WorldWideScience

Sample records for wheat-plantain starch salted

  1. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of buckwheat starch digestion by the formation of starch/bile salt complexes: possibility of its occurrence in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko

    2011-06-08

    During the digestion of starch in foods, starch is mixed with bile in the duodenum. Because fatty acids and some kinds of polyphenols could bind to starch, it was postulated that bile salts might also bind to starch. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of bile and bile salts on starch/iodine complex formation and pancreatin-induced starch digestion. Bile suppressed starch/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced starch digestion slightly in control buckwheat starch, but did so significantly in buckwheat starch from which fatty acids and polyphenols had been extracted. Such significant suppression and inhibition by bile were also observed in a reagent soluble starch. The effects of cholate and taurocholate on the starch/iodine complex formation and the pancreatin-induced starch digestion were essentially the same as those of bile. Bile, cholate, and taurocholate suppressed amylose/iodine complex formation more significantly than amylopectin/iodine complex formation and inhibited pancreatin-induced amylose digestion more effectively than the digestion of amylopectin. It is concluded from the results that bile salts could bind to starch, especially amylose, the helical structures of which were not occupied by other molecules such as fatty acids and polyphenols, and that the binding resulted in the inhibition of starch digestion by pancreatin. The conclusion suggests that the function of bile salts can be discussed from the point of not only lipid digestion but also starch digestion.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and antifungal property of starch derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wei, Lijie; Wang, Ping; Gao, Zhenpeng; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2017-07-01

    Four novel starch derivatives modified with quaternary phosphonium salts were designed and successfully synthesized, including trimethylphosphonium acetyl starch chloride, tributylphosphonium acetyl starch chloride, tricyclohexylphosphonium acetyl starch chloride, triphenylphosphonium acetyl starch chloride, and characterized by FTIR, UV, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and (31)P NMR spectra. Their antifungal activities against four kinds of phytopathogens were evaluated using the radial growth assay and minimum inhibitory concentration procedure. The fungicidal assessment revealed that the synthesized starch derivatives had superior antifungal activity compared with starch. Especially, the inhibitory indices of triphenylphosphonium acetyl starch chloride against these four kinds of plant pathogens were higher than 70% at 1.0mg/mL. The results indicated that quaternary phosphonium groups should be high-efficiency antifungal function groups, and meanwhile longer alkyl chain lengths or the stronger electron-withdrawing groups were responsible for enhanced antifungal versatility and efficacy. The cytotoxicity of starch and starch derivatives bearing quaternary phosphonium salts was evaluated in vitro on HEK-293T cells. As novel quaternary phosphonium functionalized starch derivatives could be prepared efficiently and exhibited superduper antifungal activity, this synthetic strategy might provide an effective way and notion to prepare novel antifungal biomaterials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate as an emulsifier in “light” type mayonnaises

    OpenAIRE

    Grażyna Lewandowicz; Tomasz Zięba; Artur Szwengiel; Joanna Le Thanh-Blicharz; Zuzanna Małyszek

    2012-01-01

      Introduction. The E 1450 sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate which exhibits emulsifying properties is used as food additive and is also recommended as yolk replacer in the process of mayonnaise production. Commercial E 1450 preparations reveal excellent functional properties in mayonnaise production. However, sodium salt of starch octenylsuccinate produced in the course of the suspension process (as well as the product of its hydrolysis in a membrane reactor), despite high surfa...

  5. The use of potato and sweet potato starches affects white salted noodle quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Potato and sweet potato starches and derivatives thereof were used to substitute part of the wheat flour in white salted noodle (WSN) manufacture. The quality of the WSN obtained was compared with the quality of WSN made from wheat flour only. When up to 20% of wheat flour was replaced by acetylated

  6. Effect of Salt and Ethanol Addition on Zein-Starch Dough and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Selling, Gordon; Sessa, David; Aramouni, Fadi M

    2017-03-01

    Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein-starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein-80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na 2 SO 4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein-starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of β-ME had minimal softening effects on zein-starch dough. Specific volumes of zein-starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Ion Dynamics Study of Potato Starch + Sodium Salts Electrolyte System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhina Tiwari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different anions, namely, SCN−, I−, and ClO4−, on the electrical properties of starch-based polymer electrolytes has been studied. Anion size and conductivity are having an inverse trend indicating systems to be predominantly anionic conductor. Impact of anion size and multiplet forming tendency is reflected in number of charge carriers and mobility, respectively. Ion dynamics study reveals the presence of different mechanisms in different frequency ranges. Interestingly, superlinear power law (SLPL is found to be present at <5 MHz frequency, which is further confirmed by dielectric data.

  8. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  9. The effect of salt concentration on swelling power, rheological properties and saltiness perception of waxy, normal and high amylose maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xudong; Guo, Dongwei; Xue, Jiquan; Yanniotis, Stavros; Mandala, Ioanna

    2017-10-18

    The effect of salt concentration on swelling power, rheological properties and saltiness perception of waxy, normal and high amylose maize starch was investigated. The swelling power decreased with increasing salt concentration from 0% to 2.0% among all starch samples. Waxy starch showed the highest swelling power at different salt levels, while high amylose starch showed the least swelling power. The salt addition increased the gelatinization temperature of waxy starch and normal starch from 71.3 °C to 77.1 °C and from 72.3 °C to 78.2 °C. Their storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), and viscosity values at lower salt concentration were greater than those at higher salt concentration. The increasing tan δ of waxy and normal starch against frequency sweep indicated liquid-like behavior, while high amylose starch exhibited decreasing tan δ indicating solid-like behavior as it was difficult to gelatinize. When sensory evaluation was conducted by trained panelists, it was found that high amylose starch displayed the highest initial saltiness and in-mouth saltiness intensity, accompanied by the greatest thickness, lubrication and stickiness, while waxy starch displayed the lowest values for saltiness perception and mouthfeel.

  10. Study of quantitative interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of heavy metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymońska, Joanna; Molenda, Marcin; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2015-12-10

    Interactions of potato and corn starch granules with ions in diluted solutions of silver, lead, copper or iron salts were investigated. It was shown experimentally that granules accumulated the cations in amounts depending on the granule structure and water content as well as a type of both metal and counter-ions present in solution. Potato starch retained almost three times more cations compared to corn starch what was proportional to the total phosphorous content in these starches. Quantity of milligrams of cations bound by 1g of starch was inversely correlated with the cation hydration. Ag(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were connected in stoichiometric amounts of moles to semicrystalline and amorphous parts of the granules. Fe(3+) ions were accumulated in higher than stoichiometric quantities mainly in granule amorphous regions. Metal ions penetrated into granules together with anions except nitrates which remained on surface of potato starch granules. Cations facilitated the starch thermal decomposition in accordance with values of their standard redox potentials. Nitrates supported this process only in the presence of base metal cations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. KINETICS OF THE HYDROXYETHYLATION OF STARCH IN ALKALINE SALT-CONTAINING AQUEOUS SLURRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANWARNERS, A; STAMNHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A two-phase kinetic model is presented for the base-catalyzed hydroxyethylation of potato starch using ethylene oxide at temperatures between 293 and 318 K in aqueous starch slurries containing sodium sulfate. The rate of the hydroxyethylation of starch as a function of starch anion concentration

  12. Treatment of high salt oxidized modified starch waste water using micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic aerobic and electrolysis for reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xuenong; Wang, Yulin

    2017-06-01

    A combined process of micro-electrolysis, two-phase anaerobic, aerobic and electrolysis was investigated for the treatment of oxidized modified starch wastewater (OMSW). Optimum ranges for important operating variables were experimentally determined and the treated water was tested for reuse in the production process of corn starch. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of micro-electrolysis, methanation reactor, aerobic process and electrolysis process were 5, 24, 12 and 3 h, respectively. The addition of iron-carbon fillers to the acidification reactor was 200 mg/L while the best current density of electrolysis was 300 A/m2. The biodegradability was improved from 0.12 to 0.34 by micro-electrolysis. The whole treatment was found to be effective with removal of 96 % of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 0.71 L/day of methane energy recovery. In addition, active chlorine production (15,720 mg/L) was obtained by electrolysis. The advantage of this hybrid process is that, through appropriate control of reaction conditions, effect from high concentration of salt on the treatment was avoided. Moreover, the process also produced the material needed in the production of oxidized starch while remaining emission-free and solved the problem of high process cost.

  13. Starch poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  14. FT-IR and FT-Raman studies of cross-linking processes with Ca(2+) ions, glutaraldehyde and microwave radiation for polymer composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch--part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Beata; Sitarz, Maciej; Olejnik, Ewa; Kaczmarska, Karolina

    2015-01-25

    FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods allowed to identify the cross-linking process of the aqueous composition of poly(acrylic acid)/sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (PAA/CMS-Na) applied as a binder for moulding sands. The cross-linking was performed by chemical methods by introducing cross-linking substances with Ca(2+) ions or glutaraldehyde and by physical way, applying the microwave radiation. It was found that Ca(2+) ions cause formation of cross-linking ionic bonds within carboxyl and carboxylate groups. Glutaraldehyde generates formation of cross-linking bonds with hemiacetal and acetal structures. Whereas in the microwave radiation field, due to dehydration, lattices are formed by anhydride bonds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...

  16. Starch-lipid inclusion complexes for aerogel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently we reported that aqueous slurries of starch can be excess steam jet-cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to produce inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes can be simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam ...

  17. Application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried foods because of increasing health concerns from consumers. Oxidized starches have been utilized in many coating applications for their adhesion ability. However, it is not known if they perform similarly in bake-only products. This study investigated the application of oxidized starch in bake-only chicken nuggets. Oxidized starches were prepared from 7 starches and analyzed for gelatinization and pasting properties. Chicken nuggets were prepared using batter containing wheat flour, oxidized starch, salt, and leavening agents prior to steaming, oven baking, freezing, and final oven baking for sensory evaluation. All nuggets were analyzed for hardness by a textural analyzer, crispness by an acoustic sound, and sensory characteristics by a trained panel. The oxidation level used in the study did not alter the gelatinization temperature of most starches, but increased the peak pasting viscosity of both types of corn and rice starches and decreased that of tapioca and potato starches. There were slight differences in peak force and acoustic reading between some treatments; however, the differences were not consistent with starch type or amylose content. There was no difference among the treatments as well as between the control with wheat flour and the treatments partially replaced with oxidized starches in all sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets evaluated by the trained panel. There is a need to reduce the fat content in fried food, such as chicken nuggets, because of increasing childhood obesity. Oxidized starches are widely used in coating applications for their adhesion ability. This study investigated the source of oxidized starches in steam-baked coated nuggets for their textural and sensorial properties. The findings from this research will provide an understanding of the contributions of starch source and oxidation to the texture and sensory attributes of bake-only nuggets, and future directions to improve

  18. Flocculation and antimicrobial properties of a cationized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouzhou; Huang, Mu; Li, Aimin; Yang, Hu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a series of cationized starch-based flocculants (starch-3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl triethyl ammonium chloride, St-CTA) containing various quaternary ammonium salt groups on the starch backbone were prepared using a simple etherification reaction. All of the prepared starch-based flocculants show effective performance for the flocculation of kaolin suspension, two bacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) suspensions, and two contaminant mixtures (kaolin and each bacterium) under most pH conditions. St-CTA with a high substitution degree of CTA demonstrates improved contaminant removal efficiency because of the strong cationic nature of the grafted quaternary ammonium salt groups and the charge naturalization flocculation effect. The antibacterial effects of St-CTA were also evaluated, considering that many quaternary ammonium salt compounds elicit bactericidal effects. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectra and direct cell morphological observation under scanning electron microscopy reveal that the starch-based flocculants exhibit better antibacterial effects on the Gram-negative bacterium E. coli than on the Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus. The thicker cell wall due to the presence of abundant peptidoglycan and teichoic acids of S. aureus than E. coli explains the uneasy breakage of S. aureus cell wall after being attacked by the cationized starch-based flocculants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... of the obtained products and were correlated to properties of the starch substrates. It was found that the obtained products differed depending on both the conditions used and the properties of the starch. Products of starch from certain origins completely lost their granular structure during the enzyme treatment...

  20. Plasma modification of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Plasma is a medium of unbound negative and positive particles with the overall electrical charge being roughly zero. Non-thermal plasma processing is an emerging green technology with great potential to improve the quality and microbial safety of various food materials. Starch is a major component of many food products and is an important ingredient for food and other industries. There has been increasing interest in utilizing plasma to modify the functionalities of starch through interactions with reactive species. This mini-review summarises the impact of plasma on composition, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, and uses of starch. Structure-function relationships of starch components as affected by plasma modifications are discussed. Effect of plasma on the properties of wheat flour, which is a typical example of starch based complex food systems, is also reviewed. Future research directions on how to better utilise plasma to improve the functionalities of starch are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chlorophyll and starch assays

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll, starch, and sugar contents are good indicators of growth vigor in plants. To measure the chlorophyll content, we used a modified protocol (1,2). The starch content was determined using iodine staining (3) and enzymatic reactions (4-6).

  2. Potato starch synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian-Firouzabadi, Farhad; Visser, Richard G.F.

    2017-01-01

    Starch, a very compact form of glucose units, is the most abundant form of storage polyglucan in nature. The starch synthesis pathway is among the central biochemical pathways, however, our understanding of this important pathway regarding genetic elements controlling this pathway, is still

  3. Aroma interactions with starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Dysted

    -release, and another part regarding stimulation of a fungal secretome using different carbohydrates. In the first part, nine aromas and one aroma-mixture were mixed with nine different starches, including genetically modified starches. The objective of this sub-project was to bind aromas to the starches to 15 weight...... carbohydrates. Stimulation with starch induced expression of starch-degrading enzymes, while stimulation with the hemicellulose xylan induced expression of xylanases. One particular hypothetical protein was ubiquitously expressed. This protein had no apparent homology with known proteins, but may iv be involved...... in attacking other organisms as a weak homology with other proteins involved in membrane attack was detected. Degradation of secreted proteins was observed in some cultures. Identification of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 using xylan as carbon-source was not successful despite previous evidence...

  4. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review, we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean technology methods can be implemented to replace, for example, chemical modification. The recently...... released cereal genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now pave the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain, converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome...

  5. Environmental impact assessment of six starch plastics focusing on wastewater-derived starch and additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, Martijn L.M.; Kuling, Lody; Worrell, Ernst; Shen, Li

    2017-01-01

    Starch plastics are developed for their biobased origin and potential biodegradability. To assist the development of sustainable starch plastics, this paper quantifies the environmental impacts of starch plastics produced from either virgin starch or starch reclaimed from wastewater. A

  6. Preparation and properties of resistant starch from corn starch with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amylase and pullulanase and followed by retrogradation, to prepare resistant starch. The properties of selected resistant starch (RS) samples were also investigated. The result showed that, appropriate amount (0.5 U/g) of thermostable á-amylase ...

  7. upstream and downstream opportunities for starch and starch adjuncts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... Department of Food Technology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State ..... starch a functional raw material for products like baby ..... A publication of Nigerian Institute of Food ... Starch Production Technology Applied science.

  8. Starch phosphorylation plays an important role in starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Dechesne, Annemarie; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters are crucial in starch metabolism and render valuable functionality to starches for various industrial applications. A potato glucan, water dikinase (GWD1) was introduced in tubers of two different potato genetic backgrounds: an amylose-containing line Kardal and the

  9. New starch methodology to measure both soluble and insoluble starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is a natural sugarcane juice impurity that greatly influences raw sugar quality and affects factory and refinery processing. Since the advent of the USDA Starch Research method, the mechanisms in which starch concentration and physical form affects sugar crop processing, conversion, and end-g...

  10. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Marilyn; Sjöö, Malin; Timgren, Anna; Dejmek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Intact starch granules isolated from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were used to stabilize emulsion drops in so-called Pickering emulsions. Miglyol 812 was used as dispersed phase and a phosphate buffer (pH7) with different salt (NaCl) concentrations was used as the continuous phase. The starch granules were hydrophobically modified to different degrees by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) or by dry heat treatment at 120 degrees C in order to study the effect on the resulting emulsion drop size. The degree of OSA-modification had a low to moderate impact on drop size. The highest level of modification (4.66%) showed the largest mean drop size, and lowest amount of free starch, which could be an effect of a higher degree of aggregation of the starch granules and, thereby, also the emulsion drops stabilized by them. The heat treated starch granules had a poor stabilizing ability and only the starch heated for the longest time (150 min at 120 degrees C) had a better emulsifying capacity than the un-modified native starch granules. The effect of salt concentration was rather limited. However, an increased concentration of salt slightly increased the mean drop size and the elastic modulus.

  11. Structure of potato starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoft, Eric; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    , containing short chains with an average length of 22-25 glucosyl residues. The branching pattern is not well known, but branch point clustering guides chains to determine the overall starch granule architecture and starch functionality. The clusters consist of 5-10 grouped short chains, which...... are interconnected by long chains with more than 36 residues. The clusters consist of still smaller, very tightly branched building blocks. The clusters direct the semicrystalline structures found inside the starch granules. The crystals, which are ~5.2. nm thick, contain double helices formed from the external...... chains extending from the clusters. A range of enzymes is involved in the biosynthesis of the cluster structures and linear segments. These are required for sugar activation, chain elongation, branching, and trimming of the final branching pattern. As an interesting feature, potato amylopectin...

  12. ( Colocasia esculenta ) starch from Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of starch isolated from tuber of Godare [Colocasia esculenta (Araceae)] have been characterised. Amylose content was found to be 24.3%. The starch granules are polygonal to spherical in shape with indentations in some granules. The granules exist as single entities. The starch has normal ...

  13. Physicochemical properties of kiwifruit starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongxing; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Three varieties of golden kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) (Gold3, Gold9 and Hort16A) were collected at the commercial harvesting time, and physicochemical properties of starches from core and outer pericarp were studied. Starch contents (dry weight basis) in outer pericarp and core tissues ranged from 38.6 to 51.8% and 34.6 to 40.7%, respectively. All the kiwifruit starches showed B-type polymorph. Compared to the outer pericarp starches, amylose content and enzyme susceptibility of core starches were higher, and the degree of crystallinity, granule size and gelatinization parameters of core starches were somewhat lower. This suggests different biosynthetic properties between these two starches. The enthalpy changes of gelatinization of outer pericarp starches were high (∼21J/g). Rheological properties of outer pericarp starches were compared with normal maize and potato starches showed high yield stress of flow properties. This study revealed the unique properties of kiwifruit starch among various types of starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch

  15. Heterologous expression of two Arabidopsis starch dikinases in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Dees, Dianka; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Starch phosphate esters influence physiochemical properties of starch granules that are essential both for starch metabolism and industrial use of starches. To modify properties of potato starch and understand the effect of starch phosphorylation on starch metabolism in storage starch, the starch

  16. Starch Bioengineering in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    the wild-type cultivar. These exciting results may provide a potential clean technological approach to starch modification by in-planta bioengineering and avoid environmental hazards resulting from post-harvest treatments by chemical modifications. The third study was to investigate the effects...

  17. and Other Modified Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syneresis of starcli gels evolved on refrigeration at the onset from zero and remained constant between 20% to 60% after 8 ... Evolution of the syneresis of starch gels during refrigeration at 4°C: (a) D. alata (b) D. caytnensis-rotundata complex (c)- D. esculenta and D. .... Eliasson A. C. and Kim H. R. (1992). Changes m.

  18. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is controversial. In this review, we will present the current evidence for the use of HES solutions including data from recent high-quality randomized clinical trials. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses of HES vs. control fluids show clear...

  19. Resistant starch in cassava products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Letícia Buzati Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Found in different foods, starch is the most important source of carbohydrates in the diet. Some factors present in starchy foods influence the rate at which the starch is hydrolyzed and absorbed in vivo. Due the importance of cassava products in Brazilian diet, the objective of this study was to analyze total starch, resistant starch, and digestible starch contents in commercial cassava products. Thirty three commercial cassava products from different brands, classifications, and origin were analyzed. The method used for determination of resistant starch consisted of an enzymatic process to calculate the final content of resistant starch considering the concentration of glucose released and analyzed. The results showed significant differences between the products. Among the flours and seasoned flours analyzed, the highest levels of resistant starch were observed in the flour from Bahia state (2.21% and the seasoned flour from Paraná state (1.93%. Starch, tapioca, and sago showed levels of resistant starch ranging from 0.56 to 1.1%. The cassava products analyzed can be considered good sources of resistant starch; which make them beneficial products to the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Calixto, F.; R. Abia

    1991-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS), the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat tr...

  1. The future of starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Sagnelli, Domenico; Blennow, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch...... processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots......, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel...

  2. Characterization of Arenga starch in comparison with sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawiyah, Dede R; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this research was to characterize the composition and physical properties of palm starch obtained from Arenga pinnata in comparison with another palm starch from Metroxylon sago. The amylose contents of both starches were not significantly different. Peak gelatinization temperature was also similar at approximately 67 °C, but arenga starch showed a narrower range of gelatinization temperature than sago. The crystallinity and swelling power capacity of arenga starch were lower than those of sago. Arenga and sago starch paste at low concentrations showed shear thinning behavior, and sago formed a more viscous sol/paste than arenga. The sol-gel transition concentration of sago starch paste was found at a lower concentration than arenga starch. At high concentrations, gel from arenga starch was more rigid than that of sago. The breaking properties and texture profile of both starch gels were also clearly different, suggesting that they are suited for different applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple purification (desalting) procedure to facilitate structural analysis of an alkali-solubilized/neutralized starch solution by intermediate-pressure size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Huber, Kerry C

    2007-06-27

    A technique was established to remove impurities (e.g., salts) from starch dissolved in strong alkali and neutralized with acid to accommodate starch structural analysis via intermediate-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (IPSEC). Starch (corn and wheat) subjected to an alkaline-microwave dissolution scheme (35 s microwave heating in a mixture of 6 M urea and 1 M KOH) was either treated with ion-exchange resin or passed through a desalting column to remove salt/urea contaminants. Control (untreated) starch solution analyzed by IPSEC displayed a significant interfering peak (attributable to salt/urea), which coeluted with the starch amylose peak. The interfering peak was most efficiently eliminated by first passing the starch solution through a desalting column, which process effectively removed impurities (e.g., salts/urea) without appearing to adversely impact the starch structural analysis. This simple technique coupled with the rapid alkaline-microwave starch dissolution procedure greatly expedites structural investigation of starch by facilitating analysis by IPSEC.

  4. Food preparation characteristics of potato starch pastes containing a proportion of chemically-modified starch

    OpenAIRE

    菊地, 和美; 高橋 セツ子; 吉田 訓子; 山本 未穂; 知地 英征; Kazumi, KIKUCHI; Takahashi, Setsuko; Yoshida, Kuniko; Yamamoto, Miho; CHIJI Hideyuki; 藤女子大学人間生活学部食物栄養学科; 藤女子大学人間生活学部食物栄養学科藤女子大学大学院人間生活学研究科食物栄養学専攻

    2011-01-01

    Hokkaido potatoes are widely used as a source of starch. Potato starch is used for various purposes,particularly for the production of fish paste products,livestock products, and confectionery. Moreover, modified starch, which is produced by processing potato starch chemically and physically, is used in a variety of forms. This study examines the properties of modified starch gels produced by further enhancing the starch functions of potato starch. To study the primary properties of starch ge...

  5. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar gelatinization temperature (70 oC), enthalpy change (10 J/g), and peak viscosity (600 cp) were obtained for sweet potato starch phosphodiester and the raw starch indicating that their gelatinization properties were identical. Compared with sweet potato starch, digestible starch content of sweet potato starch ...

  6. Granulomatous peritonitis caused by glove starch.

    OpenAIRE

    Michowitz, M.; Stavorovsky, M.; Ilie, B.

    1983-01-01

    Corn starch particles are used as a surgical glove lubricant. At present there is no better alternative for this lubricant. Implantation of corn starch particles into the peritoneal cavity can induce foreign body reactions, starch peritonitis and starch granulomata, and may cause adhesions and intestinal obstruction. Starch peritonitis should be treated conservatively.

  7. The enzymatic determination of starch in food, feed and raw materials of the starch industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunt, K.; Sanders, P.; Rozema, T.

    1998-01-01

    An enzymatic starch determination which can be used for the analysis of starch in a very broad range of different samples is evaluated, ranging from starch in plants, feed and food to industrial applications as starch in starch. The method is based on a complete enzymatic conversion of the starch

  8. In-vitro starch hydrolysis of chitosan incorporating whey protein and wheat starch composite gels

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Yang; John Ashton; Elisabeth Gorczyca; Stefan Kasapis

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of chitosan, incorporated into whey protein and wheat starch thermo gels, on the in-vitro hydrolysis of the polysaccharide. Gels were subjected to the following external conditions containing α-amylase at constant incubation temperature of 37 °C: In the first procedure, they were immersed in phosphate buffer (0.05 M) and maintained at pH 6.9 throughout the entire digestion. In the second instance, they were introduced into a salt solution, with pH and total ...

  9. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  10. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Leroy, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was bot...

  11. Changes in sorghum starch during parboiling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Young, R

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available . Parboiling decreased starch crystallinity and starch dispersion in hot water. Parboiled grain with soft endosperm texture contained less dispersible and soluble starch than parboiled grain with intermediate endosperm texture. The physical characteristics...

  12. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. In-vitro starch hydrolysis of chitosan incorporating whey protein and wheat starch composite gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of chitosan, incorporated into whey protein and wheat starch thermo gels, on the in-vitro hydrolysis of the polysaccharide. Gels were subjected to the following external conditions containing α-amylase at constant incubation temperature of 37 °C: In the first procedure, they were immersed in phosphate buffer (0.05 M and maintained at pH 6.9 throughout the entire digestion. In the second instance, they were introduced into a salt solution, with pH and total volume adjusted at times in sync with the human gastrointestinal tract. Results indicate that low and medium molecular weight chitosan, in combination with whey protein, were effective at enhancing the protective barrier against starch degradation. Less maltose was liberated from gels containing medium molecular weight chitosan, as opposed to the low molecular weight counterpart, and results compare favorably with the outcome of the in-vitro digestion of binary whey protein and wheat starch composites. Keywords: Food science

  14. Starch Gelatinization Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazutaka YAMAMOTO

    2013-01-01

    .... Starch gelatinization can also be induced by high hydrostatic pressure. Requirements for pressure gelatinization may also differ depending on botanical origin of starch, pressure, water, and temperature...

  15. Emulsion stabilizing capacity of intact starch granules modified by heat treatment or octenyl succinic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timgren, Anna; Rayner, Marilyn; Dejmek, Petr; Marku, Diana; Sjöö, Malin

    2013-03-01

    Starch granules are an interesting stabilizer candidate for food-grade Pickering emulsions. The stabilizing capacity of seven different intact starch granules for making oil-in-water emulsions has been the topic of this screening study. The starches were from quinoa; rice; maize; waxy varieties of rice, maize, and barley; and high-amylose maize. The starches were studied in their native state, heat treated, and modified by octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA). The effect of varying the continuous phase, both with and without salt in a phosphate buffer, was also studied. Quinoa, which had the smallest granule size, had the best capacity to stabilize oil drops, especially when the granules had been hydrophobically modified by heat treatment or by OSA. The average drop diameter (d 32) in these emulsions varied from 270 to 50 μm, where decreasing drop size and less aggregation was promoted by high starch concentration and absence of salt in the system. Of all the starch varieties studied, quinoa had the best overall emulsifying capacity, and OSA modified quinoa starch in particular. Although the size of the drops was relatively large, the drops themselves were in many instances extremely stable. In the cases where the system could stabilize droplets, even when they were so large that they were visible to the naked eye, they remained stable and the measured droplet sizes after 2 years of storage were essentially unchanged from the initial droplet size. This somewhat surprising result has been attributed to the thickness of the adsorbed starch layer providing steric stabilization. The starch particle-stabilized Pickering emulsion systems studied in this work has potential practical application such as being suitable for encapsulation of ingredients in food and pharmaceutical products.

  16. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical properties of maca starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Yao, Weirong; Zhu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) is gaining research attention due to its unique bioactive properties. Starch is a major component of maca roots, thus representing a novel starch source. In this study, the properties of three maca starches (yellow, purple and black) were compared with commercially maize, cassava, and potato starches. The starch granule sizes ranged from 9.0 to 9.6μm, and the granules were irregularly oval. All the maca starches presented B-type X-ray diffraction patterns, with the relative degree of crystallinity ranging from 22.2 to 24.3%. The apparent amylose contents ranged from 21.0 to 21.3%. The onset gelatinization temperatures ranged from 47.1 to 47.5°C as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry. Significant differences were observed in the pasting properties and textural parameters among all of the studied starches. These characteristics suggest the utility of native maca starch in products subjected to low temperatures during food processing and other industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. INNER SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a...Products that have been characterized include: (1) mesomeric phosphonium salts possessing phototropic properties; (2) pentavalent phosphorus compounds; and (3) a mesomeric inner salt . (Author)...Novel phosphonium and phosphorane compounds ere prepared by a variety of m hods from triphenylphosphine and methylene bromide. Products that have

  19. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  20. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101

  1. Continuous-flow electro-assisted acid hydrolysis of granular potato starch via inductive methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yang, Na; Jin, Yamei; Guo, Lunan; Zhou, Yuyi; Xie, Zhengjun; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2017-08-15

    The induced electric field assisted hydrochloric acid (IEF-HCl) hydrolysis of potato starch was investigated in a fluidic system. The impact of various reaction parameters on the hydrolysis rate, including reactor number (1-4), salt type (KCl, MgCl2, FeCl3), salt concentration (3-12%), temperature (40-55°C), and hydrolysis time (0-60h), were comprehensively assessed. Under optimal conditions, the maximum reducing sugar content in the hydrolysates was 10.59g/L. X-ray diffraction suggested that the crystallinity of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased with the intensification of hydrolysis but was lower than that of native starch. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface and interior regions of starch granules were disrupted by the hydrolysis. The solubility of IEF-HCl-modified starches increased compared to native starch while their swelling power decreased, contributing to a decline in paste viscosity. These results suggest that IEF is a notable potential electrotechnology to conventional hydrolysis under mild conditions without any electrode touching the subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substituent distribution within cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch and potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Schols, H.A.; Chen Zenghong,; Jin Zhengyu,; Buwalda, P.L.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the substituents distribution within starch can help to understand the changes of starch properties after modification. The distribution of substituents over cross-linked and hydroxypropylated sweet potato starch was investigated and compared with modified potato starch. The starches were

  3. VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED POTATO-STARCH PASTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1994-01-01

    A new viscosity equation for the description of the viscosity of concentrated aqueous starch pastes is proposed: eta(app) = Ke([Bmstarch+(C/T)-DW+(n-1)ln gamma]) with: m(starch) = mass fraction starch in paste, T = temperature, W = amount of work performed on the starch, n = power-law index, K =

  4. Sixth taste – starch taste?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scientists from Oregon State University, USA, came up with the newest theory of the sixth taste – starch taste that might soon join the basic five tastes. This argument is supported by studies done on both animals and humans, the results of which seem to indicate the existence of separate receptors for starch taste, others than for sweet taste. Starch is a glucose homopolymer that forms an α-glucoside chain called glucosan or glucan. This polysaccharide constitutes the most important source of carbohydrates in food. It can be found in groats, potatoes, legumes, grains, manioc and corn. Apart from its presence in food, starch is also used in textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and stationery industries as well as in glue production. This polysaccharide is made of an unbranched helical structure – amylose (15–20%, and a structure that forms branched chains – amylopectin (80–85%. The starch structure, degree of its crystallisation or hydration as well as its availability determine the speed of food-contained starch hydrolysis by amylase. So far, starch has been considered tasteless, but the newest report shows that for people of different origins it is associated with various aliments specific for each culture. Apart from a number of scientific experiments using sweet taste inhibitors, the existence of the sixth taste is also confirmed by molecular studies. However, in order to officially include starch taste to the basic human tastes, it must fulfil certain criteria. The aim of the study is to present contemporary views on starch.

  5. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Ananskikh; V. M. Chesnokov

    2015-01-01

    Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starchstarch liquefaction the rapid incr...

  6. Novel formulation of low-fat spread using rice starch modified by 4-α-glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Viet Ha; Mun, Saehun; Kim, Young-Lim; Rho, Shin-Joung; Park, Kwan Hwa; Kim, Yong-Ro

    2016-10-01

    Low-fat spreads were developed using a thermoreversible gelling agent, the 4-α-glucanotransferase (4αGT)-modified rice starch. The low-fat spreads consisted of the modified starch paste (or rice starch or maltodextrin), olive oil (0-30% w/w), egg yolk, salt, xanthan gum, and butter flavor, and were produced by homogenization, ultrasonic processing at 50% amplitude for 2min, and cold-gel setting at 4°C for 24h. Formulations with 15% and 20% of the modified starch paste resulted in highly stable oil-in-water low-fat spreads having varied textural properties and acceptable spreadability, whereas formulations with rice starch and maltodextrin did not yield enough stability and consistency. Moreover, the modified starch-based low-fat spreads showed high thermoreversibility. These results indicated that 4αGT-modified starch could be used in the preparation of low-fat spreads, allowing the formulation of functional products for healthy diets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphology of starch digestion in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, E; Pohlenz, J; Radicke, S

    1997-06-01

    Structure of starch in feed and chyme of horses (7 with a cannula at the caudal end of the jejunum and 2 with a cecal fistula) after feeding high starch diets (maize: whole, broken, ground, expanded and as silage, oats: whole, rolled or ground, rolled barley, raw potatoes, and tapioca) was investigated by light and electron microscopy. Structure of feed starch and morphology or starch degradation in the chyme corresponded to data on preileal starch digestibility which was investigated in a parallel study. Barriers for starch digestion in the gastrointestinal tract of the horse were structure of the plant storage organ, as for example, a tight connection between starch granules in maize gains as well as the structure of the starch granules itself. The highly digestible oat starch was degraded by exocorrosion around the grains, whereas in other, less digestible, starch types degradation occurred by endocorrosion via pin holes. The number and size of the pin holes increased with increasing preileal starch digestibility. The effect of various ways of decomposition on preileal digestibility increased with advanced destruction of the original starch structure. Expanding was most effective. The granules were destroyed completely and the starch became soluble. Simple examination by light microscopy is a fast method to evaluate the degree of starch decomposition in the feed.

  8. Design starch: stochastic modeling of starch granule biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguin, Adélaïde; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2017-08-15

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages. The net difference in the distribution of chain lengths and the branching pattern of amylose (mainly linear), compared with amylopectin (racemose structure), leads to different physico-chemical properties. Amylose is an amorphous and soluble polysaccharide, whereas amylopectin is insoluble and exhibits a highly organized structure of densely packed double helices formed between neighboring linear chains. Contrarily to starch degradation that has been investigated since the early 20th century, starch production is still poorly understood. Most enzymes involved in starch growth (elongation, branching, debranching, and partial hydrolysis) are now identified. However, their specific action, their interplay (cooperative or competitive), and their kinetic properties are still largely unknown. After reviewing recent results on starch structure and starch growth and degradation enzymatic activity, we discuss recent results and current challenges for growing polysaccharides on granular surface. Finally, we highlight the importance of novel stochastic models to support the analysis of recent and complex experimental results, and to address how macroscopic properties emerge from enzymatic activity and structural rearrangements. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Starch Hydrogel Incorporated with Copper Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, María Emilia; Diez, Ana María Del Rosario; González, Joaquín Antonio; Pérez, Claudio Javier; Orrego, Manuel; Piehl, Lidia; Teves, Sergio; Copello, Guillermo Javier

    2016-06-29

    In order to obtain an antimicrobial gel, a starch-based hydrogel reinforced with silica-coated copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) was developed. Cu NPs were synthesized by use of a copper salt and hydrazine as a reducing agent. In order to enhance Cu NP stability over time, they were synthesized in a starch medium followed by a silica coating. The starch hydrogel was prepared by use of urea and water as plasticizers and it was treated with different concentrations of silica-coated copper nanoparticles (Si-Cu NPs). The obtained materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and rheometry. FT-IR and EPR spectra were used for characterization of Cu NPs and Si-Cu NPs, confirming that a starch cap was formed around the Cu NP and demonstrating the stability of the copper nanoparticle after the silica coating step. SEM images showed Cu NP, Si-Cu NP, and hydrogel morphology. The particle size was polydisperse and the structure of the gels changed along with particle concentration. Increased NP content led to larger pores in starch structure. These results were in accordance with the rheological behavior, where reinforcement by the Si-Cu NP was seen. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial species. The hydrogels were demonstrated to maintain antimicrobial activity for at least four cycles of use. A dermal acute toxicity test showed that the material could be scored as slightly irritant, proving its biocompatibility. With these advantages, it is believed that the designed Si-Cu NP loaded hydrogel may show high potential for applications in various clinical fields, such as wound dressings and fillers.

  10. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  11. Investigation of pectin/starch hydrogel as a carrier for oral delivery of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafe, Alireza; Etemadi, Hossein; Dilmaghani, Azita; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2017-04-01

    The present study highlights the fabrication of novel food-grade hydrogel particles based on pectin and starch for probiotic colon delivery. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC:13643 (L. plantarum) cells were encapsulated in pectin/starch hydrogels by extrusion method. Four batches were formulated with different ratios of starch/pectin solutions. Optical and scanning electron microscopy obviously showed the random distribution of L. plantarum throughout the hydrogel network. The viability of encapsulated cells in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and bile salt solution was significantly higher when compared to nonencapsulated cells. Results demonstrated that encapsulated cells in pectin/starch hydrogels were resistant against adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract and bile salt solution compared to non-encapsulated cells. After sequential exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) for 2h almost complete death of free cells was observed however the numbers of surviving cells were 5.15 and 6.67 Log CFU/g for pectin and pectin/starch hydrogel, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of dialdehyde starch urea (DASU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dialdehyde starch urea (DASU) was prepared by the reaction of dialdehyde starch (DAS) from periodate oxidized cassava starch with urea, which was then used to adsorb Co(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. Starch modified starches and starch complexes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared ...

  13. Carboxymethyl Starch Excipients for Drug Chronodelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas-Szabo, Pompilia; De Koninck, Patrick; Calinescu, Carmen; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is a pH-responsive excipient exhibiting also interesting properties for applications in delayed drug delivery systems. This work was aimed to investigate the release properties of monolithic and dry-coated tablets based on ionic sodium CMS and on protonated CMS, formulated with three model tracers: acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and sodium diclofenac. The sodium or protonated CMS were obtained from the same CMS synthesis by controlling the final pH of reaction media. The two forms of CMS were confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro dissolution profiles for monolithic and double core tablets were different and allowed a better understanding of characteristics of the two excipient forms. It was found that the protonated CMS exhibited a better stability in simulated gastric fluid in comparison to its sodium salt in monolithic dosage forms, whereas both excipients afforded a complete gastric protection of drugs when formulated as dry-coated dosages. Determination of water uptake and erosion rate of monolithic matrices based on the two CMS forms showed different mechanisms involved in the delivery of the three model active molecules in simulated intestinal media. When pancreatic enzymes were added in dissolution media, the drug release was accelerated showing that CMS is still a substrate for alpha-amylase. Both sodium and protonated starch excipients, formulated as dry-coated dosages, afforded a good gastro-protection and allowed a drug chronodelivery at various intervals up to 4-5 h. They could be considered as an alternative for delayed delivery and a solvent-free coating procedure.

  14. Molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-02-20

    Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14.6) and a high percentage of fingerprint A-chains (Afp) (mean:10.4%). The average chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of quinoa amylopectin were 16.6, 10.6, and 5.00 glucosyl residues, respectively. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis revealed some inherent correlations among structural parameters and a similarity of different samples. Overall, quinoa amylopectins are structurally similar to that from starches with A-type polymorph such as oat and amaranth starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Starch characteristics and their influences on in vitro and pig prececal starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Huang, Yi-Fang; Chiang, Chia-Chun; Chung, Thau-Kiong; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg; Yu, Bi

    2011-07-13

    The main objective of this research was to study the characteristics of starch granules and their influences on in vitro and pig prececal starch digestion of corn, dehulled barley, wheat, and potato. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the starch endosperm structure in the parent material as well as in vitro starch digestion. The results showed that corn starch granules were polyhedral, with a diameter ranging from 2 to 10 μm, whereas those of dehulled barley and wheat were spherical, with a diameter ranging from 5 to 20 μm. Potato had the largest starch granules among starch sources reported herein, with oval spheres of 10-50 μm in diameter. In vitro starch hydrolysis showed that starch granules of corn degraded faster than the starch of dehulled barley and wheat, with the potato starch being degraded the slowest. The in vivo digestibility trial using ileal-cannulated pigs confirmed the starch degradation of grains. The in vitro (x, %) and in vivo (y, %) digestibility were highly correlated [y = 6.5304x - 538.48 (R(2) = 0.9924)]. On the basis of the results, in vitro starch hydrolysis might be useful in predicting in vivo prececal starch digestibility. The digestion kinetic characteristics of different starch sources might be employed to evaluate the starch digestive rate at the pig ileum.

  16. Resistant starch content, in vitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties of flour and starch from Thai bananas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nednapis Vatanasuchart

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flour and starch were prepared from six Thai banana cultivars: Kluai Hom, Kluai Khai,Kluai Lebmuenang, Kluai Namwa, Kluai Hakmuk and Kluai Hin, and their resistant starch (RS, invitro starch digestibility and physico-chemical properties were determined. The RS content of theflour is 52.2-68.1%, with flour from Kluai Hin containing the highest amount of RS, followed by thatfrom Kluai Hakmuk. The starch has a higher RS content (70.1-79.2%, the highest value comingfrom Kluai Hakmuk starch, followed by Kluai Hom starch. A significant linear relationship betweenapparent amylose and RS was observed. Interestingly, most of the flour showed a slower rate of invitro starch digestibility than that of the starch, with Kluai Hin flour exhibiting the slowest rate,followed by Kluai Namwa. Rapid viscosity analysis showed significantly higher peak viscosity of thestarch than the flour, the highest final and setback viscosity being obtained from Kluai Hin starch.Differential scanning calorimetry showed an endothermic transition enthalpy over a range of 17.4 J/gfor Kluai Lebmuenang starch to 18.6 J/g for Kluai Hin starch. X-ray diffractograms of the starchesexhibited a typical B-pattern with Kluai Hin showing the highest degree of relative crystallinity(31.3% with a sharp peak at 5.5. The overall results seemed to indicate an effect of the BBgenotype on the resistance of banana starch granules to enzymatic digestion due to amylosemolecules and the crystallinity of amylopectin.

  17. New starch derivatives for the coating industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtergaele, W.; Meeren, J. van der

    1987-04-01

    Continuous enzyme conversion in a jet cooker offers a lot of benefits compared to batch conversion. The starch has improved binding properties and a better overall performance. Gel-permeation chromatography shows a more favourable molecular-weight distribution for the continuous enzyme-converted starch. Wheat starch is a valuable binder in paper coating compared to maize starch and potato starch, when the conversion happens in the right way; continuous jet cooking gives the best results. Modified starches, such as Mylbond AC, an esterified starch, are very suitable as cobinder in topcoat applications. They show excellent binding properties and react faster with insolubilizers than oxidized enzyme converted starch, as shown by DSC measurements.

  18. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  19. Effect of starch isolation method on properties of sweet potato starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SURENDRA BABU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolation method of starch with different agents influences starch properties, which provide attention for studying the most appropriate method for isolation of starch. In the present study sweet potato starch was isolated by Sodium metabisulphate (M1, Sodium chloride (M2, and Distilled water (M3 methods and these were assessed for functional, chemical, pasting and structural properties. M3 yielded the greatest recovery of starch (10.20%. Isolation methods significantly changed swelling power and pasting properties but starches exhibited similar chemical properties. Sweet potato starches possessed C-type diffraction pattern. Small size granules of 2.90 μm were noticed in SEM of M3 starch. A high degree positive correlation was found between ash, amylose, and total starch content. The study concluded that isolation methods brought changes in yield, pasting and structural properties of sweet potato starch.

  20. Resistant starch intakes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Douglass, Judith Spungen; Birkett, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch. A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated. The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States. The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed. Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch. Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.

  1. Synthesis and application of epoxy starch derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Haar, ter R.; Schols, H.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxy starch derivatives were synthesized by epoxidation of allylated starch. The reaction was performed with low substituted 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-waxy maize starch (AHP-WMS; degree of substitution (DS) of 0.23) using hydrogen peroxide and acetonitrile Via a two step spectrophotometric assay,

  2. Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bednarska, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis – a summary K.A. Bednarska The dissertation entitled ‘Kinetic modelling of enzymatic starch hydrolysis’ describes the enzymatic hydrolysis and kinetic modelling of liquefaction and saccharification of wheat starch.

  3. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The other chemicals used are of analytical grade. Preparation of starch phosphodiester. The preparation of starch phosphodiester was done according to a published method [10]. A quantity of sweet potato starch was mixed with a certain amount of STMP, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, urea, and water in sequence.

  4. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  5. Chemical Composition, Resistant, Total Starch Content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is aimed at the potential use of cowpea starch (CS) as resistant starch in the production of noodle as a functional food and its overall acceptability. Alkaline noodle was prepared from a mixture of 100% wheat flour and varying substitution of wheat flour (2, 4% and 6%) with cowpea starch (CS). Chemical analysis ...

  6. Properties of retrograded and acetylated starch produced via starch extrusion or starch hydrolysis with pullulanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelko, M; Zięba, T; Gryszkin, A; Styczyńska, M; Wilczak, A

    2013-09-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of serial modifications of starch, including firstly starch extrusion or hydrolysis with pullulanase, followed by retrogradation (through freezing and defrosting of pastes) and acetylation (under industrial conditions), on its susceptibility to amylolysis. The method of production had a significant effect on properties of the resultant preparations, whilst the direction and extent of changes depended on the type of modification applied. In the produced starch esters, the degree of substitution, expressed by the per cent of acetylation, ranged from 3.1 to 4.4 g/100 g. The acetylation had a significant impact on contents of elements determined with the atomic emission spectrometry, as it contributed to an increased Na content and decreased contents of Ca and K. The DSC thermal characteristics enabled concluding that the modifications caused an increase in temperatures and a decrease in heat of transition (or its lack). The acetylation of retrograded starch preparations increased their solubility in water and water absorbability. The modifications were found to exert various effects on the rheological properties of pastes determined based on the Brabender's pasting characteristics and flow curves determined with the use of an oscillatory-rotating viscosimeter. All starch acetates produced were characterized by ca. 40% resistance to amylolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maize starch biphasic pasting curves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The pasting of commercial maize starches was found to be a biphasic phenomenon, exhibiting an expected first viscosity peak as well as an unexpected, relatively large second viscosity peak under specific cooking conditions when using a Rapid Visco...

  8. Resistant starch: promise for improving human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized.

  9. Starch--value addition by modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharanathan, Rudrapatnam N

    2005-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important but flexible food ingredients possessing value added attributes for innumerable industrial applications. Its various chemically modified derivatives offer a great scope of high technological value in both food and non-food industries. Modified starches are designed to overcome one or more of the shortcomings, such as loss of viscosity and thickening power upon cooking and storage, particularly at low pH, retrogradation characteristics, syneresis, etc., of native starches. Oxidation, esterification, hydroxyalkylation, dextrinization, and cross-linking are some of the modifications commonly employed to prepare starch derivatives. In a way, starch modification provides desirable functional attributes as well as offering economic alternative to other hydrocolloid ingredients, such as gums and mucilages, which are unreliable in quality and availability. Resistant starch, a highly retrograded starch fractionformed upon food processing, is another useful starch derivative. It exhibits the beneficial physiological effects of therapeutic and nutritional values akin to dietary fiber. There awaits considerable opportunity for future developments, especially for tailor-made starch derivatives with multiple modifications and with the desired functional and nutritional properties, although the problem of obtaining legislative approval for the use of novel starch derivatives in processed food formulations is still under debate. Nevertheless, it can be predicted that new ventures in starch modifications and their diverse applications will continue to be of great interest in applied research.

  10. Cassava starch in the Brazilian food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mottin Demiate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch is a valued raw material for producing many kinds of modified starches for food applications. Its physicochemical properties, as well as its availability, have made it an interesting and challenging ingredient for the food industry. In the present work, food grade modified cassava starches were purchased from producers and analyzed for selected physicochemical characteristics. Samples of sour cassava starch were included, as well as one sample of native cassava starch. Results showed that almost all modified starches were resistant to syneresis, produced pastes more stable to stirred cooking, and some of them were difficult to cook. The sour cassava starches presented high acidity and resulted in clear and unstable pastes during stirred cooking, susceptible to syneresis.

  11. Properties of baked foams from citric acid modified cassava starch and native cassava starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuksomboon, Kanlaya; Holló, Berta Barta; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Kaewtatip, Kaewta

    2016-01-20

    Starch foams from native cassava starch (NS) and citric acid modified cassava starch (CNS) were prepared using baking processes with blend ratios of 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80. The density, thickness, morphology, thermal stability and water absorption of the NS, CNS and blended starch foams were determined. The ratio of the two starch components had a significant influence on the density and thickness of the blended starch foams. All blended starch foams showed good water resistance. Moreover, the morphology of the blended starch foam with the NS/CNS ratio of 50/50 showed a more ordered distribution of cell sizes with thicker cell walls than for the NS and CNS foams. The thermal stability of the blended starch foams was somewhat lower than the stability of the NS foam but not to the extent that it affected any potential practical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical properties and solubility in water of corn starch-collagen composite films: Effect of starch type and concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Wang, Wenhang; Ye, Ran; Liu, Anjun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the possibility of enhancing the properties of collagen with three different maize starches: waxy maize starch, normal starch, and high amylose starch. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that starch-collagen films had a rougher surface compared to pure collagen films which became smoother upon heating. Amylose starch and normal starch increased the tensile strength of unheated collagen films in both dry and wet states, while all starches increased tensile strength of collagen film by heating. Depending upon the amylose content and starch concentrations, film solubility in water decreased with the addition of starch. DSC thermograms demonstrated that addition of all starches improved the thermal stability of the collagen film. Moreover, X-ray diffraction results indicated that except for high amylose starch, the crystallinity of both starch and collagen was significantly decreased when subject to heating. FTIR spectra indicated that intermolecular interactions between starch and collagen were enhanced upon heating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Mannapova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment of fats. Resistant starch makes bifidogenшс impact on microflora of a intestine of the person, leads to increase of a quantity of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium and to increased production of butyric acid in a large intestine. In this regard the enzyme resistant starch is an important component in food for prevention and curing of human diseases such as diabetes, obesity, colitis, a cancer of large and direct intestine. One method is specified by authors for imitation of starch digestion in a human body. This method is based on the definition of an enzyme resistance of starch in vitro by its hydrolysis to glucose with application of a glucoamylase and digestive enzyme preparation Pancreatin. This method is used in researches of an enzyme resistance of starch, of genetically modified potato, high amylose corn starch Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII (National Starch Food Innovation, USA, amylopectin and amylose. It is shown that the enzyme resistance of the starch emitted from genetically modified potatoes conforms to the enzyme resistance of the high amylose corn starch “Hi-Maize 1043 and HYLON VII starch”, (National Starch Food Innovation, the USA relating to the II type of enzyme resistant starch. It is established that amylopectin doesn't have the enzyme resistant properties. The results of researches are presented. They allow us to make the following conclusion: amylose in comparison with amylopectin possesses higher enzyme resistance and gives to

  14. Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Båga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2011-05-11

    The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased β-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 μm) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield.

  15. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Molavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

  16. 21 CFR 178.3520 - Industrial starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Industrial starch-modified. 178.3520 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3520 Industrial starch-modified. Industrial starch... provisions of this section. (a) Industrial starch-modified is identified as follows: (1) A food starch...

  17. 1-Allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starch : synthesis and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Lagen, van B.; Visser, G.M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    New reactive unsaturated starch derivatives, 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starches (AHP-starches), were synthesized by the reaction of waxy maize starch (WMS) and amylose-enriched maize starch (AEMS) with allyl glycidyl ether in a heterogeneous alkaline suspension containing NaOH and Na2SO4. The

  18. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  19. 75 FR 879 - National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    .... The workers were engaged in the production of drum dried and modified food starches. New information... Employment and Training Administration National Starch and Chemical Company Specialty Starches Division..., applicable to workers of National Starch and Chemical Company, Specialty Starches Division, Island Falls...

  20. [Starch digestion and glycemic indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Yuexin; Wang, Guodong; Bian, Lihua

    2003-11-01

    After determined carbohydrate classification, two biscuits products, were evaluated glycemic indexes (GI) and insulin indexes (II). The analytical results showed that the two biscuits were with lower water content and higher lipid than bread. In term of carbohydrate (CHO), the ratio of slow digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) to total CHO for two biscuits (> 60%) were higher than bread (18.3%), although the sugar content were also higher. Contrast to GI and II value of glucose (as 100%), the GI and II for bread was 96.2% and 105.2%, respectively. The GIs for both biscuits were lower than 55%, as well as the IIs lower than 73%. It was showed that carbohydrate classification determination is a good way for food industry to produce products with ideal GI value.

  1. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FUNCIONALES PROPERTIES SAGO STARCH (Maranta arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Granados C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maranta arundinacea sago whose rhizome is used in parts of Colombian for the production of products intended for human consumption. Starch was extracted and determined the functional properties of starches presented high water capacity % CRA (162,8% for sago, compared to 226% of cassava, a high rate of absorption of lipids % I.A.L (51% for sago, compared to 82,25% of cassava starch. Gelatinization temperature is relatively low (65-75ºC at 10 minutes compared to sago starch cassava with 70-75ºC in 20 minutes, has a high percentage of amylopectin (77% for sago starch, compared with 83,3% for cassava starch is a gel so that no retrograde and from a stable paste. As it is concluded that can be used as an alternative promising in the food industry.

  3. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  4. Position of modifying groups on starch chains of octenylsuccinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yanjie; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2014-06-15

    Octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA)-modified starches with a low (0.018) and high (0.092) degree of substitution (DS) were prepared from granular native waxy maize starch in aqueous slurry. The position of OS substituents along the starch chains was investigated by enzyme hydrolysis followed by chromatographic analysis. Native starch and two OS starches with a low and high DS had β-limit values of 55.9%, 52.8%, and 34.4%, respectively. The weight-average molecular weight of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a low DS was close to that of the β-limit dextrin from native starch but lower than that of the β-limit dextrin from the OS starch with a high DS. Debranching of OS starches was incomplete compared with native starch. OS groups in the OS starch with a low DS were located on the repeat units near the branching points, whereas the OS substituents in the OS starch with a high DS occurred both near the branching points and the non-reducing ends. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Starch meets biotechnology : in planta modification of starch composition and functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Storage starch is an energy reservoir for plants and the major source of calories in the human diet. Starch is used in a broad range of industrial applications, as a cheap, abundant, renewable and biodegradable biopolymer. However, starch needs to be modified before it can fulfill the required

  6. DISINTEGRATION EFFICIENCY OF SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATES, PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT NATIVE STARCHES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOLHUIS, GK; ARENDSCHOLTE, AW; STUUT, GJ; DEVRIES, JA

    1994-01-01

    In a comparative evaluation, the disintegration efficiency of sodium starch glycolates prepared from seven different native starches (potato, maize, waxy maize, wheat, rice, sago and tapioca) were compared. All the sodium starch glycolates tested had a high swelling capacity, but the rate of water

  7. Chemically Modified Starch; Allyl- and Epoxy-Starch Derivatives: Their Synthesis and Characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.C.R.; Boeriu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Both native and modified starches, such as starch that is pregelatinized, extruded, acid-converted, cross-linked, and substituted, are widely used in industry. This chapter describes a mild two-step process for the synthesis of novel, highly reactive granular epoxy-starch derivatives. Via this

  8. Enzymatic modification of low conversion starch products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominska, L.

    1989-05-01

    Recently produced low conversion starch products (maltodextrins) contain relatively low level of mono- and disaccharides such as glucose and maltose. A study on obtaining starch hydrolyzates containing significant amounts of glucose and maltose without fundamental change of their dextrose equivalent was conducted. The influence of glucogenic and maltogenic amylases (NOVO) on low conversion starch products was investigated by measurement of their sugar composition, viscosity, filterability, iodine absorbance value and turbidity. The results show different properties of novel starch hydrolyzates depending on the enzymes used.

  9. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing.

  10. Influence of phosphate esters on the annealing properties of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Muhrbeck, Per

    1998-01-01

    The effects of annealing on native potato, waxy maize, and phosphorylated waxy maize starches were compared. Phosphorylated waxy maize starch responded to annealing in a manner between that of the naturally phosphorylated potato starch and that of the native waxy maize starch. The gelatinisation ....... It was concluded that the phosphate groups have similar effects as they do in the native, naturally phosphorylated potato starch, although the substitution pattern is not entirely the same in the artificially phosphorylated starch....

  11. Characterization of Native and Modified Starches by Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Soto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of potentiometric titration for the analysis and characterization of native and modified starches is highlighted. The polyelectrolytic behavior of oxidized starches (thermal and thermal-chemical oxidation, a graft copolymer of itaconic acid (IA onto starch, and starch esters (mono- and diester itaconate was compared with the behavior of native starch, the homopolymer, and the acid employed as a graft monomer and substituent. Starch esters showed higher percentages of acidity, followed by graft copolymer of itaconic acid and finally oxidized starches. Analytical techniques and synthesis of modified starches were also described.

  12. Evaluation of Colocasia esculenta Starch as an Alternative Tablet Excipient to Maize Starch: Assessment by Preformulation and Formulation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma. R; Venkat Reddy. P; Samba Shiva Rao. A

    2015-01-01

    Starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta plant was studied as an alternative pharmaceutical excipient to maize and potato starch. The Colocasia esculenta starch has been evaluated by series of tests as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia before being used for evaluation. It was tested along with maize and potato starch as an alternative excipient by performing battery of preformulation and formulation tests. The results obtained for Colocasia esculenta starch was comparable with maize starch an...

  13. Properties and Biodegradability of Thermoplastic Starch Obtained from Granular Starches Grafted with Polycaprolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. B. Cuevas-Carballo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular starches grafted with polycaprolactone (St-g-PCL were obtained using N-methylimidazole (NMI as a catalyst. The effect of the starch/monomer ratio and catalyst content was studied to obtain different levels of grafted PCL. The highest grafting percentage (76% and addition (43% were achieved for reactions with a starch/monomer ratio of 50/50 and 25% catalyst. The grafting of PCL on the starch granule was verified by the emergence of the carbonyl group in the FTIR spectra and the increased diameter of the grafted starch granule. Thermoplastic starch from ungrafted starch (TPS and grafted starch (TPGS was obtained by mixing ungrafted or grafted starch granules with water, glycerol, or sorbitol in a mixer. TPS and TPGS behave as plastic materials, and their mechanical properties depend on the type of plasticizer used. Materials with glycerol as the plasticizer exhibited less rigidity. The presence of starch-g-PCL results in a dramatic increase in the elongation of the thermoplastic material. The starch present in the TPS or TPGS was completely biodegraded while the grafted PCL was partially biodegraded after the enzymatic degradation of the materials.

  14. Characterisation of corn starch-based films reinforced with taro starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-01

    Taro starch nanoparticles (TSNPs) obtained by hydrolysis with pullulanase and the recrystallisation of gelatinised starch were used as reinforcing agents in corn starch films. The influence of TSNPs contents (0.5-15%) on the physical, mechanical, thermal, and structural properties of starch films was investigated. An increase in the concentration of TSNPs led to a significant decrease in the water vapour permeability (WVP) of films. The addition of TSNPs increased the tensile strength (TS) of films from 1.11 MPa to 2.87 MPa. Compared with pure starch films, the surfaces of nanocomposite films became uneven. The onset temperature (To) and melting temperature (Tm) of films containing TSNPs were higher than those of pure starch films. The addition of TSNPs improved the thermal stability of starch films. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  16. Physicochemical characterization of starches from seven improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Methodology and results: Starches from seven improved cassava varieties encoded respectively V54, V55,. V64, V66, V69, and V73 and V4 .were .... sodium chloride (4%) solution to separate proteins from the starch during 24 h at 25±1 °C. The ... hydroxide (1N) solution. The suspension was thoroughly ...

  17. Iisolation and physicochemical characterization of cassava starches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition, amylose content and physicochemical properties of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz., Fam. Euphorbiaceae) starches obtained from different regions of Ethiopia were investigated. The proximate composition of the starches on dry weight basis were found to be 0.001 - 0.01% protein, 0.08 ...

  18. Development of starch-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habeych Narvaez, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Starch-based materials show potential as fully degradable plastics. However, the current applicability of these materials is limited due to their poor moisture tolerance and mechanical properties. Starch is therefore frequently blended with other polymers to make the material more suitable for

  19. Non-starch polysaccharides in pig feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.C.M.; Dekker, R.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    In pigs and humans, the nutrients starch, protein, fat and some minerals need to be digested prior to the terminal ileum for optimal use of these nutrients. In contrast, the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are mainly fermented by microbes in the hindgut. Results of experiments in pigs showed that

  20. The Acetylation of Starch by Reactive Extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Robbert A. de; Broekroelofs, Annet; Janssen, Léon P.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato starch has been acetylated in a counter rotating twin screw extruder using vinylacetate and sodium hydroxide. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel base catalysed hydrolysis reaction of vinylacetate and a consecutive hydrolysis reaction of the

  1. Recrystallization of amylopectin in concentrated starch gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, CJAM; Oostergetel, GT; vanVliet, T

    The relation between the recrystallization of amylopectin and the increase in stiffness of starch gels during storage was studied by various techniques. From transmission electron microscopy it was concluded that the size of the crystalline domains in retrograded 30% w/w potato starch gels was about

  2. Physicochemical characterization of starches from seven improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The present study, which is in line with tropical crops increased value, aimed to highlight the industrial potential of starches from seven newly improved cassava varieties through their morphological, physicochemical and functional properties. Methodology and results: Starches from seven improved cassava ...

  3. Acetylation and characterization of banana (Musa paradisiaca) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Pérez, L A; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Jìmenez-Aparicio, A; Paredes-López, O

    2000-01-01

    Banana native starch was acetylated and some of its functional properties were evaluated and compared to corn starch. In general, acetylated banana starch presented higher values in ash, protein and fat than corn acetylated starch. The modified starches had minor tendency to retrogradation assessed as % transmittance of starch pastes. At high temperature acetylated starches presented a water retention capacity similar to their native counterpart. The acetylation considerably increased the solubility of starches, and a similar behavior was found for swelling power. When freeze-thaw stability was studied, acetyl banana starch drained approximately 60% of water in the first and second cycles, but in the third and fourth cycles the percentage of separated water was low. However, acetyl corn starch showed lower freeze-thaw stability than the untreated sample. The modification increased the viscosity of banana starch pastes.

  4. Starch digestion by feedlot cattle: predictions from analysis of feed and fecal starch and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, R A; Barreras, A; Corona, L; Owens, F N; Ware, R A

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of N as a digestion marker to predict total tract starch digestion, data from 32 metabolism trials involving 147 steers and 637 individual starch digestibility measurements were compiled. All trials were conducted at the University of California Desert Research and Extension Center. Total tract starch digestibility was determined from concentrations of starch and chromic oxide in feed and feces. In all trials, the steers were adapted to diets for 10 d followed by 4 d for collection of samples of feces. During collection, fecal samples (approximately 200 g, wet basis) were obtained twice daily. Samples from each steer within each collection period were composited for analysis. Diets contained 46.5 +/- 7.4% starch and 1.85 +/- 0.20% N. Apparently digestible N as a percentage of diet DM was closely associated (r(2) = 0.73; P starch digestion was estimated as follows: starch digestion, % of intake = 100 {1 - [(0.938 -0.497FN + 0.0853FN(2)) FS/DS]}, where FS is fecal starch concentration (% of DM) and DS is dietary starch concentration (% of DM; r(2) = 0.94; S(y.x) = 0.68; P starch concentration alone explained 96% of the variation (S(y.x) = 0.45; P starch digestion: starch digestion, % = 99.9 - 0.413FS -0.0104FS(2). Omitting cases in our data set in which observed total tract starch digestion was less than 95%, the r(2) between FS and starch digestibility decreased to 0.82 (S(y.x) = 0.26; n = 529). However, estimated starch digestion using the equation incorporating FN remained closely associated with the observed starch digestion (r(2) = 0.90; S(y.x) = 0.22; P starch digestibility and FS. Starch digestion can be accurately predicted based on FS. However, incorporation of FN into the model markedly enhanced the estimates of grain quality and the efficacy of processing when total tract starch digestion exceeded 95%.

  5. Starch Structure Influences Its Digestibility: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallanes-Cruz, Perla A; Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Bello-Perez, Luis A

    2017-09-01

    Twenty-five years ago, it was found that a significant fraction of the starch present in foods is not digested in the small intestine and continues to the large intestine, where it is fermented by the microbiota; this fraction was named resistant starch (RS). It was also reported that there is a fraction of starch that is slowly digested, sustaining a release of glucose in the small intestine. Later, health benefits were found to be associated with the consumption of this fraction, called slowly digestible starch (SDS). The authors declare both fractions to be "nutraceutical starch." An overview of the structure of both fractions (RS and SDS), as well as their nutraceutical characteristics, is presented with the objective of suggesting methods and processes that will increase both fractions in starchy foods and prevent diseases that are associated with the consumption of glycemic carbohydrates. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN AND STARCH-MALTODEXTRIN-GLUCOSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grzelak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Starch is a widely used food additive. The addition of other ingredients changes the physical properties of resulting systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological characteristics and susceptibility to retrogradation of starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems. Flow curves of 5% starch - maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose pastes were tested by using rotational rheometer. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% pastes starch-maltodextrin and starch-maltodextrin-glucose systems by means of turbidimetric method was evaluated. It was found that all samples (systems were a non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic fluids, with tend to the yield stress. Moreover addition of low and high DE maltodextrins and glucose to the starch caused a decrease in the values of shear stress throughout whole shear rate range. Starch pastes with greater concentration of the maltodextrins had less tendency to retrogradation. Also addition of glucose to starch-maltodextrin systems reduce the susceptibility to retrogradation.10.5219/196

  7. Comparison of gamma radiation effects on natural corn and potato starches and modified cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bruna S.; Garcia, Rafael H. L.; Takinami, Patricia Y. I.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irradiation treatment on physicochemical properties of three natural polymers, i.e. native potato and corn starches and a typical Brazilian product, cassava starch modified through fermentation -sour cassava- and also to prepare composite hydrocolloid films based on them. Starches were irradiated in a 60Co irradiation chamber in doses up to 15 kGy, dose rate about 1 kGy/h. Differences were found in granule size distribution upon irradiation, mainly for corn and cassava starch but radiation did not cause significant changes in granule morphology. The viscosity of the potato, corn and cassava starches hydrogels decreased as a function of absorbed dose. Comparing non-irradiated and irradiated starches, changes in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in the 2000-1500 cm-1 region for potato and corn starches were observed but not for the cassava starch. Maximum rupture force of the starch-based films was affected differently for each starch type; color analysis showed that doses of 15 kGy promoted a slight rise in the parameter b* (yellow color) while the parameter L* (lightness) was not significantly affected; X-ray diffraction patterns remained almost unchanged by irradiation.

  8. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  9. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  10. Encapsulation altered starch digestion: toward developing starch-based delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaswamy, Srinivas

    2014-01-30

    Starch is an abundant biomaterial that forms a vital energy source for humans. Altering its digestion, e.g. increasing the proportions of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), would revolutionize starch utility in addressing a number of health issues related to glucose absorption, glycemic index and colon health. The research reported in this article is based on my hypothesis that water channels present in the B-type starch crystalline matrix, particularly in tuber starches, can embed guest molecules such as nutraceuticals, drugs, flavor compounds and vitamins leading to altered starch digestion. Toward this goal, potato starch has been chosen as the model tuber starch, and ibuprofen, benzocaine, sulfapyridine, curcumin, thymol and ascorbic acid as model guest molecules. X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR analyses clearly suggest the incorporation of guest molecules in the water channels of potato starch. Furthermore, the in vitro digestion profiles of complexes are intriguing with major variations occurring after 60 min of starch digestion and finally at 120 min. These changes are concomitantly reflected in the SDS and RS amounts, with about 24% decrease in SDS for benzocaine complex and 6% increase in RS for ibuprofen complex, attesting the ability of guest molecule encapsulation in modulating the digestion properties of potato starch. Overall, this research provides an elegant opportunity for the design and development of novel starch-based stable carriers that not only bestow tailored glucose release rates but could also transport health promoting and disease preventing compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Paraformaldehyde-Resistant Starch-Fermenting Bacteria in “Starch-Base” Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, G. E.

    1962-01-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde. PMID:13936949

  12. Investigation on modification of cassava starch using active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasting properties of the ginger modified cassava starch showed high peak viscosities (487.58 - 420.25 RVU) compared to low peak viscosity (392.33 RVU) of the native starch. The modified starch was characterized with low set back viscosities (64.14 - 57.05 RVU) in relation to native starch with high set back viscosity ...

  13. A comparative study of the physicochemical properties of starches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some properties of starches from cassava, potato and sweet potato were compared with cereal starches from maize, wheat, millet and sorghum. The aim was to determine the properties of tuber and root crop starches and compare them with cereal starches in addition to unravelling the potential of commonly grown ...

  14. Utilization of sweet potato starches and flours as composites with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potato starch gave acceptable bread. Up to 40 and 50% inclusion of starch or flour to wheat gave acceptable cakes with desired colours. Also, 50% inclusion of starch or flour to wheat gave acceptable chinchin for colour and general acceptability. Key words: Sweet potato, flour, starch, confectionery, functional properties, ...

  15. Effects of different grain starches as feed binders for on-farm aqua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to screen and evaluate the effects of different grain starches namely millet starch (DT1); rice starch (DT2); guinea corn starch (DT3); wheat starch (DT4) and maize starch (DT5) as feed binders for onfarm aqua-feed respectively. Starches obtained from these grains in addition with other feed ...

  16. Plant-crafted starches for bioplastics production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Leroy, Eric; Rolland-Sabaté, Agnès; Guilois, Sophie; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Lourdin, Denis; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-11-05

    Transgenically-produced amylose-only (AO) starch was used to manufacture bioplastic prototypes. Extruded starch samples were tested for crystal residues, elasticity, glass transition temperature, mechanical properties, molecular mass and microstructure. The AO starch granule crystallinity was both of the B- and Vh-type, while the isogenic control starch was mainly A-type. The first of three endothermic transitions was attributed to gelatinization at about 60°C. The second and third peaks were identified as melting of the starch and amylose-lipid complexes, respectively. After extrusion, the AO samples displayed Vh- and B-type crystalline structures, the B-type polymorph being the dominant one. The AO prototypes demonstrated a 6-fold higher mechanical stress at break and 2.5-fold higher strain at break compared to control starch. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant increase in the storage modulus (E') for AO samples compared to the control. The data support the use of pure starch-based bioplastics devoid of non-polysaccharide fillers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Slow digestion properties of rice different in resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoli; Jia, Limeng; Ye, Hongxia; Li, Chengdao; Wu, Dianxing

    2009-08-26

    The hydrolysis of starch is a key factor for controlling the glycemic index (GI). Slow digestion properties of starch lead to slower glucose release and lower glycemic response. Food with high resistant starch (RS) possesses great value for controlling the GI. To elucidate the factors that play a role in slow digestibility, seven rice mutants different in RS contents were selected for comparative studies. The degree of hydrolysis showed highly significant correlation with RS, apparent amylose content (AAC), lipid content (LC), and other starch physiochemical properties in all these materials with different RS contents. The rate of in vitro digestible starch correlated positively with RS, whereas digestibility was affected mostly by lipid content for those mutants with similar RS. Starch-lipid complexes and short chains with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 8-12 strongly influenced starch digestion. The integrity of aggregated starch and the number of round starch granules might influence the digestibility of starch directly.

  18. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production.

  19. Comparison of starch and gelatin hydrogels for non-toxic supercapacitor electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railanmaa, Anna; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Lupo, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Starch and gelatin are two of the most abundantly available natural polymers. Their non-toxicity, low cost, and compatibility with aqueous solvents make them ideal for use in ubiquitous, environmentally friendly electronics systems. This work presents the results of conductivity measurements through impedance spectroscopy for gelatin- and starch-based aqueous gel electrolytes. The NaCl-based gels were physically cross-linked. The conductivity values were 84.6 mS/cm at 1.5 mol L-1 and 71.5 mS/cm at 2 mol L-1 for gelatin and starch, respectively. The mechanical properties of gelatin were found preferable to those of starch, although they deteriorated significantly when the salt concentration exceeded 2 mol L-1. The ability of the gels to successfully act as a supercapacitor electrolyte was demonstrated with printed electrodes on plastic substrate. The devices were characterized through cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results imply that these polymer gel electrolytes are very promising for replacing the traditional aqueous liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors in applications where, for example, user and environmental safety is essential.

  20. Applicability, Commercial Utility and Recent Patents on Starch and Starch Derivative as Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery Carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shreya; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2015-01-01

    Natural polymers are widely utilized in pharmaceutical and food industries. Starch, a major carbohydrate is a staple food in human and animal diets which is simply extractable from various sources, like potato, maize, corn, wheat, etc. It is widely used as a raw material in various food and non food industries as well as in paper, textile and other industries. This article summarizes the starch and modification of starch and to produce a novel molecule with various applications in industries including number of advances in pharmaceutical industry. The unique characteristics of starch and their modified form can be successfully used as drug delivery carriers in various pharmaceutical preparations. It is widely used as controlled and sustained release polymer, tablet disintegrant, drug delivery carrier, plasma volume expander and also finds its applicability in bone tissue engineering and in artificial red cells. It also includes the patents related to starch and modified starch based products and their commercial utility.

  1. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Mößeler; Sandra Vagt; Martin Beyerbach; Josef Kamphues

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic...

  2. TECHNOLOGY OF THERMOPLASTIC STARCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Lukin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the manufacturing of bio-recyclable polymer products, which production and consumption has become an efficient way to protect environment from solid wastes in different countries of the world. The issue of environmental protection becomes global and the rapid growth of synthetic plastics application in many industries is a serious concern. There is a important task to improve the quality, safety and durability of products as well as their utilization after the expiration period. One of the most acceptable ways to solve these issues is to produce biodegradable materials based on natural materials, which are not harmful for environment and human health. A very common and effective method to give biological degradability to synthetic polymers is to insert starch into polymer composition in combination with other ingredients.

  3. Microstructure and ultrastructure of high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cunxu; Qin, Fengling; Zhu, Lijia; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Yifang; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-01-27

    A high-amylose transgenic rice line (TRS) modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes revealed a resistant starch-rich quality. Compound starch granules in whole grains of the regular rice cultivar Teqing (TQ) were readily split during fracturing, whereas the starch granules in TRS were structurally intact and showed large voluminous, non-angular rounded bodies and elongated, filamentous structures tolerant of fracturing. In isolated preparation, TQ starch granules broke up into separate polygonal granules, whereas TRS starch granules kept their intactness. TRS starch granules consisted of packed smaller subgranules, some of which located at the periphery of starch granules were fused to each other with adjacent ones forming a thick band or wall encircling the entire circumference of the granules. TQ starch granules had a high concentration of amylose in the concentric hilum, whereas TRS starch granules showed a relatively even distribution of amylose with intense amylose in both hilum and band.

  4. Molecular rearrangement of starch during in vitro digestion: toward a better understanding of enzyme resistant starch formation in processed starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rubio, Amparo; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Shrestha, Ashok K; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Elliot P

    2008-07-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is defined as the fraction of starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine, serving as a fermentation substrate for beneficial colonic bacteria. Several studies have been focused on the description of the RS fractions from different starch varieties, but little attention has been paid to the digestion process itself that, from the present work, seems to play a key role in the generation of enzyme-RS (ERS), as determined in vitro. High-amylose starch samples, extruded at two different processing conditions, have been characterized at different stages of in vitro digestion using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Control samples kept for 18 h in the digestion solution without starch hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase and amyloglucosidase) were used for comparison purposes. An increase in molecular order was favored by the hydrolytic action of the enzymes, reflected in an increase in double helical order observed by NMR, higher crystallinity measured by XRD, and corresponding changes in FT-IR spectra. An increase in the intensity of the scattering objects was also observed by SAXS as a function of digestion. SAXS from the dry ERS fractions reveals the 001 reflection of crystallites formed during the digestion process, corresponding to a characteristic dimension of the resistant crystalline fraction of approximately 5 nm. The changes found suggest that enzyme resistant starch does not refer to a specific structure present in predigested starches, but may in fact be formed during the digestion process through the rearrangement of amylose chains into enzyme-resistant structures of higher crystallinity. Therefore, the resistance to enzyme digestion of a specific processed starch is the result of a competition between the kinetics of enzyme hydrolysis and the kinetics of amylose retrogradation.

  5. Increased water resistance of paper treated with amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the HCl salts of hexadecylamine and octadecylamine. Solutions of the complexes were applied to paper at concentrations of 2-4%. After the treated papers were dried, sodium hydroxide solution was applied to convert the adsorb...

  6. Modified food starches in baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciers, S; Mehta, D I; Blecker, U; Lebenthal, E

    1998-01-01

    Modified food starches were developed as a stabilizer, providing desirable consistency, texture, and storage ability. They are used primarily in strained and junior foods and, to a minor extent, in infant formulas. However, despite the fact that there is an increasing tendency to introduce solid foods to infants at a very early age, there is few long-term studies to delineate the effect of starch feeding on the growth of young infants. Modified food starches used by the food industry for infants and young children are of concern and there is an urgent need for additional data regarding their bioavailability, effect on nutrient absorption, intestinal changes, and toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the inclusion of modified food starches should be used prudently and sparingly.

  7. Paint removal using wheat starch blast media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry; Oestreich, John

    1993-03-01

    A review of the Wheat Starch Blasting technology is presented. Laboratory evaluations covering Almen Arc testing on bare 2024-T3 aluminum and magnesium, as well as crack detection on 7075-T6 bare aluminum, are discussed. Comparisons with Type V plastic media show lower residual stresses are achieved on aluminum and magnesium with wheat starch media. Dry blasting effects on the detection of cracks confirms better crack visibility with wheat starch media versus Type V or Type II plastic media. Testing of wheat starch media in several composite test programs, including fiberglass, Kevlar, and graphite-epoxy composites, showed no fiber damage. Process developments and production experience at the first U.S. aircraft stripping facility are also reviewed. Corporate and regional aircraft are being stripped in this three nozzle dry blast hanger.

  8. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...... phosphatases. The main objective of this study was to quantify the binding affinity of different enzymes that are involved in this cyclic process. We established a protocol to quickly, reproducibly, and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE...

  9. Dry Starch Powders Modified Teabag Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following is a test protocol for a “tea bag analysis” that was conducted on PMN starches by the Corn Refiners Association. This protocol is one approach to providing information on swellability of high molecular weight polymers.

  10. ENZYME RESISTANCE OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED STARCH POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sh. Mannapova; Z. A. Kanarskaya; A. V. Kanarskii; G. P. Shuvaeva

    2015-01-01

    Here in this article the justification of expediency of enzyme resistant starch use in therapeutic food products is presented . Enzyme resistant starch is capable to resist to enzymatic hydrolysis in a small intestine of a person, has a low glycemic index, leads to decrease of postprandial concentration of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides in blood and insulin reaction, to improvement of sensitivity of all organism to insulin, to increase in sense of fulness and to reduction of adjournment ...

  11. Resistant starch: an indigestible fraction of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saura Calixto, F.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistant starch (RS, the dietary starch that scape digestion in the small intestine, can yields up to 20% of the starch in cereal and legume products. Several fractions contribute to the total RS of foods: retrograded amylose, starch inaccessible to digestive enzymes because of mechanical barriers, chemically modified starch fragments, undigested starch due to α-amylase inhibitors and starch complexed with other food components. RS is formed in products processed following heat treatments (baking, extrusion, autoclaving, etc.. RS produces significant fecal bulking and is partially fermentable by anaerobic bacteria of the colon. On the other hand, the relation of resistant starch with the glucose and insulin response in human subjects is an important nutritional effect. RS analytical methods are reported.

    El almidón resistente (RS, fracción de almidón de la dieta que no es digerido en el intestino delgado, puede alcanzar hasta un 20% del almidón en productos derivados de cereales y legumbres. Varias fracciones contribuyen al contenido total de almidón resistente: amilosa retrogradada, almidón inaccesible físicamente a los enzimas digestivos, almidón indigestible debido a inhibición de α-amilasas y almidón complejado con otros constituyentes de los alimentos. El almidón resistente se forma en productos que han sufrido tratamientos térmicos (panificación, extrusión, autoclave, etc. El RS aumenta el volumen de heces y es fermentado parcialmente en el colon por bacterias anaeróbicas. Igualmente, está relacionado con los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la respuesta de insulina en humanos. Se describen los métodos analíticos para su determinación.

  12. Physical characteristics of extruded cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Magali LEONEL; Freitas,Taila Santos de; Mischan,Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of cassava starch for Brazilian industries, the current work aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics, mainly viscosity properties of extruded cassava starch. A factorial central composite design (2³) with three independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color and paste properties, accor...

  13. Differential Response of Two Scented Indica Rice (Oryza sativa Cultivars under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Danai-Tambhale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of varying (0 – 200 mM NaCl salt stress on two popular scented non-basmati type indica rice cultivars, namely Indrayani and Ambemohar on germination and growth and biochemical parameters. In the present investigation the effect of increasing salt stress was seen on germination, biomass production and biochemical parameters including total protein content, proline accumulation, starch content, polyphenols levels, and reducing and non-reducing sugars. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of germination rate and biomass production at seedling and early vegetative growth level. Salt stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the cultivars, however, with much higher extent of proline accumulation in Ambemohar than Indrayani. A salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl resulted into 305% higher proline content than the control plants of Ambemohar against 222% higher proline in Indrayani at the same stress level. Similarly protein content was also higher in Ambemohar than Indrayani at the highest stress level used in this study. Contrasting results were seen in terms of starch content amongst both the cultivars, where continuous decrease with increasing salt stress was observed in Indrayani, on the other hand, an increase in starch content was evident in Ambemohar under the influence of NaCl-induced salt stress. These finding clearly indicates the comparably higher salt tolerant nature of Ambemohar than Indrayani which might be attributed to higher proline, protein and starch content than Indrayani cultivar under salt stress.

  14. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of indigestible pyrodextrins from different starch sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurentin, Alexander; Cárdenas, Marité; Ruales, Jenny; Pérez, Elevina; Tovar, Juscelino

    2003-08-27

    Starch-modifying processes, such as pyrodextrinization, are potential ways to alter the nutritional features of this polysaccharide. A widely used method for pyrodextrinizing maize starch was also applied to lentil, sorghum, cocoyam, sagu, and cassava starches, and the in vitro digestibility of the products was evaluated. Pyrodextrins were produced by heating starch at 140 degrees C for 3 h, with catalytic amounts of HCl. The enzymatically available starch content of all preparations decreased by 55-65% after modification. Thus, pyrodextrinization seems to be an effective way to produce indigestible glucans from different starches. Pyrodextrins obtained were complex mixtures of starch derivatives with a wide range of molecular weight as estimated by gel filtration chromatography. Both their molecular weight profiles and contents of indigestible fractions varied with starch source. Experiments with lentil and cassava starches showed that changing dextrinization conditions also affects the susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis of the product.

  16. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xu

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (dephosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal. Interestingly, expression of an (engineered laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf. Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  17. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G F; Trindade, Luisa M

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20-30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself.

  18. Effects of the Noncyclic Cyanamides on the Gelatinization of Waxy Corn Starch; Waxy Corn Starch no koka ni oyobosu hikanjo shianamido rui no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuo.; Nishikawa, Saisei.; Yoshimura, Toshiaki.; Ono, Shin.; Rengakuji, Seichi.; Nakamura, Yuko.; Shimasaki, Choichiro. [Toyama University, Toyama (Japan). Department of System Engineering of Materials and Life Science; Yamazaki, Isao. [Yayoikagaku Kogyo Corp., Toyama (Japan)

    1999-01-10

    Effects of noncyclic cyanamides on the gelatinization of waxy corn starch (WCS) suspension, containing amylopectin as a major component, were examined by analyses of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy by the attenuated total reflection method. The temperature for the gelatinization of WCS suspension decreased by addition of urea, tiourea, and biuret in comparison to that without additives. These results suggested that the amino, imino, carbamoyl, and thiocarbamoyl groups of additives might have affected the collapses of the intra-and intermolecular hydrogen bonds of the WCS by forming hydrogen bonds with hydroxy groups in the WCS. However, the temperature slightly increased with the increase of the concentraion of guanidinium salts except for guanidine gydrocholoride. The inhibition effect on the gelatinization might have been explained by the anion-constituting guanidinium salts. (author)

  19. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  20. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate Polymers Vol. 112 Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification ofwaxy and high amylose starch Obiro Cuthbert Wokadalaa,b, Naushad Mohammad Emmambuxc,Suprakas Sinha Raya,b,c,∗ aDST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured...

  1. Evaluation of starch noodles made from three typical Chinese sweet-potato starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Legger, A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of starches from 3 typical Chinese sweet potato varieties (SuShu2, SuShu8, and XuShu18) were studied in relation to their noodle-making performance. The starch gel properties of SuShu2 differed from those of SuShu8 and XuShu18. As determined by both instrumental and sensory

  2. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Alamo, A Gutierrez; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A; de Ayala, P Perez; Villamide, M J

    2009-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets containing 55% of each wheat sample (3 cultivars, one of them from 2 origins). Starch and protein digestion were calculated from the remaining starch and protein in 4 segments of the small intestine and in excreta, using chromic oxide as a marker. Mean retention time was measured in each segment, which enabled calculations of digestion rates. In the second experiment, 2,600 chickens were assigned to 5 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets (with KDS from 1.80 to 2.56 h(-1)) and growth performance was determined (1 to 34 d). In 3 treatments, dietary starch was provided each by the wheat cultivars (same origin), whereas in the other 2 treatments, 25 and 50% of the wheat starch with the highest KDS was substituted by pea starch. Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus in the cecal chyme and glucose in the blood (glycemic index) were measured in broilers at d 19 and 25, respectively. Starch was gradually digested along the small intestine, mainly in the jejunum (48.5 and 80.4% at proximal and distal jejunum) where the largest differences among wheat samples were found. Starch digestion rate varied with origin (from 1.96 to 2.56 h(-1)) and cultivar (from 2.17 to 2.56 h(-1)). Crude protein digestion rate (average 2.21 h(-1)) was not affected by either cultivar or origin. Broiler growth and feed conversion ratio improved in a quadratic way with KDS. The maximum broiler performance was observed with KDS around 2.2 h(-1). Blood glucose response (glycemic index) was not affected by KDS; therefore, it cannot be used to predict broiler performance. In conclusion, the rate of starch digestion varies among wheats, depending on both genetic and environmental conditions of the grain, and

  3. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro......-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper...... high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences...

  4. Effect of starch types on properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch process by injection molding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yossathorn Tanetrungroj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of different starch types on the properties of biodegradable polymer based on thermoplastic starch (TPS were investigated. Different types of starch containing different contents of amylose and amylopectin were used, i.e. cassava starch, mungbean starch, and arrowroot starch. The TPS polymers were compounded and shaped using an internal mixer and an injection molding machine, respectively. It was found that the amount of amylose and amylopectin contents on native starch influence the properties of the TPS polymer. A high amylose starch of TPMS led to higher strength, hardness, degree of crystallization than the high amylopectin starch of TPCS. In addition, function group analysis by Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer, water absorption, and biodegradation by soil burial test were also examined.

  5. A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mills, J.A.N; France, J; Ellis, J.L; Crompton, L.A; Bannink, A; Hanigan, M.D; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified...

  6. High surface area starch products as filler-binder in direct compression tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierik, G.HP; Ramaker, J.S; Eissens, A.C; Bergsma, J; Arends-Scholte, A.W.; Lerk, C.F

    Amylodextrin and modified starch products were prepared from amylose-free starches and from (amylose containing) potato starch by enzymatic degradation, followed by precipitation and filtration. The intermediate retrograded starch products were dehydrated by drying at room temperature or washing

  7. Resistant starch type V formation in brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch with different lipids/fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumus, Bahar Nur; Tacer-Caba, Zeynep; Kahraman, Kevser; Nilufer-Erdil, Dilara

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to characterize the brown lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus) starch and investigate the formation of amylose-lipid complexes (Resistant Starch Type V) by the addition of different lipids/fatty acids (10%, w/w) to both raw and cooked starch samples. Resistant starch content (measured by the official method of AACCI (Method 32-40), using the resistant starch assay kit) of raw brown lentil starch (BLS) increased significantly by the additions of lipids/fatty acids, starch sample complexed with HSO (hydrogenated sunflower oil) (14.1±0.4%) being the highest. For the cooked starch/lipid complexes, more profound effect was evident (22.2-67.7%). Peak, breakdown and trough viscosity values of the amylose-lipid complexed starches were significantly lower than that of BLS (p<0.05), while significant decreases in the setback and final viscosities were only detected in oil samples, but not in fatty acids. Each lipid in concern exerted different effects on the digestibility of starch and amylose-lipid complex formation while having no substantial differential effects on the thermal properties of starch depicted by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Amylose-lipid complex formation with suitable fatty acids/lipids seems a promising way of increasing resistant starch content of food formulations. Although the applications being quite uncommon yet, brown lentil seems to have potential both as a starch and also as a resistant starch source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of sweet potato starches from different tissue zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, T.; Takahata, Y.; Nagata, T. (Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Kumamoto (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    Sweet potato starches prepared from the peel (P), cambium (C), and inner-tissue (IT) were tested for physicochemical properties. The average granule sizes of the IT starches were tended to be larger than those of the P and C starches. Amylose contents of starches from the different tissue zones did not differ significantly. The onset and peak temperatures (T[sub o], T[sub p]) of the P starches determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were somewhat high. The C starches were readily digested by the four glucoamylases. (orig.).

  9. Impact of pressure on physicochemical properties of starch dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-09-02

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can be employed as a non-thermal sterilization technique in the food industry while inducing structure and physicochemical changes of the food macromolecules like starch. The effect of HHP on starch depends on various factors including starch type and concentration, pressurization temperature, time, and suspending media. In this review, we summarize the influence of HHP on the structure, gelatinization, retrogradation, and modification of starches from different botanical origins. Suggestions for future research are provided to better understand the mechanism of HHP on starch, and on how HHP can be used in the starch industry. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2012-01-01

    to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed "resistant starch" (RS) escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are linked to several health benefits. The RS...... is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...... In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm...

  11. Characterizations of Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch nanoparticles: Influence of starch variety and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shengju; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Liu, Jing; Yang, Jie; Chang, Ranran; Liang, Caifeng; Sun, Qingjie

    2017-11-01

    Pickering emulsions were first successfully fabricated by different types and sizes of corn, tapioca, sweet potato, and waxy corn starch nanoparticles as stabilizers. Photography, optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and rheology measurements were used to characterize Pickering emulsions stabilized by various starch nanoparticles. The results showed that tapioca, sweet potato, and corn starch nanoparticles were appropriate for Pickering emulsion stabilization because the three nanoparticles have nearly neutral wettability (θ ow ∼90°). Confocal microscopy revealed that intact and thick nanoparticle shells coated the surface of oil droplets. The Pickering emulsions stabilized by sweet potato and corn starch nanoparticles with a diameter that ranged from 100 to 220nm had better stability than those with a diameter either less than 100nm or more than 220nm. These results suggested that starch nanoparticles could be used as promising particulate emulsifiers to fulfill the demands of Pickering emulsions with stable characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cooking methods and starch structures on starch hydrolysis rates of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael O; Ai, Yongfeng; Leutcher, Josh L; Jane, Jay-lin

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to understand effects of different cooking methods, including steamed, pilaf, and traditional stir-fried, on starch hydrolysis rates of rice. Rice grains of 3 varieties, japonica, indica, and waxy, were used for the study. Rice starch was isolated from the grain and characterized. Amylose contents of starches from japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 13.5%, 18.0%, and 0.9%, respectively. The onset gelatinization temperature of indica starch (71.6 °C) was higher than that of the japonica and waxy starch (56.0 and 56.8 °C, respectively). The difference was attributed to longer amylopectin branch chains of the indica starch. Starch hydrolysis rates and resistant starch (RS) contents of the rice varieties differed after they were cooked using different methods. Stir-fried rice displayed the least starch hydrolysis rate followed by pilaf rice and steamed rice for each rice variety. RS contents of freshly steamed japonica, indica, and waxy rice were 0.7%, 6.6%, and 1.3%, respectively; those of rice pilaf were 12.1%, 13.2%, and 3.4%, respectively; and the stir-fried rice displayed the largest RS contents of 15.8%, 16.6%, and 12.1%, respectively. Mechanisms of the large RS contents of the stir-fried rice were studied. With the least starch hydrolysis rate and the largest RS content, stir-fried rice would be a desirable way of preparing rice for food to reduce postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses and to improve colon health of humans. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, C B

    1986-11-01

    Starch utilization may be markedly enhanced by proper grain processing; however, extent of improvement is primarily dependent upon the ruminant species, grain source and method of processing. Grain processing has less impact on starch digestion by sheep than cattle. The magnitude of improvement is inverse to the starch digestion values for nonprocessed (or minimally processed) grains. Utilization of sorghum grain starch is improved most by extensive processing, and then corn, with little improvement in barley starch digestion. Studies comparing processing effects on barley or wheat starch utilization by cattle were not found. Steam-flaking consistently improves digestibility of starch by cattle fed corn- or sorghum grain-based diets over whole, ground or dry-rolled processes. Other extensive processing methods appear to enhance starch digestibility of corn and sorghum grain to a similar extent as steam-flaking, but comparative data are too limited to quantitate adequately effects of these methods. This improvement in starch utilization appears to be the primary reason for enhanced feed conversion of cattle fed diets high in these processed grains. The major site of cereal grain starch digestion is usually the rumen. Processing increases microbial degradation of starch in the rumen and decreases amounts of starch digested post-ruminally. Rates of in vitro amylolytic attack of starch in cereal grains by both ruminal microbial and pancreatic enzyme sources are improved by processing methods employing proper combinations of moisture, heat and pressure. In vitro and in situ studies suggest that much of the increase in ruminal starch fermentation with steam-flaking is due to changes in starch granular structure, which produces additive effects beyond those of decreasing particle size. Thus, efficiency of ruminal starch fermentation by cattle appears to be improved by proper processing of corn and sorghum grain. Processing and grain source studies both suggest that

  14. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carciofi Massimiliano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Starch is stored in higher plants as granules composed of semi-crystalline amylopectin and amorphous amylose. Starch granules provide energy for the plant during dark periods and for germination of seeds and tubers. Dietary starch is also a highly glycemic carbohydrate being degraded to glucose and rapidly absorbed in the small intestine. But a portion of dietary starch, termed “resistant starch” (RS escapes digestion and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by colonic bacteria producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA which are linked to several health benefits. The RS is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs. However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm. This trait was segregating 3:1. Amylose-only starch granules were irregularly shaped and showed peculiar thermal properties and crystallinity. Transgenic lines retained high-yield possibly due to a pleiotropic upregualtion of other starch biosynthetic genes compensating the SBEs loss. For gelatinized starch, a very high content of RS (65 % was observed, which is 2.2-fold higher than control (29%. The amylose-only grains germinated with same frequency as control grains. However, initial growth was delayed in young plants. Conclusions This is the first time that pure amylose has been generated with high yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch

  16. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A

  17. Effects of processing conditions on hydrolysis of cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amyloglucosidase using 30% initial cassava starch concentration, which produced 152 g/l reducing sugar concentration and DE of 50.9. The total effective operating time was 60 h. Keywords:Cassava starch, hydrolysis, enzyme, dextrose equivalent.

  18. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivit...

  19. Comparison of starch granule development and physicochemical properties of starches in wheat pericarp and endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Heng; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to characterize structural development of starch granule in pericarp and endosperm during wheat caryopsis growth; (ii) to compare physicochemical properties of starches in pericarp and endosperm; (iii) to further discover the relationships between pericarp starches and endosperm starches. Wheat pericarp and endosperm at different development stages were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Structural properties of starches were determined using X-ray power diffraction and (13) C solid nuclear magnetic resonance. Pericarp starch granules (PSG) accumulated in amyloplasts and chloroplasts, and showed a typical accumulation peak at 5 days after fertilization (DAF), and then gradually decomposed during 5-22 DAF. PSG in the abdominal region showed a higher rate of decomposition compared to the dorsal region of pericarp. Endosperm starch granules (ESG) accumulated in amyloplasts, and occurred in endosperm cells at 5 DAF, then rapidly enriched the endosperm cells until 22 DAF. Compared with ESG, PSG were compound granules of irregular shape and small size distribution. The results also suggested lower amylose content and V-type single-helix content and higher proportions of double helices for PSG compared to ESG. Based on the structural development of PSG and ESG, we speculated that the saccharides resulting from decomposition of PSG, on one hand, enabled the pericarp to survive before maturity of wheat caryopsis and, on the other hand, provided extra nutrition for the growth of ESG. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of resistant starch on hydrolysis and fermentation of corn starch for ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek; Rausch, Kent D; Graeber, James V; Schmidt, Shelly J; Buriak, Philip; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2010-03-01

    Starch samples with 0% or 30% amylose were subjected to four different liquefaction enzyme treatments (at various temperature and pH conditions) followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Resistant starch (RS) measurements were conducted for the initial starch sample, after liquefaction and after SSF. Initial RS was higher for 30% amylose starch samples (16.53 g/100 g sample) compared with 0% amylose (0.76 g/100 g sample). Higher initial RS resulted in lower conversion of starch into sugars and lower final ethanol yields. The four enzymes hydrolyzed RS, but in varying amounts. Higher temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a larger portion of RS, resulting in higher ethanol concentrations and lower final residual solids (non-fermentables), whereas lower temperature liquefaction hydrolyzed a smaller portion of RS and resulted in lower ethanol concentrations and higher final residual solids. Decreases in resistant starch after high temperature liquefaction were 55% to 74%, whereas low temperature liquefaction decreases were 11% to 43%. For all enzyme treatments, RS content of starch samples decreased further after SSF.

  1. Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Jyothi, A N; Asha, V; Sajeev, M S

    2016-09-01

    Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

  2. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  3. 21 CFR 172.892 - Food starch-modified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food starch-modified. 172.892 Section 172.892 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.892 Food starch-modified. Food starch-modified as described in this section may be... limitation prescribed. To insure safe use of the food starch-modified, the label of the food additive...

  4. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy source in broiler feeds. The properties of starch from different origin vary condiderably and these properties determine its resistance to enzymatic digestion. The objective of the research project de...

  5. Use of MMT and MMT organoclay in production of starch nanocomposites; Utilizacao da MMT e da MMT organofilica na producao de nanocompositos de amido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M.J.A., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Macedo, J.L. de [Universidade de Brasilia (LabCat/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Catalise; Angelica, R.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Raios X

    2010-07-01

    Starch can be used to replace petrochemical plastics for short shelf life. However, starch films have poor mechanical strength and sensitivity to moisture. This can be improved through the incorporation of nanoclays, such as montmorillonite, forming nanocomposites. Nanocomposites were prepared with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of montmorillonite, using pequi oil as plasticizer. The clay was also modified with a quaternary ammonium salt. The clays were characterized by XRF, XRD, IR and TG. Results confirmed the organophilization. The nanocomposites diffractograms showed that the addition of small amounts of clay produces delaminated nanocomposites. Already the addition of larger amount of clay does not form nanocomposites, or leads to the formation of intercalated nanocomposites. (author)

  6. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  7. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals. (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts. INTRODUCTION. Starch phosphate, one of the esterified starches, is produced from esterification of starch and phosphate.

  8. Kinetics of starch digestion and performance of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: starch, digestion rate, broiler chickens, peas, tapioca

    Starch is stored in amyloplasts of various plants like cereals and legumes and seeds of these plants are used as feedstuffs for farm animals. Starch is the major energy

  9. Convenient synthetic method of starch/lactic acid graft copolymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copolymer of starch grafted with lactic acid (LA) could be directly prepared by reaction of cornstarch with lactic acid and with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst. The structure of starch/LA copolymer was characterized by IR, XRD, SEM and 1H-NMR. The effects of NaOH concentration, ratios of starch and LA, reaction ...

  10. UTILIZATION OF CORN STARCH AS SUBSTRATE FOR Я

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IITA

    amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. ... According to Rose (1980), starch occurs in the form of .... Total bacterial count (cfu x 102/ml). Source. Bacillus spp. Corn starch substrate. Soluble starch substrate. Nutrient broth medium. Soil, U.I.. Canned milk Ibadan. Soil U.I.

  11. Preliminary Study on the Potentials of Tuber Starches as Soup ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that soup thickened with cocoyam starch was rated highest in flavor and taste while yam starch was more preferred as soup thickener in terms of colour, consistency and texture. There is significant difference (P<0.05) in the texture of the three samples with sweet potato starch having the least rating in taste ...

  12. quantification of starch physicochemical characteristics in a cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    CASSAVA SEGREGATING POPULATION. E. NUWAMANYA, Y. ... These findings demonstrate: (i) existence of considerable genetic variations in starch physicochemi- .... FP-528, using EDTA as a standard and a factor of ... content affects other starch properties such as ..... and the overall granular structure of starch (Willet.

  13. Insights into molecular structure and digestion rate of oat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinchuan; Kuang, Qirong; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Shujun

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro digestibility of oat starch and its relationship with starch molecular structure was investigated. The in vitro digestion results showed that the first-order kinetic constant (k) of oat starches (OS-1 and OS-2) was lower than that of rice starch. The size of amylose chains, amylose content and degree of branching (DB) of amylopectin in oat starch were significantly higher than the corresponding parameters in rice starch. The larger molecular size of oat starch may account for its lower digestion rate. The fine structure of amylopectin showed that oat starch had less chains of DP 6-12 and DP>36, which may explain the small difference in digestion rate between oat and rice starch. The biosynthesis model from oat amylopectin fine structure data suggested a lower starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity and/or a higher starch synthase (SS) activity, which may decrease the DB of oat starch and increase its digestion rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of Edible Corn Starch Phosphate with Highly Reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare edible corn starch phosphate under optimized experimental conditions. Methods: Edible corn starch phosphate was prepared via the reaction of starch with active sodium tripolyphosphate. Reaction efficiency and viscosity were used as indices to optimize experimental conditions. Freeze-thaw stability ...

  15. Synthesis, analysis and reduction of 2-nitropropyl starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A.; Doren, H.A. van; Gotlieb, K.F.; Bleeker, I.P.; Bergsma, J.; Kellogg, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Granular 2-nitropropyl potato starch was synthesized by reaction with 2-nitropropyl acetate in an aqueous suspension. Nitroalkylation occurs preferentially with the amylose fraction of potato starch, as was confirmed by leaching experiments and digestion of the modified starch with α-amylase. The

  16. HRP-Mediated Synthesis of Starch-Polyacrylamide Graft Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified starch-based polymers can be engineered for specific properties by combining starch with synthetic polymers through graft copolymerization. Polyacrylamide grafted starches have received a great deal of applications in areas such as superabsorbent paper-making additives, drag reduction and ...

  17. Extrusion and characterization of thermoplastic starch sheets from "macho" banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís-López, P; Pérez-González, J; Rendón-Villalobos, R; Jiménez-Pérez, A; Solorza-Feria, J

    2011-08-01

    Starch isolated from macho banana was oxidized by using 2.5% and 3.5% (w/w) of sodium hypochlorite. Native and oxidized starches with glycerol were processed using a conical twin screw extruder to obtain thermoplastic laminates or sheets, which were partially characterized. Oxidized banana starches presented higher moisture and total starch but lower ash, protein, lipids, and apparent amylose content than the native starch. Micrographs of sheets from oxidized starches showed wrinkles and cavities presumably caused by the plasticizer, but with less free glycerol and unplasticized starch granules than those from native starch. Sheets from oxidized starch showed a notorious increase in all thermal parameters (To, Tp, and ΔH), mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, and elasticity), and solubility. Banana starch X-ray diffraction patterns corresponded to a mixture of the A- and B-type polymorphs, with apparently slightly higher crystallinity in oxidized specimens than in native starch. A similar trend was observed in the corresponding sheets. Due to the pollution problem caused by the conventional plastics, there has been a renewed interest in biodegradable sheets, because they may have the potential to replace conventional packaging materials. Banana starch might be an interesting raw material to be used as edible sheet, coating or in food packaging, and preservation, because it is biodegradable, cheap, innocuous, and abundant. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Starch-based Foam Composite Materials: processing and bioproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch is an abundant, biodegradable, renewable and low-cost commodity that has been explored as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics. By itself, starch is a poor replacement for plastics because of its moisture sensitivity and brittle properties. Efforts to improve starch properties and funct...

  19. Starch deposits in Themeda triandra Forsk | WRE | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Themeda triandra tillers were examined microscopically at one to two-weekly intervals to determine where starch was deposited. Large numbers of starch grains were always present but the position of these deposits varied according to growth activity and flowering time of the plant. Starch deposits in the roots were usually ...

  20. Engineering potato starch with a higher phosphate content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing Feng; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a

  1. Production of pregelatinised maize starch compared with maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregelatinised maize starch was prepared from evaporating to dryness 8%w/v of maize starch mucilage and pulverising it. Its physicochemical properties were compared with maize starch powder. Its higher and tapped densities resulted in lower Carr's index. Its higher particle flow rate lower angle of reponse could render it ...

  2. Evaluation and Optimization of Godare Starch as a Binder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding and disintegrating properties of Godare (Colcosia esculenta) starch in paracetamol tablet formulations were evaluated in comparison with potato starch. Tablet crushing strengths (Hs), friabilities Frs), disintegration times (DTs) and porosities were determined. The results showed that Godare starch has a better ...

  3. Composition and Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch was extracted from seeds of Christ Thorn by hot water extraction method. The composition and physicochemical properties of the extracted starch were determined using standard methods. The results obtained from the analyses revealed that the % yield of starch was 43.2%, while moisture content, ash content, ...

  4. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Potato- Starch Linear Low Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanical properties of potato-starch filled LLDPE such as Young's Modulus, tensile strength and elongation at break were studied. Apart from the Young's Modulus, the tensile strength and elongation at break reduced with increased starch content. This is attributed to poor adhesion between starch and the polymer ...

  6. Evaluation of the effect of ginger modified cassava starch as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw cassava starch has been used as thickener and binder in the formulation of water based paint, but with a problem of loss of viscosity in a very short period. This study evaluates the modification of cassava starch using active component of ginger extract and its use as a water- based paint thickener. 150 g of starch in ...

  7. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while

  8. Chemical, Functional and Pasting Properties of Defatted Starches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) difference in texture and appearance of stiff porridges prepared from cowpea, soybean and cassava starches. Similarly, there was no significant (p . 0.05) difference in mouldability, stickiness and overall acceptability between defatted starches and control but significantly different (p . 0.05) with the full fat starches.

  9. Coordination of cassava starch to metal ions and thermolysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to decompose at ...

  10. COORDINATION OF CASSAVA STARCH TO METAL IONS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Cassava starch formed Werner-type complexes with ions of metals from the transition groups. This was proven by conductivity and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements. The coordination of starch to central metal ions influenced the thermal decomposition of starch. As a rule complexes started to ...

  11. Structural and enzyme kinetic studies of retrograded starch: Inhibition of α-amylase and consequences for intestinal digestion of starch

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hamung; Royall, Paul G.; Gaisford, Simon; Williams, Gareth R.; Edwards, Cathrina H.; Warren, Frederick J; Flanagan, Bernadine M.; Ellis, Peter R.; Butterworth, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Retrograded starch is known to be resistant to digestion. We used enzyme kinetic experiments to examine how retrogradation of starch affects amylolysis catalysed by porcine pancreatic amylase. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and NMR spectroscopy were performed to monitor changes in supramolecular structure of gelatinised starch as it becomes retrograded. The total digestible starch and the catalytic efficiency of amylase ...

  12. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  13. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Modification of potato starch granule structure and morphology in planta by expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    Producing starches with altered composition, structure and novel physico-chemical properties in planta by manipulating the enzymes which are involved in starch metabolism or (over)expressing heterologous enzymes has huge advantages such as broadening the range of starch applications and reducing the

  15. Marinimicrobium haloxylanilyticum sp. nov., a new moderately halophilic, polysaccharide-degrading bacterium isolated from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh Møller, Mette; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    A new moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium, strain SX15T, was isolated from hypersaline surface sediment of the southern arm of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA). The strain grew on a number of carbohydrates and carbohydrate polymers such as xylan, starch, carboxymethyl...

  16. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  17. Starch nanocrystals and starch nanoparticles from waxy maize as nanoreinforcement: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel Haaj, Sihem; Thielemans, Wim; Magnin, Albert; Boufi, Sami

    2016-06-05

    The morphological, structural and thermal behavior of starch nanocrystals (SNCs) extracted from waxy maize starch through an acid hydrolysis were compared with those of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) obtained through an ultrasound treatment starting from the same waxy maize starch. The SNPs were found to be completely amorphous, slightly smaller and had no surface charge, whereas the SNCs had the expected platelet-like morphology with a negative surface charge introduced as a result of the use of sulphuric acid in the acid hydrolysis step. SNCs also showed better thermal stability than SNPs in the presence of water. As a result of their platelet-like morphology, the SNCs performed better in reinforcing a polymer film. On the other hand, SNPs reduced the transparency of the nanocomposite films to a lesser extent than the SNCs due to their smaller size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Barley starch bioengineering for high phosphate and amylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2011-01-01

    Starch is a biological polymer that can be industrially produced in massive amounts in a very pure form. Cereals is the main source for starch production and any improvement of the starch fraction can have a tremendous impact in food and feed applications. Barley ranks number four among cereal...... of the three genes encoding the starch-branching enzymes SBEI, SBEIIa, and SBEIIb using a triple RNAi chimeric hairpin construct we generated a virtually amylopectin-free barley. The grains of the transgenic lines were shrunken and had a yield of around 80% of the control line. The starch granules were...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Isotactic Polypropylene Modified with Thermoplastic Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knitter, M.; Dobrzyńska-Mizera, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper selected mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) modified with potato starch have been presented. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) used as a modifier in the study was produced from potato starch modified with glycerol. Isotactic polypropylene/thermoplastic potato starch composites (iPP/TPS) that contained 10, 30, 50 wt.% of modified starch were examined using dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis, static tensile, Brinell hardness, and Charpy impact test. The studies indicated a distinct influence of a filler content on the mechanical properties of composites in comparison with non-modified polypropylene.

  20. Studies on semi-technical separation of Mung bean starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, N.U.; Tegge, G.; Thu, N.M. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Getreide- und Kartoffelverarbeitung, Detmold (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-02-01

    Starch of mung beans is the raw material for high grade glass noodles, but until now industrial starch separation is often less efficient. For testing new fields of commercial use it is of benerfit to experiment with very pure starches. Regarding this, possibilities of starch isolation on a semi-technical scale are described, which resulted in most pure starches. Crude protein content could be lowered down to 0.3% and crude fibre content down to 0.5% dry matter base. (orig.).

  1. Effects of timing and severity of salinity stress on rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield, grain composition, and starch functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitisaksakul, Maysaya; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F; Chun, Areum; Tanadul, Orn-u-ma; Labavitch, John M; Beckles, Diane M

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this work was to examine agronomic, compositional, and functional changes in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) grains from plants grown under low-to-moderate salinity stress in the greenhouse. Plants were grown in sodium chloride-containing soil (2 or 4 dS/m(2) electrical conductivity), which was imposed 4-weeks after transplant (called Seedling EC2 and EC4) or after the appearance of the anthers (called Anthesis EC2 and EC4). The former simulates field conditions while the latter permits observation of the isolated effect of salt on grain filling processes. Key findings of this study are the following: (i) Plants showed adaptive responses to prolonged salt treatment with no negative effects on grain weight or fertility. Seedling EC2 plants had more panicles and enhanced caryopsis dimensions, while surprisingly, Seedling EC4 plants did not differ from the control group in the agronomic parameters measured. (ii) Grain starch increased in Seedling EC4 (32.6%) and Anthesis EC2 (39%), respectively, suggesting a stimulatory effect of salt on starch accumulation. (iii) The salinity treatment of 2 dS/m(2) was better tolerated at anthesis than the 4 dS/m(2) treatment as the latter led to reduced grain weight (28.8%) and seed fertility (19.4%) and compensatory increases in protein (20.1%) and nitrogen (19.8%) contents. (iv) Although some salinity treatments led to changes in starch content, these did not alter starch fine structure, morphology, or composition. We observed no differences in reducing sugar and amylose content or starch granule size distribution among any of the treatments. The only alterations in starch were limited to small changes in thermal properties and glucan chain distribution, which were only seen in the Anthesis EC4 treatment. This similarity of compositional and functional features was supported by multivariate analysis of all variables measured, which suggested that differences due to treatments were minimal. Overall, this study

  2. Reactions of Starch in Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    We found that starches are found to be soluble at 80 ºC in ionic liquids such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (BMIMdca) in concentration up to 10% (w/w). Higher concentrations of biopolymers in these novel solvents resulted in solutions w...

  3. Cross-linking Enset Starch Microspheres, Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset starch was cross-linked in solid phase systems using sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) as crosslinking agent under different microwave powers and reaction times to investigate its drug-release-sustaining ability. Paracetamol was used as a model drug. The swelling and water-binding capacities and the peak ...

  4. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladebeyes

    Polymer Technology Department, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. b ... starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) ..... Vinyl polymers. In: Othmer, K. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Chemical. Technology, John Wiley, New. York, pp 808–821. 14. Adebayo, A.S. and Itiola, O.A.. (1998).

  5. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  6. Growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This involved hydrolysis of starch extracted from freshly harvested cassava tubers using enzyme-enzyme method of hydrolysis, followed by aerobic fermentation of Pseudomonas fluorescens on a mixture of the hydrolysate and nutrient media in a fermentor in batch cultures. The reducing sugar hydrolysate served as the ...

  7. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  8. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  9. Evaluation of a High Throughput Starch Analysis Optimised for Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Starch is the most important long-term reserve in trees, and the analysis of starch is therefore useful source of physiological information. Currently published protocols for wood starch analysis impose several limitations, such as long procedures and a neutralization step. The high-throughput standard protocols for starch analysis in food and feed represent a valuable alternative. However, they have not been optimised or tested with woody samples. These have particular chemical and structural characteristics, including the presence of interfering secondary metabolites, low reactivity of starch, and low starch content. In this study, a standard method for starch analysis used for food and feed (AOAC standard method 996.11) was optimised to improve precision and accuracy for the analysis of starch in wood. Key modifications were introduced in the digestion conditions and in the glucose assay. The optimised protocol was then evaluated through 430 starch analyses of standards at known starch content, matrix polysaccharides, and wood collected from three organs (roots, twigs, mature wood) of four species (coniferous and flowering plants). The optimised protocol proved to be remarkably precise and accurate (3%), suitable for a high throughput routine analysis (35 samples a day) of specimens with a starch content between 40 mg and 21 µg. Samples may include lignified organs of coniferous and flowering plants and non-lignified organs, such as leaves, fruits and rhizomes. PMID:24523863

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of buckwheat starch components using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethirajan, Suresh; Tsukamoto, Kazumi; Kanahara, Hiroko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Morphological and structural features of buckwheat starch granules and nanocrystals were examined using atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Partially digested starch granules revealed a clear pattern of growth rings with the central core revealing lamellar structure. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering experiments revealed that the buckwheat starch granules were polygonal in shape and were in the range of 2 to 19 μm in diameter. The optimized acid hydrolysis process produced nanocrystals with the shape of spherical structure with lengths ranging from 120 to 200 nm, and the diameter from 4 to 30 nm from aqueous suspensions of buckwheat starch solution. The sorption isotherms on buckwheat starch nanocrystal/glycerol composite exhibited a 3-stage transition of moisture in the blending. The biocompatible nature of buckwheat starch nanocrystals and their structural properties make them a promising green nanocomposite material. Buckwheat starches had never been studied on a nanoscale, but we have achieved new understanding of starch granule morphology and concentric growth rings using nanoscale imaging. Since buckwheat is an underutilized crop, we foresee the potential application of buckwheat starch, starch-based nanocrystals, and nanoparticles, to expand markets and encourage producers to expand their buckwheat acreage. The atomic force image analysis suggests that buckwheat starch could be used as a new biopolymer material in food industries. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Resistant Starch: Promise for Improving Human Health12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F.; Boylston, Terri; Hendrich, Suzanne; Jane, Jay-Lin; Hollis, James; Li, Li; McClelland, John; Moore, Samuel; Phillips, Gregory J.; Rowling, Matthew; Schalinske, Kevin; Scott, M. Paul; Whitley, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing research to develop digestion-resistant starch for human health promotion integrates the disciplines of starch chemistry, agronomy, analytical chemistry, food science, nutrition, pathology, and microbiology. The objectives of this research include identifying components of starch structure that confer digestion resistance, developing novel plants and starches, and modifying foods to incorporate these starches. Furthermore, recent and ongoing studies address the impact of digestion-resistant starches on the prevention and control of chronic human diseases, including diabetes, colon cancer, and obesity. This review provides a transdisciplinary overview of this field, including a description of types of resistant starches; factors in plants that affect digestion resistance; methods for starch analysis; challenges in developing food products with resistant starches; mammalian intestinal and gut bacterial metabolism; potential effects on gut microbiota; and impacts and mechanisms for the prevention and control of colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Although this has been an active area of research and considerable progress has been made, many questions regarding how to best use digestion-resistant starches in human diets for disease prevention must be answered before the full potential of resistant starches can be realized. PMID:24228189

  12. Shear Stress Dependence of Flow Properties of Gelatinized Modified Starch Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    朝田, 仁; 鈴木, 寛一

    1996-01-01

    Flow properties of gelatinized modified starch suspensions were studied using a tube viscometer. The modified starches used were commercially available samples of hydroxypropylated distarch phosphate derived from waxy corn and potato starches (Starch A and Starch B). Two types of irreversible shear stress dependence of flow behavior were observed. By applying shear stress on the gelatinized starch suspensions, fluidity of Starch A (5.0 wt%) decreased to an equilibrium value, while fluidity of...

  13. Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota: Structure, Biochemistry and Cell Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Darko, Kwame Oteng; Huang, Yanjun; He, Caimei; Yang, Huansheng; He, Shanping; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Jian; Hocher, Berthold; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Starch is one of the most popular nutritional sources for both human and animals. Due to the variation of its nutritional traits and biochemical specificities, starch has been classified into rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch. Resistant starch has its own unique chemical structure, and various forms of resistant starch are commercially available. It has been found being a multiple-functional regulator for treating metabolic dysfunction. Different functions of resistant starch such as modulation of the gut microbiota, gut peptides, circulating growth factors, circulating inflammatory mediators have been characterized by animal studies and clinical trials. In this mini-review, recent remarkable progress in resistant starch on gut microbiota, particularly the effect of structure, biochemistry and cell signaling on nutrition has been summarized, with highlights on its regulatory effect on gut microbiota. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The role of plasticization in starch granule assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, P A; Donald, A M

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the nonfood usage of starch-based products. This interest is predominantly motivated by the ability to produce thermoplastic materials, known as thermoplastic starch (TPS), which can be manufactured using technology already developed for the production of synthetic plastics yet which are fully biodegradable. With the strength and flexibility of TPS materials being highly dependent upon the presence of nonaqueous plasticizing solvents, the nature of the interaction between starch and plasticizer is of obvious interest. As well as interest in the industrial applications of starch, the general nature of plasticization and structure formation within native starch granules is of fundamental interest. This paper presents results from a small and wide angle scattering and calorimetric investigation of model starch-plasticizer systems. Issues relevant to TPS production are addressed, and a model of lamellar assembly within starch granules facilitated by the plasticizing effect of low molecular weight solvents is proposed.

  16. Biodegradability and mechanical properties of starch films from Andean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Torres, C; Díaz, D A; Amaya, E

    2011-05-01

    Different Andean crops were used to obtain starches not previously reported in literature as raw material for the production of biodegradable polymers. The twelve starches obtained were used to prepare biodegradable films by casting. Water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The mechanical properties of the starch based films were assessed by means of tensile tests. Compost tests and FTIR tests were carried out to assess biodegradability of films. The results show that the mechanical properties (UTS, Young's modulus and elongation at break) of starch based films strongly depend on the starch source used for their production. We found that all the starch films prepared biodegrade following a three stage process and that the weight loss rate of all the starch based films tested was higher than the weight loss rate of the cellulose film used as control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Slowly digestible starch: concept, mechanism, and proposed extended glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch. Both the RDS and RS fractions have been extensively studied while there are only limited studies on the intermediate starch fraction of SDS, particularly regarding its structural basis and slow digestion mechanism. The current understanding of SDS including its concept, measurement method, structural basis and mechanism, physiological consequences, and approaches to make SDS is reviewed. An in vivo method of extended glycemic index (EGI) is proposed to evaluate its metabolic effect and related health consequences.

  18. Characterization of different substituted carboxymethyl starch microgels and their interactions with lysozyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available A carboxymethyl starch (CMS microgel system was prepared for the control of uptaking and releasing proteins (lysozyme. The physicochemical properties of microgels in various degrees of substitution (DS were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, swelling degree, and rheological analysis. The microgel particle size mostly ranged from 25 µm to 45 µm. The result obtained from the TGA studies indicated that carboxymethylation decreased the thermal stability of starch, but crosslinking increased the thermal stability of CMS. The CMS microgels showed typical pH sensitivity, and the swelling degree of microgel increased with the increasing of DS and pH, because of the large amounts of carboxyl group ionization. The samples (2.25% could behave as viscoelastic solids since the storage modulus was larger than the loss modulus over the entire frequency range. The protein uptake increased with increasing pH and DS at low salt concentration. The optimal pH shifted to lower pH with increasing ionic strength. The saturated protein uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength at each pH. The protein was easily released from the microgel with high pH and high salt concentration.

  19. PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH is required for localising GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Seung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of starch crops underpinned the development of human civilisation, yet we still do not fully understand how plants make starch. Starch is composed of glucose polymers that are branched (amylopectin or linear (amylose. The amount of amylose strongly influences the physico-chemical behaviour of starchy foods during cooking and of starch mixtures in non-food manufacturing processes. The GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE (GBSS is the glucosyltransferase specifically responsible for elongating amylose polymers and was the only protein known to be required for its biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that PROTEIN TARGETING TO STARCH (PTST is also specifically required for amylose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module (CBM. We discovered that Arabidopsis ptst mutants synthesise amylose-free starch and are phenotypically similar to mutants lacking GBSS. Analysis of granule-bound proteins showed a dramatic reduction of GBSS protein in ptst mutant starch granules. Pull-down assays with recombinant proteins in vitro, as well as immunoprecipitation assays in planta, revealed that GBSS physically interacts with PTST via a coiled coil. Furthermore, we show that the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation. Fluorescently tagged Arabidopsis GBSS, expressed either in tobacco or Arabidopsis leaves, required the presence of Arabidopsis PTST to localise to starch granules. Mutation of the CBM of PTST caused GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma. PTST fulfils a previously unknown function in targeting GBSS to starch. This sheds new light on the importance of targeting biosynthetic enzymes to sub-cellular sites where their action is required. Importantly, PTST represents a promising new gene target for the biotechnological modification of starch composition, as it is

  20. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  1. Effects of Acetic Anhydride Toward Degree of Substitution on Acetylation Method of Sago Starch (Metroxylon SP) From Papua

    OpenAIRE

    Nanggewa, Yuliya Andriani; Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Putra, Surya Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sago contains carbohydrates that are stored in the starch form. Starch is generally formed from two molecules of glucose polymer, namely amylose and amylopectin, which its composition varies for each type of starch [1]. The weakness of starch can be overcome through a modification of the functional properties of starch to expand sago starch. Chemical modification of starches can enlarge the range of certain starch physical properties of the parent starch [2] and enhance their use in a number ...

  2. Characteristics of quinoa as a foodstuff (part 2): Structure and properties of starch granules of quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    唐, 漢軍; 安藤, ひとみ; 渡辺, 克美; 光永, 俊郎

    1999-01-01

    [Synopsis] Quinoa seeds contained two kinds of starch granules, complex and single starch granules. Single granule was a polygonshape, and the particle size was around 1μm. The starch resembled small granule starch of nonwaxy wheat very closely in moisture absorption. The gelatinization temperature of the starch was lower than those of the tested cereals starch. The enthalpy of the starch was a little below that of rice starch and higher than those of barley, wheat, corn starches. Amylose con...

  3. Phylogeny and expression pattern of starch branching enzyme family genes in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) under diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jinli; Wang, Huijun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Liu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Ma, Pingan; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2015-08-01

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) is one of the key enzymes involved in starch biosynthetic metabolism. In this study, six SBE family genes were identified from the cassava genome. Phylogenetic analysis divided the MeSBE family genes into dicot family A, B, C, and the new group. Tissue-specific analysis showed that MeSBE2.2 was strongly expressed in leaves, stems cortex, and root stele, and MeSBE3 had high expression levels in stem cortex and root stele of plants in the rapid growth stage under field condition, whereas the expression levels of MeSBE2.1, MeSBE4, and MeSBE5 were low except for in stems cortex. The transcriptional activity of MeSBE2.2 and MeSBE3 was higher compared with other members and gradually increased in the storage roots during root growth process, while the other MeSBE members normally remained low expression levels. Expression of MeSBE2.2 could be induced by salt, drought, exogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid signals, while MeSBE3 had positive response to drought, salt, exogenous abscisic acid, and salicylic acid in leaves but not in storage root, indicating that they might be more important in starch biosynthesis pathway under diverse environments.

  4. C-type starch from high-amylose rice resistant starch granules modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cunxu; Xu, Bin; Qin, Fengling; Yu, Huaguang; Chen, Chong; Meng, Xianglen; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-06-23

    High-amylose starch is a source of resistant starch (RS) which has a great benefit on human health. A transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched amylose and RS had been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. In this study, the native starch granules were isolated from TRS grains as well as the wild type, and their crystalline type was carefully investigated before and after acid hydrolysis. In high-amylose TRS rice, the C-type starch, which might result from the combination of both A-type and B-type starch, was observed and subsequently confirmed by multiple physical techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared. Moreover, the change of starch crystalline structure from C- to B-type during acid hydrolysis was also observed in this RS-rich rice. These data could add to our understanding of not only the polymorph structure of cereal starch but also why high-amylose starch is more resistant to digestion.

  5. Hydrolysis of native and heat-treated starches at sub-gelatinization temperature using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthumporn, U; Shariffa, Y N; Karim, A A

    2012-03-01

    The effect of heat treatment below the gelatinization temperature on the susceptibility of corn, mung bean, sago, and potato starches towards granular starch hydrolysis (35°C) was investigated. Starches were hydrolyzed in granular state and after heat treatment (50°C for 30 min) by using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme for 24 h. Hydrolyzed heat-treated starches showed a significant increase in the percentage of dextrose equivalent compared to native starches, respectively, with corn 53% to 56%, mung bean 36% to 47%, sago 15% to 26%, and potato 12% to 15%. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the presence of more porous granules and surface erosion in heat-treated starch compared to native starch. X-ray analysis showed no changes but with sharper peaks for all the starches, suggested that hydrolysis occurred on the amorphous region. The amylose content and swelling power of heat-treated starches was markedly altered after hydrolysis. Evidently, this enzyme was able to hydrolyze granular starches and heat treatment before hydrolysis significantly increased the degree of hydrolysis.

  6. Deficiency of Starch Synthase IIIa and IVb Alters Starch Granule Morphology from Polyhedral to Spherical in Rice Endosperm1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosawa, Yoshiko; Kawagoe, Yasushi; Matsushima, Ryo; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukuda, Masako; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Okazaki, Yozo; Kusano, Miyako; Saito, Kazuki; Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Ai, Yongfeng; Fujita, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    Starch granule morphology differs markedly among plant species. However, the mechanisms controlling starch granule morphology have not been elucidated. Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm produces characteristic compound-type granules containing dozens of polyhedral starch granules within an amyloplast. Some other cereal species produce simple-type granules, in which only one starch granule is present per amyloplast. A double mutant rice deficient in the starch synthase (SS) genes SSIIIa and SSIVb (ss3a ss4b) produced spherical starch granules, whereas the parental single mutants produced polyhedral starch granules similar to the wild type. The ss3a ss4b amyloplasts contained compound-type starch granules during early developmental stages, and spherical granules were separated from each other during subsequent amyloplast development and seed dehydration. Analysis of glucan chain length distribution identified overlapping roles for SSIIIa and SSIVb in amylopectin chain synthesis, with a degree of polymerization of 42 or greater. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type developing rice seeds revealed that the majority of SSIVb was localized between starch granules. Therefore, we propose that SSIIIa and SSIVb have crucial roles in determining starch granule morphology and in maintaining the amyloplast envelope structure. We present a model of spherical starch granule production. PMID:26747287

  7. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  8. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, A M; Hindle, V A; Klop, A; Cone, J W

    2010-06-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in duodenum and ileum received a low-starch (12% of ration dry matter) and a high-starch (33% of ration dry matter) diet. Starch level was increased by exchanging dried sugar beet pulp by ground maize. After a 2-week adaptation period, feed intake, rumen fermentation parameters (in vivo and in situ), intestinal flows, faecal excretion of organic matter, starch and NDF were estimated. When the high-starch diet was fed, dry matter intake was higher (19.0 kg/day vs. 17.8 kg/day), and total tract digestibility of organic matter, starch and NDF was lower when the low-starch diet was fed. Maize starch concentration had no significant effect on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentration nor on the site of digestion of organic matter and starch and rate of passage of ytterbium-labelled forage. On the high-starch diet, an extra 1.3 kg of maize starch was supplied at the duodenum in relation to the low-starch diet, but only an extra 0.3 kg of starch was digested in the small intestine. Digestion of NDF was only apparent in the rumen and was lower on the high-starch diet than on the low-starch diet, mainly attributed to the reduction in sugar beet pulp in the high-starch diet. It was concluded that without the correction for the reduction in NDF digestion in the rumen, the extra supply of glucogenic (glucose and propionic acid) and ketogenic nutrients (acetic and butyric acid) by supplemented starch will be overestimated. The mechanisms responsible for these effects need to be addressed in feed evaluation.

  9. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  10. The future of starch bioengineering: GM microorganisms or GM plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Henrik eHebelstrup

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant starches regularly require extensive modification to permit subsequent applications. Such processing is usually done by the use of chemical and/or physical treatments. The use of recombinant enzymes produced by large-scale fermentation of GM microorganisms is increasingly used in starch processing and modification, sometimes as an alternative to chemical or physical treatments. However, as a means to impart the modifications as early as possible in the starch production chain, similar recombinant enzymes may also be expressed in planta in the developing starch storage organ such as in roots, tubers and cereal grains to provide a GM crop as an alternative to the use of enzymes from GM microorganisms. We here discuss these techniques in relation to important structural features and modifications of starches such as: starch phosphorylation, starch hydrolysis, chain transfer/branching and novel concepts of hybrid starch-based polysaccharides. In planta starch bioengineering is generally challenged by yield penalties and inefficient production of the desired product. However in some situations, GM crops for starch bioengineering without deleterious effects have been achieved.

  11. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-09-05

    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35 mg/mL and 9.92 mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0 × 10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120 min, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and characterization of cellulose reinforced starch (CRT) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsan, K; Chandra Mohan, C; Azhagu Saravana Babu, P; Archana, G; Sabina, K; Sivarajan, M; Sukumar, M

    2016-02-01

    Starch from Tamarind seed is considered to be a nonedible and inexpensive component, with many industrial applications. Extraction and characterization of tamarind seed starch was carried out for the synthesis of biopolymer. Tamarind seeds were collected, cleaned and further roasted, decorticated, and pulverized to get starch powder. Total starch content present in each tamarind seed is estimated to be around 65-70%. About 84.68% purified starch can be recovered from the tamarind seed. Defatted Tamarind seed starch has an amylose content of 27.55 wt.% and 72.45 wt.% of amylopectin. Morphological (SEM) and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate crystallinity. Likewise, TGA and DSC of starch have also been analyzed. Thermal properties of starch obtained from tamarind seeds showed good thermal stability when compared to other starch sources such as Mesquite seed and Mango kernel. This study proved that the tamarind seed starch can be used as a potential biopolymer material. Thermo-stable biofilms were produced through initial optimization studies. Predictive response surface quadratic models were constructed for prediction and optimization of biofilm mechanical properties. Correlation coefficient values were calculated to me more than 0.90 for mechanical responses which implies the fitness of constructed model with experimental data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Starch Characteristics Linked to Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2017-04-06

    The increasing prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) and gluten-related disorders has led to increasing consumer demand for gluten-free products with quality characteristics similar to wheat bread. The replacement of gluten in cereal-based products remains a challenge for scientists, due to its unique role in network formation, which entraps air bubbles. When gluten is removed from a flour, starch is the main component left. Starch is used as gelling, thickening, adhesion, moisture-retention, stabilizing, film forming, texturizing and anti-staling ingredient. The extent of these properties varies depending on the starch source. The starches can additionally be modified increasing or decreasing certain properties of the starch, depending on the application. Starch plays an important role in the formulation of bakery products and has an even more important role in gluten-free products. In gluten-free products, starch is incorporated into the food formulation to improve baking characteristics such as the specific volume, colour and crumb structure and texture. This review covers a number of topics relating to starch; including; an overview of common and lesser researched starches; chemical composition; morphology; digestibility; functionality and methods of modification. The emphasis of this review is on starch and its properties with respect to the quality of gluten-free products.

  14. Characterization of Starch Degradation Related Genes in Postharvest Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiong; Kuang, Sheng; Zhang, Ai-Di; Zhang, Wang-Shu; Chen, Miao-Jin; Yin, Xue-Ren; Chen, Kun-Song

    2016-12-15

    Starch is one of the most important storage carbohydrates in plants. Kiwifruit typically accumulate large amounts of starch during development. The fruit retain starch until commercial maturity, and its postharvest degradation is essential for consumer acceptance. The activity of genes related to starch degradation has, however, rarely been investigated. Based on the kiwifruit genome sequence and previously reported starch degradation-related genes, 17 novel genes were isolated and the relationship between their expression and starch degradation was examined using two sets of materials: ethylene-treated (100 µL/L, 20 °C; ETH) vs. control (20 °C; CK) and controlled atmosphere stored (CA, 5% CO₂ + 2% O₂, 0 °C) vs. normal atmosphere in cold storage (NA, 0 °C). Physiological analysis indicated that ETH accelerated starch degradation and increased soluble solids content (SSC) and soluble sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose), while CA inhibited starch reduction compared with NA. Using these materials, expression patterns of 24 genes that may contribute to starch degradation (seven previously reported and 17 newly isolated) were analyzed. Among the 24 genes, AdAMY1, AdAGL3 and AdBAM3.1/3L/9 were significantly induced by ETH and positively correlated with starch degradation. Furthermore, these five genes were also inhibited by CA, conforming the likely involvement of these genes in starch degradation. Thus, the present study has identified the genes with potential for involvement in starch degradation in postharvest kiwifruit, which will be useful for understanding the regulation of kiwifruit starch content and metabolism.

  15. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  16. Optimization of resistant starch formation from high amylose corn starch by microwave irradiation treatments and characterization of starch preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Selime; Kahraman, Kevser; Öztürk, Serpil

    2017-02-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation on resistant starch (RS) formation and functional properties in high-amylose corn starch, Hylon VII, by applying microwave-storing cycles and drying processes were investigated. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the reaction conditions, microwave time (2-4min) and power (20-100%), for RS formation. The starch:water (1:10) mixtures were cooked and autoclaved and then different microwave-storing cycles and drying (oven or freeze drying) processes were applied. The RS contents of the samples increased with increasing microwave-storing cycle. The highest RS (43.4%) was obtained by oven drying after 3 cycles of microwave treatment at 20% power for 2min. The F, p (<0.05) and R2 values indicated that the selected models were consistent. Linear equations were obtained for oven-dried samples applied by 1 and 3 cycles of microwave with regression coefficients of 0.65 and 0.62, respectively. Quadratic equation was obtained for freeze-dried samples applied by 3 cycles of microwave with a regression coefficient of 0.83. The solubility, water binding capacity (WBC) and RVA viscosity values of the microwave applied samples were higher than those of native Hylon VII. The WBC and viscosity values of the freeze-dried samples were higher than those of the oven-dried ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch as compared to commercial modified starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowakon Wattanachant

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hydroxypropylated crosslinked sago starch (HPST were determined and compared with five types of commercial modified starches (CMST in order to evaluate its quality for further applications. The HPST was prepared on a large scale having molar substitution (MS and degree substitution (DS values in the range of 0.038 to 0.045 and 0.004 to 0.005, respectively. The properties of HPST in terms of sediment volume, swelling power, solubility and paste clarity were 15.75%, 16.7, 8.62% and 5.18%T650 , respectively. The MS value, phosphorus content, paste clarity, swelling power and syneresis after six freeze-thaw cycles of HPST when compared to that of commercially available modified starches which are normally used or incorporated in acidic, frozen and canned foods did not differ significantly. The pasting characteristic of HPST exhibited thin to thick viscosity which was similar (P>0.05 to that of commercial hydroxypropylated crosslinked tapioca starch (NAT 8. The acid stability, solubility and freeze-thaw stability of both starches were also similar (P>0.05 but the swelling power of HPST was slightly lower (P<0.05 than that of NAT 8 .

  18. Partial characterization of chayotextle starch-based films added with ascorbic acid encapsulated in resistant starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ortiz, Miguel A; Vargas-Torres, Apolonio; Román-Gutiérrez, Alma D; Chavarría-Hernández, Norberto; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Meza-Nieto, Martín; Palma-Rodríguez, Heidi M

    2017-05-01

    Chayotextle starch was modified by subjecting it to a dual treatment with acid and heating-cooling cycles. This caused a decrease in the content of amylose, which showed values of 30.22%, 4.80%, 3.27% and 3.57% for native chayotextle starch (NCS), starch modified by acid hydrolysis (CMS), and CMS with one (CMS1AC) and three autoclave cycles (CMS3AC), respectively. The percentage of crystallinity showed an increase of 36.9%-62% for NCS and CMS3AC. The highest content of resistant starch (RS) was observed in CMS3AC (37.05%). The microcapsules were made with CMS3AC due to its higher RS content; the total content of ascorbic acid of the microcapsules was 82.3%. The addition of different concentrations of CMS3AC microcapsules (0%, 2.5%, 6.255% and 12.5%) to chayotextle starch-based films (CSF) increased their tensile strength and elastic modulus. The content of ascorbic acid and RS in CSF was ranged from 0% to 59.4% and from 4.84% to 37.05% in the control film and in the film mixed with CMS3AC microcapsules, respectively. Water vapor permeability (WVP) values decreased with increasing concentrations of microcapsules in the films. Microscopy observations showed that higher concentrations of microcapsules caused agglomerations due their poor distribution in the matrix of the films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  20. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Oomen, Ronald J F J; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bolam, David N; Gilbert, Harry J; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F

    2004-05-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptide from Xyn10A from Cellulomonas fimi. SBD2 and a single SBD were introduced into the amylose-free potato mutant, amf, using appropriate signal sequences. The accumulation of SBD2 into transgenic starch granules was much higher than that of SBD. In a number of transformants, particularly amfSS3, the starch granules were much smaller than in control plants. The amfSS3 mean granule size was 7.8 microm, compared with 15.2 microm in the control, whereas other starch properties were unaltered. This new starch combines the advantage of the high purity of potato starch with that of the small granule size of other crop species, such as cassava, taro and wheat. This starch may find application in the manufacture of biodegradable plastic films. Both genes were also expressed in Escherichia coli and the affinity for soluble starch of the purified recombinant proteins was determined. SBD2 had an approximately 10-fold higher affinity for starch than SBD, indicating that the two appended SBDs act in synergy when binding to their target polysaccharide ligand.

  1. Effect of dry heat treatment on physical property and in vitro starch digestibility of high amylose rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Im Kyung; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-03-01

    The influence of dry heat treatment (DHT) of high amylose rice starch was investigated on starch digestibility and physical properties and their characteristics were compared through the PCA analysis. High amylose rice starch was prepared by DHT under different temperatures (110, 130, and 150°C) and times (0, 1, 2, and 4h). The gelatinization temperature and enthalpy decreased as temperature and time increased, revealing the change of semi-crystalline region. There were significant increases in gel strength and pasting viscosity above 130°C, whereas gel strength and pasting viscosity were reduced with increasing heating time. On in vitro starch digestibility of DHT starch gel, the rapidly digestible starch and predicted glycemic index of DHT starches were lower than those of native starch. Both the lowest predicted glycemic index and the highest gel strength was observed at 130°C for 1h. In the results of PCA analysis, the heating temperature was negatively correlated with in vitro starch digestibility as well as pasting viscosity and gel strength. These results demonstrated that DHT could be useful of enhancing the physical and nutritional properties of high amylose rice starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Slowly digestible starch--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.

  4. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COLA STARCH Omojola MO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-07-07

    Jul 7, 2010 ... 1 % w/v sodium metabisulphite and the proximate analysis (in %) was found to be. 4.60 protein, 0.54 ... Starch is one of the most widely used biomaterials in the food, textile, cosmetics, and plastic, adhesives .... for analysis where 0.1 ml of acetic acid solution was added, followed by the addition of 0.2 ml of ...

  5. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  6. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  7. The role of modified food starches in baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciers, S; Mehta, D I; Blecker, U; Lebenthal, E

    1997-06-01

    Modified food starches were developed as a stabilizer, suspending the food particles and providing a desirable consistency, texture, and storage ability. They are used primarily in strained and junior foods and to a minor extent in infant formulas. This review discusses modified food starches because of four principal concerns. The first relates to the bioavailability of the starch itself. The second is the potential that indigestible starch may have for producing diarrheal symptoms, malabsorption, and changes in gastrointestinal flora. The third is the possibility that modified food starches might be implicated in gastrointestinal disease like Crohn's ileocolitis. The fourth is the toxicological effect of the chemicals used to modify the starch and their possible mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.

  8. Hydrophobic starch nanocrystals preparations through crosslinking modification using citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang; Ren, Lili

    2016-10-01

    Biodegradable starch nanocrystals prepared by an acid treatment process were modified through crosslinking modification using citric acid as reactant by a dry reaction method. The occurrence of crosslinking modification was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and swelling degree. X-ray diffraction, wettability tests and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the modified starch nanocrystals. It was found that the crosslinked starch nanocrystals displayed a higher affinity for low polar solvents such as dichloromethane. The surface of starch nanocrystals became more roughness after crosslinking modification with citric acid and the size decreased as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results. XRD analysis showed that the crystalline structure of starch nanocrystals was basically not changed after the crosslinking modification with shorter heating time. The resulting hydrophobic starch nanocrystals are versatile precursors to the development of nanocomposites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of carboxymethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl starch was synthesized by the esterification of starch with monochloroacetic acid in ethanol as a reaction medium. Three samples of carboxymethyl starch having different degrees of substitution were prepared. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of concentrated carboxymethyl starch solutions, as well as the dynamic-mechanical properties of the concentrated solutions were investigated. The activation energy of viscous flow was determined and it was found that it decreased with increasing degree of substitution. The results of the dynamic-mechanical measurements showed that solutions of starch and carboxymethyl starches with higher degrees of substitution behave as gels. Values of the storage modulus in the rubbery plateau were used to calculate the molar masses between two points of physical crosslinking, the density of crosslinking and the distance between two points of crosslinking.

  10. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  11. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Krunic, Susanne Langgaard; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-07-29

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers the potential for rapidly analysing resistant and slowly digested dietary starches.

  12. Development of highly-transparent protein/starch-based bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J; Partal, P; Garcia-Morales, M; Gallegos, C

    2010-03-01

    Striving to achieve cost-competitive biomass-derived materials for the plastics industry, the incorporation of starch (corn and potato) to a base formulation of albumen and glycerol was considered. To study the effects of formulation and processing, albumen/starch-based bioplastics containing 0-30 wt.% starch were prepared by thermo-plastic and thermo-mechanical processing. Transmittance measurements, DSC, DMTA and tensile tests were performed on the resulting bioplastics. Optical and tensile properties were strongly affected by starch concentration. However, DMTA at low deformation proved to be insensitive to starch addition. Thermo-mechanical processing led to transparent albumen/starch materials with values of strength at low deformation comparable to commodity plastics. Consequently, albumen biopolymers may become a biodegradable alternative to oil-derived plastics for manufacturing transparent packaging and other plastic stuffs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Ederson Paulo Xavier; de Oliveira, Jocilane Pereira; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Cota, Junio; Mara Aparecida de Carvalho, Bruna

    2017-11-01

    A bioreactor was built by means of immobilizing alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae by encapsulation, through cryopolymerization of acrylamide monomers for the continuous starch hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis was evaluated regarding pH, the concentration of immobilized amylase on cryogel, the concentration of starch solution and temperature. The maximum value for starch hydrolysis was achieved at pH 5.0, concentration of immobilized enzyme 111.44 mg amylase /gcryogel , concentration of starch solution 45 g/L and temperature of 35°C. The immobilized enzyme showed a conversion ratio ranging from 68.2 to 97.37%, depending on the pH and temperature employed. Thus, our results suggest that the alpha-amylase from A. oryzae immobilized on cryogel monoliths represents a potential process for industrial production of maltose from starch hydrolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Composition and Structure of Starch from Taproots of Contrasting Genotypes of Medicago sativa L. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Jerry J.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Geoffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the composition and branch chain lengths of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) taproot starch during starch utilization and reaccumulation in response to defoliation. Genotypes were propagated vegetatively and well-established plants were sampled at defoliation and at weekly intervals thereafter. Starch granules from root tissues were dispersed in dimethyl sulfoxide and starch components separated using gel permeation chromatography. Root starches also were debranched enzymically, and branch chain lengths were examined. Results indicate that, irrespective of starch concentration, starch from taproots of the high starch genotype was composed of approximately 80% high molecular weight starch with I2-Kl absorbance characteristics similar to amylopectin. The remaining 20% of the starch was low molecular weight with I2-Kl absorbance characteristics similar to amylose. Starches of the low starch genotype contained approximately 85% high molecular weight polysaccharide at high root starch concentrations (>50 grams per kilogram). At low root starch concentrations (<10 grams per kilogram), starch from the low starch genotype had nearly equal proportions of low and high molecular weight polysaccharide. The I2-Kl absorbance properties of the low molecular weight starches from roots of the low starch genotype indicated that some branching may be present. The distribution of chain lengths from amylopectin did not change during starch degradation and reaccumulation for the high starch genotype. In the low starch genotype, the proportion of low molecular weight branches having a degree of polymerization between 1 and 30 was decreased at the very low starch concentrations observed on the 14th day of regrowth. Higher concentrations and/or quantities of starch in roots of the high starch genotype were not associated with greater rate of herbage regrowth, when compared to the low starch genotype. PMID:16666871

  15. Resistant starch: safe intakes and legal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Jay M

    2004-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) can provide added values such as health benefits and fiber content to many processed foods without compromising taste and product quality. RS is defined as the total amount of starch and the products of starch degradation that resists digestion in the small intestine of healthy people, and the class is comprised of many chemically and physically distinct entities. Some forms of RS are present naturally in many foods, and average global consumption is estimated at 3-10 g/day. Among the best-characterized forms of RS are those derived from high-amylose maize (HAM). Animal and human studies confirm the health benefits and safety of HAM-derived RS as a food ingredient. Legally, RS can be sold in most countries if it falls under current food classifications. However, approved fiber measurements vary throughout the world, and different methods are required to measure RS derived from specific sources. A particular RS can only be claimed as fiber on the nutrition label (and as a source for a high-fiber claim) if the method appropriate to that product is approved in the country of interest. Similarly, each individual country's regulations must be consulted prior to developing health or other nutrition label claims, such as calorie content for RS-containing products, as these regulations vary widely around the world.

  16. Root starch in defoliated sugar maples following thrips damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara S. Burns

    1991-01-01

    Sugar maple root starch evaluations were done in 1987 and 1988 as a service to Vermont sugarmakers concerned about tree health. Trees were rated for starch content in late fall, using a visual iodine-staining technique. On the average, trees with heavy pear thrips damage in the spring of 1988 had higher levels of root starch the following fall than trees with light or...

  17. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel; Hebelstrup, Kim; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  18. Resedimented salt deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaczka, A.; Kolasa, K. (Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland))

    1988-08-01

    Carparthian foredeep's Wieliczka salt mine, unique gravity deposits were lately distinguished. They are mainly built of salt particles and blocks with a small admixture of fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks, deposited on precipitated salt. The pattern of sediment distribution is similar to a submarine fan. Gravels are dominant in the upper part and sands in lower levels, creating a series of lobes. Coarse-grained deposits are represented by disorganized, self-supported conglomerates passing into matrix-supported ones, locally with gradation, and pebbly sandstones consisting of salt grains and scattered boulder-size clasts. The latter may show in the upper part of a single bed as indistinct cross-bedding and parallel lamination. These sediments are interpreted as debris-flow and high-density turbidity current deposits. Salt sandstones (saltstones) which build a lower part of the fan often show Bouma sequences and are interpreted as turbidity-current deposits. The fan deposits are covered by a thick series of debrites (olistostromes) which consist of clay matrix with salt grains and boulders. The latter as represented by huge (up to 100,000 m{sup 3}) salt blocks, fragments of Miocene marls and Carpathian rocks. These salt debrites represent slumps and debris-flow deposits. The material for resedimented deposits was derived from the southern part of the salt basin and from the adjacent, advancing Carpathian orogen. The authors believe the distinct coarsening-upward sequence of the series is the result of progressive intensification of tectonic movements with paroxysm during the sedimentation of salt debrites (about 15 Ma).

  19. Effects of citric acid esterification on digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Ji-Qiang; Zhou, Da-Nian; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Xu, Xue-Ming; Chen, Han-Qing

    2015-11-15

    In this study, citric acid was used to react with cassava starch in order to compare the digestibility, structural and physicochemical properties of citrate starch samples. The results indicated that citric acid esterification treatment significantly increased the content of resistant starch (RS) in starch samples. The swelling power and solubility of citrate starch samples were lower than those of native starch. Compared with native starch, a new peak at 1724 cm(-1) was appeared in all citrate starch samples, and crystalline peaks of all starch citrates became much smaller or even disappeared. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the endothermic peak of citrate starches gradually shrank or even disappeared. Moreover, the citrate starch gels exhibited better freeze-thaw stability. These results suggested that citric acid esterification induced structural changes in cassava starch significantly affected its digestibility and it could be a potential method for the preparation of RS with thermal stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A tandem CBM25 domain of α-amylase from Microbacterium aurum as potential tool for targeting proteins to starch granules during starch biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xing Feng; Nazarian, Farhad; Vincken, Jean Paul; Visser, Richard G.F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Starch-binding domains from carbohydrate binding module family 20 have been used as a tool for starch engineering. Previous studies showed that expression of starch binding domain fusion proteins in planta resulted in modified starch granule structures and physicochemical properties.

  1. Application of the Molecular Combing Technique to Starch Granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Dong Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular combing technique was used to dissociate the nanostructural units of starch granules from the starch fragments after a gelatinization process. With the help of atomic force microscopy (AFM, we observed that some nanostructural chains were just flowing out of the granules. It proves that there are substantive nanostructural units in the starch granules, a phenomenon not previously observed, so these nanostructural units were defined as suspected intermediates. Furthermore, we conclude that blocklets of starch granules are formed through twisting or distortion of nanochains.

  2. Crystallinity in starch plastics: consequences for material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, J J; Vliegenthart, J F

    1997-06-01

    The processing of starches with biodegradable additives has made biodegradable plastics suitable for a number of applications. Starch plastics are partially crystalline as a result of residual crystallinity and the recrystallization of amylose and amylopectin. Such crystallinity is a key determinant of the product's properties. This article describes the influence of processing and storage conditions on starch crystallinity and offers possible explanations for the various properties of starch plastics, in particular for the problems associated with ageing, in terms of the different crystalline structures.

  3. Preparation and Evaluation of Alcohol-Alkaline-Treated Rice Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation and Evaluation of Alcohol-Alkaline-Treated Rice Starch as a Tablet Disintegrant. Yanisa Boonwatcharapan, Pathomthat Srisuk, Pasquale Palladino, Saengrawee Sutthiparinyanont, Padungkwan Chitropas ...

  4. Structures, properties, modifications, and uses of oat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    There has been increasing interest to utilise oats and their components to formulate healthy food products. Starch is the major component of oat kernels and may account up to 60% of the dry weight. Starch properties may greatly determine the product quality. As a by-product of oat processing and fractionation, the starch may also be utilised for food and non-food applications. This mini-review updates the recent advances in the isolation, chemical and granular structures, physicochemical properties, chemical and physical modifications, and food and non-food uses of oat starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  6. Granule integrity and starch solubility during slow, extended pasting of maize starch - the second viscosity peak

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nelles, EM

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available ). The amount of carbohydrate in the filtrate was determined by the phe- nol-sulfuric acid method [9]. The starch solution filtrate (200 ?L) was injected into two TosoHaas HPLC columns G5000PWXL and G6000PWXL (TosoHaas, Tokyo, Japan) connected in series... times during the pasting profiles are shown in Fig. 5. Complementary data on carbohydrate solubility after the different pasting times is given in Tab. 1. As would be ex- pected, starch solubility after heating to 65 ?C was low (Tab. 1...

  7. Novel polymer blends with thermoplastic starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata

    A new class of polymers known as "bioplastics" has emerged and is expanding rapidly. This class consists of polymers that are either bio-based or biodegradable, or both. Among these, polysaccharides, namely starch, are of great interest for several reasons. By gelatinizing starch via plasticizers, it can be processed in the same way as thermoplastic polymers with conventional processing equipment. Hence, these bio-based and biodegradable plastics, with their low source and refinery costs, as well as relatively easy processability, have made them ideal candidates for incorporation into various current plastic products. Four different plasticizers have been chosen here for gelatinization of thermoplastic starch (TPS): glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol, with the latter two being used for the first time in such a process. Two methodological categories are used. The first involves a calorimetric method (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) as well as optical microscopy; these are "static" methods where no shear is applied A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The onset and conclusion gelatinization temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol were found to be in the same vicinity, while diglycerol and polyglycerol showed significantly higher transition temperatures. The higher molecular weight and viscosity of polyglycerol allow this transition to occur at an even higher temperature than with diglycerol. This is due to the increase in molecular weight and viscosity of the two new plasticizers, as well as their significant decrease in water solubility. It is demonstrated that the water/plasticizer ratio has a pronounced effect on gelatinization temperatures. When plasticizer content was held constant and water content was increased, it was found that the gelatinization temperature decreased for all the plasticizers. Meanwhile, when the water content was held constant and the

  8. Starch Digestion in Broiler Chickens: A Literature Study and an In vitro Comparison with Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Talibov, Sanan

    2017-01-01

    Starch is a quantitatively important source of energy in poultry diets. Despite high loads of starch in the diet, poultry species can utilize a variety of starch sources very efficiently. Pancreatic α-amylase is the major responsible enzyme for starch digestion in birds and mammals. Considering high starch digestion capacity of broiler chickens, a hypothesis was made that a fixed certain amount of chicken pancreas is more effective at degrading starch than the same amount of pancreas from pig...

  9. Starch characterization in seven raw, boiled and roasted chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.P.; Oliveira, I. de; Silva, M. E.; Guedes, C. M.; Borges, O.; Magalhães, B.; Gonçalves, B.

    2015-01-01

    Changes occurring in seven chestnut (Castanea sativa sp.) cultivars, caused by boiling and roasting, on starch content, cell and starch granules dimension were evaluated, and morphological changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Three clear patterns of variation were detected after processing, namely: i) decrease of starch content with processing; ii) starch increase with the applied treatments; iii) increase of starch with boiling and decrease with roasting. Starch granul...

  10. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y.; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  11. Starch-Branching Enzyme IIa Is Required for Proper Diurnal Cycling of Starch in Leaves of Maize1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandeau-Nelson, Marna D.; Laurens, Lieve; Shi, Zi; Xia, Huan; Smith, Alison M.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Starch-branching enzyme (SBE), a glucosyl transferase, is required for the highly regular pattern of α-1,6 bonds in the amylopectin component of starch. In the absence of SBEIIa, as shown previously in the sbe2a mutant of maize (Zea mays), leaf starch has drastically reduced branching and the leaves exhibit a severe senescence-like phenotype. Detailed characterization of the maize sbe2a mutant revealed that SBEIIa is the primary active branching enzyme in the leaf and that in its absence plant growth is affected. Both seedling and mature sbe2a mutant leaves do not properly degrade starch during the night, resulting in hyperaccumulation. In mature sbe2a leaves, starch hyperaccumulation is greatest in visibly senescing regions but also observed in green tissue and is correlated to a drastic reduction in photosynthesis within the leaf. Starch granules from sbe2a leaves observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses are larger, irregular, and amorphous as compared with the highly regular, discoid starch granules observed in wild-type leaves. This appears to trigger premature senescence, as shown by an increased expression of genes encoding proteins known to be involved in senescence and programmed cell death processes. Together, these results indicate that SBEIIa is required for the proper diurnal cycling of transitory starch within the leaf and suggest that SBEIIa is necessary in producing an amylopectin structure amenable to degradation by starch metabolism enzymes. PMID:21508184

  12. Starch synthase 4 is essential for coordination of starch granule formation with chloroplast division during Arabidopsis leaf expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton-Taylor, Matilda; Pike, Marilyn; Lu, Kuan-Jen; Hylton, Christopher M; Feil, Regina; Eicke, Simona; Lunn, John E; Zeeman, Samuel C; Smith, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the SS4 isoform of starch synthase have strongly reduced numbers of starch granules per chloroplast, suggesting that SS4 is necessary for the normal generation of starch granules. To establish whether it plays a direct role in this process, we investigated the circumstances in which granules are formed in ss4 mutants. Starch granule numbers and distribution and the accumulation of starch synthase substrates and products were investigated during ss4 leaf development, and in ss4 mutants carrying mutations or transgenes that affect starch turnover or chloroplast volume. We found that immature ss4 leaves have no starch granules, but accumulate high concentrations of the starch synthase substrate ADPglucose. Granule numbers are partially restored by elevating the capacity for glucan synthesis (via expression of bacterial glycogen synthase) or by increasing the volumes of individual chloroplasts (via introduction of arc mutations). However, these granules are abnormal in distribution, size and shape. SS4 is an essential component of a mechanism that coordinates granule formation with chloroplast division during leaf expansion and determines the abundance and the flattened, discoid shape of leaf starch granules. PMID:23952675

  13. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  14. Enhancement of photoassimilate utilization by manipulation of starch regulatory enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Thomas W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-05-11

    ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and the plastidial starch phosphorylase1 (Pho1) are two regulatory enzymes whose catalytic activities are essential for starch granule synthesis. Conversion of the pre-starch granule to the mature form is dependent on AGPase, which produces ADPglucose, the substrate used by starch synthases. The catalytic activity of AGPase is controlled by small effector molecules and a prime goal of this project was to decipher the role of the two subunit types that comprise the heterotetrameric enzyme structure. Extensive genetic and biochemical studies showed that catalysis was contributed mainly by the small subunit although the large subunit was required for maximum activity. Both subunits were needed for allosteric regulatory properties. We had also demonstrated that the AGPase catalyzed reaction limits the amount of starch accumulation in developing rice seeds and that carbon flux into rice seed starch can be increased by expression of a cytoplasmic-localized, up-regulated bacterial AGPase enzyme form. Results of subsequent physiological and metabolite studies showed that the AGPase reaction is no longer limiting in the AGPase transgenic rice lines and that one or more downstream processes prevent further increases in starch biosynthesis. Further studies showed that over-production of ADPglucose dramatically alters the gene program during rice seed development. Although the expression of nearly all of the genes are down-regulated, levels of a starch binding domain containing protein (SBDCP) are elevated. This SBDCP was found to bind to and inhibit the catalytic activity of starch synthase III and, thereby preventing maximum starch synthesis from occurring. Surprisingly, repression of SBDCP elevated expression of starch synthase III resulting in increasing rice grain weight. A second phase of this project examined the structure-function of Pho1, the enzyme required during the initial phase of pre-starch granule formation and its

  15. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starchstarch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  16. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  17. New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sparla

    Full Text Available Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1, GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I, LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1, SSI (Starch Synthase I, SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa. Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications.

  18. New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1∶3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

  19. Functional Characterization of Bean Zaragoza Starch (Phaseolus Lunatus L. and Quantification of the Resistant Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad M. Montero-Castillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are a potential source of starch, representing between 30 and 50% of its dry weight, this is an essential energy source for humans. Currently its use is widespread in the food industry as an additive or raw material in food compounds, due to its nutritional, functional properties as a thickening agent and stabilizer of suspensions and dispersions. We evaluated several functional properties of starch variety zaragoza red bean, was obtained initial gelatinization temperature and final (71°C (81°C respectively, the solubility was 8.3% at 90°C, swelling power was 6.6% at 80°C, and water retention capacity was 4.4% at 80°C. The apparent viscosity was evaluated between 20 and 75 °C giving as results viscosities between 1.096 and 0.98 Cp respectively. The results showed that the tested temperatures significantly affect the solubility, swelling power, water holding capacity and viscosity of the starch. The amylose and amylopectin content was 21.1% and 78.19%. Finally, was obtained 9,24% resistant starch and compared with other conventional non starchy sources in order to acquire new knowledge about this material native to the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  20. The characterization of modified starch branching enzymes: toward the control of starch chain-length distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Wu, Alex Chi; Go, Rob Marc; Malouf, Jacob; Turner, Mark S; Malde, Alpeshkumar K; Mark, Alan E; Gilbert, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD) influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa) to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality.

  1. The Characterization of Modified Starch Branching Enzymes: Toward the Control of Starch Chain-Length Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Wu, Alex Chi; Go, Rob Marc; Malouf, Jacob; Turner, Mark S.; Malde, Alpeshkumar K.; Mark, Alan E.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD) influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa) to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality. PMID:25874689

  2. The characterization of modified starch branching enzymes: toward the control of starch chain-length distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    Full Text Available Starch is a complex branched glucose polymer whose branch molecular weight distribution (the chain-length distribution, CLD influences nutritionally important properties such as digestion rate. Chain-stopping in starch biosynthesis is by starch branching enzyme (SBE. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to modify SBEIIa from Zea mays (mSBEIIa to produce mutants, each differing in a single conserved amino-acid residue. Products at different times from in vitro branching were debranched and the time evolution of the CLD measured by size-exclusion chromatography. The results confirm that Tyr352, Glu513, and Ser349 are important for mSBEIIa activity while Arg456 is important for determining the position at which the linear glucan is cut. The mutant mSBEIIa enzymes have different activities and suggest the length of the transferred chain can be varied by mutation. The work shows analysis of the molecular weight distribution can yield information regarding the enzyme branching sites useful for development of plants yielding starch with improved functionality.

  3. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  4. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  5. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of people becoming psychotic (losing touch with reality) and violent. Although it is rare, there have ... in bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations ( ...

  6. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plastic materials remain in the nature for decades. Slow degradation of plastics in the environment caused a public trend to biodegradable polymers. The aim of this research was to produce the microbial biodegradable low density polyethylene with potato starch. Degradation of potato starch based low density polyethylene ...

  7. Alternative utilization of wheat starch, Grafton, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    In 1978, North Dakota State University (NDSU), in cooperation with the Economic Development Administration, completed a study of the feasibility of a vital wheat gluten starch processing plant in North Dakota. The overall objective of this study is to determine the most feasible alternatives for utilizing the by-product starch slurry from a vital wheat gluten processing plant.

  8. Preparation and In vitro Digestibility of Corn Starch Phosphodiester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the process conditions and analyze in vitro digestibility of corn starch phosphodiester prepared by sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). Methods: By using response surface method, the effects of STMP concentration, pH, esterification temperature, and urea addition on digestion resistance of corn starch ...

  9. The kinetics of the acetylation of gelatinised potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.A.; Broekroelofs, G.A.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1995-01-01

    The reaction rates, in the base-catalysed acetylation of gelatinised aqueous starch (4 wt%), by vinylacetate (ViAc), were investigated in a semibatch reactor at temperatures ranging from 20 to 50 degrees C. The desired starch acetylation reaction is accompanied by an undesired parallel

  10. Comparative studies of starch susceptibilities to α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayoade

    of the four starch samples varied; amylose content of starch from maize varieties was higher than those of cassava. Large differences in enzymes ... most appropriate for bio-ethanol production in Nigeria's bio-ethanol programme. The objective of .... efficient in inhibiting enzyme action. This might as well be another reason ...

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of starches of two quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate physico-chemical and functional properties of starches from two novel (white and yellow QPM) varieties of maize cultivated in Côte d'Ivoire in order to explore their potential use in food and non food industries. Methodology and results: Starches from four varieties of maize, ...

  12. Immobilization of starch phosphorylase from seeds of Indian millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-03

    Dec 3, 2007 ... of starch phosphorylase from starch based industrial waste water. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 21: 77-85. Weinhausel A, Nidetzky B, Rohrbach M, Blauensteiner B, Kulbe KD. (1994). A new maltodextrin phosphorylase from Corynebacterium callunae for the production of glucose-1-phosphate. Appl. Microbiol ...

  13. CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF HYDROXYPROPYL STARCH IN A STATIC MIXER REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LAMMERS, G; STAMHUIS, EJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    A novel type of reactor for the chemical derivatization of starch pastes is presented. The design is based on the application of static mixers. The reactor shows excellent plug flow behaviour with a Peclet number of about 100. The viscosity behaviour of concentrated starch pastes in the static mixer

  14. Tacca Starch: A Review of its production, Physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investment in Tacca plantation and its industrial starch production can complement the cassava initiative revolution that is presently going on in Africa as a sustainable strategy to alleviate hunger and improve the economic growth of the continent. If the industrial potentials of Tacca plant are fully exploited for its starch ...

  15. Kinetics of the gas-solid hydroxyethylation of potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J M; Beenackers, A.A C M

    The kinetics of the reaction between gaseous ethylene oxide and semidry granular potato starch was studied in a pressure-controlled semibatch reactor with and without impregnation of the starch with the catalyst sodium hydroxide. Four parallel reactions are involved: the catalyzed (with reaction

  16. A Comparative Study of the Syneresis of_ Yarn Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syneresis of starch gels evolved on refrigeration at the onset from zero and remained constant hetween 20% to 60% after 8 .... Evolution _of the syncresis of starch gels dpiring re frigcration at 4°C: (:1) D. alata (b) D. ay/enem"z's-roizmdala complex (c)- D. esculerzta and D. ..... Eliasson A. C. and Kim H. R. (1992). Changes in.

  17. Thermal dissolution of maize starches in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starches are not soluble in neutral water at room temperature. However, if they are heated in a closed container beyond the boiling point of water, they eventually dissolve. The dissolution temperature depends on the type of starch. The dissolution process was monitored in real time by measuring ...

  18. Biosysthesis of Corn Starch Palmitate by Lipase Novozym 435

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of starch was carried out to expand the usefulness of starch for a myriad of industrial applications. Lipase B from Candida antarctica, immobilized on macroporous acrylic resin (Novozym 435, was used for starch esterification in two reaction systems: micro-solvent system and solvent-free system. The esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid in the solvent-free system and micro-solvent system gave a degree of substitution (DS of 1.04 and 0.0072 respectively. Esterification of corn starch with palmitic acid was confirmed by UV spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. The results of emulsifying property analysis showed that the starch palmitate with higher DS contributes to the higher emulsifying property (67.6% and emulsion stability (79.6% than the native starch (5.3% and 3.9%. Modified starch obtained by esterification that possesses emulsifying properties and has long chain fatty acids, like palmitic acid, has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications industries.

  19. Properties of Cassava Starch Modified by Amylomaltase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyakul Na Ayudhaya, Pitcha; Pongsawasdi, Piamsook; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun

    2016-06-01

    Amylomaltase (α-1,4-glucanotransferase, AM; EC 2.4.1.25) from Corynebacterium glutamicum expressed in Escherichia coli was used to prepare the enzyme-modified cassava starch for food application. About 5% to 15% (w/v) of cassava starch slurries were incubated with 1, 3, or 5 units of amylomaltase/g starch. Apparent amylose, amylopectin chain length distribution, thermal properties, freeze-thaw stability, thermo-reversibility, and gel strength of the obtained modified starches were measured. The apparent amylose content and retrogradation enthalpy were lower, whereas the retrogradation temperatures, freeze-thaw stability, and thermo-reversibility were higher than those of the native cassava starch. However, when amylomaltase content was increased to 20 units of amylomaltase/g starch and for 24 h, the modified starch showed an improvement in the thermo-reversibility property. When used in panna cotta, the gel strength of the sample using the 20 units/24 h modified cassava starch was similar to that of using gelatin. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Starches from eight Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-04

    Sep 4, 2006 ... Starches from eight Dioscorea alata cultivars grown in Jamaica were isolated and characterized. The starches were found to possess the open hydrated hexagonal crystalline pattern (type-B) with apparent amylose content ranging from 20.117 ± 0.017 gKg-1 for Darknight yam to 23.001 ± 0.058 gKg-1 for.

  1. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  2. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Starch degrading bacteria are most important for industries such as food, fermentation, textile and ... Nowadays amylase from these sources is vastly used in ... Soil receiving the kitchen wastes is one of the rich sources of starch degrading microorganism as it contains mostly starchy substrate. The present ...

  3. Origins of the poor filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Steeneken, P.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of wheat starch components on the filtration characteristics of wheat starch hydrolysates were investigated with a model-based approach. The filtration rate was not affected by the removal of the pentosans or by altering the conformation of the protein. On the other hand, the filtration

  4. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping experiments were used to quantify the packing and cohesive properties of the starches. The volume reduction ability was estimated using the Kawakita equation. Results: The shape factor of the starches provided a proportionality constant between the particle size and surface area. The rank order of the particle ...

  5. Exploring and exploiting starch-modifying amylomaltases from thermophiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaper, T.; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Euverink, G.J.W.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Starch is a staple food present in water-insoluble granules in many economically important crops. It is composed of two glucose polymers: the linear α-1,4-linked amylose and amylopectin with a backbone of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds and α-1,6-linked side chains. To dissolve starch completely in water it

  6. Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in Cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  7. Genotype x enviroment interaction effects on native cassava starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the second most important staple food crop in sub-Saharan Africa, providing upto 285 calories per person per day. Cassava starch is a potentially important industrial material in Malawi. Industries hesitate to use cassava starch because the powder sold by some suppliers has been ...

  8. Superheated starch: A novel approach towards spreadable particle gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    When aqueous potato starch suspensions were heated into the solution state and cooled, spreadable particle gels were obtained with a spherulite morphology and a cream-like texture. This so-called superheated starch (SHS) exhibits more effective gelling properties than maltodextrin, which is

  9. Comparative studies of starch susceptibilities to α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ayoade

    2013-07-17

    Jul 17, 2013 ... alternative fuels considered being friendlier to the environment than fossil fuels. Among these fuels or sources of energy is ethanol, which traditionally is being obtained from starch (Ugarte, 2003). Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined together by glycosidic bonds.

  10. Preparation of resistant sweet potato starch by steam explosion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... steam explosion (SE) technology. Methods: A response surface method was used to investigate the effects of explosion pressure, pressure-holding time and autoclaving time on digestion resistance of sweet potato starch. The resulting resistant sweet potato starch was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ...

  11. Individual mammalian mucosal glucosidase subunits digest various starch structures differently

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch digestion in the human body requires two luminal enzymes,salivary and pancreatic alpha-amylase (AMY), and four small intestinal mucosal enzyme activities related to the maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) complexes. Starch consists of two polysaccharides, amylose (AM) and ...

  12. Milk glucosidase activity enables suckled pup starch digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch requires six enzymes for digestion to free glucose: two amylases (salivary and pancreatic) and four mucosal maltase activities; sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase. All are deficient in suckling rodents. The objective of this study is to test (13)C-starch digestion before weaning by m...

  13. Redox Impact on Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skryhan, Katsiaryna

    Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism are coordina......Summary The thesis provides new insight into the influence of the plant cell redox state on the transient starch metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana with a focus on starch biosynthetic enzymes. Two main hypotheses forms the basis of this thesis: 1) photosynthesis and starch metabolism...... are coordinated by the redox state of the cell via post-translational modification of the starch metabolic enzymes containing redox active cysteine residues and these cysteine residues became cross-linked upon oxidation providing a conformational change leading to activity loss; 2) cysteine residues...... of chloroplast enzymes can play a role not only in enzyme activity and redox sensitivity but also in protein folding and stability upon oxidation. Several redox sensitive enzymes identified in this study can serve as potential targets to control the carbon flux to and from starch during the day and night...

  14. UTILIZATION OF CORN STARCH AS SUBSTRATE FOR Я

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IITA

    the major reserve carbohydrate in all higher plants. It is produced commercially from the seeds, tubers and roots of plants. The major source of starch is corn, from which it is extracted by a wet milling process. Corn starch can be obtained as a cheap carbon source forming an heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of two ...

  15. Relationship between gas production and starch degradation in feed samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, W.Z.; Gelder, van A.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was completed of the possibilities to estimate starch fermentation in rumen fluid using the gas production technique by incubating the total sample. Gas production from six starchy feed ingredients and eight maize silage samples were recorded and related to starch degradation

  16. Evaluation of Some Starches as Disintegrants in Sodium Salicylate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disintegrant properties of official maize and potato starches and locally produced cassava starch in sodium salicylate tablet formulations were studied. The disintegrants were added intragranularly in each batch. Concentration range of 5 % to 15 % w/w of each disintegrant was used. In vitro dissolution profile, uniformity ...

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Starches from eight Dioscorea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starches from eight Dioscorea alata cultivars grown in Jamaica were isolated and characterized. The starches were found to possess the open hydrated hexagonal crystalline pattern (type-B) with apparent amylose content ranging from 20.117 ± 0.017 gKg-1 for Darknight yam to 23.001 ± 0.058 gKg-1 for Barbados.

  18. Starch modification with microbial alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Leemhuis, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Starch is an agricultural raw material used in many food and industrial products. It is present in granules that vary in shape in the form of amylose and amylopectin. Starch-degrading enzymes are used on a large scale in the production of sweeteners (high fructose corn syrup) and concentrated

  19. Evaluation of binder and disintegrant properties of starch derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to formulate metronidazole tablets using starch from Xanthosoma sagittifolium as binder and disintegrant in metronidazole tablets. Metronidazole tablets were produced by wet granulation method using X. sagittifolium starch as binder at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% w/w, and as disintegrant ...

  20. evaluation of grain nutritional quality and resistant starch content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    EVALUATION OF GRAIN NUTRITIONAL QUALITY AND RESISTANT STARCH. CONTENT IN KENYAN ... study was to evaluate the effect of wheat genotype and selected agro-ecological zones on kernel accumulation of zinc, iron, resistant starch and ...... Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for ...

  1. Biodegradation and moisture uptake modified starch-filled Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium chloride, D-glucose, chloroform and alumina were differently used as modifying agents. The Moisture uptake and biodegradation of each of the composites were investigated. Both of these properties were found to increase with increase in the starch content, with remarkable change observed at 30% starch content.

  2. Understanding the role of plasticisers in spray-dried starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Bilal Khan; Zijlstra, Mark; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were produced by compression moulding of solution spray-dried TPS powder and by direct solution casting. Oxidised potato starch was used as a feedstock for production of plasticised formulations containing glycerol or urea, or their combinations with

  3. Evolution of functional properties of precocious yam starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of transmittance increased during the growth of tuber from 9.96% at 12 weeks to 14.6% at 24 weeks. Past instability is not influenced by the tuber maturity. In general starch harvested at mature state could be used to produce satisfactory starch products. Keywords: Precocious yam, tuber, vegetable cycle, ...

  4. Combination of malted cereals and cassava starch in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative capacity of malted cereals and their optimum conditions of temperature and pH in the hydrolysis of starch were studied. Malted cereals prepared from rice, maize, sorghum and millet were used to degrade cassava starch to produce sugar syrup. Effect of pH and temperature on the level of dextrose equivalent ...

  5. New insights into redox control of starch degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelia, Diana; Trost, Paolo; Sparla, Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Starch is one of the major sinks of fixed carbon in photosynthetic tissues of higher plants. Carbon fixation and the synthesis of primary starch occur during the day in the chloroplast stroma, whereas starch degradation typically occurs during the following night to fuel the whole plant with energy and carbon in the absence of photosynthesis. Redox-based regulatory systems play a central role in the modulation of several chloroplastic pathways. Reversible oxidations of cysteine residues are post-translational modifications that orchestrate the precise functioning of chloroplast pathways together with changes in pH, Mg(2+) and concentrations of metabolic intermediates. Leaf starch metabolism has been intensively studied. The enzymes involved in starch synthesis and degradation have been identified and characterized. However, the redox control of the enzymes responsible for starch degradation at night remains elusive, and their response to redox transitions conflicts with the timing of the physiological events. Most of the enzymes of starch degradation are activated by reducing conditions, characteristic of daytime. Thus, redox control may have only a minor role during starch degradation at night, but could become relevant for daily stomatal opening in guard cells or in the re-allocation of fixed carbon in mesophyll cells in response to stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of high pressure on rheological and thermal properties of quinoa and maize starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-15

    Quinoa starch has small granules with relatively low gelatinization temperatures and amylose content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal technique for food processing. In this study, effects of HHP up to 600MPa on physical properties of quinoa starch were studied and compared with those of a normal maize starch. Both starches gelatinized at 500 and 600MPa. The pressure of 600MPa completely gelatinized quinoa starch as revealed by thermal analysis. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that HHP improved the gel stability of both starches during cooling. HHP had little effects on amylopectin recrystallization and gel textural properties of starch. Overall, quinoa starch was more susceptible to HHP than maize starch. The effects of HHP on some rheological properties such as frequency dependence were different between these two types of starches. The differences could be attributed to the different composition, granular and chemical structures of starch, and the presence of granule remnants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of alpha-amylase and the R1 protein with starch granules precedes the initiation of net starch degradation in turions of Spirodela polyrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Rezarta; Ritte, Gerhard; Steup, Martin; Appenroth, Klaus-J

    2002-01-01

    In turions of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden, net degradation of storage starch is controlled by a special low fluence response of phytochrome requiring illumination for several days. This light effect has been used to study protein-starch interactions that occur prior to and during net degradation of starch. Following various pretreatments on S. polyrhiza turions, native starch granules were isolated and two fractions of starch-related proteins were distinguished: proteins enclosed within the starch particles (starch-internalized proteins) and those attached to the surface (starch-associated proteins). The pattern of starch-associated proteins as resolved by SDS-PAGE was more complex than that of starch-internalized proteins and varied depending upon the pretreatment of the turions. Two starch associated proteins were identified immunochemically as alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) and the R1 protein (Lorberth et al. (1998) Nature Biotechnology 16: 473-477). Dark-pretreatment of non-dormant turions does not induce starch net degradation. Under these conditions, alpha-amylase and R1 were bound to the surface of the starch granules. Continuous illumination with red light induces a rapid degradation of starch. Within the first 24 h of illumination the level of starch-associated alpha-amylase transiently increased and subsequently decreased rapidly. Similarly, the amount of the starch-associated R1 also decreased during illumination. The dissociation of both alpha-amylase and R1 from the starch granules preceded the decrease in starch content. However, binding of the two proteins to starch granules remained unchanged when the turions did not perform net starch degradation (as observed during continuous darkness, orthophosphate deficiency, or dormancy of the turions). Thus, during net starch degradation, so far unidentified changes are postulated to occur at the surface of the starch particles that are relevant for protein binding. This conclusion was supported by in

  8. Iodized Salt Use and Salt Iodine Content among Household Salts from Six Districts of Eastern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, S; Gelal, B; Tamang, M K; Kc, R; Singh, S; Lamsal, M; Baral, N

    2014-01-01

    Universal salt iodization is considered the best strategy for controlling iodine deficiency disorders in Nepal. This study was done to find iodized salt use among Nepalese population and the iodine content of household salts. Six districts (Siraha, Saptari, Jhapa, Udayapur, Ilam and Panchthar) were chosen randomly from 16 districts of eastern Nepal for the study. In each district, three schools (private and government) were chosen randomly for sample collection. A total of 1803 salt samples were collected from schools of those districts. For sample collection a clean air tight plastic pouch was provided to each school child and was asked to bring approximately 15 gm of their kitchen salt. The information about type of salt used; 'two child logo' iodized salt or crystal salt was obtained from each child and salt iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration. At the time of study, 85% (n=1533) of Nepalese households were found to use iodized salt whereas 15% (n=270) used crystal salt. The mean iodine content in iodized and crystal salt was 40.8±12.35 ppm and 18.43±11.49 ppm respectively. There was significant difference between iodized and crystal salts use and salt iodine content of iodized and crystal salt among different districts (p value <0.001 at confidence level of 95%). Of the total samples, only 169 samples (9.4% of samples) have iodine content<15 ppm. Most Nepalese households have access to iodized salt most salt samples have sufficient iodine content.

  9. Not salt taste perception but self-reported salt eating habit predicts actual salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hajeong; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Yong Chul; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.

  10. Dry media blasting with wheat starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    The brand name TECHNOSTRIP covers several types of installations and facilities. These were developed mainly to meet the requirements of customers in the aeronautic field. The range of products includes: complete self-supporting and semi-automated system for aircraft stripping; large-size blasting booth for semi-automatic stripping; manual blasting booth; and sealed and portable manual stripping head. Wheat starch media was developed for particle blasting stripping and is used in TECHNOSTRIP. This paper reviews its origins and use as well as use of automated facilities, reliability, effects on materials, effects on environment, and utilization examples.

  11. Properties of extruded xanthan-starch-clay nanocomposite films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to manufacture the biodegradable nanocomposite films by extrusion from different combinations of cassava starch, xanthan gum and nanoclays (sodium montmorillonite - MMT- Na and to characterize them according to their microstructure, optical, mechanical and barrier properties. Films were manufactured from nine starch/xanthan/nanoclay combinations, containing glycerol as plasticizer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of the starch-xanthan extruded films showed reticulated surface and smooth interior, indicating that the gum was mostly concentrated on the surface of the films, while starch/xanthan/nanoclays films showed a more homogeneous surface, suggesting that the introduction of nanoclays provided a better biopolymeric interaction. In general, nanoclays addition (2.5 - 5.0, w% generated more transparent and resistant films, with lower water vapor permeabilities and lower water sorption capacities and xanthan gum addition improved the elongation ofa starch films.

  12. Inhibition of wheat starch retrogradation by tea derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihua; Sun, Binghua; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin; Tian, Yaoqi

    2015-12-10

    The effect of four industrial tea derivatives (tea polyphenols [TPS], tea water-soluble extracts [TSE], tea polysaccharides [TSS], and green tea powder [GTP]), on the retrogradation of wheat starch was investigated using texture profile analysis (TPA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and the α-amylase-iodine method. The addition of the four tea derivatives resulted in decreased hardness and increased cohesiveness of the starch gel as shown by the TPA test. The DSC data demonstrated an increase in the enthalpy change of starch gelatinization and a decrease in the enthalpy change of starch recrystallite dissociation. The RVA results indicated that the peak viscosity, representing the intermolecular forces of wheat starch, was reduced after addition of TPS, TSE, and TSS, respectively, but was increased by GTP. Furthermore, the half crystallization time in the Avrami equation almost doubled after the separate addition of the tea derivatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  14. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  15. Step-reduced synthesis of starch-silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jung, Jeyoung; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    In the present process, silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a single step by microwave irradiation of a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and deionized water. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for starch-silver nanoparticle synthesis in which silver nanoparticles are synthesized by preparing a starch solution as a reaction medium first. Thus, the additional step associated with the preparation of the starch solution was eliminated. In addition, no additional reducing agent was utilized. The adopted method was facile and straight forward, affording spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter below 10nm that exhibited good antibacterial activity. Further, influence of starch on the size of the silver nanoparticles was noticed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Octenylsuccinate starch spherulites as a stabilizer for Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chan; Fu, Xiong; Tang, Chuan-He; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-15

    This study investigated structure and morphology of starch spherulites prepared from debranched waxy maize and waxy potato starches. Debranched waxy potato starch favored the formation of B-type crystals with longer branch chains (average chain length, 26.14), whereas A-type polymorphic aggregates were generated from debranched waxy maize under same recrystallization condition. Spherulites had smaller particle size distribution (D[3,2], ∼3.7μm), higher dissociation temperature (80-120°C) and crystallinity (80∼90%), compared to native waxy starches. Intact spherulites could be used as an edible particle emulsifier after modifying by octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA). The emulsion produced using 2wt.% of octenylsuccinate (OS) starch spherulites as emulsifier was quite stable over 2months, and its Pickering emulsions displayed protective effect on stability of oil droplets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...... maltooligosaccharides, pure starch samples including a variety of different structures with variations in the amylopectin branching pattern, amylose content and phosphate content, enzymatically modified starches and glycogen were included. Using this technique, different important structures, including amylose content...... and branching degrees could be differentiated in a high throughput fashion. The screening method was validated using transgenic barley grain analysed during development and subjected to germination. Typically, extreme branching or linearity were detected less than normal starch structures. The method offers...

  18. Enzymatic Modification of Corn Starch Influences Human Fecal Fermentation Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Angela; Rose, Devin J; Rosell, Cristina M

    2017-06-14

    Enzymatically modified starches have been widely used in food applications to develop new products, but information regarding digestion and fecal fermentation of these products is sparse. The objective of this study was to determine the fermentation properties of corn starch modified with α-amylase, amyloglucosidase, or cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and the possible role of hydrolysis products. Samples differed in their digestibility and availability to be fermented by the microbiota, resulting in differences in microbial metabolites produced during in vitro fermentation. The presence or absence of hydrolysis products and gelatinization affected starch composition and subsequent metabolite production by the microbiota. Amyloglucosidase-treated starch led to the greatest production of short- and branched-chain fatty acid production by the microbiota. Results from this study could be taken into consideration to confirm the possible nutritional claims and potential health benefits of these starches as raw ingredients for food development.

  19. Effect of Ultrasound on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Majzoobi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of ultrasound process is growing in food industry for different purposes including homogenization, extraction, blanching and removal of microorganisms, etc. On the other hand, starch is a natural polymer which exists in many foods or added into the food as an additive. Therefore, determination of the effects of ultrasound on starch characteristics can be useful in interpretation of the properties of starch-containing products. The main aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical changes of wheat starch treated by ultrasound waves. Therefore, an ultrasound probe device was used which ran at 20 kHz, 100 W and 22°C. Starch suspension in distilled water (30% w/w was prepared and treated with ultrasound for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The results showed that increases in processing duration led to increases in water solubility of starch, water absorption and gel clarity (as determined by spectrophotometry. Starch intrinsic viscosity as measured using an Ostwald U-tube showed lower intrinsic viscosity with increases in ultrasound time. Gel strength of the samples as determined using a texture analyzer was reduced by longer processing time. The scanning electron microscopy revealed that increasing the duration time of the ultrasound treatment could produce some cracks and spots on the surface of the granules. In total, it was concluded that the ultrasound treatment resulted in some changes from the starch granular scale to molecular levels. Some of the starch molecules were degraded upon ultrasound processing. Such changes may be observed for the starch-containing foods treated with ultrasound and they are enhanced with increases in ultrasound time intervals.

  20. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  1. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Bolam, D.N.; Gilbert, H.J.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptice

  3. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  4. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  5. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  6. Effect of molecular weight of starch on the properties of cassava starch microspheres prepared in aqueous two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huiping; Li, Bing-Zheng; Gao, Qunyu

    2017-12-01

    Starch microspheres (SMs) were fabricated in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). A series of starch samples with different molecular weight were prepared by acid hydrolysis, and the effect of molecular weight of starch on the fabrication of SMs were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the morphologies of SMs varied with starch molecular weight, and spherical SMs with sharp contours were obtained while using starch samples with weight-average molecular weight (M¯w)≤1.057×10(5)g/mol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that crystalline structure of SMs were different from that of native cassava starch, and the relative crystallinity of SMs increased with the molecular weight of starch decreasing. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed peak gelatinization temperature (Tp) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) of SMs increased with decreased M¯wof starch. Stability tests indicated that the SMs were stable under acid environment, but not stable under α-amylase hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Mechanism of Starch Over-Accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii High-Starch Mutants Identified by Comparative Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang M. Koo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the mechanism of starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii high-starch mutants. Three C. reinhardtii mutants showing high-starch content were generated using gamma irradiation. When grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions, these mutants had more than twice as much starch than a wild-type control. The mechanism of starch over-accumulation in these mutants was studied with comparative transcriptome analysis. In all mutants, induction of phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1 expression was detected; PGM1 catalyzes the inter-conversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate in both starch biosynthetic and glycolytic pathway. Interestingly, transcript levels of phosphoglucose isomerase 1 (PGI1, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 1 and 2 (FBA1 and FBA2 were down-regulated in all mutants; PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 act on downstream of glucose 6-phosphate conversion in glycolytic pathway. Therefore, down-regulations of PGI1, FBA1, and FBA2 may lead to accumulation of upstream metabolites, notably glucose 6-phosphate, resulting in induction of PGM1 expression through feed-forward regulation and that PGM1 overexpression caused starch over-accumulation in mutants. These results suggest that PGI1, FBA1, FBA2, and PGM1 correlate with each other in terms of coordinated transcriptional regulation and play central roles for starch over-accumulation in C. reinhardtii.

  8. Structural changes of waxy and normal maize starches modified by heat moisture treatment and their relationship with starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongzhi; Yang, Qingyu; Xu, Xiaojuan; Qi, Liang; Dong, Zhihong; Luo, Zhigang; Lu, Xuanxuan; Peng, Xichun

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the variations in structure of waxy and normal maize starches modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) for different treating time (3h and 9h) were investigated. HMT caused the destruction of starch granules. The 1H NMR confirmed that glycosidic bonds were broken during HMT. The 13C NMR result suggested that HMT caused the transformation of starch granules from double and single helical components into amorphous components. Heat-moisture treated starches exhibited higher gelatinization temperature (To, Tp and Tc), narrower gelatinization temperature range (Tc-To) and lower gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH). HMT caused the rearrangement of starch molecules, degeneration of double helices and formation of new single helix. In addition, in vitro digestibility assessment indicated that the contents of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) were improved and resistant starch (RS) was reduced after HMT, which was related to the decrease of single and double helical components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Low Salt Diet on Insulin Resistance in Salt Sensitive versus Salt Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Sun, Bei; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows an increase in insulin resistance on salt restriction. We compared the effect of low salt diet on insulin resistance in salt sensitive versus salt resistant hypertensive subjects. We also evaluated the relationship between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and salt sensitivity of insulin resistance in a multivariate regression model. Studies were conducted after one week of high salt (200 mmol/day Na) and one week of low salt (10 mmol/day Na) diet. Salt sensitivity was defined as the fall in systolic blood pressure >15mmHg on low salt diet. The study includes 389 subjects (44% Females, 16% Blacks, BMI 28.5±4.2 Kg/m2). As expected, blood pressure was lower on low salt (129±16/78±9 mmHg) as compared to high salt diet (145±18/86±10 mmHg). Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and HOMA were higher on low salt diet (95.4±19.4 mg/dl, 10.8±7.3 mIU/L and 2.6±1.9) as compared to high salt diet (90.6±10.8 mg/dl, 9.4±5.8 mIU/L and 2.1±1.4) (p salt sensitive (N=193) versus salt resistant (N=196) subjects on either diet. Increase in HOMA on low salt diet was 0.5±1.4 in salt sensitive and 0.4±1.5 in salt resistant subjects (p=NS). On multivariate regression analysis, change in systolic blood pressure was not associated with change in HOMA after including age, BMI, sex, change in serum and urine aldosterone and cortisol into the model. We conclude that the increase in insulin resistance on low salt diet is not affected by salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:25185125

  10. Effects of CaCO3 treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, rheology and hydrolysis of gelatinized maize starch dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, S; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Escalona-Buendia, H B; Bello-Perez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2016-09-15

    Using calcium salts instead of lime allows for an ecological nixtamalization of maize grains, where the negative contamination impact of the traditional lime nixtamalization is reduced. This work assessed the effects of calcium carbonate (0.0-2.0%w/w CaCO3) on the morphology, crystallinity, rheology and hydrolysis of gelatinized maize starch dispersions (GMSD). Microscopy analysis showed that CaCO3 changed the morphology of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and decreased the degree of syneresis. Analysis of particle size distribution showed a slight shift to smaller sizes as the CaCO3 was increased. Also, X-ray patterns indicated that crystallinity achieved a minimum value at CaCO3 concentration in the range of 1%w/w. GMSD with higher CaCO3 concentrations exhibited higher thixotropy area and complex viscoelastic behavior that was frequency dependent. A possible mechanism involved in the starch chain modification by CaCO3 is that starch may act as a weak acid ion exchanger capable of exchanging alcoholic group protons for cations (Ca(+2)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of drought stress on the development of endosperm starch granules and the composition and physicochemical properties of starches from soft and hard wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xurun; Li, Bo; Wang, Leilei; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Wenjun; Gu, Yunjie; Wang, Zhong; Xiong, Fei

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) observe the effects of drought stress (DS) on the structural development of endosperm starch granules; (2) investigate the effects of DS on composition and physicochemical properties of starches; and (3) compare the different responses to DS between soft and hard wheat. DS resulted in large A-type starch granules at 12 d after anthesis (DAA) and a high percentage of B-type starch granules at 18 DAA in endosperm cells of the two wheat cultivars. DS decreased the 1000-grain weight, total starch and amylose contents, and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio of both starches. DS also decreased the percentage of B-type starch granules in NM13 and increased the number of hollows on the surface of A-type starch granules in XM33. DS further increased the swelling power and affected pasting properties of both starches. DS also significantly enhanced the hydrolysis degrees of starches by pancreatic α-amylase, Aspergillus niger amyloglucosidase, and HCl in NM13. DS altered the contents of rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches in native, gelatinised, and retrograded starches. Overall, DS can affect the development of endosperm starch granules and the physicochemical properties of starches, thus affecting the qualities of the final wheat products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Efficient hydrolysis of raw starch and ethanol fermentation: a novel raw starch-digesting glucoamylase fromPenicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang-Sheng; Yan, Yu-Si; Feng, Jia-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Starch is a very abundant and renewable carbohydrate and is an important feedstock for industrial applications. The conventional starch liquefaction and saccharification processes are energy-intensive, complicated, and not environmentally friendly. Raw starch-digesting glucoamylases are capable of directly hydrolyzing raw starch to glucose at low temperatures, which significantly simplifies processing and reduces the cost of producing starch-based products. A novel raw starch-digesting glucoamylase PoGA15A with high enzymatic activity was purified from Penicillium oxalicum GXU20 and biochemically characterized. The PoGA15A enzyme had a molecular weight of 75.4 kDa, and was most active at pH 4.5 and 65 °C. The enzyme showed remarkably broad pH stability (pH 2.0-10.5) and substrate specificity, and was able to degrade various types of raw starches at 40 °C. Its adsorption ability for different raw starches was consistent with its degrading capacities for the corresponding substrate. The cDNA encoding the enzyme was cloned and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris . The recombinant enzyme could quickly and efficiently hydrolyze different concentrations of raw corn and cassava flours (50, 100, and 150 g/L) with the addition of α-amylase at 40 °C. Furthermore, when used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of 150 g/L raw flours to ethanol with the addition of α-amylase, the ethanol yield reached 61.0 g/L with a high fermentation efficiency of 95.1 % after 48 h when raw corn flour was used as the substrate. An ethanol yield of 57.0 g/L and 93.5 % of fermentation efficiency were achieved with raw cassava flour after 36 h. In addition, the starch-binding domain deletion analysis revealed that SBD plays a very important role in raw starch hydrolysis by the enzyme PoGA15A. A novel raw starch-digesting glucoamylase from P. oxalicum , with high enzymatic activity, was biochemically, molecularly, and genetically identified. Its efficient

  13. Prebiotic properties of potato starch dextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barczyńska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the prebiotic properties of starch dextrins, that is, resistant dextrins obtained from potato starch in the process of simultaneous thermolysis and chemical modification, which were selected based on previous research. Both prepared dextrins met the definition criterion of dietary fiber and also the basic prebiotic criterion – they were not degraded by the digestive enzymes of the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The growth of probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, as well as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium strains isolated from feces of healthy people, showed that both studied dextrins were utilized as a source of assimilable carbon and energy by the strains. Furthermore, better growth (higher numbers of cells counts of probiotic bacteria than those of fecal isolates indicated that the studied resistant dextrins showed a selective effect. Both dextrins might be considered as substances with prebiotic properties due to their chemical and physical properties and selectivity towards the studied probiotic bacterial strains.

  14. Mango starch degradation. II. The binding of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase to the starch granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Koike, Claudia; Louro, Ricardo Pereira; Purgatto, Eduardo; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2008-08-27

    During mango ripening, soluble sugars that account for mango sweetening are accumulated through carbon supplied by both photosynthesis and starch degradation. The cultivar Keitt has a characteristic dependence on sugar accumulation during starch degradation, which takes place during ripening, only a few days after detachment from the tree. Most knowledge about starch degradation is based on seeds and leaves currently used as models. However, information about the mango fruit is scarce. This work presents the evaluation of alpha- and beta-amylases in the starch granule surface during fruit development and ripening. Extractable proteins were assayed for amylase activity and detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and correlated to gene expression. The results suggest that both amylases are involved in starch degradation during mango ripening, probably under the dependence of another signal triggered by the detachment from the mother-plant.

  15. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  16. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  17. A mechanistic model of small intestinal starch digestion and glucose uptake in the cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Crompton, L.A.; Bannink, A.; Hanigan, M.D.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (up to 50%) to total-tract starch digestion on energy-dense, starch-rich diets demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion be identified. A mechanistic model of the small intestine was described and evaluated with regard to

  18. Studies on alkali-modified cassava starch - changes of structural and enzyme (. alpha. -amylase) susceptibility properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, K.C.M. (Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India). Fermentation Section)

    1992-04-01

    Properties of cassava starch could be modified by subjecting to alkali treatment under controlled experimental conditions. Modified starch samples showed lower amylose content and higher alkali number. Compared to untreated starch samples, alkali modified starches had higher {alpha}-amylase (Bacillus sp.) susceptibility. The properties could be advantageously made use of for preparing maltodextrins having DE 20-23. (orig.).

  19. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Abstract. Starch accumulates in plants as granules in chloroplasts of source organs such as leaves (transitory starch) or in amyloplasts of sink organs such as seeds, tubers and roots (storage starch). Starch is composed of two types of glucose polymers: the essen- tially linear polymer amylose and highly ...

  20. Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional rate of degradation (kd) of starch in the rumen and its relation to in vivo rumen and total digestibility. ... Estimates of kd for starch was obtained on 19 starch sources originating from barley, wheat, oat, maize and peas and treated in different ways both chemically and physically. The starch sources were fed in mixed ...

  1. Slowly digestible starch diets alter proximal glucosidase activity and glucose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrase-isomaltase (Si) and maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) are mucosal glucosidases required for digestion of starch to glucose. Ablation of maltase-Mgam reduces in vivo starch digestion. We tested whether slowly digestible starch diets induce changes in glucosidase activities. Rice starch was encaps...

  2. In planta modification of potato starch granule biogenesis by different granule-bound fusion proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazarian, F.

    2007-01-01

    Starch is composed of amylose and amylopectin and it is deposited in amyloplasts/choloroplasts as semi-crystalline granules. Many biosynthetic enzymes are involved in starch degradation and biosynthesis. Some microbial starch degrading enzymes have a Starch Binding Domain (SBD) which has affinity

  3. Genetic Engineering of Cereal Grains with Starch Consisting of More Than 99% Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous textbooks tell us that plant starches are a mix of two starch types: amylopectin and amylose. We recently succeeded in engineering a cereal crop – a barley line – producing grain starch consisting of more than 99% amylose1. This amylose-only starch contains a high residual fraction...... wheat and corn...

  4. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic

  5. Digestion site of starch from cereals and legumes in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2009-01-01

    that investigated effects of various processing techniques on digestion kinetics. Data originated from four experiments with cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum, and fed rations composed of the respective starch source and grass-clover silage balanced with soy bean meal and a mineral premix...... true ruminal digestibility in rations with low starch intake due to a relatively higher contribution of microbial starch to total duodenal starch flow compared to rumen escape feed starch. The small intestinal and total tract digestibility of legume starch was lower compared with starch from cereals...

  6. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  7. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  8. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis.

  9. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  10. Modification of Cilembu sweet potato starch with ethanoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudatussa'adah, A.; Rahmawati, Y.; Sudewi

    2016-04-01

    Cilembu sweet potato harvest was abundant, its use was still limited. Starch was required by various industries. Starch is generally beige, and requires a long time for the drying process. The purpose of this research was to produce a modified starch with ethanoic acid. The method used in this study was the experimental method. The results showed acid modified starch yield was 18%, with the color characteristics of L*: 96.38 ± 0.82; a*: -0.70±0.02 b*: 2.70±0.03 C: 2.79±0.02. Native starch yield was 16%, with the color characteristics of L*: 93.55 ± 0.91; a*: -0.86±0.06 b*: 2.93±0.04 C: 3.05±0.03. The conclusion of this study was modified starch of Cilembu sweet potato using ethanoic acid have higher yield and more white bright than native starch.

  11. Bacterial contamination of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Omoloso, A D; Amoa, B; Warner, J M

    2007-12-01

    Sago starch is an important food in lowland Papua New Guinea. Extraction of the starch from the palm and storage were performed by way of traditional methods that have been used for thousands of years. Currently, very little is known about the microbiology of sago starch. Sago samples were collected from areas of high starch utilization and analyzed for the presence of bacterial pathogens and indicator organisms. Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection, and pH and water activity on arrival at the laboratory. Sago starch was found to harbor high levels of fecal contamination, as well as various food pathogens including Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. Clostridium perfringens was only present infrequently in samples and in very low numbers, while Listeria monocytogenes was not isolated from sago starch. The presence of high levels of fecal contamination in sago starch is of particular concern, and may contribute to diarrheal disease in rural Papua New Guinea.

  12. Ovary starch reserves and pistil development in avocado (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, M Librada; Hormaza, J Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2010-12-01

    In avocado, only a very small fraction of the flowers are able to set fruit. Previous work in other woody perennial plant species has shown the importance of carbohydrates accumulated in the flower in the reproductive process. Thus, in order to explore the implications of the nutritive status of the flower in the reproductive process in avocado, the starch content in the pistil has been examined in individual pollinated and non-pollinated flowers at anthesis and during the days following anthesis. Starch content in different pistilar tissues in each flower was quantified with the help of an image analysis system attached to a microscope. Flowers at anthesis were rich in highly compartmentalized starch. Although no external morphological differences could be observed among flowers, the starch content varied widely at flower opening. Starch content in the ovary is largely independent of flower size because these differences were not correlated with ovary size. Differences in the progress of starch accumulation within the ovule integuments between pollinated and non-pollinated flowers occurred concomitantly with the triggering of the progamic phase. The results suggest that starch reserves in the ovary could play a significant role in the reproductive process in avocado. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  13. Starch nanocrystals based hydrogel: Construction, characterizations and transdermal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrudeen, Haja Bava; Sudarvizhi, C; Reddy, B S R

    2016-11-01

    Bio-based nanocomposites were prepared using starch nanocrystals obtained by acid hydrolysis of native starches using different acid sources. In recent times, focuses on starch nanocrystals (SNCs) have been increasing in number of research works dedicated to the development of bio-nanocomposites by blending with different biopolymeric matrices. The work mainly deals with the preparation of starch nanocrystals using different native starches by acid hydrolysis using hydrochloric acid and trifluroacetic acid. The as-prepared starch nanocrystals are having high crystallinity and more platelet morphologies, and used as a drug carrying filler material in the hydrogel formulations with the care of different polymer matrices. The condensed work also concentrates on the dispersion of antiviral drug in the hydrogels, which are applied onto biocompatible bio-membrane to be formulating a complete transdermal patch. The acid hydrolysed starch nanocrystals were thoroughly characterized using TEM, SEM, particle size analysis and zeta potential. Their thermal stability and the crystalline properties were also characterized using TG-DSC and XRD respectively. The physiochemical interaction and compatibility between the drug and the SNCs filler in the polymeric hydrogels were evaluated using FT-IR analysis. The formulated hydrogels were subjected to evaluation of in vitro permeation studies using Franz diffusion studies. The in vitro study was indicated substantial guarantee for the fabrication of drug dispersed in polymeric hydrogels using SNCs as filler matrices for a successful transdermal drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pstarch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi Sharlina, M S; Yaacob, W A; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Fazry, Shazrul; Lim, Seng Joe; Abdullah, Sapina; Noordin, Akram; Kumaran, Malina

    2017-04-01

    Starch from Dioscorea pyrifolia tubers was characterized for its proximate composition, physicochemical properties and toxicity. This starch contains 44.47±1.86% amylose, 4.84±0.29% moisture, 0.88±0.21% ash, 1.34±0.11% proteins and 92.73±0.48% carbohydrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a type-C starch with a relative crystallinity of 23.31±2.41%. The starch granules are polyhedral, with a diameter of 2.8 to 5.6μm and average size of 3.93±1.47μm. Initial, peak and finishing gelatinization temperatures for the starch were 71.51±0.07, 75.05±0.15, and 78.25±0.18°C, respectively; the gelatinization enthalpy was 3.86±0.02J/g, and the peak height index was 1.09±0.05. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a weight loss of 85.81±0.52% and a decomposition temperature of 320.16±0.35°C, which indicated that there was good thermal stability of the starch. Fish embryo toxicity (FET) showed that the starch was not toxic and that it was suitable for food and non-food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical nature of algal (chlorella) starch and its estimation in whole cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, P.M.; Pirt, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of the starch content of chlorella cells was based on the sonication of whole cells in 2M NaOH followed by heating to solubilize the starch. The starch content of the solution was estimated by measurement of the glucose equivalents formed by acid hydrolysis. The starch content of the neutral solution was estimated by measuring light absorbance of its blue complex with iodine. The chlorella starch was purified from cells which had been disrupted in a French press, and the starch was solubilized by boiling with water. The starch was deproteinized, desalted and finally precipitated with ethanol before drying. This purification procedure avoided alkali extraction which degrades the starch. Beta-amylase digestion of the purified starch was found to convert 67% of it to maltose. The purified starch gave a bright blue complex with iodine with peak absorbance at 590 nm.

  18. Freeze-thaw stability of rice starch modified by Improved Extrusion Cooking Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiangping; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Fang; Fang, Chong; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Shunjing

    2016-10-20

    This study aimed to explore freeze-thaw (FT) stability of rice starch modified by Improved Extrusion Cooking Technology (IECT). FT stability of IECT-modified rice starch was investigated and compared with native one. Syneresis and SEM analysis showed that IECT-modified rice starch had better FT stability than native starch. Furthermore, IECT-modified rice starch had less significant changes in the rheological parameters during the FT cycles than the native starch. XRD and iodine binding analysis demonstrated that IECT treatment inhibited the association of rice starch, especially amylose retrogradation. Additionally, the peak at around 20° was detected in XRD patterns of IECT-modified rice starch, which confirmed the formation of amylose-lipid complex during the IECT treatment. These results suggested that the IECT treatment could improve FT stability of rice starch, which was ascribed to inhibition of starch retrogradation by IECT. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas releases from salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  20. Chloride Activated Halophilic α-Amylase from Marinobacter sp. EMB8: Production Optimization and Nanoimmobilization for Efficient Starch Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles have been perceived as potential source of novel enzymes in recent years. The interest emanates from their ability to catalyze efficiently under high salt and organic solvents. Present work encompasses production optimization and nanoimmobilization of an α-amylase from moderately halophilic Marinobacter sp. EMB8. Media ingredients and culture conditions were optimized by “one-at-a-time approach.” Starch was found to be the best carbon source at 5% (w/v concentration. Glucose acted as catabolic repressor for amylase production. Salt proved critical for amylase production and maximum production was attained at 5% (w/v NaCl. Optimization of various culture parameters resulted in 48.0 IU/mL amylase production, a 12-fold increase over that of unoptimized condition (4.0 IU/mL. α-Amylase was immobilized on 3-aminopropyl functionalized silica nanoparticles using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Optimization of various parameters resulted in 96% immobilization efficiency. Starch hydrolyzing efficiency of immobilized enzyme was comparatively better. Immobilized α-amylase retained 75% of its activity after 5th cycle of repeated use.

  1. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  2. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant thermostable glucoamylase from a halophilic isolate, Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 and its application in raw starch hydrolysis for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Ying; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A halophilic bacterium Halolactibacillus sp. SK71 producing extracellular glucoamylase was isolated from saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Enzyme production was strongly influenced by the salinity of growth medium with maximum in the presence of 5% NaCl. The glucoamylase was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 78.5 kDa. It showed broad substrate specificity and raw starch hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of hydrolysis products from soluble starch by thin-layer chromatography revealed that glucose was the sole end-product, indicating the enzyme was a true glucoamylase. Optimal enzyme activity was found to be at 70°C, pH 8.0, and 7.5% NaCl. In addition, it was highly active and stable over broad ranges of temperature (0-100°C), pH (7.0-12.0), and NaCl concentration (0-20%), showing excellent thermostable, alkali stable, and halotolerant properties. Furthermore, it displayed high stability in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents. The purified glucoamylase was applied for raw corn starch hydrolysis and subsequent bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield in terms of grams of ethanol produced per gram of sugar consumed was 0.365 g/g, with 71.6% of theoretical yield from raw corn starch. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using enzymes from halophiles for further application in bioenergy production. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Halophilic starch degrading bacteria isolated from Sambhar Lake, India, as potential anode catalyst in microbial fuel cell: A promising process for saline water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ankisha; Arora, Shivam; Gupta, Sandeep; Chhabra, Meenu

    2018-02-10

    In this study, Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) capable of treating saline starch water was developed. Sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 500 mM to 3000 mM were tested at the anode. Nitrate was used as an electron acceptor at the biocathode. The halophilic bacteria were isolated from Sambhar Lake, India. Results indicated successful removal of starch (1.83 kg/m 3 -d) and nitrate (0.13 kg/m 3 -d NO 3 - -N) with concomitant power output of 207.05 mW/m 2 at 1000 mM NaCl concentration. An increase in power density from 71.06 mW/m 2 to 207.05 mW/m 2 (2.92 folds) was observed when NaCl concentration was increased from 500 mM to 1000 mM. A decline in power density was observed when the salt concentrations >1000 mM were used. Concentration of 3000 mM supported power output as well as the highest starch degradation (3.2 kg/m 3 -d) and amylase activity of 2.26 IU/ml. The halophilic exoelectrogens were isolated and identified. The present study demonstrates the utility of MFC for degrading starch in saline water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  5. Oxygen sparging of residue salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Griego, W.J.; Owens, S.D.; Thorn, C.W.; Vigil, R.A.

    1993-03-01

    Oxygen sparge is a process for treating salt residues at Los Alamos National Laboratory by sparging oxygen through molten salts. Oxygen reacts with the plutonium trichloride in these salts to form plutonium dioxide. There is further reaction of the plutonium dioxide with plutonium metal and the molten salt to form plutonium oxychloride. Both of the oxide plutonium species are insoluble in the salt and collect atthe bottom of the crucible. This results in a decrease of a factor of 2--3 in the amount of salt that must be treated, and the amount of waste generated by aqueous treatment methods.

  6. Is hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: It is heavily debated whether or not treatment with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 contributes to the development of acute kidney failure in patients with severe sepsis. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Muller and colleagues report no association between initial resuscitation...... with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and renal impairment in a cohort of septic patients. Can we then consider hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 a safe intervention? The answer is no - observational data should be interpreted with caution and should mainly be used to identify risks, while safety must be assessed...

  7. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  8. Morphometric analysis of polygonal cracking patterns in desiccated starch slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Yuri; Magome, Jun; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the geometry of two-dimensional polygonal cracking that forms on the air-exposed surface of dried starch slurries. Two different kinds of starches, made from potato and corn, exhibited distinguished crack evolution, and there were contrasting effects of slurry thickness on the probability distribution of the polygonal cell area. The experimental findings are believed to result from the difference in the shape and size of starch grains, which strongly influence the capillary transport of water and tensile stress field that drives the polygonal cracking.

  9. Gravimetric enrichment of high lipid and starch accumulating microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Morteza; Abbasabadi, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Hosseini, Maryam; Sheikhbaglou, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This study presents gravimetric enrichment of mixed culture to screen starch and lipid producing species separately in a sequencing batch reactor. In the enriched starch-producing mixed culture photobioreactor, the starch content at the end of steady state batch became 3.42 times the beginning of depletion. Whereas in the enriched lipid-producing photobioreactor, the lipid content at the end of steady state batch became 3 times the beginning of famine phase. The obtained results revealed that the gravimetric enrichment is a suitable screening method for specific production of storage compounds in none-sterile large-scaled condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Starch synthesis and carbon partitioning in developing endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emes, M J; Bowsher, C G; Hedley, C; Burrell, M M; Scrase-Field, E S F; Tetlow, I J

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of starch is the major determinant of yield in cereal grains. In this short review, attention is focused on the synthesis of the soluble substrate for starch synthesis, ADPglucose (ADPG). Consideration is given to the pathway of ADPG production, its subcellular compartmentation, and the role of metabolite transporters in mediating its delivery to the site of starch synthesis. As ADPG is an activated sugar, the dependence of its production on respiration, changes which occur during development, and the constraints which ATP production may place on carbon partitioning into different end-products are discussed.

  11. THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STARCH FROM SAGO BARUK PITH (Arenga microcarpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Irma Momuat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sago Baruk (Arenga microcarpha is one of endemic crop type of Archipelago of Sangihe Talaud, North Sulawesi and potential as source bioactivities including antioxidant. The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of starch sago baruk which was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate. The sago trunks pith was sequentially extracted with water and filtrate at room temparature for 1 hour. After that, starch of sago baruk were analyzed for their chemical composition (moisture, fat, protein, ash crude fiber and charbohydrate and total phenolic and tannin condensed content. Antioxidant activity of each sago flour were evaluated in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity. After that, the starch was characterized by IR spectroscopic technique. The sequential extraction result indicated percentage yield of starch I and starch II were 41.39% and 38.21%. The chemical characteristics of starch I revealed that percentage protein, ash, crude fibre and fat were below 1% than starch II especially protein and fiber crude. The starch I had highest total phenolic and tannin condensed content than starch II and starch K. The starch I also showed the highest free radical scavenging activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical than starch II and starch K. The result also showed that starch I has strongest total antioxidant capacity than starch II and starch K at all concentration level. Antioxidant activity of three starch increased with the increase in concentration of the samples. The three starch showed of hidroxy (OH, carbonyl (C=O, ether (C-O and aliphatic group (C-C. It is concluded that starch sago baruk especially the starch I are very rich in antioxidant substituens.

  12. Production of amylopectin and high-amylose starch in separate potato genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Per

    2004-01-01

    Starch is one of the most important processed products from agriculture. Two main outlets can be identified; starch is either enzymatically processed for the production of sweeteners and as raw material for fermentation or channelled to various applications as dry starch. Native or chemically modified starches are utilized in food as well as non-food applications, where the specific physicochemical properties are main determinants for their respective use. Starch consists of two different mol...

  13. The effect of vacuum frying on starch gelatinization and its in vitro digestibility in starch-gluten matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo, Ingrid; Parada, Javier; Leiva, Angel; Bouchon, Pedro

    2016-04-15

    Starch digestibility in a food matrix depends on processing conditions that may affect its physical state and microstructure. Starch gelatinization is one critical change that takes place during frying which could be affected during low-pressure processing. This study assessed the effect of vacuum frying on starch gelatinization and its in vitro digestibility. Laminated dough was made of a reconstituted blend of wheat starch (88% d.b.) and gluten (12% d.b.). Samples were fried under vacuum (6.5 kPa, Twater-boiling-point=38°C) or atmospheric conditions up to bubble-end point, maintaining a thermal driving force of 70°C (Toil-Twater-boiling-point=70°C). Vacuum fried samples showed less starch gelatinization (28%), less rapidly available glucose (27%), and more unavailable glucose (70%) than their atmospheric counterparts (which presented 99% starch gelatinization, 40% rapidly available glucose, and 46% unavailable glucose), and the values were close to those of raw dough. These results show how vacuum processing may be used to control the degree of starch gelatinization and related digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Starch Flocculation by the Sweet Potato Sour Liquid Is Mediated by the Adhesion of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we focused on the mechanism underlying starch flocculation by the sweet potato sour liquid. The traditional microbial techniques and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that Lactobacillus was dominant flocculating microorganism in sour liquid. In total, 86 bacteria, 20 yeasts, and 10 molds were isolated from the sour liquid and only eight Lactobacillus species exhibited flocculating activity. Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 strain with a high flocculating activity was isolated and identified, and the mechanism of starch flocculation was examined. L. paracasei subsp. paracasei L1 cells formed chain-like structures on starch granules. Consequently, these cells connected the starch granules to one another, leading to formation of large flocs. The results of various treatments of L1 cells indicated that bacterial surface proteins play a role in flocculation and L1 cells adhered to the surface of starch granules via specific surface proteins. These surface starch-binding proteins were extracted using the guanidine hydrochloride method; 10 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: three of these proteins were glycolytic enzymes; two were identified as the translation elongation factor Tu; one was a cell wall hydrolase; one was a surface antigen; one was lyzozyme M1; one was a glycoside hydrolase; and one was an uncharacterized proteins. This study will paves the way for future industrial application of the L1 isolate in starch processing and food manufacturing.

  15. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  16. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

  17. Analytical evaluation of current starch methods used in the international sugar industry: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha; Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-08-01

    Several analytical starch methods exist in the international sugar industry to mitigate starch-related processing challenges and assess the quality of traded end-products. These methods use iodometric chemistry, mostly potato starch standards, and utilize similar solubilization strategies, but had not been comprehensively compared. In this study, industrial starch methods were compared to the USDA Starch Research method using simulated raw sugars. Type of starch standard, solubilization approach, iodometric reagents, and wavelength detection affected total starch determination in simulated raw sugars. Simulated sugars containing potato starch were more accurately detected by the industrial methods, whereas those containing corn starch, a better model for sugarcane starch, were only accurately measured by the USDA Starch Research method. Use of a potato starch standard curve over-estimated starch concentrations. Among the variables studied, starch standard, solubilization approach, and wavelength detection affected the sensitivity, accuracy/precision, and limited the detection/quantification of the current industry starch methods the most. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized...

  19. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  20. A new generation starch product as excipient in pharmaceutical tablets .3. Parameters affecting controlled drug release from tablets based on high surface area retrograded pregelatinized potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeWierik, GHP; Eissens, AC; ArendsScholte, AW; Bolhuis, GK

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the general applicability of a new pregelatinized starch product in directly compressible controlled-release matrix systems. It was prepared by enzymatic degradation of potato starch followed by precipitation (retrogradation), filtration and washing with ethanol. The advantages

  1. Digestion and Interaction of Starches with α-Amylases: I. Mutational analysis of Carbohydrate Binding Sites in barley. II. In Vitro Starch Digestion of Legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Munch

    2006-01-01

    Starch is the primary energy storage of higher plants and an import nutrient for mammals, fungi and bacteria. The mobilization of starch is thus essential in both the germination of the barley grain and in human digestion of foods. α-Amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase, EC. 3.2.1.1) catalyzes...... in morphology between high amylose starch granules and normal starch granules. Legumes (beans, peas, and lentils) are characterised by low blood glucose raising potential, which is proportional to the in vitro starch digestion rates. The high amount of anti-nutritional factors (phytate, proteinaceous inhibitors......, tannins, and lectins) in legumes has been associated with the slow starch digestion. However, it is still debated in literature to which extent the legume starch digestibility is affected by anti-nutritional factors. The in vitro starch digestion (hydrolytic index, HI) of pea (Pisum sativum) and mixtures...

  2. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch; Preparacao e caracterizacao de materiais termoplasticos preparados a partir de amido de arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S., E-mail: barbarapont@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  3. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... and can be used by individuals to replace salt in their diet. There are no known undesirable effects in healthy ...

  4. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  5. A Comparative Study of the Characteristics of Cross-Linked, Oxidized and Dual-Modified Rice Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Feng-Xiang Yu; Gao-Qiang Liu; Hua-Xi Xiao; Qin-Lu Lin

    2012-01-01

    Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (0.3%, w/w, on a dry starch basis) and oxidized with sodium hypochlorite (2.5% w/w), respectively. Two dual-modified rice starch samples (oxidized cross-linked rice starch and cross-linked oxidized rice starch) were obtained by the oxidation of cross-linked rice starch and the cross-linking of oxidized rice starch at the same level of reagents. The physicochemical properties of native rice starch, cross-linked rice starch and oxidized rice sta...

  6. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Culinary Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Muske, Galen; Baxter, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Extremophiles are exceptional microorganisms that live on this planet in extraordinarily harsh environments. One such extremophiles are Halophiles, salt-loving microorganisms that can survive in extreme salinity levels, and have been found to survive inside salt crystals. We were curious is about the potential diversity of halophiles surviving in salts harvested from around the world. For this experiment various culinary salts were suspended in a 23 % NaCL growth media broth and allowed to gr...

  8. Occurrence of an Affinity Site apart from the Active Site on the Raw-Starch-Digesting but Non-Raw-Starch-Adsorbable Bacillus subtilis 65 α-Amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashida, Shinsaku; Teramoto, Yuji; Inoue, Takehiro; Mitsuiki, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    α-Cyclodextrin specifically inhibited raw starch digestion by Bacillus subtilis 65 α-amylase. The raw starch digestibility and α-cyclodextrin-Sepharose 6B adsorbability of this α-amylase were simultaneously lost when the specific domain corresponding to the affinity site essential for raw starch digestion was deleted by proteolysis. Occurrence of the affinity site on raw-starch-digesting enzymes was proven also with bacterial amylase.

  9. Starch based polyurethanes: A critical review updating recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Fatima; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Kamal, Shagufta; Aslam, Nosheen

    2015-12-10

    Recent advancements in material science and technology made it obvious that use of renewable feed stock is the need of hour. Polymer industry steadily moved to get rid of its dependence on non-renewable resources. Starch, the second largest occurring biomass (renewable) on this planet provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to form huge variety of materials on blending with other biodegradable polymers. Specific structural versatility design for individual application and tailor-made properties have established the polyurethane (PU) as an important and popular class of synthetic biodegradable polymers. Blending of starch with polyurethane is relatively a developing area in PU chemistry but with lot of attraction for researchers. Herein, various starch based polyurethane materials including blends, grafts, copolymers, composites and nano-composites, as well as the prospects and latest developments are discussed. Additionally, an overview of starch based polymeric materials, including their potential applications are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polyvinyl alcohol/starch composite nanofibers by bubble electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bubble electrospinning exhibits profound prospect of industrialization of macro/ nano materials. Starch is the most abundant and inexpensive biopolymer. With the drawbacks of poor strength, water resistibility, thermal stability and processability of pure starch, some biodegradable synthetic polymers such as poly (lactic acid, polyvinyl alcohol were composited to electrospinning. To the best of our knowledge, composite nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol/starch from bubble electrospinning have never been investigated. In the present study, nanofibers of polyvinyl alcohol/starch were prepared from bubble electrospinning. The processability and the morphology were affected by the weight ratio of polyvinyl alcohol and starchy. The rheological studies were in agreement with the spinnability of the electrospinning solutions.

  11. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles from Gadong starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisika, Regina; Ahmad, Wan Yaacob Wan; Lazim, Azwan Mat [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fazry, Shazrul [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Dioscorea hispida (Gadong tuber) was seldom used and forgotten as a food source due to their toxicity. In contrast to that, the Gadong tuber can be a source of polysaccharides which can be manipulated as an alternative source for industrial applications. This research reported on how to synthesize starch nanoparticles from Gadong tuber by using a simple acid hydrolysis process. The yield of starch nanoparticles obtained from seven days of acid hydrolysis was reduced to 13%. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the native Gadong starch particle is of the C-crystalline type, and that the synthesized nanoparticles showed an increase in crystallinity compared to the native particles. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that the starch particle morphologies were either round or irregular shape, with diameters ranging from 96-110 nm.

  13. Cassava starch coatings for postharvest control of papaya anthracnose

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruno F Oliveira; André F Cruz; Eduardo Alves

    2016-01-01

      The effects of coating papaya fruit (Carica papaya) with cassava starch were studied to determine the best concentration and mode of action of this material in postharvest control of anthracnose...

  14. Structural modification in the formation of starch – silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, S. N. Suraiya; Ramasamy, Radha Perumal, E-mail: perumal.ramasamy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Technology, A.C.Tech. Campus, Anna University, Chennai – 600 025 (India); Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polymer based nanocomposites have gained wide applications in field of battery technology. Starch is a naturally occurring polysaccharide with sustainable properties such as biodegradable, non toxic, excellent film forming capacity and it also act as reducing agent for the metal nanoparticles. In our research various concentration of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) was added to the starch solution and films were obtained using solution casting method. Surface electron microscope (SEM) of the films shows modifications depending upon the concentration of AgNO{sub 3}. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis showed that addition of silver nitrate modifies the starch to disc like structures and with increasing the AgNO{sub 3} concentration leads to the formation of fractals. This research could benefit battery technology where solid polymer membranes using starch is used.

  15. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pliver compared with the WMS diet (Pliver of finishing pigs.

  16. Positive effects of duckweed polycultures on starch and protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Fantao; Daroch, Maurycy; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    The effect of duckweed species composition (Lemna aequinoctialis 5505, Landoltia punctata 5506 and Spirodela polyrhiza 5507) in polyculture and monoculture on biomass and starch/protein content were investigated at different levels of temperature, light intensity, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The three growth parameters significantly affect duckweed biomass accumulation. Different combinations of duckweed species greatly varied in starch/protein content. Although all the polycultures showed a median relative growth rate and the majority of the polycultures showed a median and starch/protein content as compared with their respective monocultures, some of the polycultures were found to promote the accumulation of starch/protein at different growth conditions. These findings indicated that proper combination of duckweed species could facilitate desirable biomass accumulation and improve biomass quality. The present study provides useful references for future large-scale duckweed cultivation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The substantiation of development of mousses technology using wheat starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Мriachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the substantiation of development of technology of fruit and vegetable mousses using wheat starch and surfactant – Tween 20. The innovative idea of product with foamy structure was expounded, the implementation of which will allow to provide obtaining of the final product with stable quality indicators, new consumer characteristics and will give an opportunity to carry out the production technological process with distinct industrial signs.The foaming capacity and foam stability of “wheat starch-Tween 20” model systems depending on the heat treatment temperature and starch concentration were investigated. The rational foaming zone was determined that will allow to obtain foamy structure of mousses. The model systems behavior was studied by the determining of their viscosity. It was confirmed that the controlled regulation of dynamic phase transitions of starch with surfactant provides food systems’ colloidal stability.

  18. In vitro binding of puroindolines to wheat starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Darlington, H.F.; Shewry, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Puroindoline (pin) preparations made from flours of hard and soft wheats contained a mixture of pin-a, 0.19/0.53 alpha -amylase inhibitor, and purothionins. Starch granule preparations from the same cultivars were treated with proteinase to remove surface proteins and incubated with solutions...... of the pin preparations. Binding of pin-a and purothionins but not the 0.19/0.53 inhibitor was observed with no apparent differences between the behavior of the pin preparations or starch granule preparations from hard or soft types. No binding was observed when several other proteins (bovine serum albumin......, total albumins, a commercial preparation of wheat alpha -amylase inhibitors, and barley beta -amylase) were incubated with the starch granules under the same conditions, indicating that in vitro binding can be used to study specific starch granule and protein interactions....

  19. Preparation and characterization of thermoplastic starch/zein blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Corradini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Blends of starch and zein plasticized with glycerol were prepared by melting processing in an intensive batch mixer connected to a torque rheometer at 160 °C. The resulting mixtures were compression molded and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X ray diffraction and water-absorption experiments. The blends were immiscible, showing two distinct phases of starch and zein. The water uptake at equilibrium and its diffusion coefficient were determined. The water uptake at equilibrium decreased with increasing zein content. The diffusion coefficient fell sharply on addition of 20% zein and remained constant as zein content was increased. No appreciable effect of zein on starch crystallization was observed by X ray diffraction. The use of zein in thermoplastic starch compositions causes a decrease in the water sensitivity of these materials and lower its melt viscosity during processing making zein a suitable and very promising component in TPS compositions.

  20. Starch Wastewater Treatment in a Three Phase Fluidized Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Starch Wastewater Treatment in a Three Phase Fluidized Bed Bioreactor with Low. Density Biomass Support. *RAJASIMMAN, M; KARTHIKEYAN, C. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University. Annamalai Nagar - 608002, Tamil nadu, India.

  1. Potential industrial utilization of starches extracted from new yellow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53(85.85 ± 0.5 %), respectively. All the studied cassava starches varieties showed interesting physicochemical and functional characteristics which could be exploited in food and non-food industries. Keywords: New yellow Cassava varieties, ...

  2. Effects of Native and Pregelatinised Fonio starches on compression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Native and Pregelatinised Fonio starches on compression, mechanical and release properties of paracetamol tablet formulations. ... properties of the formulations were assessed using crushing strength and friability while drug release properties were assessed using disintegration and dissolution times.

  3. Nanosilver: A Catalyst in Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowska Marta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles are widely used, because of their antimicrobial properties. In this paper, the rate of starch digestion in the presence of nanocatalyst was compared with the rate of reaction without nanosilver. The rate of enzymatic degradation of starch was found to be increased in the presence of silver nanoparticles. It is considered that α-amylase was immobilized onto the surface of nanoparticles.

  4. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... 4.25 – 5.96%. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the functional properties of the starch samples. The peak viscosity ranged from 74.25 – 178.25 RVU. Starch from the local best CK had the highest peak viscosity (at a temperature of 63.80°C in 3.68 min) and TMS01/0040 had the lowest (at.

  5. Evaluation of the pasting and some functional properties of starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The peak viscosity ranged from 74.25 – 178.25 RVU. Starch from the local best CK had the highest peak viscosity (at a temperature of 63.80°C in 3.68 min) and TMS01/0040 had the lowest (at 63.90°C in 3.88 min). The breakdown viscosity ranged from 56.50 – 107.75 RVU with starch from local best CK having the highest ...

  6. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  7. Adaptation to the digestion of nutrients of a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet in group-housed pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    A trial was conducted with twenty group-housed pregnant sows to study the adaptation in nutrient digestibility to a starch-rich diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during a time period of 6 weeks. The starch-rich diet was primarily composed of wheat, peas

  8. In Vitro Biochemical Characterization of All Barley Endosperm Starch Synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Cuesta-Seijo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the main storage polysaccharide in cereals and the major source of calories in the human diet. It is synthesized by a panel of enzymes including five classes of starch synthases (SSs. While the overall starch synthase (SS reaction is known, the functional differences between the five SS classes are poorly understood. Much of our knowledge comes from analyzing mutant plants with altered SS activities, but the resulting data are often difficult to interpret as a result of pleitropic effects, competition between enzymes, overlaps in enzyme activity and disruption of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we provide a detailed biochemical study of the activity of all five classes of SSs in barley endosperm. Each enzyme was produced recombinantly in E. coli and the properties and modes of action in vitro were studied in isolation from other SSs and other substrate modifying activities. Our results define the mode of action of each SS class in unprecedented detail; we analyze their substrate selection, temperature dependence and stability, substrate affinity and temporal abundance during barley development. Our results are at variance with some generally accepted ideas about starch biosynthesis and might lead to the reinterpretation of results obtained in planta. In particular, they indicate that granule bound SS is capable of processive action even in the absence of a starch matrix, that SSI has no elongation limit, and that SSIV, believed to be critical for the initiation of starch granules, has maltoligosaccharides and not polysaccharides as its preferred substrates.

  9. Barrier properties of heat treated starch Pickering emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöö, Malin; Emek, Sinan Cem; Hall, Tina; Rayner, Marilyn; Wahlgren, Marie

    2015-07-15

    There is a recognized technological need for delivery systems encapsulating lipophilic substances in food and pharmaceutical products. Pickering emulsions can provide well-defined and highly stable systems, but may not provide good enough barrier properties. Starch granules, recently being used for Pickering stabilization, have the advantage of the ability to swell during gelatinization. Hence, this property could be used to tune and control barrier properties. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch were subject to heat treatment at different conditions. The influence of temperature, time, and storage on emulsion drop characteristics was evaluated. In order to further evaluate the barrier properties, lipolysis using the pH-stat method was applied and the effect of starch concentration, treatment temperature, and preliminary oral conditions were also investigated. A better encapsulating barrier was obtained by starch swelling at the oil drop interface. This was seen as reduced lipase activity. The internal oil drop size remained intact and the starch was kept at the interface during heat treatment. The extent of swelling could be controlled by the heating conditions and had impact on the ability to prevent lipase transport through the starch barrier layer. Addition of α-amylase simulating oral digestion only had minor impact on the barrier effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of temperature to the properties of sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Kamal, M.; Baini, R.; Mohamaddan, S.; Selaman, O. S.; Zauzi, N. Ahmad; Rahman, M. R.; Rahman, N. Abdul; Chong, K. H.; Atan, M. F.; Samat, N. A. S. Abdul; Taib, S. N. L.; Othman, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, the importance of sago starch has increased, as it has become one of the main economically important agricultural crops to the most Southeast Asia countries. In the present work, an analysis on drying process of sago starch (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) underwent various temperature has been made by using four empirical equations. The main goal of this analysis is to suggest the most accurate equation, in order to model and simulate the mechanical drying of sago starch. The experimental investigations were carried out in a gravity convection lab oven; and ±50g of sago starch (sample heights of 1 cm) was dried through four different temperatures, which were 50, 60, 70 and 80ºC. The effect of drying temperature on the drying kinetics, as well as various qualities attributes of sago starch, such as microstructure, colour and functional properties were investigated. The results suggested that drying temperature has significant effect on sago starch drying kinetic; therefore, drying temperature would be the basis to select drying condition. Meanwhile, it was found that the various drying temperature ranging from 50 to 80ºC affected the product quality especially in term of colour.

  11. Ionic liquids as novel solvents for biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride-modified waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Zhang, Xiwen; Tian, Yaoqi

    2016-05-01

    Biosynthesis of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) starch was investigated using ionic liquids (ILs) as reaction media. Waxy maize starch was pretreated in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chlorine and then esterified with OSA in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate by using Novozyme 435 as catalyst. The degree of substitution of OSA starch reached 0.0130 with 5 wt% starch concentration and 1 wt% lipase dosage based on ILs weight at 50 °C for 3h. The formation of OSA starch was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that the morphology and crystal structure of starch were significantly destroyed. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that esterification decreased the thermal stability of starch. The successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of OSA starch in ILs suggests that ILs are potential replacement of traditional organic solvents for starch ester biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Orders of Wheat Starch Do Not Determine the In Vitro Enzymatic Digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shaokang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we elucidated the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the rate-limiting step for wheat starch digestion. Wheat starch samples with a degree of gelatinization (DG) ranging from 0 to 100% were prepared. As DG increased, the ordered structures of the starch were disrupted increasingly. In contrast, almost all of the increase in the rate and extent of in vitro enzymatic digestion coincided with a DG of only 6% and a minor loss of structural order. As DG increased beyond 6%, digestibility of the starch increased only slightly. We propose that the access and binding of enzymes to starch is greatly increased with only a small DG, which is followed by the simultaneous hydrolysis of crystalline and amorphous areas in gelatinized starch. In vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch was determined predominantly by enzyme binding to starch rather than the ordered structures of starch.

  14. Extraction and properties of starches from the non-traditional vegetables Yam and Taro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luan Alberto; Barbosa, Natalia Alves; Pereira, Joelma, E-mail: luandrade87@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the chemical, physical, morphological, crystalline and thermal properties of starch from two non-traditional vegetables, yam and taro. The analyses included proximate composition percent, amylose and mineral content, water absorption capacity, absolute density, morphological properties, X-ray diffractometry, thermal properties, pasting properties and infrared spectrum. The extracted starch exhibited a high purity level with low lipid, fiber and ash contents. The electron micrographs suggested that the taro starch granules were smaller than the yam starch granules. The results for the experimental conditions used in this study indicated that the studied starches differed, especially the amylose content, granule size and crystallinity degree and the pattern of the starches. Due to the high amylose content of yam starch, this type of starch can be used for film preparation, whereas the taro starch can be used as a fat substitute due to its small granule size. (author)

  15. Starches from non - conventional sources to improve the technological characteristics of pound cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Lopes Almeida

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated and compared the effect of the utilization of five different non-conventional starches (chickpea, common bean, Peruvian carrot, sweet potato and white bean and four different commercial starches (cassava, corn, potato and rice in pound cake. Common bean starch, followed by Peruvian carrot starch were the non-conventional starch sources that showed tendency to improve the technological quality of pound cake, mainly in relation to corn starch, the most common commercial source. With these sources, the batters presented lower specific gravity and the cakes presented higher specific volume, lighter color, lower crumb moisture reduction during the storage period, and better texture attributes during all the cake shelf-life. Moreover, common bean starch provided higher scores in the cake sensory evaluation; especially for grain and texture attributes (moisture, tenderness and softness. Chickpea and white bean starches were more similar to corn starch in pound cake application.

  16. Amylopectin small chain glucans form structure fingerprint that determines botanical origin of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2017-02-20

    Starch granule size, shape and structure of amylopectin are species specific and influence starch properties and end-use of starch. Amylopectin glucan chain structure was used to predict the starch botanical sources. Mathematical probability for accumulation of small glucan chains DP 6-10 reveal exponential fit curve with maximum R2 in smallest granule size starches (Chlamydomonas, quinoa, buckwheat). Cereal and cassava showed R2 of 0.81-0.96 while in pulses and tubers it was less than 0.7. The amylopectin small glucan chains form a unique 'finger print region' that identified starch botanical source. Differential amylopectin chain length distribution (APCLD) graphs between DP 6-80 of all species from Chlamydomonas starch distinguished five structural groups that clustered the 31 analyzed starches into four major patterns. APCLD analyses of amylopectin combined with characteristic pattern of small linear DP (6-9) glucan chains predicted the starch botanical source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Subjected to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjuan Meng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2× plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4× plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant.

  18. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  19. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  20. Microemulsion of Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    then to an oil-rich, upper phase as salinity increases in a system of brine/octane/ TRS surfactant/tertiary amyl alcohol . Borkovec et al. (1988) have...11 4. Partial Pseudotemary Phase Diagram .................................. 12 5. Micrograph of Molten Salts/SDS/Pentanol/Decane System...negligible interfacial tension between microdomains. Theoretical work in ternary and pseudotemary systems has shown that the middle phase is a

  1. Silicon tetrachloride plasma induced grafting for starch-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yonghui C.

    Non-modified virgin starch is seldom used directly in industrial applications. Instead, it is often physically and/or chemically modified to achieve certain enhanced properties. For many of the non-food applications, these modifications involve changing its hydrophilicity to create hydrophobic starch. In this study, the hydrophobic starch was produced through silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) plasma induced graft polymerization, so that it could be used as a renewable and biodegradable component of, or substitute for, the petrochemical-based plastics. It was suggested that this starch graft-copolymer might be used as reinforcing components in silicone-rubber materials for starch-based composites. To make this starch graft-copolymer, the ethyl ether-extracted starch powders were surface functionalized by SiCl4 plasma using a 13.56 MHz radio frequency rotating plasma reactor and subsequently stabilized by either ethylene diamine or dichlorodimethylsilane (DCDMS). The functionalized starch was then graft-polymerized with DCDMS to form polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers around the starch granules. The presence of this PDMS layer was demonstrated by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA/XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), thermo gravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and other analyses. It was shown that the surface morphology, thermal properties, swelling characteristic, and hydrophilicity of starch were all changed due to the existence of this protective hydrophobic PDMS layer. Several different procedures to carry out the functionalization and graft polymerization steps were evaluated to improve the effectiveness of the reactions and to prevent the samples from being hydrolyzed by the grafting byproduct HCl. Actinometry, GC-MS, and residual gas analyzer (RGA) were used to investigate the mechanisms of the SiCl4 discharge and to optimize the plasma

  2. Evaluation of the types of starch for preparation of LDPE/starch blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Vinhas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated in relation the growth, and the amylolytic activity of mixed and isolated cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Talaromyces wortmanni on different types of starch. The thermal and mechanical properties in polyethylene/starch blends (proportion: 80/20 (w/w before and after inoculation of the mixed cultures were evaluated. The regular starch Amidex 3 and the modified starch Fox5901 stood out in relation to the cellular growth and production of the amylase enzyme. In spite of the short time that the blends were exposed to the fungi, the microorganisms promoted physical and chemical changes in the structure of the blend, modifying its thermal and mechanical properties. The alteration of the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of the blends could be indications of the modification caused by the biodegradation process.Nesse trabalho foi realizado um estudo sobre diferentes tipos de amido quanto ao crescimento, e a atividade amilolítica de culturas mistas e isoladas dos fungos Phanerochaete chrysosporium e Talaromyces wortmannii. Avaliaram-se também as propriedades térmicas e mecânicas das blendas de polietileno/amido anfótero (na proporção 80/20 (m/m antes e apos a inoculação das culturas mistas desses fungos.O amido regular Amidex 3 e o amido modificado Fox5901 foram os que se destacaram quanto ao crescimento celular e produção da enzima amilase. Apesar do pouco tempo de exposição dos filmes com os fungos, pode-se concluir que os microrganismos promovem mudanças físicas e químicas na estrutura da blenda, modificando suas propriedades térmicas e mecânicas. A alteração do grau de cristalinidade e das propriedades mecânicas das blendas podem ser indícios da modificação provocada pelo processo de biodegradação.

  3. Physico-chemical and rheological properties of gelatinized/freeze-dried cereal starches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystyjan, Magdalena; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Gumul, Dorota; Buksa, Krzysztof; Ziobro, Rafał; Sikora, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The influence of gelatinization and freeze-drying process on the physico-chemical and rheological properties of cereal starches was evaluated, and it was observed that modified starches revealed an increased water binding capacity and solubility when compared to dry starches, while exhibiting the same amylose and fat contents. The molecular weights of starches decreased after modification which resulted in the lower viscosity of dissolved modified samples in comparison to native starch pastes. As it was observed by scanning electron microscopy modified starches were characterized by an expanded surface, a uniform structure and high porosity.

  4. Chemical, physical and morphometric properties of Peruvian carrot (Arracacia xanthorrhiza B.) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Borneo, R; Melito, C G; Tovar, J

    1999-01-01

    Starch was isolated from Peruvian carrot (PC)--or arracacha--(Arraccacia xanthorrhiza B.) roots. Its chemical, physical, physicochemical and granular structural properties were compared to those of commercial cassava starch. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a granular size for PC starch ranging between 4 and 26 microns in diameter, with spherical and truncated-egg shapes. PC and cassava starches were similar regarding gross chemical composition and basic physical characteristics but differed in pasting properties, with PC starch showing lower breakdown and consistency indices. The two starches also showed different water absorption and solubility patterns.

  5. Resistant starch consumption promotes lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Janine A

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the effects of resistant starch (RS on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia have been extensively studied, little is known about the impact of RS on fat metabolism. This study examines the relationship between the RS content of a meal and postprandial/post-absorbative fat oxidation. Results 12 subjects consumed meals containing 0%, 2.7%, 5.4%, and 10.7% RS (as a percentage of total carbohydrate. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol (TAG and free fatty acid (FFA concentrations. Respiratory quotient was measured hourly. The 0%, 5.4%, and 10.7% meals contained 50 μCi [1-14C]-triolein with breath samples collected hourly following the meal, and gluteal fat biopsies obtained at 0 and 24 h. RS, regardless of dose, had no effect on fasting or postprandial insulin, glucose, FFA or TAG concentration, nor on meal fat storage. However, data from indirect calorimetry and oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein to 14CO2 showed that addition of 5.4% RS to the diet significantly increased fat oxidation. In fact, postprandial oxidation of [1-14C]-triolein was 23% greater with the 5.4% RS meal than the 0% meal (p = 0.0062. Conclusions These data indicate that replacement of 5.4% of total dietary carbohydrate with RS significantly increased post-prandial lipid oxidation and therefore could decrease fat accumulation in the long-term.

  6. A facile one-pot synthesis of starch functionalized graphene as nano-carrier for pH sensitive and starch-mediated drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Li, Huiming; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-04-01

    A fast, green and facile method was developed to prepare starch functionalized graphene nanosheets (starch-GNS) via the reduction of exfoliated graphene oxides by soluble starch, which acted both as a reductant and as a functionalization reagent for capping graphene nanosheets to prevent aggregation. The as-prepared starch-GNS exhibited good biocompatibility, which was deemed crucial for the biomedical application of graphene. Cellular toxicity tests suggested that the starch-GNS was nontoxic to SW-620 cells even at the relatively concentration of 200 μg mL(-1). After the loading of the commonly used anticancer drug hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) via physisorption on starch-GNS, the HCPT@starch-GNS composite exhibited a high drug loading capacity and was therefore used for cellular imaging and drug delivery studies. Through the nonspecific endocytosis effect, the HCPT@starch-GNS composite was encapsulated into cytoplasm by SW-620 cancer cells. With the double action of an acid microenvironment and the diastase in SW-620 cells, the HCPT@starch-GNS composite showed high toxicity to the SW-620 cells and experienced a pH sensitive as well as a starch-mediated in vitro sustained release process, which had the potential advantage of improving therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the starch-GNS composite could be used as an ideal nano-carrier for drug delivery and offered a new avenue for broadening the application of graphene in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on native starch granule structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Jaroslav; Gilbert, Elliot Paul

    2010-12-13

    Enzymatic digestion of six starches of different botanical origin was studied in real time by in situ time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and complemented by the analysis of native and digested material by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle X-ray scattering, and scanning electron microscopy with the aim of following changes in starch granule nanostructure during enzymatic digestion. This range of techniques enables coverage over five orders of length-scale, as is necessary for this hierarchically structured material. Starches studied varied in their digestibility and displayed structural differences in the course of enzymatic digestion. The use of time-resolved SANS showed that solvent-drying of digested residues does not induce any structural artifacts on the length scale followed by small-angle scattering. In the course of digestion, the lamellar peak intensity gradually decreased and low-q scattering increased. These trends were more substantial for A-type than for B-type starches. These observations were explained by preferential digestion of the amorphous growth rings. Hydrolysis of the semicrystalline growth rings was explained on the basis of a liquid-crystalline model for starch considering differences between A-type and B-type starches in the length and rigidity of amylopectin spacers and branches. As evidenced by differing morphologies of enzymatic attack among varieties, the existence of granular pores and channels and physical penetrability of the amorphous growth ring affect the accessibility of the enzyme to the substrate. The combined effects of the granule microstructure and the nanostructure of the growth rings influence the opportunity of the enzyme to access its substrate; as a consequence, these structures determine the enzymatic digestibility of granular starches more than the absolute physical densities of the amorphous growth rings and amorphous and crystalline regions of the semicrystalline

  8. New insight in crosslinking degree determination for crosslinked starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Tingting; Gao, Qunyu

    2018-02-01

    The crosslinked starch has been studied for many years, but it is difficult to characterize degree of substitution on crosslinking of the very high and low crosslinked starches. The available approaches (including viscosity, settling volume, and P content) all have their limitations, i.e., not applicable in a large scope, pollution problem, and can not reflect the internal structure change. Here in this paper starch-iodine (St-I) method was proposed as a new approach to characterize the crosslinking degree. In this investigation, three starches of A, B, and C crystalline pattern with different amount (from very low to very high, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10%) of crosslinking reagent added were studied. This method is based on the mechanism that crosslinking reaction take place between amylose/amylopectin, amylopectin/amylopectin, whereas the amylose dose not crosslink one another. After crosslinked to amylopectin, the result amylose-amylopectin complex can be considered as a new amylopectin. Results showed that the St-I method can characterize all the crosslinked starches of the three starches, at low reagent level (0.01-0.1%), the amylose was found to decrease rapidly, this can also replace the viscosity method, whereas at high reagent level (1-10%), although the significant differences can still be observed, the effect was not so obvious as it for the lower crosslinked starches, here we firstly applied dose efficiency to characterize this phenomenon, which was informative and helpful in determining this modification process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Starch and fibre intake and glucose postprandial response of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Monti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fibre has been studied to reduce the postprandial glucose response of dogs, but the results are inconsistent. Starch intake, however, was not properly considered in the published studies. The effects of starch and fibre intake on the postprandial glucose response were studied in non-obese adult dogs. Cellulose (CEL, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, pea fibre (PE and sugarcane fibre (SCF were combined to form six diets with starch contents ranging from 33% to 42%: SCF+CEL and PE+CEL diets, both with high insoluble fibre (IF=22% and low soluble fibre (SF=2.5% content; SCF+CMC and PE+CMC diets with high SF (SF=4.5%; IF=19% content; and CMC and CEL diets with low dietary fibre (14% content. The diets were fed in two amounts, providing an intake of 9.5g or 12.5g of starch (kg0.75-1 day-1, totaling 12 treatments. Each diet was fed to six dogs conditioned to consume all of the daily food in 10min. Their plasma glucose levels were measured before and during 480min after food intake. Results of fibre and starch intake and their interactions were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey test (P0.05. High-dose starch intake, however, induced a higher glycaemia at 180 and 240min after the meal and a greater maximal glycaemia and greater area under the glucose curve (P<0.05. A range in insoluble and soluble fibre intake does not change postprandial glucose response, and the amount of starch intake is a main factor for the postprandial glucose response of healthy non-obese dogs.

  10. Fungal colonization of sago starch in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, A R; Shipton, W A; Blaney, B J; Warner, J M

    2007-11-01

    Sago starch is an important source of dietary carbohydrates in lowland Papua New Guinea. Over the past 30 years there have been sporadic reports of severe illness following consumption of sago starch. A common assumption is that fungal metabolites might be associated with the illness, leading to the need for a more thorough investigation of the mycoflora of sago starch. Sago starch was collected from areas of high sago consumption in Papua New Guinea for fungal analysis (69 samples). Storage methods and duration were recorded at the time of collection and pH on arrival at the laboratory. Yeasts were isolated from all samples except two, ranging from 1.2 x 10(3) to 8.3 x 10(7) cfu/g. Moulds were isolated from 65 of the 69 samples, ranging from 1.0 x 10(2) to 3.0 x 10(6) cfu/g. Of 44 samples tested for ergosterol content, 42 samples showed the presence of fungal biomass. Statistical analyses indicated that sago starch stored for greater than five weeks yielded significantly higher ergosterol content and higher numbers of moulds than sago stored for less than five weeks. The method of storage was also shown to influence mould numbers with storage in natural woven fibre containers returning significantly greater numbers than present in other storage methods tested. Potentially mycotoxigenic genera of moulds including Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from sago starch, and as such storage factors that influence the growth of these and other filamentous fungi might contribute to the safety of traditional sago starch in PNG.

  11. Modified Starch-Chitosan Edible Films: Physicochemical and Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Escamilla-García

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Starch and chitosan are widely used for preparation of edible films that are of great interest in food preservation. This work was aimed to analyze the relationship between structural and physical properties of edible films based on a mixture of chitosan and modified starches. In addition, films were tested for antimicrobial activity against Listeria innocua. Films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CT, waxy (WS, oxidized (OS and acetylated (AS corn starches and their mixtures. The CT-starches films showed improved barrier and mechanical properties as compared with those made from individual components, CT-OS film presented the lowest thickness (74 ± 7 µm, water content (11.53% ± 0.85%, w/w, solubility (26.77% ± 1.40%, w/v and water vapor permeability ((1.18 ± 0.48 × 10−9 g·s−1·m−1·Pa−1. This film showed low hardness (2.30 ± 0.19 MPa, low surface roughness (Rq = 3.20 ± 0.41 nm and was the most elastic (Young’s modulus = 0.11 ± 0.06 GPa. In addition, films made from CT-starches mixtures reduced CT antimicrobial activity against L. innocua, depending on the type of modified starch. This was attributed to interactions between acetyl groups of AS with the carbonyl and amino groups of CT, leaving CT with less positive charge. Interaction of the pyranose ring of OS with CT led to increased OH groups that upon interaction with amino groups, decreased the positive charge of CT, and this effect is responsible for the reduced antimicrobial activity. It was found that the type of starch modification influenced interactions with chitosan, leading to different films properties.

  12. The Research on Thermal Properties and Hydrophobility of the Native Starch/hydrolysis Starch Blends with Treated CaCO3 Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-I.; Huang, Chi-Yuan

    2008-08-01

    In this research, hydrolysis starch was added into the starch blends to study the thermal properties. The enthalpy of blends had a significant decrease to 109J/g as content of treated CaCO3 increased to 5wt%. The modified starch was degraded slightly to produce glucose in the hydrolysis treatment. The amount of glucose in native starch and hydrolysis starch was 0.09 μmol and 0.14 μmol by the DNS measurement. Moreover, CaCO3 treated with titanium coupling agent was also added to improve miscibility and hydrophobility in the starch blends. The contact angle of the blends increased from 60° to 95° when 15wt% treated CaCO3 was added. Treated CaCO3 was confirmed to improve the hydrophobility of starch blends effectively.

  13. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...... sediments, the diapir extruded an overhang. Using the asymmetric Klodawa Salt Structure (KSS) in central Poland as a prototype, a series of analogue models were carried out to investigate the evolution history and salt supply driven by asymmetric differential loading. During extension of the model, a daipir...

  14. Digestibility and supramolecular structural changes of maize starch by non-covalent interactions with gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chengdeng; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Yiping; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhijiang

    2017-02-22

    The effects of non-covalent interactions between gallic acid (GA) and starch on starch digestibility and supramolecular structural changes (short-range ordered molecular structure, crystalline structure, lamellar structure and fractal structure) were investigated. The results indicated that the digestibility of both starches was substantially reduced in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) content, but resistant starch (RS) was increased after interacting with GA. The RS content of starch-GA complexes ranged from 17.70 to 50.02%, which is much higher than that of high amylose starch (G50) (11.11%) and normal maize starch (NMS) (4.46%). Compared with native starches, starch-GA complexes possess more ordered and compact structures; furthermore, G50-GA complexes possessed more compact scattering objects, thicker crystalline lamellae and thinner amorphous lamellae than those of NMS-GA complexes. This revealed that more ordered multi-scale structures promote the RS formation. Docking studies were conducted to reveal the mechanism of digestibility variations. It showed that GA would non-covalently interact with starch molecules and contribute to ordered structure formation to somewhat extent; meanwhile, GA had higher binding affinities to α-amylase than to starch chains; during the hydrolytic process, GA could be released from the complex and was more likely to occupy the active sites of Asp197, Asp300, His299 and Glu233 by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces, which kept starch out of the active site pocket and reduced starch digestibility. These results demonstrate that the non-covalent interactions between GA and starch could be a promising method of controlling starch structures and starch digestion behaviors.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of starch metabolism genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Harsselaar, Jessica K; Lorenz, Julia; Senning, Melanie; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

    2017-01-05

    Starch is the principle constituent of potato tubers and is of considerable importance for food and non-food applications. Its metabolism has been subject of extensive research over the past decades. Despite its importance, a description of the complete inventory of genes involved in starch metabolism and their genome organization in potato plants is still missing. Moreover, mechanisms regulating the expression of starch genes in leaves and tubers remain elusive with regard to differences between transitory and storage starch metabolism, respectively. This study aimed at identifying and mapping the complete set of potato starch genes, and to study their expression pattern in leaves and tubers using different sets of transcriptome data. Moreover, we wanted to uncover transcription factors co-regulated with starch accumulation in tubers in order to get insight into the regulation of starch metabolism. We identified 77 genomic loci encoding enzymes involved in starch metabolism. Novel isoforms of many enzymes were found. Their analysis will help to elucidate mechanisms of starch biosynthesis and degradation. Expression analysis of starch genes led to the identification of tissue-specific isoenzymes suggesting differences in the transcriptional regulation of starch metabolism between potato leaf and tuber tissues. Selection of genes predominantly expressed in developing potato tubers and exhibiting an expression pattern indicative for a role in starch biosynthesis enabled the identification of possible transcriptional regulators of tuber starch biosynthesis by co-expression analysis. This study provides the annotation of the complete set of starch metabolic genes in potato plants and their genomic localizations. Novel, so far undescribed, enzyme isoforms were revealed. Comparative transcriptome analysis enabled the identification of tuber- and leaf-specific isoforms of starch genes. This finding suggests distinct regulatory mechanisms in transitory and storage starch

  16. Effect of Cross-Linking and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Composite Modification on the Properties of Rice Starches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Qiang Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Native rice starch lacks the versatility necessary to function adequately under rigorous industrial processing, so modified starches are needed to meet the functional properties required in food products. This work investigated the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis and cross-linking composite modification on the properties of rice starches. Rice starch was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (EPI with different concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9% w/w, on a dry starch basis, affording cross-linked rice starches with the three different levels of cross-linking that were named R1, R2, and R3, respectively. The cross-linked rice starches were hydrolyzed by α-amylase and native, hydrolyzed, and hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches were comparatively studied. It was found that hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches showed a lower the degree of amylase hydrolysis compared with hydrolyzed rice starch. The higher the degree of cross-linking, the higher the capacity to resist enzyme hydrolysis. Hydrolyzed cross-linked rice starches further increased the adsorptive capacities of starches for liquids and decreased the trend of retrogradation, and it also strengthened the capacity to resist shear compared to native and hydrolyzed rice starches.

  17. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Digestibility of raw and cooked starches from legume seeds using the laboratory rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, S E; Vose, J R

    1979-12-01

    The in vivo digestibility and growth responses to diets containing raw and cooked legume starches were determined using male Wistar rats. These starches were obtained from seven legumes including smooth- and wrinkled-seeded field peas, navy beans, kidney beans, garbanzo beans, mung beans and lentils. Wheat and potato starch diets were fed for comparative purposes. With the exception of potato and the field pea starches, rats fed uncooked starch diets had higher weight gains than those fed cooked starch diets. The starches from wheat and all legumes, excluding the high-amylose wrinkled pea, were nearly 100% digestible but the legume starches reduced the digestibility of casein protein by 3 to 4%. Raw potato starch was shown to be only 57% digestible. The starches from potato and wrinkled pea reduced the digestibility of casein protein to 87% and gave high cecum weights. These characteristics were not altered by cooking the starch of wrinkled pea. The starches of smooth-seeded peas, lentils and all beans were highly digestible, showed no adverse effects on growth and were comparable to wheat starch in this evaluation.

  19. Large-scale screening and characterisation of Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza strains for starch production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y B; Zhu, M; Yu, C J; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Li, M L; Sun, Y D; Zhao, J S; Zhou, G K

    2017-12-09

    Duckweed is considered a promising feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high biomass and starch production. Selection of duckweed strains with high starch accumulation is essential for application of duckweeds to bioethanol production. Geographic differentiation had a large influence on genetic diversity of duckweeds. Biomass production, starch content and starch amount in geographically isolated strains of 20 Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza were calculated to evaluate their potential for bioethanol production. The influence of different collection time, culture medium and NaCl concentration on starch accumulation of the best strains were analysed. The results showed that biomass production, starch content and starch production of duckweeds demonstrated clonal dependency. The best strain was L. aequinoctialis 6000, with biomass production of 15.38 ± 1.47 g m -2 , starch content of 28.68 ± 1.10% and starch production of 4.39 ± 0.25 g m -2 . Furthermore, starch content of L. aequinoctialis 6000 was highest after 8 h of light, tap water was the best medium for starch induction, and NaCl did not induce starch accumulation. This study suggests duckweed biomass production and starch production demonstrate clonal dependency, indicating that extensive clonal comparisons will be required to identify the most suitable isolates for duckweed selective breeding for bioethanol. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

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    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  1. Preparation and characteristic of gelatine/oxidized corn starch and gelatin/corn starch blend microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Shan, Zhi Hua; Woo, Meng Wai; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Combinations of gelatin (G) and oxidized corn starch (OCS) were explored as a new microcapsule composite for single droplet spray drying. The blending solutions property, gel time, transparency and viscosity of G/CS (corn starch) and G/OCS blend solutions were compared at different ratios (10:0;9:1;8:2;7:3;6:4;5:5) and concentrations(1%wt; 3%wt; 5%wt). The drying and dissolution behaviors of composite droplet have been studied using the single droplet drying technique. Possible reaction mechanisms in the composite blend were elucidated by SEM and FTIR techniques. Blends solutions of G/OCS showed longer Gel time, higher transparency and lower viscosity; further displayed faster dissolution rate than that of G/CS under similar conditions. This was attributed to the formed Schiff base between the aldehyde group of OCS and amino group of G which improved the compatibility between G and OCS. All results indicated that the composites could be prepared with excellent properties by G/OCS (6:4) which would overcome some disadvantage such as thermodynamic incompatibility and phase separation by G/CS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E.; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise m...

  3. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function.

  4. Granule structure and distribution of allomorphs in C-type high-amylose rice starch granule modified by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cunxu; Qin, Fengling; Zhou, Weidong; Yu, Huaguang; Xu, Bin; Chen, Chong; Zhu, Lijia; Wang, Youping; Gu, Minghong; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2010-11-24

    C-type starch, which is a combination of both A-type and B-type crystal starch, is usually found in legumes and rhizomes. We have developed a high-amylose transgenic line of rice (TRS) by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. The starch in the endosperm of this TRS was identified as typical C-type crystalline starch, but its fine granular structure and allomorph distribution remained unclear. In this study, we conducted morphological and spectroscopic studies on this TRS starch during acid hydrolysis to determine the distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. The morphology of starch granules after various durations of acid hydrolysis was compared by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that amorphous regions were located at the center part of TRS starch subgranules. During acid hydrolysis, starch was degraded from the interior of the subgranule to the outer surface, while the peripheral part of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule were highly resistant to acid hydrolysis. The spectroscopic changes detected by X-ray powder diffraction, 13C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared showed that the A-type allomorph was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the B-type, and that the X-ray diffraction profile gradually changed from a native C-type to a CB-type with increasing hydrolysis time. Our results showed that, in TRS starch, the A-type allomorph was located around the amorphous region, and was surrounded by the B-type allomorph located in the peripheral region of the subgranules and the surrounding band of the starch granule. Thus, the positions of A- and B-type allomorphs in the TRS C-type starch granule differ markedly from those in C-type legume and rhizome starch.

  5. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID

  6. Physiological Response to Salinity and Alkalinity of Rice Genotypes of Varying Salt Tolerance Grown in Field Lysimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Rao, P.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and alkalinity seriously threaten rice production in south Asia. Improving screening methodologies to identify sources of tolerance for improved breeding for salt tolerant rice is of continuing importance. Rice genotypes of varying salt tolerance, such as tolerant (T, semi-tolerant (ST, and sensitive (S, were grown in field lysimeters in saline soil of ECe 4 and 8 mS cm-1 and alkali soil of pH 9.5 and 9.8 in North India and analyzed for chlorophyll (Chl, sugar, starch and proline in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b decreased due to salinity in all the tolerance groups. However, Chl a was not much affected but chl b increased with alkalinity. Under high stress both at ECe 8 and pH 9.8 Chl a and b were more in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes. The ratio of Chl a/b was similar in T, ST and S genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar accumulation was higher in T compared to S under normal conditions but under salinity or alkalinity stress the differences were not significant. Leaf starch was highest in T, intermediate in ST and lowest in S genotypes in normal as well as under salinity and alkalinity stress. There was decrease in starch with salinity and alkalinity stress only in T group but not in ST and S group. Proline increased significantly in all the tolerance groups even at low salinity of ECe 4 mS cm -1 or pH 9.5. The salt tolerant genotypes of rice maintained higher levels of Chl a and b, starch and proline under high salinity and alkalinity stress and are the robust criteria for tolerating high salinity and alkalinity.

  7. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

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    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  8. Reactive halogen species above salt lakes and salt pans

    OpenAIRE

    Holla, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Salt lakes can be found on all continents and saline soils cover 2.5% of the land surface of the earth (FAO, 2012). This thesis investigates the presence of reactive halogen species (RHS) above salt lakes and saline soils to evaluate their relevance for tropospheric chemistry of the planetary boundary layer. Ground-based MAX-DOAS and LP-DOAS measurements were conducted at salt lakes and two other sites with high halogen content. Prior to this work, RHS were found at three salt ...

  9. Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, P; Steinberg, W; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tocopherol deficiency reduces sucrose export from salt-stressed potato leaves independently of oxidative stress and symplastic obstruction by callose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensi-Fabado, María Amparo; Ammon, Alexandra; Sonnewald, Uwe; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Voll, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherol cyclase, encoded by the gene SUCROSE EXPORT DEFECTIVE1, catalyses the second step in the synthesis of the antioxidant tocopherol. Depletion of SXD1 activity in maize and potato leaves leads to tocopherol deficiency and a ‘sugar export block’ phenotype that comprises massive starch accumulation and obstruction of plasmodesmata in paraveinal tissue by callose. We grew two transgenic StSXD1:RNAi potato lines with severe tocopherol deficiency under moderate light conditions and subjected them to salt stress. After three weeks of salt exposure, we observed a strongly reduced sugar exudation rate and a lack of starch mobilization in leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants, but not in wild-type plants. However, callose accumulation in the vasculature declined upon salt stress in all genotypes, indicating that callose plugging of plasmodesmata was not the sole cause of the sugar export block phenotype in tocopherol-deficient leaves. Based on comprehensive gene expression analyses, we propose that enhanced responsiveness of SnRK1 target genes in mesophyll cells and altered redox regulation of phloem loading by SUT1 contribute to the attenuation of sucrose export from salt-stressed SXD:RNAi source leaves. Furthermore, we could not find any indication that elevated oxidative stress may have served as a trigger for the salt-induced carbohydrate phenotype of SXD1:RNAi transgenic plants. In leaves of the SXD1:RNAi plants, sodium accumulation was diminished, while proline accumulation and pools of soluble antioxidants were increased. As supported by phytohormone contents, these differences seem to increase longevity and prevent senescence of SXD:RNAi leaves under salt stress. PMID:25428995

  11. Reduction–Oxidation Photocycle Dynamics of Flavins in Starch Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons Penzkofer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The blue-light photo-reduction (conversion of oxidized flavin quinone via flavin semiquinone to fully reduced flavin hydroquinone and dark re-oxidation of the flavins riboflavin and lumiflavin in starch (α-amylose films was studied by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Blue-light photo-excitation caused an absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence decrease which recovered in the dark. The photo-reduction dark-oxidation cycle could be repeated. The efficiency of photo-reduction decreased with exposed excitation energy, and the speed of re-oxidation in the dark slowed down with time after excitation. The absorption did not fully recover. The fluorescence efficiency after a long time of storage in the dark increased beyond the initial flavin quinone fluorescence efficiency. Flavin photo-excitation is thought to cause starch-flavin restructuring (static fluorescence quenching center formation, enabling enhanced photo-induced starch to flavin electron transfer with subsequent flavin reduction and starch oxidation. In the dark, after light switch-off, thermal reversion of flavin reduction and starch oxidation occurred.

  12. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  13. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro and in vivo digestion of octenyl succinic starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Nelson, Bridget; Birt, Diane F; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2013-11-06

    This study aimed to understand effects of octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modification of normal corn (NCS) and high-amylose corn (HA7) starch on their enzymatic hydrolysis rates. After modification with 3% and 10% OSA, resistant starch (RS) contents of the cooked OS-NCS increased from 0.8% of the control starch to 6.8% and 13.2% (Englyst Method), respectively, whereas that of the cooked OS-HA7 decreased from 24.1% to 23.7% and 20.9%, respectively. When the cooked NCS, HA7 and OS (10%)-HA7 were used to prepare diets for rats at 55% (w/w) starch, RS contents of the diets were 1.1%, 13.2% and 14.6%, respectively. After feeding to the rats, 20.2-31.1% of the starch in the OS (10%)-HA7-diet was not utilized in vivo and was found in rat feces, which was substantially larger than that of the HA7-diet (≤4.9%) and NCS-diet (≤0.2%). The body weights of the rats, however, remained similar between different groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  16. Digestion of starch in a dynamic small intestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Fonseca, M R; Gouseti, O; Fryer, P J; Wickham, M S J; Bakalis, S

    2016-12-01

    The rate and extent of starch digestion have been linked with important health aspects, such as control of obesity and type-2 diabetes. In vitro techniques are often used to study digestion and simulated nutrient absorption; however, the effect of gut motility is often disregarded. The present work aims at studying fundamentals of starch digestion, e.g. the effect of viscosity on digestibility, taking into account both biochemical and engineering (gut motility) parameters. New small intestinal model (SIM) that realistically mimics gut motility (segmentation) was used to study digestibility and simulated oligosaccharide bio accessibility of (a) model starch solutions; (b) bread formulations. First, the model was compared with the rigorously mixed stirred tank reactor (STR). Then the effects of enzyme concentration/flow rate, starch concentration, and digesta viscosity (addition of guar gum) were evaluated. Compared to the STR, the SIM showed presence of lag phase when no digestive processes could be detected. The effects of enzyme concentration and flow rate appeared to be marginal in the region of mass transfer limited reactions. Addition of guar gum reduced simulated glucose absorption by up to 45 % in model starch solutions and by 35 % in bread formulations, indicating the importance of chyme rheology on nutrient bioaccessibility. Overall, the work highlights the significance of gut motility in digestive processes and offers a powerful tool in nutritional studies that, additionally to biochemical, considers engineering aspects of digestion. The potential to modulate food digestibility and nutrient bioaccessibility by altering food formulation is indicated.

  17. [Anaerobic fermentation biohydrogen production from molasses, starch and milk wastewaters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ren, Nan-qi; Ding, Jie; Li, Yong-feng; Xu, Li-ying

    2004-09-01

    Research of anaerobic fermentation biohydrogen production from molasses, starch and milk wastewater in CSTR was conducted. The theoretic possibility of biohydrogen production from three kinds of organic materials and the hydrogen producing stability was also discussed. The results indicated that molasses and starch wastewaters are preferable feeds for anaerobic biohydrogen fermentation. The hydrocarbon is the optimal feed in the main three kinds of organic materials at present time. The sugars which dissolving better are preferable materials for biohydogen production than starch at present, but the starch is better than sugars for biohydrogen production in the future if the conditions could been controlled good. The niches are variety along with the different of feeds. The optimal pH values of stability operational controlling is 4.5 +/- 0.3 for sugars wastewater and 4.0 +/- 0.2 for starch wastewater. The ORP value must lower than -220 mV and the optimal value is about -300 mV. The milk wastewater is not the suitable biohydrogen production material in CST reactor.

  18. Experiment 9: ASTROCULTURE: Growth and Starch Accumulation of Potato Tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Croxdale, Judith G.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1998-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud) flown on STS-73 developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16-day period of space flight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers that formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was similar in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in space flight and ground controls, but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the space flight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in space flight as on the ground. Thus, this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  19. Space Experiment on Tuber Development and Starch Accumulation for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts,Theodore W.; Croxdale, Judith C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Potato explants (leaf, small stem section, and axillary bud), flown on STS-73, developed tubers of 1.5 cm diameter and 1.7 g mass during the 16 day period of spaceflight. The experiment was undertaken in the ASTROCULTURE(Trademark) experiment package under controlled temperature, humidity, lighting, and carbon dioxide concentrations. The tubers formed in the explant system under microgravity had the same gross morphology, the same anatomical configuration of cells and tissues, and the same sizes, shapes, and surface character of starch granules as tubers formed in a 1 g environment. The total accumulation of starch and other energy containing compounds was singular in space flight and ground control tubers. Enzyme activity of starch synthase, starch phosphorylase, and total hydrolase was similar in spaceflight and ground controls but activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was reduced in the spaceflight tuber tissue. This experiment documented that potatoes will metabolize and accumulate starch as effectively in spaceflight as on the ground and thus this data provides the potential for effective utilization of potatoes in life support systems of space bases.

  20. High pressure impact on changes in potato starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomińska Lucyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air dry potato starch (84.9% d.s. was subjected to pressurizing under the pressure of 50, 100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 MPa for 1 h. The physical properties of pressurized starch, such as morphology, surface and crystalline structure, gelatinization parameters, were studied by means of scanning and atomic force microscopy (SEM/AFM, X-ray diffraction (X-ray, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The susceptibility to the amylolytic enzyme (α-amylase was also measured. Application of pressure in the range of 50–2000 MPa results in an increase in the compressed potato starch bulk density, change in the contours of the granules from oval to polyhedral, increase in the roughness of the granule surface, vanishing of the X-ray reflexes generated by the orthogonal structure and weakening of the reflexes generated by the hexagonal structure, lowering of the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, and the enhancement of hydrolytic susceptibility of starch granules to the amylolytic enzyme.