,000 years.

  5. Earth Sciences Division, collected abstracts-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quitiquit, W.A.; Ledbetter, G.P.; Henry, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1977 at national and international meetings by members of the Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. It is arranged alphabetically by author and includes a cross-reference by subject indicating the areas of research interest of the Earth Sciences Division

  6. Earth Charter, ESD and Chinese Philosophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhua; Constable, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the Earth Charter and education for sustainable development (ESD), as part of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. The areas of shared interest between the two are assessed and the invaluable nature of the Earth Charter as a resource outlining global values and principles for a…

  7. 21 CFR 573.340 - Diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diatomaceous earth. 573.340 Section 573.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.340 Diatomaceous earth. (a) Identity. The additive consists of siliceous skeletal...

  8. Virtual Exploration of Earth's Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Bruce, G.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Buxner, S.; Horodyskyj, L.; Kotrc, B.; Swann, J.; Klug Boonstra, S. L.; Oliver, C.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional introductory STEM courses often reinforce misconceptions because the large scale of many classes forces a structured, lecture-centric model of teaching that emphasizes delivery of facts rather than exploration, inquiry, and scientific reasoning. This problem is especially acute in teaching about the co-evolution of Earth and life, where classroom learning and textbook teaching are far removed from the immersive and affective aspects of field-based science, and where the challenges of taking large numbers of students into the field make it difficult to expose them to the complex context of the geologic record. We are exploring the potential of digital technologies and online delivery to address this challenge, using immersive and engaging virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures, grounded in active learning, and deliverable at scale via the internet. The goal is to invert the traditional lecture-centric paradigm by placing lectures at the periphery and inquiry-driven, integrative virtual investigations at the center, and to do so at scale. To this end, we are applying a technology platform we devised, supported by NASA and the NSF, that integrates a variety of digital media in a format that we call an immersive virtual field trip (iVFT). In iVFTs, students engage directly with virtual representations of real field sites, with which they interact non-linearly at a variety of scales via game-like exploration while guided by an adaptive tutoring system. This platform has already been used to develop pilot iVFTs useful in teaching anthropology, archeology, ecology, and geoscience. With support the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we are now developing and evaluating a coherent suite of ~ 12 iVFTs that span the sweep of life's history on Earth, from the 3.8 Ga metasediments of West Greenland to ancient hominid sites in East Africa. These iVFTs will teach fundamental principles of geology and practices of scientific inquiry, and expose

  9. Exploring Earth Systems Through STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    During the 2010 school year, grade 8 science teachers at Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School in Wyckoff, New Jersey, began using the draft of A Framework for K-12 Science Education to transition to the Next Generation Science Standards. In an evolutionary process of testing and revising, teachers work collaboratively to develop problem-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) units that integrate earth science, physical science, and life science topics. Students explore the interconnections of Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through problem-based learning. Problem-based learning engages students in (1) direct observations in the field and classroom, (2) collection and analysis of data from remote sensors and hand-held sensors, and (3) analysis of physical, mathematical, and virtual models. Students use a variety of technologies and applications in their investigations, for example iPad apps, Google Classroom, and Vernier sensors. Data from NASA, NOAA, non-government organizations, and scientific research papers inspire student questions and spark investigations. Teachers create materials and websites to support student learning. Teachers curate reading, video, simulations, and other Internet resources for students. Because curriculum is standards-based as opposed to textbook-based, teacher participation in workshops and institutes frequently translates into new or improved study units. Recent programs include Toyota International Teacher Program to Costa Rica, Japan Society Going Global, Siemens STEM Academy, U.S. Naval Academy SET Sail, and NJSTA Maitland P. Simmons Memorial Award Summer Institute. Unit themes include weather and climate, introduction to general chemistry and biochemistry, and cells and heredity. Each if the three 12-week units has embedded engineering challenges inspired by current events, community needs, and/or the work of scientists. The unit segments begin with a problem, progress to

  10. Applicability of neutrino beams to Earth exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskij, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The projects on applicability of neutrino beams from high energy accelerators for geological exploration and study of the Earth structure are discussed. The GENIUS (Geological Exploration by Neutrino Induced Underground Sound) project is among them. It covers detecting and studying space-time characteristics of acoustic signal arising in case of neutrino interaction with Earth depth rocks discussed. The GEMINI (Geological Exploration with Muons Induced by neutrino interactions) project represents one more possibility for using geotron neutrino beam for the purpose of geological exploration. The GEOSCAN project represents the possibility for applying high energy neutrino beams for the purpose of the Earth translusence to determine the changes in the density of internal part of the Earth. The necessity of detailed investigations of the problem of applicability of neutrino beams in the field of the Earth exploration is pointed out

  11. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  12. Super computer displays future of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Tani, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Science and Technology Agency has promoted a project of estimation of the earth environment fluctuation since Fiscal 1997. As one of series, it is developing a very high speed parallel computer 'the earth 'simulator' with 5TFLOPS of effective performance (40TFLOPS of peak performance). Abstract of the hardware, basic software and application software is explained. Hardware is constructed by a distributed memory type parallel computer and single-stage crossbars network. Main storage capacity is 10 TB. The basic software consisted of hierarchical structure with operating system, compiler, operation and management software. In the earth simulator, 640 nodes are connected by magnetic disk units, so that input/output of calculation is parallel processor, the most important development item. The earth simulator project is developing a software, NJR (NASDA-JAMSTEC-RIST) program, which is atmosphere and ocean large circulation joint model library system. An example of analysis showed a global distribution of rain a day in the earth. (S.Y.)

  13. Delivery of information from earth observation satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite-based systems for measuring the surface of the earth and its atmosphere from space have evolved rapidly in the past decade. The amount of data available in the future promises to be truly staggering. This paper addresses the requirements for handling data from earth observation systems. It begins with the premise that our objective is to acquire an understanding of the state and evolution of our planet, and proceeds from there to argue that earth observation satellite systems are, in reality, systems for delivering information. This view has implications on how we approach the design of such systems, and how we handle the data they produce in order to derive maximum benefit from them. The paper examines these issues and puts forth some of the technical requirements for future satellite-based earth observation systems, based on the concept that earth observation is a quantitative measurement discipline that is driven by requirements for information. (Author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  14. Sensor Webs as Virtual Data Systems for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K. L.; Sherwood, R.

    2008-05-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office established a 3-year Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) development program in late 2006 to explore the technical challenges associated with integrating sensors, sensor networks, data assimilation and modeling components into virtual data systems called "sensor webs". The AIST sensor web program was initiated in response to a renewed emphasis on the sensor web concepts. In 2004, NASA proposed an Earth science vision for a more robust Earth observing system, coupled with remote sensing data analysis tools and advances in Earth system models. The AIST program is conducting the research and developing components to explore the technology infrastructure that will enable the visionary goals. A working statement for a NASA Earth science sensor web vision is the following: On-demand sensing of a broad array of environmental and ecological phenomena across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, from a heterogeneous suite of sensors both in-situ and in orbit. Sensor webs will be dynamically organized to collect data, extract information from it, accept input from other sensor / forecast / tasking systems, interact with the environment based on what they detect or are tasked to perform, and communicate observations and results in real time. The focus on sensor webs is to develop the technology and prototypes to demonstrate the evolving sensor web capabilities. There are 35 AIST projects ranging from 1 to 3 years in duration addressing various aspects of sensor webs involving space sensors such as Earth Observing-1, in situ sensor networks such as the southern California earthquake network, and various modeling and forecasting systems. Some of these projects build on proof-of-concept demonstrations of sensor web capabilities like the EO-1 rapid fire response initially implemented in 2003. Other projects simulate future sensor web configurations to evaluate the effectiveness of sensor-model interactions for producing

  15. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  16. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  17. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  18. The road to Earth twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, M.; Lovis, C.; Pepe, F.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2011-06-01

    A rich population of low-mass planets orbiting solar-type stars on tight orbits has been detected by Doppler spectroscopy. These planets have masses in the domain of super-Earths and Neptune-type objects, and periods less than 100 days. In numerous cases these planets are part of very compact multiplanetary systems. Up to seven planets have been discovered orbiting one single star. These low-mass planets have been detected by the HARPS spectrograph around 30% of solar-type stars. This very high occurrence rate has been recently confirmed by the results of the Kepler planetary transit space mission. The large number of planets of this kind allows us to attempt a first characterization of their statistical properties, which in turn represent constraints to understand the formation process of these systems. The achieved progress in the sensitivity and stability of spectrographs have already led to the discovery of planets with masses as small as 1.5 M⊕. Karl Schwarzschild Award Lecture 2010

  19. Aquifer response to earth tides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanehiro, B.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    The relation presented in the first part of this paper are applicable to packed-off wells and other situations where appreciable flow to the well does not exist. Comparisons of aquifer properties determined from the response to earth tides and from the more standard pumping tests for the two California fields are reasonably good. The case of an open well makes the problem more complicated, since there may be an appreciable amount of flow to the well. This flow to the well is seen as either a phase lag or as a difference in the ratio of the well signal to the tide for the semidiurnal and diurnal components of the tide. The latter is probably the better and more accurate indicator of flow to the well. Analyses of such situations, however, become involved and are probably best done as case-by-case studies. The numerical solutions show that treating the inverse problem through numerical modeling is at least feasible for any individual situation. It may be possible to simplify the inverse problem through the generation of type curves, but general type curves that are applicable to diverse situations are not likely to be practical. 7 figures

  20. The climate: Earth and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, Jean; Braconnot, Pascale; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    In this book, the authors first present the climate system as it operates under the influence of the atmosphere and oceans: Earth heated by the Sun, temperatures and movements within the atmosphere, surface and deep circulation in the oceans, exchanges between the atmosphere and the oceans. They present the various actors of climate and their interactions: water cycle, carbon cycle, greenhouse effect, clouds, aerosols, ocean, cryosphere-climate interaction, interaction between continental biosphere and climate, interactions between climate, continents and lithosphere, feedbacks and climate sensitivity. They comment the variety of climates and their variability when considered on a large scale (role of the Sun, ocean-atmosphere oscillations in El Nino and La Nina, North Atlantic oscillation, other examples of oscillations). The next part addresses climate modelling: model fundamentals (parameters and other components, coupling between components), model adjustment (simulation types, multi-model sets, and model assessment), models of intermediate complexity, regional models. The authors discuss the warming phenomenon: history of temperature measurements, clues of global warming, how to make climate change. They propose a presentation and discussion of anthropogenic and natural factors which disturb the climate: CO 2 and other greenhouse gases, changes in soil uses, other possible causes of climate disturbance (aerosol, aircraft wakes, volcanoes, and sun), combination of these disturbances, and identification of anthropogenic disturbances. They discuss past climate evolutions, and finally discuss how the climate could evolve in the future